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Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science]

Page No: 1

Geography Notes for Class: X [Social Science]

INDEX S. No. 01 0! 0& 0% 0* 0' 0. Name of Chapter Resources an Develop ent "orest an# $il#life Resources $ater Resources (griculture +inerals an# ,nergy Resources +anufacturing -n#ustries /ifeline of National ,cono y Page No. 01 0% 0' 0) 11 1& 1.

C !P"E# 1: #ES$%#CES !ND DE&E'$P(EN" #emem)er "hese Points (nything availa0le in the environ ent an# can 0e use# to satisfy the nee#s of hu an 0eing is calle# as resource1 e2g2 3ater1 lan#1 air1 inerals1 3il#life etc2 /eaching is a process 3hich ta4es place in high te perature an# rainfall area2 -n this process inerals of the soil are #issolve# into the rain3ater an# they ove #o3n in the soil2 /aterite soil is for e# 0y this process2 5lac4 soil is also calle# as 6regur soil72 +anganese no#ules are e8tracte# fro -n#ian 9cean2 "ull for of :NC,D is :nite# Nations Conference on ,nviron ent an# Develop ent2 Ra;asthan has a0un#ant solar an# 3in# energy potential2 ,arth Su it 3as hel# in Rio #e <eniro [5ra=il] in 1>>!2 ?he 0oo4 3ritten 0y Schu acher is 6S all is 5eautiful72 5lac4 soil is for e# 0y 3eathering of lava roc4s2 Re# soil is for e# 0y 3eathering of igneous roc4s2 -t loo4s re# #ue to iron@o8i#e2 /an# #egra#e# 0y gully erosion in Cha 0al River 0asin is calle# 6Ravines7 or 65a# /an#72

"ypes or Classification of #eso*rces 9n the 0asis of origin: 12 5iotic: ?hose resources 3hich has life are calle# 0iotic resources e2g2 plants1 trees1 ani als etc2 !2 (0iotic: ?hose resources 3hich #o not have life are calle# as a0iotic resources e2g2 lan#1 3ater1 inerals etc2 9n the 0asis of e8hausti0ility: aA Rene3a0le ["orest1 $il#life1 $ater] 0A Non@Rene3a0le [+etals1 "ossils "uels] 9n the 0asis of o3nership: aA -n#ivi#ual [lan#1 plot1 3ell1 pon#] 0A Co unity [Gra=ing lan#1 0urial groun#1 par4] cA National [+inerals1 "orest1 Rivers] #A -nternational [,,B C 9cean up to !00 4 ] 9n the 0asis of #evelop ent: 12 Potential Resources: Resources 3hich are foun# in an area 0ut not have 0een utili=e#2 "or e8a ple1 Ra;asthan an# Gu;urat has enough potential to pro#uce solar energy #ue to clou#less s4y an# ore te perature2 !2 Develope# Resources: $hen resources foun# in a region are surveye# 0y engineer an# their Duality an# Duantity are #eter ine for utili=ation1 it is calle# #evelope# resource2 ?echnology an# capital help in #evelop ent of resources2

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: + &2 Stoc4 Resources: +aterial foun# in our environ ent can satisfy any of our nee# 0ut they are not use# 0ecause of lac4 of appropriate technology2 "or e8a ple1 3ater has hy#rogen1 a goo# source of energy1 0ut #ue appropriate technology 3ater is not 0eing use# as fuel2 %2 Reserve Resources: Reserve is those parts of stoc4 3hich can 0e utili=e# using e8isting technology2 5ut these resources are not 0eing use# an# they have 0een left for future generation2 ?hey are calle# reserve2 S*staina)le De,elopment: Develop ent 3ithout #a aging the environ ent is calle# as sustaina0le #evelop ent2 ?his #evelop ent eets the #e an#s of present generation as 3ell as future generations2 Earth S*mmit an- !gen-a +1: ,arth Su it is an international conference on environ ent2 -t 3as hel# in Rio #e <eniro [5ra=il] in 1>>!2 -n the conference lea#ers of the 3or#s #iscusse# a0out sustaina0le #evelop ent an# they a#opte# !1 points policy 3hich is calle# 6(gen#a !172 #eso*rce Planning an- Its Steps Resource planning is etho# to use the resources in opti u 3ay so that a8i u 0enefit shoul# reach to a8i u people2 Resource planning also eans avoi#ing 3astage1 isuse an# overuse of resources2 ?here are three steps for resource planning2 aA -#entification an# inventory of resources 0y surveying an# apping 0A ,volving a planning structure to use the resources 3ith appropriate technology cA +atching resource #evelop ent plan 3ith national #evelop ent plan Nee- an- (etho-s of Conser,ation of #eso*rces "ather of the nation C +ahat a Gan#hi C sai# that E?here is enough for every0o#y7s nee# an# not for any0o#y7s gree#F2 $e shoul# conserve resources for follo3ing reasons2 aA Resources are not foun# every3here2 ?hey are unevenly #istri0ute#2 0A Resources are li ite#2 +any of the resources are non@rene3a0le2 cA Resources shoul# 0e conserve# for re#ucing all 4in#s of pollution2 #A Resources are also conserve# for 6sustaina0le #evelop ent72 eA Conservation is nee#e# to protect natural heritage2 +etho#s or easure ents for resource conservation are as un#er: aA $astage1 isuse an# overuse of resources shoul# 0e avoi#e#2 0A Rene3a0le resources shoul# 0e use# ore e2g2 solar energy1 3in# energy etc2 cA 9l#er technology shoul# 0e replace# 3ith ne3er1 o#ern an# efficient technology2 #A (3areness shoul# 0e create# a ong the people2 eA Govt2 shoul# pass strict la3s for esta0lish ent an# location of in#ustries2 fA :se# ite s shoul# 0e recycle# using ne3 technology2 'an- %se an- Its Category /an# is use# for various purposes in a country2 -n#ia has vast lan# resource2 ?otal area of our country is a0out &2!) illion sD2 4 2 -n#ia ran4s . th in the 3orl# in ter of si=e2 5ut ost of parts are covere# 0y either ountain or plateau2 -n#ia has only %&G plain 3here agriculture is possi0le2 +ountains are goo# sources of 0iotic resources 3here varieties of inerals are foun# in the plateau2 ?here are * categories un#er lan# use2 12 "orest !2 /an# not availa0le for cultivation &2 9ther uncultivate# lan# %2 "allo3 lan# *2 Net so3n area /an# not availa0le for cultivation inclu#es 0arren lan#1 3aste lan# an# lan# 3hich is use# for 0uil#ing1 roa#s1 par4s1 factories etc2 "allo3 lan# is that lan# 3hich is left uncultivate# 0y the far er2 "ar er leaves so e lan# to give rest to the lan#2 /an#s are also left fallo3 #ue lo3 rainfall1 lac4 of capital or see#s etc2 "allo3 lan# for one or less than one year is calle# Current "allo32 -f lan# is left fallo3 for ore than one 0ut less than five years it is calle# as 9ther "allo3 lan#2 Net so3n area is the actual lan# on 3hich agriculture is #one2 So e parts of net so3n area is use# ore than one ti e in a single agricultural season2 $hen this lan# is a##e# 3ith net so3n area1 it is calle# gross so3n area or gross croppe# area2

'an- Degra-ation an- Its Ca*ses

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science]

Page No: .

/o3ering the Duality of lan# up to such an e8tent that the lan# 0eco e unfit for any use1 it is calle# as lan# #egra#ation2 (0out 1&0 illion hectare of lan#s are #egra#e# in -n#ia2 "ollo3ing are the causes of lan# #egra#ation2 aA Deforestation C cutting of trees an# forest 0A ,rosion 0y rain 3ater an# 3in# cA $ater logging in lo3 lying area #A -ncreasing salinity [salt] #ue to over irrigation eA Du ping of ur0an an# in#ustrial 3aste on valua0le lan# fA +ining an# Duarrying activities for e8tracting inerals Soil/ Its 0ormation 1 0actors !ffecting Soil 0ormation +eaning of Soil: -t is an i portant an rene3a0le resource2 -t is upper part of the crust 3hich is loose an# frag ente#2 -t has air1 3ater an# inerals contents an# it support gro3th of plants2 5acteria an# other s all organis s are also foun# in the soil 3hich a4es it ore fertile2 "or ation of Soil: Soil is for e# 0y 3eathering an# erosion of roc4s2 ?e perature an# rainfall 0rea4s #o3n the roc4 into s aller parts2 (fter i8ing of 3ater an# inerals in these se#i ents1 it acDuires the for of soil2 "ollo3ing factors affect soil for ation2 "actors (ffecting Soil "or ation aA Parent Roc4s: -t #eter ine# the colour1 te8ture an# ineral contents in soil 0A Cli ate [Rainfall an# ?e perature]: -t #eter ines rate of 3eathering an# erosion of roc4s2 cA ?opography [Slope]: 9n higher lan# thin layer of soil is foun#1 3hile in the lo3er valley thic4 #eposition of alluviu is foun#2 #A Hegetation [Plants an# ?rees]: ?hey a## organic atter [Iu us] to the soil2 eA ?i e: 9l#er soils are generally ore fertile than ne3er soil2 Soil Erosion an- (etho-s of Soil Conser,ation Soil ,rosion: Re oval of top an# fertile layer of soil 0y the agents li4e rain3ater an# 3in# is calle# soil erosion2 Soil erosion is a acute pro0le in -n#ia2 Cha 0al river 0asin is so 0a#ly ero#e# that this entire area is calle# as 65a# /an# or Ravines72 ?here are three types of erosion1 i2e2 aA Sheet ,rosion1 0A Rill ,rosion an# cA Gully ,rosion [+ost Dangerous]2 "ollo3ings are the reasons for soil erosion2 Reason for Soil ,rosion: aA Deforestation C Cutting #o3n of trees an# forests 0A ?orrential [heavy] rainfall cA 9vergra=ing 0y cattle #A :nscientific agriculture [Ploughing lan# parallel to the slope] eA ,8cessive use of che ical fertili=ers an# irrigation +easure ent to Chec4 Soil ,rosion: aA (fforestation C Planting trees on #egra#e# lan# 0A Plugging of gullies cA Chec4 on overgra=ing 0y cattle #A Scientific agriculture [Ploughing lan# at right angle of slope C Contour Ploughing] eA Crop rotation fA ?errace far ing gA Preparation of shelter 0elt Short Note on !ll*,ial Soil -t is the ost fertile an# e8tensive soil in -n#ia2 -t is foun# in the river valleys of Ganga1 Ja una1 -n#us an# 5rah aputra2 ?his soil has 0een for e# 0y #eposition of se#i ents in the northern plain2 ?his soil is foun# fro Pun;a0 up to (ssa 2 -t is also foun# along the coastal areas2 Coarse soil near the ountain foothill is calle# #uars1 chos an# tarai2 -n the plain area1 lo3er parts are calle# 4ha#ar an# upper parts are calle# 0anger2 ?his soil is i#eal for the agriculture of rice1 3heat1 sugarcane1 pulses an# any other crops2 Short Note on 2lac3 Soil ?his soil is for e# 0y the 3eathering of lava roc4s2 -t loo4s 0lac4 #ue to presence of agnesiu in it2 -t is foun# ainly in +aharastra1 Gu;arat an# Karnata4a [Deccan ?rap]2

