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1.1 BASIC TERMINOLOGIES OF STATISTICS 1.1 BASIC TERMINOLOGIES OF STATISTICS a. Popu atio! : the collection of items under discussions/study.

b. Sa"p e : any subset of a population. A random sample is a sample which is chosen so that every member of the population is equally likely to be chosen. c. #aria$ e : any quantity or characteristic whose value varies for different members of a population/sample (e.g. height, occupation) d. Fre%ue!c& : number of time a value occurs (e.g. ! males in a class) e. Fre%ue!c& 'istri$utio! : set of the different possible values of a variable and the frequencies with which the occur. A frequency distribution may be grouped and ungrouped. 1.2 'ATA PRESENTATION 1.2 'ATA PRESENTATION 2hat is statistics3 .ollect Arrange 0ummari%e 1anipulate Analy%ing 1.2.1 T(E BAR C(ART A bar chart contains spaces between the bars, whereas the histogram does not. "he space between the bars signifies the categories do not signify the amount of the underlying variable. "he bar#chart (or column chart) is the simplest and most versatile of statistical diagrams. $t is used for comparing the frequency, count, total or average of data in different categories. 'ata (resentation: ). *ar chart . +ine ,raph -. (ie .hart /. (ictograph A popular trick in newspapers and maga%ines is to use a non#%ero origin on the frequency a&is to e&aggerate the differences between bars. "o avoid the risk of misleading the reader it is best if the %ero is always included in a bar chart. $f a non#%ero origin is used, it should be very clearly indicated using a dramatic break in the bars and a&is.

Chapter 1 Statistics

STATISTIC

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics 1.2.2 LINE C(ART A line chart is used for displaying ti"e series data. A time series is a set of observations recorded at successive points in time, normally at regular intervals. A time series is a special case of a bivariate data#set in which the independent (&) variable is time. $nterestingly, although time is a continuous variable, the recorded time data will appear to be discrete (e.g. )45!, )456, )457, ...) or even nominal (e.g. 8an, 9eb, 1ar, ...).

A line chart is essentially an :; chart in which the &# variable is time. "he primary purpose of a line chart is to show changes and trends over time. <ence, unlike an :; chart, in a line chart consecutive points are connected by lines # needed the plotting symbols may be removed if preferred. A line chart is preferable to a bar chart for this type of data since a bar chart emphasises changes in the vertical direction and the gaps between the bars interrupt the passage of time. =n the time a&is the tick marks are used to separate the time periods, rather than mark a particular time. As in an :; chart, it is not essential to include the %ero mark on the y#a&is, as this may mask the very changes that one wishes to display (see below).

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics 1.2.) PIE C(ART A pie chart is used to *isp a& the proportio! (i.e. percentage or fraction) of the data belonging to different categories. (ie charts should only be used for nominal (categorical, qualitative) data. $f numerical data are used there is a risk of confusion between the data values and the percentages (or frequencies). $f ordinal data are used it is important that the order of the sectors follows the natural order of the data. >ach )? of the data is represented by a sector (i.e. piece of the cake) of -.6 degrees, making )@@? or -6@ degrees altogether.

1.2.+

PICTOGRAM,PICTOGRAP( An attractive alternative to standard bar charts is to replace the bars with pictorial images. "here are three ways in which the pictures can be used to represent the data: varying both the length and width of the picture # and hence its areaA keeping the width of the picture constant and stretchi!- the lengthA keeping the width and length constant but stac.i!multiple copies of the picture.

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

1.) FRE/0ENC1 'ISTRIB0TION TABLE 1.) FRE/0ENC1 'ISTRIB0TION TABLE A distribution showing the number of observations associated with each score value in a set of data that is quantitative in nature. 9requency distributions make it easy to see trends in data, particularly when two different data sets are compared.
.lass $nterval
+ower .lass +imit

Chapter 1 Statistics

Purpose ). . "o summari%e and organi%e a set of data. 1akes inspection of the data set much more manageable than presenting the entire set of raw data. A frequency distribution can be considered a type of descriptive

-.

