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AN-001

Wiring Guidelines for RS-485 networks

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Wiring Guidelines for RS-485 networks


Application Note 001, aut or Radu !gret, we" www#"o"tec #ro

Overview
$ e RS-485 standard allows for %er& ro"ust co''unications o%er distances of up to 4000 feet on networks wired wit ine(pensi%e ca"le t&pes# $ is docu'ent ser%es as a guide to wiring RS485 controllers in RS485 )S*$+ networks# relati%el&

Operation
RS-485 networks use t e con%ention ,A-, and ,.-, to represent lines ,A, and ,.,, defined "& t e RS-485 standard, respecti%el&# $wo-wire RS-485 networks operate in alf-duple( 'ode on one twisted pair plus a ground wire# /ata 'a& onl& tra%el in one direction at a ti'e# All de%ices on t e network can "e trans'itters or recei%ers, "ut onl& one 'a& trans'it at an& gi%en ti'e# 0n t e sa'e network "us, t ere 'a& "e 'ultiple 'aster de%ices and 'ultiple sla%e de%ices# 1ac de%ice as a Device ID to identif& t e controller in t e sa'e seg'ent of t e network and a Network ID to identif& t e network seg'ent in t e network "us# /e%ice !/ and Network !/ are set "& t e user# 2sing t e )S*$+ co''unication protocol, controllers on t e network configure*reconfigure t e'sel%es auto'aticall& in t e network, so ot plugging*unplugging is allowed# All de%ices on t e sa'e network seg'ent recei%e an& trans'itted data# $ e de%ice for w ic t e data is intended responds if necessar&# 0n t e sa'e network seg'ent t ere can "e up to 34 controllers# 5or 'ore co'ple( networks, wit 'ore t an 34 controllers and 'ultiple network seg'ents, router de%ices are used to interconnect t e network seg'ents and allow for co'ple( configurations#

Network opolog!
A network seg'ent consists of 'ultiple controllers 6up to 347 connected wit a ca"le# 5or ro"ust data co''unications a dais! c"ain topolog! is reco''ended "etween controllers in t e sa'e seg'ent# $ e following diagra' s ows t e dais& c ain topolog&#

5ig# 1 8 /ais& c ain topolog&

5or co'ple( applications wit 'ore t an 34 de%ices, a router device is used to connect "etween different network seg'ents# Router de%ices can also link RS-485 networks wit ot er networks, like $9+*!+ o%er 1t ernet#

5ig# 4 8 9o'ple( RS485 network

Copyright 2011 Radu Igret. All rights reserved. www.bobtech.ro

Revision A [ 4011-10-43 ] page #

AN-001

Wiring Guidelines for RS-485 networks

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Dais! c"ain connection


!n practice, t e wiring of a dais& c ain topolog& is 'ost easil& i'ple'ented "& using t e )S*$+ connector on t e de%ice to link t e network to t e upstrea' and downstrea' nodes# $ is could lead to incorrect wiring, so care s ould "e taken to a%oid inad%ertentl& connecting t e network in a star configuration# All controllers use t e sa'e t&pe of connector for t e )S*$+ network, a two piece ter'inal "lock connector wit 3 positions# $ e connector pinout is s own in t e following drawing, as seen fro' a"o%e, wit t e wire screw input at t e "otto' side#

5ig# 3 8 )S*$+ ter'inal "lock connector pinout

RS-485 alwa&s re:uires at least $ conductors; 4 signal wires 6A- and .-7 and 1 signal return pat 6GN/7# !n case 'ulti pair twisted pair ca"le is used, one pair s all "e used for A- and .- signals 6"lue and w ite*"lue7 and one pair for GN/ 6orange - w ite*orange7# 2nused wires s ould "e ter'inated wit 100 o ' resistors to ground at "ot ends of t e ca"le# 9onnect t e A- wire fro' t e upstrea' de%ice into t e local A- connector and connect t e A- line for t e downstrea' de%ice into t e sa'e pin of t e connector# Repeat t is procedure for t e .8 line and GN/# See t e following diagra' for 'ore details;

5ig# 4 8 9orrect dais& c aining arrange'ent

$ e lengt of t e untwisted wires fro' a twisted pair t at links to t e ter'inal "lock connector, s ould "e kept as s ort as possi"le# $o wire t e connections, carefull& strip awa& a"out < inc of t e conductor insulation, twist tig t t e two striped wires toget er, insert t e' into t e correct ter'inal slot and t en fasten t e screw# $ e screws s ould ne%er "e o%er-tig tened as t e conductors 'a& t us "e da'aged# W en controllers s all "e interconnected wit t ird part& RS-485 de%ices or integrated in t ird part& )S*$+ networks, wit different signals na'ing con%entions, ,%&, is e:ui%alent to ,&,, ,'-, is e:ui%alent to ,(, and ,Ground,, ,r,, ,return, or ,, is e:ui%alent to ,GND,# 9are s ould "e taken to a%oid incorrectl& connecting t e 3-wire network# So'e t ird part& de%ices 'a& a%e different signal na'ing con%ention and also different pinout for t e )S$+ connector 6e#g#; = - - > instead of =A- .- GN/> 7# $ e following diagra' s ows t e correct wiring s&ste' according to t e 1!A-485 standard;