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: 4 5lac4 soil has high capacity to hol# oisture2 -t 0eco e stic4y 3hen it is 3et an# #evelop crac4 3hen it is #ry2 -t is 0est for the cultivation of cotton2 Ience1 it is calle# as 5lac4 Cotton Soil2 -t is also 4no3n as 6Regur Soil72 C !P"E# +: 0$#ES" !ND 5I'D'I0E #ES$%#CES #emem)er "hese Points 5io#iversity: Hariety of plants an# ani als foun# in an area is calle# 0io#iversity2 "lora: -t refers to grasses1 plants1 trees etc of an area2 "auna: -t eans 0ir#s1 ani als1 reptiles1 insects of an area2 -:CN: -t full na e is -nternational :nion for Conservation of Nature2 5iosphere Reserve: -t is vast area having great 0iological #iversity2 -n these areas1 natural plants an# ani als are protecte# for future generation2 ,8a ple C Nan#a#evi 5iosphere Reserve in :ttranchal2 2io-i,ersity [0lora 1 0a*na] in In-ia -n#ia is very rich in 0iological #iversity2 ?here are variety of plants an# ani als foun# in our country2 -n#ia has nearly )G of the total nu 0er of species foun# in the 3orl#2 (0out )11000 species of fauna [ani als] an# %.1000 species of flora [plants] are foun# in -n#ia2 -n#ia is fa ous for rhino1 elephant1 tiger1 lion1 on4ey1 sna4es1 peacoc4 etc2

2io-i,ersity an- Its Importance +eaning of 5io#iversity: Harious species of plants1 trees1 ani als1 0ir#s1 reptiles etc2 foun# in an area is calle# 0io#iversity2 ?hey are goo# natural resources2 ?hey are i portant 0ecause: aA Plants an# trees give us o8ygen2 0A $oo#s for furniture an# construction are provi#e# 0y forest2 cA So e plants are of e#icinal use e2g2 tulsi1 nee 1 sarpgan#ha1 aa3la etc2 #A /eaves1 roots1 fruits1 lac1 rasin etc are collecte# fro forest2 eA (ni als provi#es us eat1 fur1 s4in1 0one etc2 fA Co 0ine1 plants an# ani als aintain foo# chain in the ecosyste 2 Importance of 0orest in $*r 'i,es aA "orest provi#es ti 0er for furniture an# construction 3or42 0A -t a0sor0s C9! an# provi#es us 3ith o8ygen2 cA 5ranches1 leaves an# roots of trees protect soil fro erosion2 #A "orests are natural ha0itat for variety of 3il#life2 eA "orest aintains ecological 0alance an# foo# chain2 fA -t provi#es fuel 3oo# to rural people2 gA /ac1 honey1 her0s etc are collecte# fro forest for co ercial use2 Classification of Species )y I%CN +any species of plants an# ani als are un#er threat #ue to over e8ploitation 0y the hu an 0eing2 -nternational :nion for Conservation of Nature [-:CN] has classifie# the species into follo3ing category: aA Nor al Species: ?here is no threat to these species1 their population is sufficient in the environ ent2 0A Rare Species: Species 3ith s all population is calle# rare2 ?hey are rarely seen in the forest2 ,8a ple C Ii alayan 0ro3n 0ear1 3il# (siatic 0uffalo1 #esert fo8 etc2 cA Hulnera0le Species: Population of these species #ecreases to such an e8tent that they ay 0eco e en#angere#2 ,8a ple C 0lue sheep1 (siatic elephant etc2 #A ,n#angere# Species: Population of these species 0eco e so s all that they co e un#er #anger of e8tinction2 -f negative factors continue1 they ay 0eco e e8tinction2 ,8a ple C -n#ian rhino1 0lac4 0uc41 croco#ile1 -n#ian 3il# ass etc2 eA ,8tinct Species: ?hese species are not foun# any3here in the 3orl#2 ?hey have gone fro our earth for forever2 ,8a ple C (siatic Cheetah1 pin4 hea# #uc4 etc2 #easons for Depletion of 2io-i,ersity [0lora an- 0a*na] Iu an activities are ainly responsi0le for #epletion of 0io#iversity2 "ollo3ings are the reasons or causes 0ehin# loss of flora an# fauna2 aA Deforestation1 illegal cutting of trees1 an# forest fire 0A Iunting an# poaching of 3il# ani als for s4in1 tus41 0one etc2

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] cA Construction of #a 1 roa#1 rail3ays in the forest #A Pollution an# glo0al 3ar ing lea#ing to cli atic change eA -ncreasing hu an population pressure on the forest resources (etho-s or (eas*res to Conser,e 2io-i,ersity

Page No: 6

aA Deforestation shoul# 0e totally stoppe#2 -nstea#1 trees shoul# 0e plante# on #egra#e# lan# an# on lan# 3here 3as forest earlier2 0A People shoul# start ove ent against tree cutting such as 6Chip4o +ove ent72 cA 6Han ahotsava7 an# si ilar 4in# of events shoul# 0e cele0rate# to conserve forest2 #A +ass e#ia1 e2g2 ?H1 ra#io1 ne3spapers etc1 shoul# use# for creating a3areness2 eA Govt2 shoul# pass an# i ple ent [-n#ian $il#life [Protection] (ct C 1>.!] strict la3s against illegal cutting of trees1 hunting an# poaching2 fA Harious pro;ect li4e Pro;ect ?igerL Pro;ect Rhine etc shoul# 0e starte#2 gA +ore National Par4s1 $il#life Sanctuaries1 5iosphere Reserve shoul# 0e i#entifie#2 hA ?here shoul# 0e freDuent survey an# census to count population of #ifferent species foun# in the forest2 #ole of Comm*nity [local people] in Conser,ing 0orest an- 5il-life Co co unity or local people are very helpful in conserving 0io#iversity i2e2 plants an# ani als2 +any unities live in the forest2 "orest is ho e of any tra#itional people2 aA -n Ra;asthan1 local people ca e for3ar# to stop ining activities to protect Saris4a ?iger Reserve2 0A People of (l3ar District of Ra;asthan have #eclare# 1!00 hectares of lan# as 65hairo#ev Da4av Sonchuri7 in 3hich they #on7t allo3 hunting2 cA -n <har4han#1 +un#a tri0e 3orship +ahua an# Ka#a 0 trees an# they protect the fro cutting2 #A "a ous Chip4o +ove ent in Ii alaya 3as starte# 0y local co unity only2 5ee; 5achao (n#olan an# Nav#anya ove ents have also 0een starte# in Ii alaya2 eA <oint "orest +anage ent [<"+] state# in -n#ia is goo# etho# of involving local co unity in forest conservation2

"ypes of 0orests in In-ia aA Reserve# "orests: ?hese forests are ear ar4e# only for pro#uction of ti 0er2 Gra=ing of ani als an# cultivation of crops are not allo3e# in these forests2 (0out *%G forests are groupe# un#er reserve# forests2 0A Protecte# "orests: ?hese forests are protecte# fro further #epletion2 Right of gra=ing an# cultivation is allo3e# 3ith certain restriction2 (0out !>G forests co e un#er protecte# forests2 cA :nclasse# "orests: ?here is no restriction in these forests2 ?hese forests 0elong to govern ent an# private in#ivi#uals2 (0out 1'G forests are unclasse# forests2 Distri)*tion of 0orest in In-ia (0out &&G lan# ust 0e un#er forest for ecological 0alance2 5ut1 only !&G lan# is un#er forest in -n#ia2 Distri0ution of forest in -n#ia is not unifor 2 (n# an an# Nico0ar has a0out ).G [Iighest] lan# un#er forest 3hile in Iaryana only %G lan# is un#er forest 3hich lo3est in -n#ia2 +ost of the north@eastern states li4e +anipur1 +i=ora 1 Nagalan#1 (runachal Pra#esh etc2 have ore '0G lan# un#er forest2 5ut in Pun;a01 Iaryana1 Gu;arat1 Ra;asthan1 Delhi an# < M K have less than 10G lan# un#er forest2 Southern states have o#erately covere# 3ith forest2 (0out !0@&0G lan# is un#er forest in these states2

Short Note on Pro7ect "iger ?iger is one of the ost i portant species a ong fauna2 -t 3as esti ate# that population of tigers has #ecrease# rapi#ly in the last one hun#re# years2 +a;or reasons i#entifie# 0ehin# #epletion of tiger 3ere hunting an# poaching1 #eforestation1 #epletion of prey etc2 Pro;ect ?iger 3as starte# in 1>.& to protect the fro e8tinction2 ?here are !. tiger reserves in -n#ia2 Pro;ect ?iger has successfully i prove# the con#ition2 Population of tigers increase# fro 1)00 to a0out &'00 in the last &0 years2 5hat is Sacre- Gro,es8