12 3 14

Gpper .lass +imit

+ower .lass *oundary

5.4 6 14.4 .lass *oundary

Gpper .lass *oundary

<ow to construct 9requency 'istribution "able

C ass Bou!*ar& 7

uick Tip

). 'etermine the highest and lowest value of the data. . 'etermine the range of data Brange C highest value D lowest valueE -. 'etermine the number of class B k =1 + 3.3 log n E /. 'etermine the width/si%e of class B c =

range E k

!. *uild the class interval. 6. .ount 1.+ the frequency of the data by using tally mark. FRE/0ENC1 'ISTRIB0TION 1.+ FRE/0ENC1 'ISTRIB0TION GRAP(GRAP( 1.+.1
<istogram is plot of the frequencies against the class boundaries

(isto-ra" A pictorial representation of a frequency distribution in which the scores (:) are plotted on the :#a&is of a graph and the frequency (or relative frequency) of occurrences is plotted on the ;#a&is. A <istogram is used when the : scores are quantitative, or continuous.

<ow to create a <istogram: ). .reate a 9requency 'istribution of the scores of interest. . "he :#a&is a. 'etermine a suitable scale for the hori%ontal a&is F determine the number of squares needed. b. "ry not to break the :#a&is, but if you do, use proper notation.

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics a. 'isplays information about frequency b. "ry not to break the ;#a&is, but if you do, use proper notation. /. .reate bars for each score value (:). a. <eight C frequency/relative frequency. b. Ho gaps between bars (e&cept for H C @ intervals). *ars should touch. !. +abel histogram with title. *e sure to label : and ;#a&es. 1.+.2 Fre%ue!c& po &-o! A frequency polygon is a pictorial representation of a frequency distribution in which the scores (:) are plotted on the :#a&is of the graph and the frequency (or relative frequency) of occurrences is plotted on the ;#a&is. <owever, the frequencies at each value of : are represented as dots connected by a line as opposed to bars (as in a <istogram). <ow to create a 9requency (olygon ). .reate a 9requency 'istribution of the scores of interest. . "he :#a&is # completed as a <istogram with the following caveat # create a X value for t e score a!ove t e i" est and !elo# t e lo#est actual X scores. -. "he ;#a&is # completed as a <istogram /. .reate dots for each class interval # the height should be equal to frequency or relative frequency. !. .onnect dots with straight lines. .onnect the dots above the highest and below the lowest score values (:) to the :# a&is at the score values created in step . +abel frequency polygon with title. *e should to label : and ;#a&es.

1.+.)

O-i8e "he ogive is then simply an :; plot of the cu"u ati8e 9re%ue!cies (or cumulative percentage frequencies) against the c ass upper $ou!*aries. A common mistake is to plot against the class midpoints, due to confusion with the simple frequency polygon.

-. "he ;# a&is

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

1.4 MEAS0RE OF CENTRAL TEN'ENC1 1.4 MEAS0RE OF CENTRAL TEN'ENC1


:(AT IS GRO0PE' 'ATA ; 'ata which have been arranged in groups or classes rather than showing all the original figures, for e&ample, the data in a population

Chapter 1 Statistics

1.4.1

Mea! "he "ea! (or average) of a set of data values is the sum of all of the data values divided by the number of data values.

xC
Gngrouped data

x N
C sum of all data

where,

x
N

C number of values

xC f
,rouped 'ata "he data obtained in original form are called raw data or u!-roupe* *ata

fx

where f C frequency of class

x C mid#point

1.4.2

Me*ia! Me*ia! is a single value at the centre of a set of data which has been arranged in ascending or descending order such that the data is divided into two parts, each part consisting of the same number of data.
$n general if a set of data has H values which are arrange in order then Gngrouped data the median is the $ is odd number. the median is the even number

