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# Scientific Method Observations:

## Modern Biology 1.3 Notes:

The Scientific Method is the organized approach that Science is organized by to learn how the natural world works. Observing is the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question; employs one or more of the 5 senses to perceive objects or events.

Measurements: Sampling:

Many observations involve quantity data. Scientists use several kinds of data measuring; for example the metric system is a form of measuring system. Scientific sampling is the technique of using a sample, that is, a small part to represent an entire population. Scientists take several samples of various sizes to account for an accurate representation.

## Organizing Data: Hypothesis: Prediction:

Data and measurements are useless until organized in a logical order; such as a graph, table or map etc. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation/ statement for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions; explanation of observations and can be tested. A prediction is a statement that forecasts what would happen in a test situation of the hypotheses were true. A prediction is recorded for each hypothesis.

Experiments:

## Used to test a hypotheses and its predictions

Control Group:

A control group provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group.

Experimental Group:

Identical to the control group except for one factor. (Independent variable)

Independent Variable:

## The one factor that is different for the experimental group.

Manipulated Variable:

## Dependant Variable(Responding Variable) Theory:

The variable the scientist observes or measures which is affected by the independent variable. When a set of related hypotheses is confirmed to be true many times.

Peer Review:

Scientists who are experts in the field anonymously read and critique a research paper.

Communicating:

Sharing work with other scientists, collaborating with other scientists because 2 heads are better than one

## What two principles make the scientific method a unique process?

1. Events in the natural world have natural causes. 2. Uniformity: the ideal that the fundamental laws of nature operate the same way at all places and at all times.

What are the parts of a controlled experiment? Why is "its just a theory" misleading?

Experimental group, control group and only ONE variable. Because scientists view a theory as highly tested and should be accepted as proven principles.

## What is the difference between a Scientific hypotheses and a scientific theory?

Hypotheses is the PROPOSED (unproven answer) to a question. Theory is one proven answer to a question.

## *Vocabulary for Chapter One Entirely *

Algae -autotrophic protists (5) Asexual reproduction -the production of offspring that does not involve the union of gametes (7) Autotroph -an organism that uses energy to synthesize organic molecules from inorganic substances (10)

Base unit -one of seven fundamental units of SI measurement that describe length, mass, time, and other quantities (23) Biology-the science of life (5)

Cell-a membrane-bound structure that is the basic unit of life (11) Compound light microscope -an instrument that magnifies small objects so they can be seen easily using two or more lenses (21) Control group -in an experiment, a group or individual that serves as a standard of comparison with another group or individual to which it is identical except for one factor (17) Controlled experiment -a test of variables using a comparison of a control group with an experimental group (17)

Data -any and all information those scientists gather in trying to answer their questions (15) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -a double-helix-shaped nucleic acid (7) Dependent variable-the responding variable in an experiment (18) Derived unit-units produced by the mathematical relationship between two base units or between two derived units (24) Development -the process by which an organism grows (12) Differentiation-the process by which cells become different from one another through multiplying and following various genetic instructions (6) DNA -hereditary information in the form of a large molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid (7)

Ecology- the study of interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment (9) Ecosystem-distinct environmental communities (9) electron microscope -an instrument that uses a beam of electrons rather than a beam of light to enlarge the image of an extremely small object so that it can be seen (22) Evolution-all the changes that have formed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today (8) Evolve- the changing of an organism over numerous generations (8) Experiment- the process of testing a hypothesis or prediction by gathering data under controlled conditions (17) Experimental group- in an experiment, a group or individual that receives an independent variable, differentiating them from the control group (17)

G H

Gene- a segment of DNA that contains coding for a polypeptide or protein; a unit of hereditary information (7) Heterotrophy-an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts (10) Homeostasis- the stable internal conditions of a living thing (6) Hypothesis-a statement that can be tested experimentally (17)

Independent variable-an experimentally manipulated variable (18) Inference-a conclusion made on the basis of facts or premises rather than on direct observation (19)

Magnification-the increase of an object's apparent size (21) Matter-anything that occupies space and has mass (10) Metabolism -the sum of all chemical processes in living things (10)

Microscope-an instrument that produces an enlarged image of an object (21) Model-an explanation supported by data (18) Multicellular organism-a living thing that consists of more than one cell (6)

Natural selection-the theory that organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to successfully reproduce than organisms that lack these traits (8) Nosepiece-the rotating piece of a compound microscope that holds the varying objective lenses (22)

Observation-the act of employing one or more of the five senses to perceive objects or events (15) Objective lenses-the magnifying lenses positioned directly above the specimen on a compound microscope (21) Ocular lens-in a microscope, the lens in the eyepiece (21) Organism-a living being (5) Organ system-a group of organs that interact to perform a set of related tasks (8)

Photosynthesis -the conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in organic compounds (10) Power of magnification-the factor of enlargement on an objective lens (22) Prediction-a statement made in advance that states the results that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis (17)

R S

Reproduction-the production of new offspring (7) Resolution-the power of a microscope to show detail (21) Sampling-the scientific technique of using a small part of a population to represent the entire population (16) Scanning electron microscope-a microscope that produces an enlarged image of the surface of an object with a beam of electrons rather than light (22) Sexual reproduction-hereditary information from two parts of a single organism or from two organisms of the same species (7) SI System International dUnits-(International System of Measurements) the scientific standard of measurement which employs a set of units that describe length, mass, time and other attributes of matter (23) Stage-the area used to secure a slide on a compound microscope (21)

Theory-a broad and comprehensive statement of what is believed to be true, supported by considerable experimental evidence resulting from many tests of related hypotheses (19) Transmission electron microscope-a microscope that transmits a beam of electrons rather than light through a thinly sliced specimen (22)