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: 9 -n -n#ia1 it is 0elieve# that everything C livings an# non@livings1 have 0een create# 0y go#2 9l# tri0al an# tra#itional societies have protecte# certain species fro ti e i e orial2 +un#a tri0es of <har4han# protect +ahua an# Ka#a 0 trees an# 3orship the 2 People of 5ihar1 :P 3orship Peepal1 5anyan1 +ango1 ?a arin# etc2 Not only that1 rivers1 ountains1 forests etc are consi#ere# as go# an# go##esses an# they are 3orshippe# an# protecte# in -n#ia2 C !P"E# .: 5!"E# #ES$%#CES Important "erms Da : -t is a concrete 3all constructe# across the river to stop the river 3ater2 ?he storage of 3ater 0ehin# the #a is calle# reservoir2 Perennial River: ( river having 3ater throughout the year is calle# Perennial River2 ?heir 3ater source is elting glaciers1 e2g2 Ganga1 5rah aputra etc2 Reservoir: /arge collection of river 3ater ;ust 0ehin# the #a is calle# reservoir2

5ater #eso*rces in In-ia (nnual rainfall in -n#ia is a0out 11. c 2 Cherapun;i receives highest rainfall in the 3orl#2 -n#ia has any perennial rivers e2g2 Ganga1 Ja una1 -n#us1 5raha putra etc2 Seasonal rivers of southern -n#ia e2g2 Go#a3ari1 Krishna1 Kauveri1 Nar a#a etc are also goo# source of 3ater2 -n#ia has long seacoast2 -t is ore than '000 4 2 (ra0ian Sea1 5ay of 5engal an# -n#ian 9cean surroun# southern -n#ia fro three si#es2 -n#ia is also rich in groun#3ater resources2 ?here are any natural an# an@ a#e la4es1 pon#s1 hy#raulic structures etc foun# in our country2

5ater Scarcity an- Its Ca*ses $ater Scarcity: $hen 3ater is not availa0le in sufficient Duantity an# Duality for all the people in an area1 it is calle# 3ater shortage or 3ater scarcity2 $ater scarcity lea#s to #rought an# fa ine an# clai s thousan# of lives every year in -n#ia2 "ollo3ings are the causes of 3ater scarcity2 aA ( ount of rainfall less than the nor al 0A 9ver e8ploitation of groun# 3ater 0y tu0e 3ells in the cities cA ,8cess use of 3ater for irrigation to gro3 ore crops2 #A $ater pollution 0y #u ping of 3aste fro city an# in#ustries eA "loo# [$ater is pollute# an# 0eco e unfit for use] (*ltip*rpose Pro7ects an- Its !-,antages an- Disa-,antages +eaning: ( river valley pro;ect having any #a s1 0arrages1 canals etc is calle# as ultipurpose pro;ect2 -t is calle# ultipurpose 0ecause it serve any purposes an# solve any of our pro0le s2 ,8a ple: 5ha4haran Nangal Pro;ect1 Da o#ar Halley Pro;ect etc2 (#vantage of +ultipurpose Pro;ects aA +ultipurpose pro;ects provi#e 3ater for irrigation of crops2 0A ?hey control the floo# in the river2 Da o#ar River 3as calle# 6Sorro3 of 5engal72 No31 it is a 0lessing for that region2 cA +ultipurpose pro;ects also provi#e facility for afforestation an# conservation of soil fro erosion2 #A Iy#roelectricity1 the cheapest source of e ery1 is pro#uce# fro ultipurpose pro;ects2 (0out !!G electricity co es fro this source in -n#ia2 eA Canals an# reservoir can also 0e use# for 3ater transportation an# fisheries2 Disa#vantage of +ultipurpose Pro;ects aA "ertile agricultural lan# su0 erge# un#er the river 3ater2 0A /arge no2 of people are #isplace#2 ?hey have to leave their o3n houses an# properties2 cA "orest lan# are either cleare# or su0 erge# un#er 3ater2 -t is great loss for environ ent2 #A Siltation in the #a re#uces the life span of the pro;ect2 eA 5ig ultipurpose pro;ects can result into inor earthDua4es2 #ain:ater ar,esting an- Its $)7ecti,es an- (etho-s +eaning: Capturing an# storing the rain3ater for recharging the groun# 3ater is calle# rain3ater harvesting2 Rain3ater can also 0e use# for #o estic an# agricultural purpose2 -t is a goo# etho# of 3ater conservation

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: ; in 3ater scarcity areas such as Ra;asthan2 Rain3ater is collecte# on the roof of house an# it is store# in #ug 3ell or un#ergroun# tan42 ?his 3ater is use# for 3ashing1 ani al #rin4ing1 irrigation etc2 90;ectives of Rain3ater Iarvesting aA ?o re#uce surface run@off 3hich cause floo#ing on the roa#s2 0A ?o eet the increasing #e an# of 3ater2 cA ?o recharge the groun#3ater2 #A ?o re#uce groun#3ater pollution an# i prove the Duality of 3ater2 eA ?o supply 3ater #uring #ry season2 +etho#s of Rain3ater Iarvesting aA Collecting rain3ater on roof top an# #iverting it into a #ug 3ell to recharge groun#3ater2 0A Collecting rain3ater on roof an# 0ringing it un#ergroun# tan4 in the house for #o estic use2 cA +a4ing s all chec4 #a s to stop surface run@off an# allo3 the soil to a0sor0 ore oisture2 #A :sing 0a 0oo as pipe to 0ring spring 3ater fro far a3ay place for irrigation li4e in +eghalaya2 Different (etho-s of #ain:ater ar,esting in In-ia -n Ra;asthan1 rain3ater is collecte# on the roof tan4 to store #rin4ing 3ater2 "ar er of Ra;asthan collects rain3ater in their agricultural fiel#s to increase the soil oisture2 -t is calle# 6Kha#ins7 an# 6<oha#7 in Ra;asthan2 People of Ra;asthan1 also 0uilt un#ergroun# tan4 [Calle# as 6?an4as7] to store #rin4ing 3ater for at least a year2 -n $est 5angal1 people #evelope# inun#ation channels to irrigate their fiel#s2 -n the hilly an# ountainous areas1 people 0uil# #iversion channel calle# as 6Guls7 an# 6Kuls7 for #evelop ent of agriculture2 Collection of rain3ater is also #one in Shillong for househol# reDuire ent2 -n +eghalaya1 people use 0a 0oo [5a 0oo Drip] as pipes to 0ring 3ater spring 3ater locate# hun#re#s of eters a3ay fro the houses2 ?a il Na#u is the first state to a4e rooftop rain3ater harvesting co pulsory in every house across the state2

5atershe- De,elopment: (n area #raine# 0y an tri0utary is calle# 3atershe#2 (ll roun# #evelop ent of this area is calle# 3atershe# #evelop ent2 Su4h a;ri Hillage in Iaryana is the 0est e8a ple of 3atershe# #evelop ent2 (tte pt a#e un#er 3atershe# #evelop ent are: Conservation of soil an# oisture1 (fforestation an# forest upgra#ation1 $ater harvesting1 Develop ent of horticulture Pasture #evelop ent Supply of #rin4ing 3ater C !P"E# 4: !G#IC%'"%#E Important "erms (griculture: Cultivation of crops an# #o estication of ani als is calle# agriculture2 Cash Crops: ?he crops 3hich are cultivate# for tra#e an# co erce an# selling the in the ar4et to earn oney1 li4e to0acco1 spices1 fruits1 sugarcane etc2 (ni al Ius0an#ry: Do esticating ani als for pro#uction of il4 an# eat is calle# ani al hus0an#ry2 Green Revolution: Su##en rise in the pro#uction of crops 0y using IJH see#s1 irrigation 3ater1 che ical fertili=ers etc2 is calle# green revolution2 -t too4 place #uring 1>'0s in our country2 Iorticulture: Cultivation of fruits an# vegeta0les is calle# as horticulture2 Sericulture: Rearing of sil4 3or an# pro#ucing sil4 is calle# sericulture2 <hu ing: Shifting agricultural in the north east is calle# as ;hu ing2 -t is also calle# slash an# 0urn agriculture 0ecause tree are cut an# 0urnt to clear the lan# for agriculture2 PDS: -t eans Pu0lic Distri0ution Syste 2 -t is a progra 3hich provi#es foo#grains an# other essential ite s [Rice1 $heat1 Sugar1 Kerosene 9il etc2] to rural people at su0si#i=e# rate [lo3 price]2 +ini u Support Price [+SP]: -t is a lo3est price announce# 0y the Govt2 at 3hich foo#grains are procure# 0y "C- ["oo# Corporation of -n#ia]2

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: < Genetic ,ngineering: -t eans #eveloping ne3 an# hy0ri# see# 0y using o#ifying the gene of the crops2 Shifting (griculture: -t is also calle# as slash an# 0urn agriculture2 -n this agriculture forest lan# is cleare# an# they are 0urnt2 (griculture is #one using very ol# tools on very s all scale2 (fter one or t3o year ne3 lan# is selecte# an# sa e process is follo3e#2 ?his etho# of agriculture is very ol#L an# gives very lo3 pro#uctionL an# also it #egra#e forest2 -n the north@east this agriculture is calle# as ;hu ing or ;hu cultivation2 - portant Crops in -n#ia: o Cereal Crops: Rice1 $heat1 5a;ra o +illets: <o3ar1 5a;ra an# Ragi o Pulses: ?ur [(rhar]1 :ra#1 +oong1 +asur1 Peas1 Gra o 9ilsee#s: +ustar#1 Coconut1 Groun#nut1 Coconut1 Sunflo3er1 Soya0ean o 5everage: ?ea1 Coffee o "i0er Crops: Cotton1 <ute1 Ie p an# Natural Sil4 o Cash Crops: Sugarcane1 Ru00er1 ?o0acco1 Spices 9peration "loo#: -t eans sharp rise in the pro#uction of il42 -t is also calle# as $hite Revolution2 Important 0eat*res an- Characteristics of In-ian !gric*lt*re aA 0A cA #A eA fA gA -n#ian agriculture is su0sistence in nature2 -t eans pro#uce is consu e# 0y the far er itself2 (griculture is #epen#ent on onsoon rain2 9nly 1N& r# net so3n is un#er irrigation2 Consu ption of che ical fertili=er1 IJH see#s1 pestici#e etc is very lo32 Si=e of agriculture fiel#s is very s all2 +achines an# o#ern far i ple ents are use# only in s all area2 "oo# crops [rice1 3heat] are ore i portant than co ercial crops2 ?here are poor 0an4ing an# insurance facility availa0le to the far ers2