N +1 2 N 2
C
th

th

if the value of

if the value off $ an

N F m = L m + 2 fm
,rouped 'ata

Lm C

lower boundary of the median class

C frequency

F C cumulative frequency before the median class median


fm
C frequency of the median class

C si%e of the class interval

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

Mo*e is the value with the highest number of occurrence in a set of data.

d1 M 0 = LM 0 + d +d 1 2
,rouped 'ata

1.6

where, +1oC lower boundary of the mode class. *1 C 'ifference between frequency of class mode and frequency class before class mode *2 C 'ifference between frequency of class mode and frequency class after class mode c C si%e of class interval

ANAL1<E FRE/0ENC1 'ISTRIB0TION 1.6 ANAL1<E FRE/0ENC1 'ISTRIB0TION GRAP( GRAP( 1.6.1 /uarti e =ne of the four divisions of observations which have been grouped into four equal#si%ed sets based on their statistical rank (I), I and I-.) 'eci e A decile is any of the 4 values that divide the sorted data into )@ equal parts, so that each part represents )/)@th of the sample or population. ('), ' , '-,JJ,'4.) Perce!ti e Kalue on a scale of one hundred that indicates the percent of a distribution that is equal to or below it. ((), ( , (-, JJ,(44)

1.6.2

1.6.)

1.= MEAS0RE OF 'ISPERSION 1.=.1 Mea! *e8iatio! "he mean deviation (also called the mean absolute deviation) is the mean of the absolute deviations of a set of data about the dataLs mean.
Gngrouped data

1' C 1' C

x x
N x x f

,rouped 'ata

1.4.)

Mo*e

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

1.=.2

#aria!ce A measure of the dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. $t is a mathematical e&pectation of the average squared deviations from the mean.
Gngrouped data

x x N

,rouped 'ata

s2 =

f ( x x) 2 f

1.=.)

Sta!*ar* *e8iatio! A measure of the dispersion or variation in a distribution, equal to the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations from the arithmetic mean.

Gngrouped data

s=

x x N

,rouped 'ata

s=

f ( x x) 2 f

uick Tip Size of the class, c = upper class boundary

lo!er class boundary

(O: TO RESPRENTING 'ATA 0SING GRAP(; E>AMPLE


PROMATHS B3001

1 1
2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

"he table shows the number of carton of mandarin oranges sold at a supermarket in a week. 'ay Ho of cartons 1onday -!@ "uesday !@ 2ednesday /!@ "hursday -@@ 9riday /@@ 0aturday !@@ 0unday 6@@

.onstruct a Bar Chart? Li!e Graph? Pie Chart and Picto-raph to represent the data above. So utio!
Bar Chart sho@ s the !u" $er o9 carto!s o9 "a!*ari! ora!-e so * 7@@ 6@@ !@@ /@@ -@@ @@ )@@ @
1 on da y "u es da y 2 ed ne sd ay "h ur sd ay 9r id ay 0a tu rd ay 0u nd ay
No o9 carto!s 7@@ 6@@ !@@ /@@ -@@ @@ )@@ @
1 on da y "u es da y 2 ed ne sd ay "h ur sd ay 9r id ay 0a tu rd ay 0u n da y

Li!e Graph sho@s the !o o9 carto!s o9 "a!*ari! ora!-e so *

No o9 Carto!s

'a&s

'a&s

Pie Chart sho@ s the !u" $er o9 carto!s o9 " a!*ari! ora!-e so * 6@@, @? -!@, ) ? !@, 4? 1onday "uesday 2ednesday !@@, )5? /!@, )6? "hursday 9riday 0aturday /@@, )/? -@@, ))? 0unday

Picto-raph sho@s the !u"$er o9 carto!s o9 "a!*ari! ora!-e so *

1onday "uesday 2ednesday "hursday 9riday 0aturday 0unday

represent !@ cartons
$e%t &%ercise ' Pro"ressive &%ercise 1 a ( ! (A,> /

E>ERCISE 1.1

(O: TO B0IL' FRE/0ENC1 'ISTRIB0TION TABLE ;

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

"he data below shows the marks for !@ students in a qui%. -/ -7 // /5 !! 7! !) 7@ 67 7@ 6 7 6@ 7 7@ 6 @ !) !) 7!6 7 7/ 5@ !5 7 7! 7! 7@ 65 5@ 7@ 6! !5 76/5 !6 57) 5! !5 !4 !6 /! !4 /@ !4 !6 !

