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TEXTBOOK FOR STUDENTS OF PHARMACY

by Jusztina Nagy Jnossy, Zsuzsa Kiss, Mnika Krasznai and Gabriella Marschalk

TEXTBOOK FOR STUDENTS OF PHARMACY

by

Jusztina Nagy Jnossy, Zsuzsa Kiss, Mnika Krasznai and Gabriella Marschalk

Department of Foreign Languages University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center 2005

Contents

Preface .. 4 The History of Pharmacy 5 Digestive system.7 Major parts and functions of the system.8 Word building...10 Indigestion.11 What herbs may relieve the condition?.11 Pharmacology12 Some diseases affecting the gastrointestinal system.14 Medication/Treatment...14 Vocabulary ...17 Vitamins...19 How can I tell if I am getting enough of the B vitamins?20 Water soluble vitamins..20 Fat soluble vitamins..21 Vocabulary25 The lungs and respiratory system..27 Word building...31 Pharmacology33 Asthma..36 Herbs used as a natural asthma remedy38 Cough39 Herbal cough medicines40 Vocabulary41 Skin...43 Major parts and functions of the skin44 Word building...47 Eczema..48 What herbs may relieve the condition?.48 Types of skin preparation..49 Skin disorders50 Vocabulary ...52 The eye.54 Word building...55 Conjunctivitis56 Dry eye..56 Contact lens problems...57 Applying medicines to the eye..58 Vocabulary59 The ear.60 Word building...61 Outer ear problems62 Wax...62 Applying ear drops62 Vocabulary64 The mouth ...65 Mouth ulcers..65 Medicines for mouth ulcers...65 Thrush67 Treatment for thrush..68

Vocabulary69 Cardiovascular system71 Blood pressure..71 Pharmacology73 Medicines for high blood pressure75 Word building...77 The heart78 Circulatory problems.79 Blood Clots80 Anticoagulants...81 Vocabulary83 Methods of drug administration ...86 Enteral medication ...87 Parenteral medication ...88 Topical application ...89 Drug forms ...90 Vocabulary ...92 Prescription Writing...94 Appendices .... 99 1 Zantac 75 Relief 100 2 Zirtek ...103 3 Germolene Cream .. 107 4 Amoxycillin .110 5 Oraldene . 114 6 Amoxicillin . 116 7 Germoloids . 118 8 Table of chemical elements .120 English-Hungarian vocabulary122 Acknowledgements133

Preface
You are holding a new textbook for students of pharmacy. This book was initiated by the Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical and Health Science Centre of the University of Debrecen as well as a special project called Vilgnyelv Program. The book is aimed at teaching pharmacy students some of the basic vocabulary of their field of science to enable them to communicate their knowledge in English at scientific meetings, conferences or everyday situations at work. Students may also benefit from the teaching material when, preparing their diploma work, they have to read or skim quite a few articles in English. The material has been chosen to meet the above expectations, that is why only certain topics have been selected in the texts and exercises. Each topic is presented in a similar way: There is a short introduction of an organ or system, followed by some Latin and Greek word roots, suffixes and prefixes. This is usually followed by the outlining of some common conditions, their remedies, and lots of exercises. In the Pharmacology section special attention has been paid to the different types of classical drugs while alternative medicine has been included in sections briefly discussing herbs and their effects. Each unit is completed with a Vocabulary section and you will also find an English-Hungarian vocabulary at the end of the book. About the topics: it was kept in mind that students need a vocabulary which they can use in everyday situations. Clients (especially foreigners) are most likely to seek a pharmacists help for minor problems such as certain skin irritations, aches and pains, coughs, sore eyes, feverish conditions or diarrhoeas, etc., which require an immediate solution, sometimes even before they can see a doctor. As each unit is self-contained you may not wish to insist on the order in which the individual topics are discussed. You decide which one you would like to start with. The authors look forward to and welcome any comments and/or recommendations.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The digestive system (also known as the gut or gastrointestinal system) includes the gullet (oesophagus), stomach, small and large intestines, the rectum and anus. Chewed food passes from the mouth into the oesophagus, down into the stomach where digestive juices (including hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin) break down the food into smaller particles; these pass into the small intestine, where more enzymes break them down (digest them) into molecules small enough to be absorbed through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream. These molecules go to the liver, which sorts them and breaks them down further (metabolises them) into nutrients for the body to use. The remnants of digestion pass to the large intestine (colon) where water is absorbed into the bloodstream leaving stools (faeces), which are passed out of the body through the anus.