!gric*lt*ral Seasons [Cropping Pattern] !gric*lt*ral Seasons Kharif Ra0i Bai# PerioRainy [<un C 9ct] $inter [Nov C (pr] Su er [+ay C <un] Important Crops Rice1 +ai=e1 Cotton1 Groun#nut1 +oong $heat1 5arley1 Gra 1 9ilsee#s $ater elon1 Cucu 0ers1 Hegeta0les

Difference )et:een S*)sistence 0arming an- Commercial 0arming S*)sistence 0arming 12 Su0sistence far ing is #one for self consu ption not for ar4et2 !2 -t is #one 3here population pressure on the lan# is very high2 &2 Si=e of agricultural fiel#s is very s all2 %2 Consu ption of che ical see#s1 insectici#e etc is lo32 fertili=ers1 IJH *2 '2 12 !2 &2 %2 Commercial 0arming Co ercial far ing is #one for ar4et1 tra#e an# co erce2 -t is #one 3here population pressure on the lan# is lo32 (gricultural fiel#s are 0igger in si=e2 Consu ption of che ical fertili=ers1 IJH see#s1 pestici#es etc is high2 +o#ern achines e2g2 tractors1 harvesters1 co 0ine etc2 are use#2 $heat1 cotton1 sugarcane1 tea1 coffee are i portant crops2

*2 :se of achines an# o#ern far i ple ents are less2 '2 - portant crops are rice1 ;o3ar1 0a;ra etc2 Plantation !gric*lt*re

-t is a type of co ercial agriculture 3hich nee# huge invest ent of oney2 -t is single crop far ing practice# on large lan#2 Plantation agriculture 3as starte# 0y 5ritish in -n#ia2 Generally it is #one in hilly an# sloppy area 3here rainfall is high an# 3ater can #rain easily2 Ieavy #ose of fertili=ers1 pestici#es etc are reDuire#2 ,fficient an# fast transport an# co unication help this far ing to connect 3ith ar4et2 - portant crops are tea1 coffee1 0anana1 spices1 ru00er etc2

"echnological an- Instit*tional #eforms

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: = (gricultural in -n#ia is thousan#s of year ol#2 -t is su0sistence in nature 0ecause far ers consu e ost of the pro#uce 0y the selves2 5ut 0ecause of use of o#ern technology an# institutional refor -n#ian agriculture is 0eco ing co ercial2 Green Revolution [Crops] an# $hite Revolution [+il4 C 9peration "loo#] is the result of these t3o refor s2 ?echnological Refor s: aA $oo#en plough 3as replace# 3ith tractors an# tillers2 0A Drip irrigation an# sprin4lers are no3 use# for irrigation 3hich irrigates ore area in less 3ater2 cA :se of che ical an# 0io fertili=ers have increase anifol#2 IJH See#s1 pestici#e1 insectici#es are also use# ore2 #A 5iotechnology has #evelope# uch genetically i prove# variety of see# 3hich are resistant to #rought an# pest2 ?hey give ore pro#uction also2 eA "ar ers are no3 using ?H1 Ra#io1 Ne3spapers an# Cell Phone to 4no3 a0out 3eather con#ition an# accor#ing they plan agricultural activities2 -nstitutional Refor s: aA Ba in#ari syste 3as a0olishe# 0y the Govern ent of -n#ia2 0A S all fiel#s 3ere consoli#ate# to a4e large fiel#s2 cA (griculture 3as the ain focus in the first "ive Jears Plan2 #A Kissan Cre#it Car# [KCC]1 Personal (cci#ent -nsurance Sche e [P(-S] 3as starte# 0y Govt2 to help the -n#ian far ers2 eA Govt2 also announces +ini u Support Price an# has a0olishe# the role of i##le an in the ar4et2 Difference )et:een Drylan- an- 5etlan- 0arming Drylan- 0arming 12 -t is practice# in lo3 rainfall area 3here irrigation facilities are not availa0le2 !2 +ore e phasis is #one on conservation of soil oisture2 &2 ?his agriculture faces the pro0le of #rought2 %2 <o3ar1 5a;ra an# Pulses are gro3n in this agriculture2 5etlan- 0arming 12 -t is practice# in high rainfall an# 3ell irrigate# area2 !2 -t is practice# in north1 north@east an# so e part of $estern Ghat2 &2 ?his agriculture faces the pro0le s of floo#2 %2 - portant crops of this far ing are rice1 ;ute an# sugarcane2

Difference )et:een S*)sistence an- Commercial !gric*lt*re S*)sistence !gric*lt*re 12 (griculture is #one only for self consu ption2 !2 +ore i portance is given to foo# crops li4e rice1 3heat1 ai=e1 <o3ar an# 5a;ra2 &2 +ost of the 3or4s are #one anually2 Iu an la0our is use# ore2 %2 Si=e of the fiel# is very s all an# they are scattere#2 *2 -nvest ent of capital for IJH see#s1 fertili=ers1 insectici#es etc2 is very lo32 Contri)*tion of !gric*lt*re to National Economy aA (griculture is the 0ac40one of -n#ian ,cono y2 (0out '&G people are #irectly #epen#ent on agriculture for their livelihoo#2 0A (0out %0G of national inco e co es for agricultural sector alone2 cA (griculture also provi#es ra3 aterials to any in#ustries e2g2 sugar1 te8tile1 foo# an# 0everage in#ustries2 #A -t also has ensure# foo# security2 "C- procure crops at ini u support price to stoc42 -t also #istri0ute a ong people un#er PDS [Pu0lic Distri0ution Syste ]2 eA -n#ia e8port 3heat1 sugar1 fruits1 tea to foreign countries an# earn foreign e8change2 fA (griculture also 0rings happy1 prosperity an# #evelop ent in rural econo y2 0oo- Sec*rity an- (etho-s of Ens*ring 0oo- Sec*rity Commercial !gric*lt*re 12 (griculture is #one for tra#e an# co erce2 !2 +ore i portance is given to cash crops li4e tea1 coffee1 spices1 sugarcane an# cotton2 &2 +o#ern achines are use# in various activities of agriculture2 %2 -t is #one on large si=e fiel#s2 *2 ?here is huge capital invest ent on achinery1 fertili=ers1 la0ours etc2

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: 1> "oo# Security: "oo# is the 0asic reDuire ent of all the people in the country2 5ut any people are not a0le to get sufficient eals at least t3o ti es in a #ay2 During natural #isaster li4e earthDua4e1 floo#1 #rought there is shortage of foo# all over the country2 "oo# security is a etho# to ensure at least ini u Duantity of foo# for all the people roun# the year2 "oo# Corporation of -n#ia ["C-] procure foo#grains at +ini u Support Price an# aintain foo# security 0y t3o 3ays: aA 5uffer Stoc4 an# 0A Pu0lic Distri0ution Syste [PDS]2 +etho#s of ,nsuring "oo# Security in -n#ia aA +ore area shoul# 0e 0rought un#er cultivation of foo#grains li4e rice1 3heat1 pulses an# oil see#s2 0A IJH See#s shoul# 0e use# 3hich gives ore pro#uction per hectare of lan#2 cA 5iotechnology can 0e use# to o#ify genetics of see# so that it can resist #rought1 floo# an# #iseases an# give ore pro#uction2 #A +ore ultipurpose pro;ects shoul# 0e un#erta4en to i prove agriculture2 eA +o#ern achines an# tools shoul# 0e use# in agriculture li4e tractor1 harvester1 sprin4lers etc2 fA "ar er shoul# 0e given 0an4ing an# insurance facilities2 gA (ll for s of soil erosion shoul# 0e chec4e# an# soil shoul# 0e conserve#2 Glo)ali?ation an- Its impact on In-ian !gric*lt*re +eaning: -ntegrating the national econo y 3ith the econo y of other countries of the 3orl# is calle# glo0ali=ation2 -t has a#e cross@0or#er flo3 of oney1 technology an# people very easy2 Positive - pact of Glo0ali=ation aA -n#ian far ers 3ill have access to internal ar4et2 ?hey can sell their pro#uce at international prices2 0A Capital invest ent fro foreign countries 3ill #evelop the -n#ian agriculture2 cA Glo0ali=ation 3ill 0ring co petitiveness a ong far ers 3hich 3ill lea# to co erciali=ation of -n#ian agriculture2 #A -n#ian far ers can also use o#ern technology an# achineries 3hich are no3 use# only in foreign countries2 eA Glo0ali=ation 3ill also help in 0iotechnology an# genetic engineering in -n#ia2 Negative - pact of Glo0ali=ation aA +ultinational Co panies [+NCs] of #evelope# countries 3ill e8ploit our far ers as -n#ian far ers are poor an# illiterate2 0A S all far ers of -n#ia cannot co pete 3ith far ers of #evelope# nations2 cA -n#ian far ers ay not get the international 0uyers as Duality of our crops is not as per the international stan#ar#2 #A Due to glo0ali=ation1 -n#ian far ers 3ill try to gro3 ore cash crops an# there 3ill 0e shortage of foo# in our country2 C !P"E# 6: (INE#!'S !ND ENE#G@ #ES$%#CES Important "erms to #emem)er ( roc4 having high content of a particular ineral is calle# as ore2 Coal1 petroleu 1 natural gas are calle# as fossil fuel2 +anganese is use# for a4ing iron@steel1 alloys1 0leaching po3#er1 insectici#es1 paints an# 0atteries2 (lu iniu is e8tracte# fro ineral calle# 0au8ite2 /ignite coal is ine# fro Neyvali in ?a il Na#u2 Solar energy is pro#ucing using photo@voltaic cell 3hich a#e of silicon2 :raniu an# thoriu are use# to pro#uce nuclear or ato ic energy2 Copper is goo# con#uctor of electricity2 -t is use# for a4ing utensils1 electric 3ires1 utensils an# alloys2 Copper is foun# in <har4han# [Sing0hu ] an# Ra;asthan [Khetri]2 /ea# is use# in ca0le covers1 a unition1 paints1 glass an# ru00er a4ing2 (lu inu is o0taine# fro 0au8ite2 (lu inu is use# in anufacturing of aeroplane1 utensils1 house@hol# ite s1 3ires etc2 +ica can 3ithstan# very high te perature2 -t is resistant to high voltage2 -t is 0a# con#uctor of electricity2 -t is use# in electrical an# electronic in#ustries2 +ica is foun# in <har4han# [Ia=ari0ag1 Ko#ar a1 Gaya]2 /i estone is use# in a4ing ce ent an# s elting iron ore in the 0last furnace2 ?her al electricity is pro#uce# fro fossil fuel li4e coal1 petroleu an# gas2