So utio! ). 'etermine the highest and lowest value of the data. . 'etermine the range of data A Brange C highest value D lowest valueE

-. 'etermine the number of class B k =1 + 3.3 log n E

/. 'etermine the width/si%e of class B c =

range E k

!. *uild the class interval and count the frequency of the data by using tally mark. .lass $nterval "ally 1arks 9requency .lass *oundary

$e%t &%ercise ' Pro"ressive &%ercise 1 c (A,> /

(O: TO B0IL' (ISTOGRAM AN' AN OGI#E ; E>AMPLE

1 1

"he table below shows the score for /@ student in a 0cience Iui%

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics 0core -@ D -4 /@ D /4 !@ D !4 6@ D 64 7@ D 74 5@ D 54 So utio! (isto-ra" - 9or &#a&es : .lass boundary - 9or y#a&is : 9requency for each class
(isto-ra" o9 the score 9or +2 stu*e!t i! a Scie!ce /uiA @
Fre%ue!c&

Ho of student / )) )6 / -

.lass *oundary 4.! D -4.! -4.! D /4.! /4.! D !4.! !4.! D 64.! 64.! D 74.! 74.! D 54.!

.ummulative 9requency / )! -) -! -5 /@

)! )@ ! @
4.! -4.! /4.! !4.! 64.! 74.! 54.!

C ass Bou!*ar&

A! o-i8e -

9or &#a&es : Gpper .lass boundary 9or y#a&is : .ummulative 9requency


A! o-i8e o9 the score 9or +2 stu*e!ts i! a Scie!ce /uiA
Cu""u ati8e Fre%ue!c& !@ /@ -@ @ )@ @ 4.! -4,! /4.! !4.! 64.! 74.! 54.! 0pper C ass Bou!*ar&

MEAS0RE OF CENTRAL TEN'ENC1

$e%t &%ercise ' Pro"ressive &%ercise 1 c (A,> /

MEAN FOR 0NGRO0PE' 'ATA

E>AMPLE
PROMATHS B3001

1 1
2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

9ind the "ea! for data below : , -, 5, )@, ) So utio!

x7
2 2

x
N

x 7 3"
N
"

74

E>AMPLE

9ind the "ea! for data below : Score 6 7 )@ Fre%ue!c& / ! So utio! fx 5 )! ) ) -@ )f% C 56

Score BCD 6 7 )@

Fre%ue!c& BfD / ! )f C )7

fx f

$% 7 4.245 1#
MEAN FOR GRO0PE' 'ATA

E>AMPLE

) )

"able shows the marks for /@ students in a test. 9ind the "ea! of marks for data below. Mar.s )@ # 4 -@ # /4 !@ # 64 7@ D 54 Fre%ue!c& B9D 5 6 )4 7 )@ # 4 5 )4.! )!6 -@ # /4 6 -4.! -7 !@ # 64 )4 !4.! ))-@.! 7@ D 54 7 74.! !!6.!

So utio! Mar.s Fre%ue!c& B9D Mi* #a ue BCD 9C

E>ERCISE 1.2

x 7

fx 7 f

20$0 7 42 "ar.s &0

). 9ind the "ea! for data below : a. , -, )@, /, 6 b. -, , )!, /, 6, ) c. .-, -.), )@.!, /, 6, !.-

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

d.

6, -, )@, /, 6, -@, )), !

e.