5ig# 5 8 =$ ree wire> wiring for t e RS-485 "us

Copyright 2011 Radu Igret. All rights reserved. www.bobtech.ro

Revision A [ 4011-10-43 ] page )

AN-001

Wiring Guidelines for RS-485 networks

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Grounding
Grounding is essential to relia"le operation of an& RS-485 network# 1!A-485 is a t ree-wire s&ste'# $ e t ird wire is re:uired so t at all nodes on t e "us, s are a co''on ground reference connection# $ is ground wire could "e a separate wire or a pair of t e twisted pair ca"le# !f s ielded twisted pair ca"le is used 6reco''ended7, t e s ield s all "e connected to eart ground onl& at one end# Reco''ended "us wiring is s own in t e following diagra';

5ig# ? 8 Reco''ended "us wiring

.lue and w ite*"lue conductors 'ust "e in t e sa'e twisted pair# $ e "lack ground wire could "e a separate wire or anot er twisted pair# +referred 'et od for wiring is a s ielded one pair ca"le wit and e(tra wire used specificall& for a ground wire# $ e ad%antage to using t is wiring 'et od 63 conductor ca"ling7 is &ou would reduce noise induced t roug ground potential differences# !f t e s ield is grounded in 'ore t an one point, a ground loop is created and leakage ground currents 'a& corrupt data co''unications# $ oug not reco''ended, t e s ield of t e twisted pair ca"le could "e used to i'ple'ent t e co''on ground wire 6GN/7#

er*ination and fail-safe +iasing


$ e interconnect 'edia for t e RS-485 is a trans'ission line, so reflections 'a& occur due to i'pedance discontinuit& t at a tra%eling wa%e sees as it propagates down t e line# $ is appens 'ostl& at t e end of t e ca"le# A reflection of sufficient 'agnitude and polarit& can result in data corruption and possi"le da'age to t e interface circuitr&# 5or t is reason, t e RS-485 "us 'ust "e ter'inated at "ot ends of t e ca"le# $ e ter'ination can "e a si'ple resistor or 'ore ela"orate circuit to pro%ide ot er functions# RS-485 is a 'ulti-drop "us, 'eaning t at 'ore de%ices can trans'it data, "ut not in t e sa'e ti'e# $ us, an idle line state 'a& occur, w en no de%ice is trans'itting, placing t e line in an unknown logic state# !n t is idle state, t e line could "e affected "& e(ternal noise t at could trigger false fra'e start conditions and affect t e o%erall data co''unication on t e "us# $ e idle line is e%en 'ore noise sensiti%e w en ter'inators are present# 9ontrollers 'a& i'ple'ent a fail-safe circuit to "ias t e line to a known state in case of idle line# .ot , t e ter'ination and fail-safe "ias circuits, are included on eac controller and can "e ena"led*disa"led "& @u'pers# $er'ination and fail-safe circuits can,t "e ena"led*disa"led indi%iduall&, "ut onl& toget er# 0nl& controllers at "ot ends of t e line s all a%e t e , ,, @u'pers set to ena"le t ose circuits# All t e ot er inter'ediate controllers on t e line s all a%e t e ,$1, @u'pers clear, t us t e ter'ination and fail-safe "ias circuits disa"led# $ e following diagra' s ows t e correct ena"ling of $1 @u'pers;

5ig# A 8 RS-485 "us ter'inated at "ot ends

Copyright 2011 Radu Igret. All rights reserved. www.bobtech.ro

Revision A [ 4011-10-43 ] page $

AN-001

Wiring Guidelines for RS-485 networks

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.ot controllers wit ter'ination ena"led 'ust "e powered on for t e fail-safe circuit to work# Bine 'ust "e ter'inated at "ot ends# !f one or "ot controllers wit ter'ination ena"led are powered off or onl& one end controller is ter'inated, 'a& lead to o%erall co''unication failure on t e RS-485 "us# $ is situation 'a& occur also if ter'ination is ena"led on inter'ediate de%ices on t e "us# $er'ination @u'pers 'ust "e disa+led for t ose inter*ediate nodes and ena+led onl& for t e two end nodes# $ is rule applies also to router de%ices connected on t e "us#

Network seg*ent lengt" in t"e dais! c"ain


)ini'u' ca"le lengt "etween ad@acent de%ices s all "e *ore t"an # ft and 'a(i'u' ca"le lengt for a network seg'ent s all not e-ceed 4... ft# $ is is re:uired in order to 'aintain signal integrit&, t us keeping t e guaranteed ig data co''unication rate#

5ig# 14 8 )ini'u' and 'a(i'u' lengt re:uire'ents for t e )S$+ dais& c ain

5or longer ca"le runs, two network seg'ents of up to 4000 ft eac , s all "e connected to a router de%ice#

Reco**ended ca+le para*eters

/a+le t!pe /onductor gauge Insulation S"ielded 0utual capacitance Ground capacitance

4 pairs C AWG 44 stranded foa'-pol&et &lene D1S, "raided E 80F co%erage G 40 p5*ft H 1 IJK G 30 p5*ft H 1 IJK

/"aracteristic i*pedance 100 L -140 L /onductor D/R S"ield D/R C 4? L * 1000 ft H 40M9 C 4#5 L * 1000 ft H 40M9

Copyright 2011 Radu Igret. All rights reserved. www.bobtech.ro

Revision A [ 4011-10-43 ] page 4