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: 11 Nuclear or ato ic energy is o0taine# fro uraniu an# thoriu 2 ?hese inerals are foun# in <har4han#1 Ra;asthan an# Kerala2 ,lectricity fro sunlight is pro#uce# using photovoltaic cells2 /argest solar plant in -n#ia is locate# in +a#hapur [Gu;urat]2 /argest 3in# far cluster in -n#ia is locate# in ?a il Na#u fro Nagarcoil to +a#urai2 5iogas is pro#uce# fro shru0s1 far 3aste1 ani al an# hu an 3aste2 -t is 0etter then co3#ung an# charcoal2 Go0ar Gas Plants are no3 0eing installe# in rural areas of our country2 Gulf of Kuchchh has i#eal con#ition for pro#ucing ti#al energy2 Ieat of the earth7s interior is use# to pro#uce geother al energy2 Iot 3ater co ing fro #epth [geysers] pro#uce# stea 3hich runs ter0ines to generate electricity2 Geother al energy is pro#uce# fro +ani4arn in Ii achal Pra#esh an# Puga Halley in /a#a4h2 Ia=ira@5i;aipur@<ag#ishpur [I5<] Pipeline is longest in -n#ia [1.00 4 ]2 Nuclear Po3er Plants in -n#ia: 12 Naraura [:P] %2 ?arapur [+aharastra] !2 Ra3at 5hata [Ra;asthan] *2 Kaiga [Karnata4a] &2 :4ai [Gu;arat] '2 Kalpa44a [?a il Na#u] (ineral an- Its Classification +eaning: +inerals are natural su0stance 3hich has certain physical an# che ical properties li4e colour1 har#ness1 te8ture1 crystals etc2 +inerals are very i portant as ost of the things 3e use in our lives are a#e of one or other inerals2 +inerals are ine# fro earth surface2 ?here are a0out !000 types of inerals i#entifie# so far 0ut fe3 of the are very i portant li4e iron1 cooper1 ineral oil1 0au8ite etc2 +inerals can 0e classifie# as un#er: 1] +etallic +inerals: +etals are o0taine# fro the 2 aA "errous [Contain -ron]: -ron 9re1 +anganese1 Nic4el1 Co0alt 0A Non@"errous [No -ron]: Copper1 /ea#1 ?in1 5au8ite cA Precious [Costly]: Gol#1 Silver1 Platinu !] Non@+etallic +inerals: +etals are not o0taine# fro the 2 +ica1 Salt1 Potash1 /i estone1 +ar0le1 San#stone &] ,nergy +inerals: ?hese inerals provi#e us energy2 Coal1 Petroleu an# Natural Gas (o-e of $cc*rrence [5here are minerals fo*n-8] +inerals are foun# in the earth surface [crust]2 ?hey are e8tracte# 0y ining activities2 +inerals ta4e illions of year to for L therefore they are calle# as non@rene3a0le resource2 hA -n the veins an# lo#es of igneous roc4 an# eta orphic roc4 i portant etallic inerals are foun# li4e cooper1 =inc1 tin1 lea# etc2 iA ,nergy inerals such as coal1 petroleu an# natural gas are foun# in the 0e#s an# layers of se#i entary roc4s2 ;A (lluvial #eposits [also calle# as placer #eposits] contain very precious inerals li4e gol#1 silver1 tin1 platinu etc2 4A 9cean 3ater also contains any inerals li4e salt1 agnesiu 1 0ro i#e etc2 lA $eathere# aterials of the roc4s contain 0au8ite [alu inu ]2 Iron $re/ Its "ypes an- Distri)*tion -t is a ferrous ineral an# 0ac40one of any econo y2 -n#ustrial #evelop ent of any country #epen#s on availa0ility of iron ore2 -ron is use# in a4ing fro nee#le to 0ig ship2 -n#ia is rich in goo# Duality of iron ore2 ?here are four types of iron ore2 aA +agnetite [Contains .0@)0G -ron C 5est Ouality] 0A Ie atite [Contains *0@'0G -ron] cA Si#erite #A /i onite -ron ore foun# in the peninsular plateau of -n#ia2 aA 9rissa@<har4han# 5elt: -ron ore is ine# fro +ayur0han;1 Ken#u;har1 Sing0hu 1 Gua an# Noa un#i Districts2 0A Durg@5astar@Chan#rapur 5elt: Goo# Duality he atite ore are foun# fro 5astar an# Durg #istricts2 -ron ore is e8porte# to <apan an# Korea2

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: 1+ cA 5ellary@Chtra#urga@Chi4 aglur 5elt: ?his 0elt is in Karnata4a2 -ron ore ine# fro Ku#re u4h [/argest #eposit in the 3orl#]2 9re is e8porte# to :S( an# ,urope2 #A +aharastra@Goa 5elt: Goa an# Ratnagiri are i portant ining place of iron ore2 Coal/ Its "ypes an- Distri)*tion Coal is a type of fossil fuel an# the ost i portant source of energy in our country2 Coal is for e# 0y 0urial of plants an# ani als in the roc4s for illion of years2 Coal is use# for generating ther al electricity an# for s elting iron ore2 Coal in -n#ia is foun# ainly in Gon#3ana Roc4s series of river Da o#ar1 +ahana#i1 Go#a3ari etc2 ?here are four types of coal as per car0on content2 aA (nthracite [5est Ouality] 0A 5itu inous [+ainly foun# in -n#ia] cA /ignite [/o3 gra#e coal foun# in Neyveli1 ?a il Na#u] #A Peat Gon#3ana coal is foun# in $est 5engal an# <har4han#2 - portant ining centres are Ranigan;1 <haria1 Dhan0a#1 5o4aro2 River valleys of Da o#ar1 +ahana#i1 Son1 $ar#ha have any ining centres2 ?ertiary coal [ne3 coal] is foun# in north@eastern part of the country li4e (ssa 1 Nagalan#1 (runachal Pra#esh2 Difference )et:een Con,entional an- NonACon,entional Energy So*rces Con,entional So*rce 12 ?hese energy sources are 0eing use# since a long ti e1 hence they are calle# conventional source2 !2 $oo#1 coal1 petroleu an# gas are conventional sources of energy2 &2 ?hese sources are non@rene3a0le2 ?hey 3ill finish one #ay2 %2 :se of these sources pollutes the enrol ents2 ?hey are not eco@frien#ly2 Difference )et:een (etallic an- NonA(etallic (inerals (etallic (inerals 12 ?hese inerals are elte# to o0tain etals2 +etals can 0e 0eaten into sheet or 3ire2 !2 -ron1 copper1 0au8ite1 anganese are e8a ple of etallic inerals2 &2 ?hese inerals are generally foun# in igneous an# eta orphic roc4s2 %2 ?hese inerals are use# in etallurgical in#ustries2 *2 ?hey are har#1 #uctile an# allea0le2 '2 $hen hit1 they are not 0ro4en2 NonA(etallic (inerals 12 ?hese inerals #o not contain etals2 Sheet an# 3ire can 0e a#e fro the 2 !2 San#stone1 li estone1 ar0le etc2 are e8a ple2 &2 ?hese inerals are generally foun# in se#i entary roc4s2 %2 ?hese inerals are use# generally in construction an# 0uil#ing2 *2 ?hey are not so har# an# #o not shine2 '2 $hen hit1 they 0rea4 into pieces2 NonACon,entional So*rce 12 ?hese sources are ne3 an# o#ern1 therefore calle# as non@conventional source2 !2 $in#1 ti#es1 solar1 0iogas are non@ conventional sources of energy2 &2 ?hese sources rene3a0le an# can 0e use# for longer perio#2 %2 ?hey are eco@frien#ly an# clean sources of energy2

Difference )et:een Commercial an- NonACommercial Energy Commercial Energy 12 Co ercial energy has great econo ic values2 !2 ?his energy pollutes the environ ent 0a#ly2 &2 Co ercial energy sources are li ite# in the nature2 %2 -t is use# ainly in the to3ns an# cities2 *2 Coal1 petroleu 1 gas1 nuclear energies are its e8a ples2 Nee- for Conser,ation of (inerals aA +inerals shoul# 0e conserve# 0ecause they are li ite# in nature2 0A +inerals are also not foun# at every place2 ?hey occur at certain place only2 cA +ost of the inerals are non@rene3a0le an# finish one #ay2 NonACommercial Energy 12 Non@co ercial energy sources are cheaper2 !2 ?hey are pure an# 4eep the environ ent clean2 &2 ?hey are a0un#ant [unli ite#] in nature2 %2 -t is ainly use# in rural areas2 *2 Co3#ung1 charcoal1 fire3oo#1 agricultural 3aste are its e8a ple2

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: 1. #A :se of ineral pro#uces 3aste an# pollute environ ent2 +ineral shoul# 0e conserve to a4e the environ ent clean2 eA +inerals shoul# 0e conserve# for sustaina0le #evelop ent2 (eas*rement [(etho-s] for Conser,ation of (inerals aA <u#icious use of our ineral resources2 -t eans isuse an# overuse of inerals shoul# 0e avoi#e#2 0A Pu0lic transport syste [5us1 ?rain1 +etro ?rain etc] shoul# 0e use# instea# of personal transport li4e car an# 0i4e2 cA S3itching off electricity 3hen it is not in use2 #A Po3er saving #evices shoul# 0e use#2 +o#ern technology 3hich consu e less energy an# give ore output shoul# 0e a#opte# [li4e C"/ 5ul0]2 eA Non@conventional sources of energy li4e solar1 3in#1 ti#al1 geother al energy shoul# 0e use# in the place of coal1 petroleu an# gas2 C !P"E# 9: (!N%0!C"%#ING IND%S"#IES Important "erms +anufacturing: Processing of ra3 aterial to a4e another valua0le pro#uct in large Duantity is calle# as anufacturing2 /ight -n#ustries: -n#ustries 3hich uses light ra3 aterial an# pro#uces light goo#s are calle# as light in#ustries e2g2 electric fans1 0ul01 0utton1 toys etc2 -ntegrate# Steel Plants: -t is a large steel plant 3hich han#le everything un#er one co ple8 C fro s elting1 rolling an# shaping of steel2 ,8 C Durgapur1 5o4aro1 <a she#pur etc2