/. , -@, )@.), /, 6.6, @, 4

. 9ind the "ea! for data below :

a.
Score ! 7 5 Fre%ue!c& / 6 5 4

b. Score Fre%ue!c&

! 6

7 -

)@ 4

c. Score )7 -@ !! 6@ Fre%ue!c& 4 5 )

d. Score Fre%ue!c&

)@

)7

/ ))

-! )

/6 /

-. 9ind the "ea! for data below : a. "able shows the height for !@ atheletes in a school. 9ind the "ea! o9 the hei-ht o9 ath ete. (ei-ht Bc"D )/)#)/! )/6# )!@ )!)#)!! )!6#)6@ )6)#)6! )66#)7@

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics No o9 Athe ete ! )@ ) )/ 7

b. "able shows the ages for )@@ workers in a factory for the year of @@4 and find the "ea! o9 a-e o9 the @or.er. A-e B&earD @ # / ! # 4 -@ # -/ -! # -4 /@ # // /! # /4 !@ # !/ No o9 @or.ers ! )7 5 )5 7

c.

"able shows the width of leaves that was collected by a group of students for e&pereiment . 9ind the "ea! o9 the @i*th o9 the ea8es. :i*th Bc"D Fre%ue!c& !.) # 6.@ )6.) D 7.@ )5 7.) D 5.@ / 5.) D 4.@ )6 4.) D )@.@ 4

ME'IAN FOR 0NGRO0PE'


$e%t &%ercise ''ATA Pro"ressive &%ercise 1 d( e( f( " ( ( i( * (A,> /

E>AMPLE

1 1

9ind the "e*ia! for data below : , -, 5, )@, ) , -

So utio!
PROMATHS B3001 2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics Arrange the order of data A , -, -, 5, )@, ) 0o, the median is

3 +$ C 4.4 2

E>AMPLE

2 2

9ind the "e*ia! for data below : Score 6 7 )@ Fre%ue!c& / ! Cu"u ati8e Fre%ue!c& / 4 )) )/ )7

"o find the median value, So utio!

f
2

1# C 5.! BMefer cumulative frequencyE 2

C score 6

ME'IAN FOR GRO0PE' 'ATA E>AMPLE

) )
"able shows the marks for /@ students in a test. 9ind the "e*ia! o9 the "ar.s. Mar.s )@ # 4 -@ # /4 !@ # 64 7@ D 54 Fre%ue!c& 5 6 )4 7

So utio!

Mar.s Fre%ue!c& Mi* #a ue BCD Cu"u ati8e Fre%ue!c&

)@ # 4 5 )4.! 5

-@ # /4 6 -4.! )/

!@ # 64 )4 !4.! --

7@ D 54 7 74.! /@

1edian class C

f
2

&0 C @ BMefer .umulative 9requencyE C 42 3 65 2

N
fm

C lower boundary of the median class C +5.4 C frequency C +2 C cumulative frequency before the median class median C 1+ C frequency of the median class C 15 Q uick Tip Size of the class, c C si%e of the class interval C 12
= upper class boundary

lo!er class boundary

E>ERCISE 1.+

N F 0o , m = L + 2 fm

&0 1& C C &'." + 2 10 C 42.66 "ar.s 1'

). 9ind the "e*ia! for data below a. , !, 7, ), , / b. )4, ), 7, 4, -), !, 7, ), ! c. 6, #7, -, #/, @, ),

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

d.

6, -, )@, /, 6, -@, )), !

e.