oesophagus

Digestive system

Exercise 1 True ( ) or false ( )? 1. The digestive system is also referred to as the gullet. 2. The digestive system, among others, contains the intestines. 3. The digestive system ends at the anus. 4. Digestive juices are produced in the oesophagus. 5. Digestive juices are absorbed through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream. 6. The large intestine is called the colon. 7. The contents of the colon are referred to as the faeces. 8. Hydrochloric acid is an enzyme in the stomach. 9. The liver metabolises molecules from the small intestine into nutrients for the body to use. 10. Chewed food passes from the mouth into the small intestines. Exercise 2 Match the words in columns A and B Column A 1. gastrointestinal 2. colon 3. hydrochloric acid 4. pepsin 5. faeces 6. metabolise 7. digest 8. anus 9. oesophagus 10.nutrient 1 2 3 4 Column B a. break down into nutrients b. stools c. final portion of digestive system d. gut e. gullet f. HCl g. break down h. large intestine i. ingredient in food j. enzyme 5 6 7 8 9 10

Major parts and functions of the system Food provides us with fuel to live, energy to work and play, and the raw materials to build new cells. All the different varieties of food we eat are broken down by our digestive system and transported to every part of our body by our circulatory system. Mouth Teeth bite off and chew food into a soft pulp that is easy to swallow. Chewing mixes the food with watery saliva, from six salivary glands around the mouth and face, to make it moist and slippery. Oesophagus The oesophagus, or gullet, is a muscular tube. It takes food from the throat and pushes it down through the neck, and into the stomach. It moves food by waves of muscle contraction called peristalsis. Stomach The stomach has thick muscles in its wall. These contract to mash the food into a semisolid mass. Also the stomach lining produces strong digestive juices. These attack the food in a chemical way, breaking down and dissolving its nutrients.

Pancreas The pancreas, like the stomach, makes powerful digestive juices called enzymes which help to digest food further as it enters the small intestines. Gall bladder This small pear-shaped structure is tucked under the liver. It stores a fluid called bile, which is made in the liver. As food from a meal arrives in the small intestine, bile flows from the gall bladder along the bile duct into the intestine. It helps to digest fatty foods and also contains wastes for removal. Small intestines This part of the tract is narrow, but very long - about 20 feet. Here, more enzymes continue the chemical attack on the food. Finally the nutrients are small enough to pass through the lining of the small intestine, and into the blood. They are carried away to the liver and other body parts to be processed, stored and distributed. Large intestine Any useful substances in the leftovers, such as spare water and body minerals, are absorbed through the walls of the large intestine, back into the blood. The remains are formed into brown, semi-solid faeces, ready to be removed from the body. Rectum and anus The end of the large intestine and the next part of the tract, the rectum, store the faeces. These are finally squeezed through a ring of muscle, the anus, and out of the body. Exercise 3 Refer to the reading passage Major organs and functions of the digestive system and label the diagram.

WORD BUILDING The main part of a medical word is called a word root. It is usually derived from Greek and Latin and indicates a body part. The combining form is a word root plus a vowel, usually o. word root + combining vowel O O O O O O O E O O = combining form meaning

stomat dent gastr duoden enter col rect chol hepat pancreat

= = = = = = = = = =

Stomato Dento Gastro duoeno entero colo recto chole hepato pancreato

mouth teeth stomach duodenum small intestine large intestine rectum bile liver pancreas

A suffix is a word ending. Whenever you change the suffix, the medical word takes on a new meaning. In medical terminology, a suffix usually indicates a procedure, condition or disease. suffixes -megaly -ectomy -itis -oma -plasty -scopy meaning enlargement removal inflammation tumour surgical repair visual examination