#emem)er "hese 0acts "irst ce ent plant 3as set in the year 1>0% in Chennai2 Che ical in#ustry pro#uces fertili=ers1 synthetic fi0ers1 plastic1 a#hesive1 paints1 #ye1 glass1 soap1 aci#s1 #etergents etc2 S elting of 0au8ite to pro#uce alu iniu nee#s very high electricity [1)1'00 K3h for one ton of ore]2 ?herefore1 alu iniu s elting plants are locate# near the source of hy#roelectricity2 -? -n#ustry an# ,lectronic -n#ustry inclu#es anufacturing of television1 telephone1 o0iles1 co puters1 -C1 ra#ars etc2 5angalore is calle# ,lectronic Capital of -n#ia2 -t is also calle# as Silicon Halley of -n#ia2 Sugar in#ustry is locate# in the sugarcane pro#ucing area 0ecause sugarcane is a perisha0le ite 2 -t cannot 0e transport for longer #istance an# ti e2 "irst Cotton +ill 3as starte# in 1)*% in +u 0ai2 "our fa ous variety of -n#ian sil4 are: aA ul0erry1 0A tasar1 cA eri an# #A uga2 "our 3ell 4no3n synthetic fi0ers are: aA rayon1 0A nylon1 cA terelene an# #A #ecron2 ?hree types of fertili=ers anufacture# in -n#ia are: aA :rea1 0A Phosphatic "ertilisers1 cA ( oniu Phosphate [D(P]2

Importance of (an*fact*ring In-*stries aA +anufacturing in#ustries are the 0ac40one of our econo y2 ,cono ic strength of any country #epen#s on anufacturing in#ustries2 0A +anufacturing in#ustries help in o#erni=ation of agriculture2 ?ractor1 harvester1 thresher1 irrigation pipes1 sprin4lers1 fertili=ers etc are a#e in these in#ustries2 cA -t is a great source of e ploy ent2 +illions of people are #irectly engage# in anufacturing2 ?hese in#ustries also help in era#icating une ploy ent an# poverty2 #A ,8port of anufacture# ite s help tra#e an# co erce an# our country earn foreign e8change2 eA +anufacturing eet the 0asic nee# of the people i2e2 foo#1 cloth an# shelter2 fA Iighest contri0ution to our national econo y co es fro anufacturing in#ustries2 -t 0rings prosperity1 social an# econo ic #evelop ent2 "ypes or Classification of (an*fact*ring In-*stries !] $n the )asis of #a: (aterials [Inp*t] 12 (gro 5ase#: ?hose in#ustries 3here ra3 aterials co e fro agriculture1 e2g2 Cotton1 $ollen1 <ute1 Sil4 ?e8tiles1 Sugar1 ?ea1 ,#i0le 9il !2 +ineral 5ase#: ?hose in#ustries 3here inerals are use# as ra3 aterials1 e2g2 -ron M Steel1 Ce ent1 (lu inu 1 +achine ?ools etc2

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: 14 2] $n the )asis of their (ain #ole 12 5asic -n#ustries: ?hose in#ustries 3hich provi#e ra3 aterial to other in#ustries are calle# 0asic in#ustries2 ?hese in#ustries help the #evelop ent of other in#ustries1 e2g2 -ron an# Steel1 Copper an# (lu iniu S elting !2 Consu er -n#ustries: ?hose in#ustries 3hich pro#uce goo#s for consu ers are calle# consu er in#ustries2 "inishe# goo#s of these in#ustries are #irectly sol# in the ar4et for consu ers1 e2g2 Sugar1 ?oothpaste1 Soap1 5rea#1 Paper etc2 C] $n the )asis of Capital In,estment 12 S all Scale -n#ustries: ?hose in#ustries 3here invest ent of capital in less than rupees one crore is calle# as s all scale in#ustries1 e2g2 +at1 "urniture1 ?oys1 5rea#1 ?ools etc2 !2 /arge Scale -n#ustries: ?hose in#ustries 3here invest ent of capital is ore than rupees one crore is calle# as large scale in#ustries1 e2g2 -ron M Steel1 Petroche icals1 Cotton ?e8tiles etc2 D] $n the )asis of $:nership 12 Pu0lic Sector: ?hese in#ustries are o3ne#1 operate# an# aintaine# 0y Govt2 e2g2 5I,/1 S(-/1 --SC9 !2 Private Sector: ?hese in#ustries are o3ne#1 operate# an# aintaine# 0y in#ivi#ual or group of in#ivi#uals1 e2g2 ?-SC91 5a;a; (uto /t#2 Da0ar -n#ia2 &2 <oint Sector: ?hese in#ustries are ;ointly run 0y Govt2 an# group of in#ivi#uals2 -t is i8ture of pu0lic an# private sector1 e2g2 9il -n#ia /t#2 [9-/]2 %2 Cooperative Sector: ?hese in#ustries are o3ne#1 operate# an# aintaine# 0y supplier of ra3 aterials an# 3or4ers of the in#ustries1 e2g2 Sugar in#ustries in +aharastra1 Coir in#ustries in Kerala2 E] $n the )asis of 0inishe- Goo-s [$*tp*t] 12 Ieavy -n#ustries: ?hose in#ustries 3hich use heavy an# 0ul4y ra3 aterials an# pro#uce# heavy goo#s in large Duantity are calle# heavy in#ustries1 e2g2 -ron an# Steel1 Copper S elting2 !2 /ight -n#ustries: ?hose in#ustries 3hich use light an# s all ra3 aterials an# pro#uce# light goo#s are calle# light in#ustries1 e2g2 ,lectrical1 ?oys1 ?ools1 :tensils etc2 5hich factors affect the location of an in-*stry8 -n#ustries are not foun# every3here2 ?hey are locate# at certain places only 3here they get favoura0le con#ition2 /ocation of an in#ustry is governe# 0y ainly 0y the follo3ing t3o factors2 12 Ra3 +aterials !2 Source of ,nergy &2 Source of $ater %2 (vaila0ility of Capital an# "inance Cotton "eBtile In-*stry an- Its Pro)lems -t is an agro@0ase# an# the ol#est in#ustry in -n#ia2 "irst cotton ill 3as esta0lishe# in 1)*% in +u 0ai2 (t present1 it the largest in#ustry in our country2 ?here are a0out 1'00 cotton te8tile ills in our country2 Cotton te8tile ills are ainly concentrate# in +aharastra an# Gu;arat #ue to favoura0le con#itions2 - portant centres are +u 0ai1 Pune1 (h e#a0a#1 Suar1 Ra;4ot etc2 9ther centres are (gra1 Kanpur1 Iugli1 Chennai1 +a#urai etc2 Cotton te8tile is pro#uce# 0y three etho#s in -n#ia: aA Ian#loo 1 0A Po3er@loo s an# cA +ills Cotton te8tile in#ustry involves ginning1 spinning1 3eaving1 #yeing1 #esigning1 tailoring an# pac4aging to pro#uce rea#y a#e gar ents2 -n#ia e8port yarn an# rea#y a#e gar ents to :S(1 <apan1 :K1 "rance1 Nepal1 Sri /an4a etc2 Cotton te8tile in#ustries are facing any pro0le s such as: aA scarcity of goo# Duality cotton1 0A ain cotton gro3ing area 3ent to Pa4istan1 cA ol# achinery1 #A erratic po3er supply1 eA lo3 pro#uctivity of la0our1 fA tough co petition fro synthetic fi0ers2 *2 De an# in +ar4et '2 S4ille# /a0ourers an# $or4ers .2 5an4ing an# -nsurance )2 ?ransport an# Co unication

Iron 1 Steel In-*stry an- Its Pro)lems

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science]

Page No: 16

?his in#ustry is calle# as 0asic in#ustry 0ecause it provi#e ra3 aterial to any other in#ustries such as achine an tools1 transport eDuip ent1 construction aterial etc2 -t is also calle# as heavy in#ustry 0ecause ra3 aterials [iron ore1 coal1 li estone] are 0ul4y in nature2 -ron ore i8e# 3ith li estone is s elte# in the 0last furnace using co4ing coal to pro#uce pig iron2 ?he ratio of iron ore1 li estone an# co4ing coal use# in %:!:12 Pig iron is i8e# 3ith anganese1 chro iu an# nic4el 3hich a4e it ore stronger steel2 +ost of the steel plants are locate# in Chotanagpur region #ue to its favoura0le con#itions2 (t present there are 10 integrate# iron an# steel plants an# any s all an# ini plants2 - portant integrate# steel plants are <a she#pur1 Durgapur1 5o4aro1 5hilai1 5urnpur etc2 -n#ia pro#uces a0out && illion tons of steel every year even though per capita consu ption of steel is very lo3 i2e2 &! 4g2 -t is lo3 0ecause -n#ia has lo3 econo ic an# in#ustrial #evelop ent2 ?o#ay steel in#ustries in -n#ia are facing any pro0le s: aA Iigh cost of pro#uction1 0A /i ite# availa0ility of co4ing coal1 cA /o3 pro#uctivity of la0our1 #A -rregular supply of energy1 eA Ra3 aterials are foun# in a certain poc4et of -n#ia only1 fA Poor infrastructure li4e transport an# co unication etc2

C*te In-*stries an- Its Pro)lems -n#ia is largest pro#ucer of ra3 ;ute an# ;ute goo#s2 ?here are a0out .0 ;ute ills in our country2 "irst ;ute ill 3as setup in Rishra [Kol4ata] in 1)*>2 +ost of the ;ute ills are locate# along Iugli River in $est 5engal #ue to favoura0le con#ition2 <ute is use# in a4ing rope1 0ags1 carpets etc2 5ihar1 :P1 (ssa an# ?ripura also have ;ute iils2 <ute in#ustries are facing pro0le s li4e: aA ain ;ute pro#ucing area 3ent to 5angla#esh1 0A high pro#uction cost1 cA #eclining #e an# of ;ute in international ar4et1 #A tough co petition fro synthetic fi0er in#ustry2