/. , -@, )@.), /, 6.6, @, 4

. 9ind the "e*ia! for data below :

a.
Score ! 7 5 Fre%ue!c& / 6 5 4

b. Score Fre%ue!c&

! 6

7 -

)@ 4

c. Score )7 -@ !! 6@ Fre%ue!c& 4 5 )

d. Score Fre%ue!c&

)@

)7

/ ))

-! )

/6 /

-. 9ind the "e*ia! data below : a. "able shows the number of egss were collected in a day for )@@ day in a rench. 9ind the "e*ia! o9 e-- that @as co ecte* i! a *a&. No o9 e-ss No o9 *a& @# 4 5 -@#-4 )) /@#/4 )6 !@#!4 @ 6@#64 7@#74 )@ 5@#54 )

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

b. "he table shows the height for the students in a class. 9ind the "e*ia! o9 hei-ht o9 the stu*e!t. (ei-ht Bc"D No o9 stu*e!ts )/)#)/! )/6# )!@ ! )!)#)!! )@ )!6#)6@ ) )6)#)6! )/ )66#)7@ 7

c.

"he table shows the running distance by a group of student in ! minutes. 9ind the "e*ia! o9 the *ista!ce B."D. 'ista!ce B."D @.) D ).@ ).) D .@ .) D -.@ -.) D /.@ /.) D !.@ !.) D 6.@ Fre%ue!c& )4 6 )/ 6 )@ !

$e%t &%ercise Pro"ressive &%ercise 1 d( e( f( "( MO'E FOR' 0NGRO0PE' 'ATA

( i( * (A,> /

E>AMPLE

1 1

9ind the "o*e for data below : , -, 5, )@, ) , Mo*e o9 the *ata is ) (repeated for times)

So utio!

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

E>AMPLE

2 2

9ind the "o*e for data below : Score Fre%ue!c& / !

So utio!

6 7 )@ Mo*e o9 the *ata is score at ) (the highest frequency)

MO'E FOR GRO0PE' 'ATA

E>AMPLE

) )

"able shows the marks for /@ students in a test. 9ind the "o*e o9 the "ar.s. Mar.s Fre%ue!c& )@ # 4 5 -@ # /4 6 !@ # 64 )4 7@ D 54 7

So utio!
1 Mo*e 7 M 0 = LM 0 + d +d 2 1

1odal class C !@ D 64 LM 0 C /4.!

uick Tip (odal class)class of the *ode is the class !ith highest fre+uency

d 1 C )4 D 6 C )d 2 C )4 D 7 C )
c C )@ 0o, M 0 = &'." +

13 10 C 4+.= "ar.s 13 + 12

E>ERCISE 1.) ). 9ind the "o*e for data below a. @, /@, -@, 6@, )@, 5@, /@, !@, 7@, -@, /@ b. )-, )!, )5, )/, )7, )4, )), )/, )!, ) , )!, )5, )!, )6, )! c. .-, -.), )@.!, / ,6, !.-

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

d.

6, -, )@, /, 6, -@, )), !

e.

/. , -@, )@.), /, 6.6, @, 4

. 9ind the "o*e for data below :

a.
Score ! 7 5 Fre%ue!c& / 6 5 4

b. Score Fre%ue!c&

! 6

7 -

)@ 4

c. Score )7 -@ !! 6@ Fre%ue!c& 4 5 )

d. Score Fre%ue!c&

)@

)7

/ ))

-! )

/6 /

d. "he table shows the height for the students in a class. 9ind the "o*e o9 hei-ht o9 the stu*e!t. (ei-ht Bc"D No o9 stu*e!ts )/)#)/! )/6# )!@ ! )!)#)!! )@ )!6#)6@ ) )6)#)6! )/ )66#)7@ 7

-. 9ind the "o*e data below : a. "able shows the daily salary for )@@ workers in a 9ood 9actory. 9ind the "o*e o9 the *ai & sa ar&. 'ai & Sa ar& BRMD No o9 @or.es !#4 )@ )@ # )/ )/ )! # )4 )5 @# / -! !# 4 )6 -@ D -/ 7

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

b. "able shows the mass distribution for students in a class. 9ind the "o*e o9 the "ass o9 stu*e!ts. Mass B.-D No o9 stu*e!ts /)#/! /6#!@ / !)#!! 5 !6#6@ )) 6)#6! 4 66#7@ / 7)#7!

c.

"he table shows the mass of beg that was carried by a group of student to the school . Fi!* the "o*e o9 the "ass o9 the $a-. Mass B.-D -.@ D -./ -.! D -.4 /.@ D /./ /.! D /.4 !.@ D !./ Fre%ue!c& ) )/ ! )5 )6

MEAS0RE OF 'ISPERSION

$e%t &%ercise ' Pro"ressive &%ercise 1 d( e( f( " ( ( i( * (A,> /

0NGRO0PE' 'ATA

E>ERCISE 1.4

a. 9ind the value of "ea! *e8iatio!? 8aria!ce and sta!*ar* *e8iatio! for , /, 6, 5, )@, ) , )/

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

So utio! &
x x
x x

x=
/

x =
n
6

"% = #
5 )@ ) )/
x x =
2

(x x )

( x x )

b. "he table shows the time was taken by )@@ typist typed document. 9ind the value ofe"ea! $e%t a &%ercise ' Pro"ressive &%ercise 1 d( (A,> *e8iatio!? 8aria!ce and sta!*ar* *e8iatio!. "ime (minute) Ho of typist f&
x x
x x x x f

)) )

)/

)/ 6

)! )

)6 5

)7 -

)5 ))

)4 4

@ /

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics

(x x ) (x x ) f
2 2

x=

fx
n

$e%t &%ercise ' Pro"ressive &%ercise 1 f ( " (A,> / GRO0PE' 'ATA

c.

"able shows the marks for /@ students in a test. 9ind the value of "ea! *e8iatio!? 8aria!ce and sta!*ar* *e8iatio!. 1arks 9requency 1id Kalue (&) f& )@ # 4 5 -@ # /4 6 !@ # 64 )4 7@ D 54 7

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics
x x
x x

(x x ) (x x ) f
2 2

x x f

x=

fx f

PROGRESSI#E E>ERCISE 1
$e%t &%ercise ' Pro"ressive &%ercise 1 c( i( * (A,> /

a. "he table shows the total credit card application within ! years in *ank A*. ;ears Ho of application @@/ 2422 @@! )222 @@6 +422 @@7 +222 years GN1 1442 1E42 @@5 )422

b. "he table shows the number of students in four university for Gniversity ;ear 222= @@5 1242 1422 2442 )242 G1 G01

G10 2242 2422

PROMATHS B3001

2 6

Chapter 1 Statistics c. "he data below shows the duration of time (minute) for a group of student read a newspaper in one day. .onstruct a frequency distribution table for the data below. ) )) !@ -/ ))6 / @ )) -/ 6 -4 5 ) /4 7 6 --6 // -7 -) /--! -@ 6 !/ -) ! -7 / !-/ 5 -7 4 -! -6 --7 -) /) /7 !

d. /, 6, -, , ), ), ! e. f. )-, )@6, -)), /5 , 76 , )@6 "he table shows the age of students as a member in a 1athematics .lub Age (years) 9requency g. "he mean of the data below is 6). !. 1arks 9requency i. ii. !@ 2 !! ) 6@ x 6! 2 7@ 1 7! 2 )4 )/ 15 )! = )6 12 )7 1

9ind the value of x. "hen, find the value of median and mode of the data.

h. "he mode of a set of data with values of !, )5, p, -@, 7, /@, 7, and - is p. i. 9ind the value of p. ii. <ence, calculate the mean of the set of data. i. "he table shows the distribution of marks obtained by a group of students in a 0cience "est.. 1arks 9requency i. ii. ) # /@ 12 /) D 6@ k 6) D 5@ 8 5) # )@@ 5

9ind the value of k if the mean mark is !7.!. "hen, find the value of mean deviation, variance and standard deviation.

O.