5hy cotton in-*stries are mainly concentrate- in (aharastra an- G*7arat8 Cotton te8tile in#ustries are locate# ainly in +aharastra [aroun# +u 0ai] an# Gu;arat [aroun# (h e#a0a#] 0ecause of the follo3ing reasons2 aA Ra3 +aterials: ?hese areas have easy access to ra3 aterial i2e2 cotton2 +aharastra an# Gu;arat are the largest pro#ucer of cotton in -n#ia2 0A "avoura0le Cli ate: Iu i# cli ate is reDuire# for cotton te8tile2 +aharastra an# Gu;arat have hu i# cli ate as they are locate# near to (ra0ian Sea2 ?his cli ate is also goo# for cultivation of cotton2 cA (vaila0ility of Capital: +u 0ai is the financial capital of our country2 -t provi#es finance an# capital to cotton te8tile2 #A /a0our: +aharastra an# Gu;arat are heavily populate# area2 Cheap la0ours are availa0le in this region2 eA ?ransport an# Co unication: +u 0ai1 (h e#a0a#1 Surat1 Pune etc are 3ell connecte# 0y roa# an# rail 3ith other part of the country2 +u 0ai port is use# to e8port rea#y a#e gar ents to ,uropean Countries2 5hy iron an- steel in-*stries are locate- mainly in Chotanagp*r #egion8 +ost of i portant integrate# steel plants are locate in Chotanagpur region i2e in <har4han#1 Chattisgarh1 9rrisa etc2 -t is 0ecause of the follo3ing reasons: aA Ra3 +aterial: Chotanagpur area is rich in iron ore2 -ron ore is e8tracte# fro Sing0hu 1 +ayur0han;1 Ken#u;har etc2 0A ,nergy: Coal is use# for s elting iron ore in the 0last furnace2 Coal is availa0le fro Ranigan;1 Dhan0a#1 <haria an# 5o4aro2 cA Cheap la0our: 5engal1 5ihar an# 9rissa have high #ensity of population2 ?herefore1 cheap la0our is availa0le in this region2 #A ?ransport: ?his region is 3ell connecte# 0y roa# an# rail3ay 3ith other parts of the country2 Nantional Iigh3ay !1 Delhi C Io3rah an# Io3rah C +u 0ai rail route passes through this region2 eA Capital: Kol4ata is a egacity 3hich provi#e capital1 0an4ing an# insurance facility2 C*te in-*stries are locate- mainly along ooghly #i,er. 5hy8 ?here are '> ;ute ills locate# in a ! 4 0roa# 0elt along Iooghly River2 ?his area provi#es con#itions reDuire# for this in#ustry2 aA Ra3 ;ute is availa0le for $est 5engal2 $est 5engal is the largest pro#ucer of ;ute2 0A Coal for energy is 0rought fro near0y Ranigan; Coalfiel#s2 cA Iooghly River provi#es 3ater for 3ashing an# cleaning ;ute2 any favoura0le

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] Page No: 19 #A $ar an# hu i# cli ate is very favoura0le for cultivation of ;ute an# ;ute in#ustry2 eA Kol4ata is a etro city 3hich provi#es capital an# ar4et2 fA Iooghly River also provi#es cheap 3ater transport2 S*gar in-*stry is shifting from northern to so*thern In-ia. 5hy8 ,arlier :P an# 5ihar 3ere the ain pro#ucer of sugarcane2 ?herefore1 ost of the sugar ills 3ere locate# in these t3o states only2 5ut no31 sugar ills are shifting to3ar#s +aharastra an# Karnata4a 0ecause of follo3ing reasons2 aA Per hectare pro#uction of sugarcane is higher in southern -n#ia2 5lac4 soil is Duite suita0le for cultivation of sugarcane2 0A Sucrose content in the sugarcane is higher in +aharastra an# Karnata4a2 -t eans ore sugar can 0e pro#uce# for less sugarcane2 cA +ills an# achines are ne3 in southern states2 Ne3 an# o#ern achines increase the pro#uctivity2 #A Crushing season for sugarcane is longer in southern states2 eA Cooperative sugar ills are running successfully in southern states2 In-*strial Poll*tion an- En,ironmental Degra-ation aA (ir pollution is cause# 0y the e ission of C9 !1 Car0on +ono8i#e1 Sulphur Dio8i#e etc2 Chi neys of the in#ustries pro#uce heat lea#ing to Glo0al $ar ing an# Green Iouse ,ffect2 :se of C"C in various in#ustrial pro#ucts #epletes o=one layer 3hich filters ultraviolet rays of the sun2 0A Du ping of organic an# inorganic in#ustrial 3aste into 3ater 0o#ies pollute the 3ater2 -n#ustries 3hich pro#uce paper1 pulp1 che ical1 leather1 aci#s1 #yes1 fertili=ers etc generate lots of to8ic 3aste 3hich 4ills the aDuatic life2 cA Iigh intensity soun# generate# 0y running achines1 siren1 #rilling1 fans etc lea#s to noise pollution2 -t causes irritation1 hearing i pair ent1 heart attac4 etc2 a ong the near0y people2 #A +ining activity to get ra3 aterial for in#ustries also #egra#e the environ ent2 /an# #egra#ation1 #eforestation1 soil erosion1 3ater logging etc2 of result of ining activities2 (eas*rement [(etho-s] for Controlling En,ironmental Poll*tion an- Degra-ation aA 0A cA #A -n#ustries shoul# 0e locate# 3ith careful planning an# 0etter #esign2 Ouantity of s o4e can 0e re#uce# 0y using oil instea# of coal2 Non@conventional sources of energy shoul# 0e use# instea# of fossil fuels2 +o#ern eDuip ent shoul# 0e use# 3hich controls1 filters an# separate har ful 3aste2 eA $aste 3ater shoul# 0e properly treate# 0efore #ischarging into rivers2 fA /an# filling etho# shoul# 0e a#opte# for #u ping of 3aste2 gA Polluting in#ustries shoul# 0e locate# a3ay fro to3n an# cities2 C !P"E# ;: 'I0E'INE $0 N!"I$N!' EC$N$(@ Important "erms ?ransport: +ove ent of people an# goo#s fro one place to another place is calle# transport2 +o#es of transport are: aA /an# [Roa#1 Rail1 Pipeline]1 0A $ater [-nlan#1 9ceanic] an# cA (ir [Do estic1 -nternational] Co unication: ?ransfer of i#ea1 essage1 an# infor ation fro one place to another place is calle# co unication2 +o#es of co unication are ?H1 ra#io1 cellphone1 ne3spaper1 aga=ines1 internet2 Co unication has t3o types: aA Print +e#ia [Ne3spaper1 +aga=ines] an# 0A ,lectronic +e#ia [?H1 Ra#io1 -nternet]2 Iar0our: -t is an area of sea 3hich provi#es safe entrance to ships2 -t also protects ships fro 3aves an# stor s2 Port: -t is a point on the coast 3hich provi#es facility of anchoring of ship2 -t also provi#e facilities li4e loa#ing an# unloa#ing1 0erth1 col# storage2 ( port is connecte# 3ith its hinterlan#2 Seaports help in international tra#e an# co erce2 Iinterlan#: -t is an area 3hich serves port for international tra#e2 "or e8a ple1 +aharastra1 + P1 Ra;asthan1 Pun;a01 Iaryana are hinterlan# for +u 0ai seaport2 Harious things pro#uce# in these states are e8porte# through +u 0ai port2 ,8press Iigh3ay: ?hese are ' lanes 0est Duality of roa#s2 ?hey have 0een constructe# to connect i portant cities of -n#ia an# to provi#e fast traffic fro one place to other place2

aterials fro

the

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] -nternational ?ra#e: ,8change of goo#s an# services 0et3een t3o or international tra#e2 #emem)er "hese 0acts

Page No: 1; ore countries is calle#

Gol#en Oua#rilateral roa# connect north 3ith south an# east 3ith 3est2 -t connects Delhi1 +u 0ai1 Chennai an# Kol4ata2 -t is ' lanes goo# Duality super e8press high3ay2 -t total length is *)%' 4 2 ,ast C $est Corri#or connects Silchar [(ssa ] 3ith Por0an#ar [Gu;urat]2 -t connects Gu3ahati1 Gora4hpur1 Kanpur1 <hansi an# Ra;4ot2 North C South Corri#or connects Srinagar [< M K] 3ith Kanya4u ari2 -t connects Delhi1 (gra1 Nagpur1 Iy#ra0a# an# 5angalore2 Density of roa# is lo3est in <a u an# Kash ir2 -t is only 10 4 for 100 sD2 4 2 area2 Density of roa# is lo3 in this state 0ecause this is a hilly state 3ith very lo3 populaton2 Iighest roa# #ensity is foun# in Kerala2 -t is a0out &.* 4 2 for 100 sD2 4 2 area2 /ongest pipeline in -n#ia is I@5@< Pipeline [Ia=ira@5i;apur@<ag##ishpur]2 -t is a0out 1.00 4 2 long2 -n#ian rail3ay is #ivi#e# into 1' rail3ay =ones2 NI C 1 connects Delhi an# ( ritsar2 NI C ! connects Delhi an# Kol4ata2 -t is also calle# as Gran# ?ruc4 Roa#2 NI C & connects +u 0ai an# (gra2 NI C . connects Haranasi an# Kanya4u ari2 -t is longest in -n#ia2

#oa- "ransport an- Its "ypes -n#ia has one of the largest roa# net3or4s in the 3orl#2 ?otal roa# length in -n#ia is a0out !2& illion 4 2 ?here are various types of roa# in -n#ia2 Gol#en Oua#rilateral: -t is a ' lane super high3ay2 ?his connects four ega cities of our country i2e Delhi1 +u 0ai1 Chennai an# Kol4ata2 ,ast@$est Corri#or connects Silchar [(ssa ] 3ith Por0an#ar [Gu;arat]2 North@South Corri#or connects Srinagar [< M K] 3ith Kanya4u ari [?a il Na#u]2 National Iigh3ays: ?hese roa#s are ost i portant in -n#ia2 National Iigh3ays are constructe# 0y CP$D2 - portant National Iigh3ays are NI@11 NI@!1 NI@. etc2 ?hese high3ays connects i portant cities1 rail3ays stations1 port1 ining areas1 capital to3ns etc2 State Iigh3ays: ?hese roa#s connect state capital 3ith #istrict hea#Duarters2 ?hey are constructe# 0y SP$D [State Pu0lic $or4 Dept2]2 District Roa#s: ?hese roa#s are foun# in rural areas2 ?hey connect #istrict hea#Duarter 3ith village an# 0loc4s2 9ther Roa#s: -t inclu#es village roa#s2 ?hey are ainly non@ etalle# roa#s2 +any roa#s have 0een constructe# un#er EPra#han +antri Gra een Sa#a4 Jo;anaF2 5or#er Roa#s: 5or#er Roa#s are constructe# 0y 5or#er Roa# 9rganisation [5R9]2 ?hese roa#s are constructe# along the 0or#ers 3hich are use# to connect isolate# parts 3ith ain country2 ?hese roa#s are very i portant fro strategic point of vie32