"he table shows the height of student in Nelas ) 1awar. <eight (m) 9requency ). @ D ). / 12 ). ! D ). 4 2) ).-@ D ).-/ )+ ).-! D ).-4 25 )./@ D ).// 14

i. 9ind the mean, median and mode for the height of student ii. 9ind the mean deviation, variance and standard deviation. iii. 9ind the -rd quartile, 7th decile and 6@th percentile

S0MMATI#E E#AL0ATION

PROMATHS B3001

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Chapter 1 Statistics

). "he table shows the number of books published by a local publisher in five years. ;ear Humber of books 2222 2+2 2221 )22 2222 142 222) 212 @@/ ))2

.onstruct : i. A line graph to represent the above data. ii. A pictograph to represent the above by using the symbol to represent -@ books. iii. A pie chart to represent the above data. . "he table shows the number of passenger, according to gender, who used the (utra +M" for a specified trip in five days a week. .onstruct a composite hori%ontal bar char to represent the data below : 'ay 1ale (assenger 9emale (assenger Mo!*a& )22 422 Tues*a& =42 +22 :e*!es*a& E22 622 Thurs*a& +42 642 9riday )22 +22

-. 9ind the "ea!? "e*ia!? "o*e? "ea! *e8iatio!? 8aria!ce a!* sta!*ar* *e8iatio! for data below : a. )@ , 47, 75, ))5, 5/, )@-, 4!, 44 b. -./, 6. , 4. , ).-, 6. , !.! /. "he table shows the data of monthly wages of employees in a certain company. 2ages (M1) Humber of employees E+2 4 522 + 1222 6 12E2 E )))@ =

9rom the data above, find the "ea!? "e*ia! and "o*e of the monthly wages of employees in a certain company.

!. "he frequency distribution table shows the masses of loaves of bread produced by a bakery 1ass (g) 9requency +22 6 +2+ 16 +24 6 +25 2+ +)2 6 +)+ 24 +)4 6 +)5 1E //@ # /// 1=

9rom the table above: a. .onstruct an ogive then find the median of the mass of loaves. b. .onstruct a histogram then find the mode of the mass of loaves. c. .alculate the mean deviation, variance and standard deviation. d. 9rom the ogive from !(a), find the )st quartile, /th decile and 5@th percentile. 6. "he following is the distribution of the number of rainy days in 0eattle in 6@ months:

PROMATHS B3001

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Chapter 1 Statistics

Humber of days 9requency

46= 4

E 6 12 5

11 6 1) 12

1+ 6 16 1E

1= 3 15 1)

@# )

9rom the table above: a. .onstruct an ogive then find the median of the number of rainy days. b. .onstruct a histogram then find the mode of the number of rainy days. c. .alculate the mean deviation, variance and standard deviation. d. 9rom the ogive from 6(a), find the -rd quartile, 5th decile and /@th percentile. 7. "he following table shows the wind speed for )5/ days from 8uly to 'ecember )44! recorded at a weather station: 2ind speed (ms#)) @.!@ D @.44 ).@@ D )./4 ).!@ D ).44 .@@ D ./4 .!@ D .44 -.@@ D -./4 -.!@ D -.44 /.@@ D /./4 /.!@ D /.44 !.@@ D !./4 !.!@ D !.44 9requency 2E 42 +2 1+ 1+ 12 5 4 E 2 +

9rom the table above: a. 9ind the mean, median and mode of the wind speed (ms #)). b. .alculate the mean deviation, variance and standard deviation. c. .onstruct an ogive then find the -rd quartile, /th decile and 5@th percentile. 5. "he data below shows the percentage of sales that has been made by !6 company. 4.@ /.7 )).! !.@ -./.7 ).5 /.6 -.@ -.! 5. !.) 5.4 /.7 ) .! 4.7 )-.@ )@.! 6.7 6.) 6.7 ) . -.7 )@.@ /. -. .) !.! 7.@ 6. -.) .5 5.) !.6.@ 4.5 6. /.! 7./.6. 4.6 )). /.6./ !. /.6 -. /.5 !.6 )@.4 6. 5. 4.) )/.).!

9rom the data above, build a frequency distribution table then construct an ogive and histogram.

PROMATHS B3001

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