(erits or !-,antage of #oa-:ays aA 0A cA #A eA fA gA hA iA Construction an# aintenance of roa# is uch lo3er than rail3ays2 Roa#s can 0e constructe# on hills1 plateaus1 forests an# #esert also2 Roa# can negotiate high #egree of slope an# can ta4e sharp turns2 -t provi#es #oor@to@#oor service facilities2 Roa#s can 0e constructe# in the hills an# forest also2 -t is econo ical for fe3 passengers an# s all a ount of goo#s2 ?ransportation of perisha0le ite s e2g2 il41 fish1 vegeta0les are ore relia0le 0y roa#s2 Cost of loa#ing an# unloa#ing of goo#s is uch lo3er2 Roa# transport provi#e lin4 0et3een other o#e of transport such as rail1 airport1 seaport etc2

In-ian #ail:ay at a Glance -n#ian rail3ay is a0out 1*0 years ol#2 "irst rail 3as starte# in 1)*& 0et3een +u 0ai an# ?hane2 -t connects State Capital 3ith Capital of -n#ia2 -t also connects a;or to3ns an# cities1 tourist places1 ining centers1 seaports1 airports etc2 ?here are a0out ore than .1000 stations on '&1000 4 2 long rail3ay tract2 -n#ian rail3ay is #ivi#e# into 1' =ones for proper a# inistration2 Rail3ays in -n#ia have three gauge syste : aA 5roa# Gauge [12'.' ] 0A +eter Gauge [120 ]

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science]

Page No: 1< cA Narro3 Gauge [02.'! an# 02'10 ]2 ?here are various types of train running in -n#ia such as Ra;#hani1 Shata0#i1 +ail an# ,8press1 /ocal an# Special ?rains 3hich carry passengers2 (0out )0G of freight [goo#s] an# .0G of passenger traffic is carrie# 0y rail3ays2 Kon4an Rail3ays is 0uilt in $estern Ghat +ountain2 -t is an e8a ple of 0est rail3ay engineering in -n#ia2 -t has hun#re# of tunnels an# 0ri#ges2 ?here is ar4e# i prove ent in -n#ian rail3ays2 ?hey are: aA Co puterise# Reservation Syste 1 0A $aiting Roo "acilities on Stations1 cA Catering "acility1 #A ,lectrification of ?rac4s1 eA :ni@Gauge Syste [Conversion of all gauges into 0roa# gauge]1 fA Replace ent of Stea ,ngine 3ith ,lectric ,ngine1 gA Special ?rains li4e Ra;#hani1 Shata0#i1 <an Shata0#i1 Su er Special etc2

(erits or !-,antage of #ail:ays Goo# for transportation of 0ul4y an# heavy aterials -t is cheaper for transporting goo#s for longer #istances2 5est for transportation of ra3 aterials e2g2 iron ore1 anganese1 coal etc2 -t is fast o#e transportation2 /arge nu 0er of passengers can 0e transporte#2 Rail3ay provi#es various facilities such as night 0erth1 catering1 co puteri=e# reservation etc2

Pipelines in In-ia an- Its !-,antages Pipelines are use# to transport gas an# liDui# aterials such as ineral or refine# oil1 natural gas1 3ater or even il42 Soli# ite s can also 0e transporte# after a4ing it 6slurry72 Pipelines are foun# fro oil pro#ucing centers to oil refinery plants an# fro oil refinery plants to the ar4et [city]2 +inerals oil fro upper (ssa is transporte# to 5arauni an# (llaha0a# oil refinery through pipeline2 Pipeline fro Salaya to <alan#har via +athura an# Delhi is also very i portant pipeline2 ?he longest pipeline in -n#ia is I@5@< pipeline 3hich connect Ia=ia1 5i;apur an# <ag#ishpur2 -t is a0out 1.00 4 2 long2 (#vantage of Pipeline ?ransportation Pipeline is 0est for transportation of gas an# liDui# aterials e2g2 oil1 natural gas1 3ater an# il42 Construction of pipeline is cheaper than roa# an# rail3ays2 Pipeline can 0e constructe# in forest1 s3a py area1 hills an# #esert2 -t can also 0e lai# #o3n un#er river an# ocean 3ater2 Pipeline can ensure regular1 Duic4 an# on@#e an# supply of liDui# an# gaseous aterials2 Pipelines can 0e operate# at lo3 energy cost an# it #oes not pollute environ ent2

5ater "ransportation in In-ia $ater transportation is cheapest a ong all o#e of transportation 0ecause there is no nee# to construct any route2 ?hey are cheaper for transporting 0ul4y an# heavy ra3 aterials2 -n#ia has any perennial an# seasonal rivers 3hich offer transport facility2 -n#ia has a0out 1%1*00 4 long inlan# navigation 3ater3ays2 -n#ia also has long sea coast on 3hich there are any ports li4e +u 0ai1 Goa1 Kochhi1 Chennai1 Hisha4hapatna 1 Ial#ia etc2 -n#ia has three National $ater3ays: o National $ater3ays C 1 Ganga 1'!0 4 2 (llaha0a# C Ial#ia o National $ater3ays C ! 5rah aputra )>1 4 2 Sa#iya C Dhu0ri o National $ater3ays C & $est Coast Canal !0* 4 2 Kolla @ Kottapura ?here are so e pro0le s in using 3ater3ays li4e: aA Peninsular rivers are seasonal1 0A +any rivers a4e 3aterfalls in their course1 cA $ater transportation is slo3est a ong all transport o#es1 #A Construction of #a s an# 0arrage also 0loc4s 3ater3ays1 eA +any rivers flo3 in uninha0ite# area1 fA -n#ian coast are shallo3 an# 3e have less natural ports2

Disting*ish )et:een Ports on 5est an- East Coasts 5est Coast Ports 12 $est coast ports are locate# in the 3est East Coast Ports 12 ,ast coast ports are locate# in the east

Geography Notes for Class X [Social Science] along (ra0ian Sea2 !2 - portant 3est coast ports are +u 0ai1 +angalore1 +ar agao1 Cochin2 &2 Cotton1 spices1 coffee1 ru00er1 iron ore1 anganse etc are e8porte# to :S( an# ,uropean countries2 %2 +u 0ai is the largest port on 3est coast2 !ir:ays in In-ia an- Its !-,antages

Page No: 1= along 5ay of 5engal2 !2 - portant east coast ports are Kol4ata1 Hisha4hapatna 1 Chennai an# ?uticorin2 &2 Iinterlan# of these ports are rich in resources li4e iron ore1 0au8ite1 anganese1 ica2 %2 Kol4ata is the largest port on east coast2

-t is fastest an# ost co forta0le o#e of transport2 -t can cover long #istance 3ithin hours2 River1 hills1 forest1 oceans etc2 #o not co e in the 3ay of air transport2 (ir transport play very i portant role in rescue operation #uring natural #isasters li4e floo# an# earthDua4e2 -t also connects isolate# an# far a3ay places 3ith ain strea of the country2 -t is 0est for north@ eastern states an# <a u an# Kash ir2 -n -n#ia1 #o estic service is provi#e# 0y 6-n#ian (irlines72 -t covers a;or cities of -n#ia an# neigh0oring countries2 -nternational air transport service is provi#e# 0y 6(ir -n#ia72 Pa3anhans provi#es helicopter facility2 Private co panies li4e Sahara1 Kingfisher are also operating air transportation in -n#ia2 Pro0le s: aA (ir transport is very costly an# not suite# for co on people1 0A Construction of airport nee#s huge capital an# technology1 cA (irports cannot 0e constructe# every3here2

Difference )et:een Personal an- (ass Comm*nication Personal Comm*nication aA Personal co unication ta4es place 0et3een t3o people or a ong very fe3 people at a ti e2 0A +eans of personal co unication are letters1 postcar#s1 telephone1 o0ile1 telegra etc2 cA -t is han#le# ainly 0y -n#ian Postal Net3or4 an# telephone co panies2 In-ia "ra-e an- Its "ypes +eaning of ?ra#e: ,8change of goo#s an# services a ong people is calle# as tra#e2 -n other 3or#s1 0uying an# selling goo#s an# services is calle# tra#e2 ?he place 3here tra#e ta4es place is calle# as ar4et or tra#ing center2 ?ra#e ta4es place 0ecause all parts of 3orl# #o not have sa e resources an# they #o not pro#uce sa e co o#ity2 Iigher a ount of tra#e in#icate higher econo ic #evelop ent of a country2 5alance of Pay ent: ?he ratio 0et3een value of e8port an# i port is calle# 0alance of pay ent2 -f e8port is higher than i port1 it is calle# 6favoura0le 0alance of pay ent72 -f i port is higher than e8port1 it is calle# negative 0alance of pay ent2 ,8port fro -n#ia: Petroleu pro#ucts1 engineering goo#s1 ge s an# ;e3ellery1 co puter soft3are1 che ical pro#ucts an# agricultural pro#ucts are e8porte# 0y -n#ia to other countries2 - port to -n#ia: Petroleu 1 pearls an# precious stones1 coal1 inorganic che icals1 fertili=ers1 electronic consu er #ura0les are i porte# 0y -n#ia fro other countries2 (ass Comm*nication aA +ass Co unication ta4es place a ong any people at a ti e2 +any persons can interact 3ith each other2 0A +eans of ass co unication are ?H1 ra#io1 aga=ines1 ne3spapers1 internet1 fil s etc2 cA +ass co unication inclu#es print e#ia an# electronic e#ia2