Exercise 4 Analyze the basic elements of the following medical words. enteroplasty ___________________________ pancreatitis ____________________________ hepatomegaly __________________________ colitis _________________________________ enteritis _______________________________ colonoscopy ____________________________ cholecystectomy _________________________ hepatoma __________________________ rectoplasty _________________________ appendectomy ______________________ gastrectomy ________________________ cholecystitis _______________________ gastritis ___________________________ gastroenteritis ______________________

Indigestion Indigestion is a term which is often used to describe a feeling of fullness or gaseousness in the stomach. Indigestion may be a symptom of a disorder in the stomach or intestines. Symptoms can include gas, a bloated feeling, nausea, belching and a burning sensation after eating. Indigestion can be caused by swallowing air or decreased secretion of digestive juices and enzymes. Some foods and beverages, including alcohol, vinegar and greasy or spicy food, may also cause indigestion because they are irritating to the digestive tract. Heartburn usually occurs alongside indigestion. Heartburn is a burning feeling caused by stomach acid regurgitating into the oesophagus from the stomach (also known as GERD = gastroesophageal reflux disease). What herbs may help relieve the condition? There are several herbs which may have a carminative action including Peppermint, Fennel seed, Garlic, Parsley and Oregano. A carminative is a substance which may help to prevent the formation of gases and help remove gas already formed. Antacids are commonly used to relieve indigestion and a more natural alternative to using antacids is to use herbal bitters. They are believed to increase saliva production as well as promoting stomach acid and digestive enzyme production. Important herbal bitters include Devils Claw, Dandelion, Camomile, Yellow dock and Goldenseal. Artichoke may be beneficial for people prone to indigestion, particularly when the actual problem is a lack of bile production by the liver. Ginger is often used due to its benefits relieving nausea but it also contains chemicals which soothe the gut and improve digestion by increasing the contractions which move food through the intestine. Exercise Exercise 5 Read the passages about indigestion and herbs which relieve it. Match the terms and definitions in columns A and B.

A
1. nausea 2. antacid 3. goldenseal 4. peristalsis 5. oregano 6. GERD 7. carminative 8. bitters 9. camomile 10. belch

B
a.) a woodland plant, having small greenish-white flowers and a yellow root formerly used medicinally b.) usually alcoholic liquid made with herbs or roots c.) a substance, such as magnesia or sodium bicarbonate, that neutralizes acid d.) a drug or agent that induces the expulsion of gas from the stomach or intestines e.) burp f.) feeling of sickness in the stomach with an urge to vomit g.) a perennial herb of the mint family, having aromatic leaves that are used as a seasoning h.) condition caused by acid regurgitating to the oesophagus from the stomach i.) counteracting or neutralizing acidity, especially of the stomach j.) contractions moving food through the intestine

Pharmacology Medication Antacids Antidiarrhoeals Action neutralize excess stomach acid and relieve gastritis and ulcer pain; also used to relieve indigestion and reflux oesophagitis (heartburn) relieve diarrhoea either by absorbing the excess fluids that cause diarrhoea or by lessening intestinal motility (slowing the movement of faecal material through the intestine), allowing more time for absorption of water suppress nausea and vomiting, mainly by acting on brain control centres to stop nerve impulses; also used to control motion sickness and dizziness associated with inner ear infections. Some antihistamines and tranquillizers have antiemetic properties. reduce the feeling of gassiness and bloating (flatulence) that accompany indigestion. These agents facilitate the passing of gas by breaking down gas bubbles to a smaller size and mildly stimulating intestinal motility prevent or reduce smooth muscle spasm by acting on the autonomous nervous system , thus relieving certain spastic conditions of the bowel. promote bowel movement or defecation or both; in smaller doses, they relieve constipation and are called laxatives; in larger doses, they evacuate the entire GI tract and are called purgatives (used before surgery or intestinal radiological examinations) used to induce vomiting, especially in cases of poisoning

antiemetics, antinauseants

Antiflatulents

Antispasmodics cathartics, laxatives, purgatives

Emetics

Exercise 6 Read the sentences and underline the correct verbs. 1. Antacids promote / relieve ulcer pain. 2. Purgatives slow / promote defecation and bowel movements. 3. Antiflatulents induce / reduce bloating that accompanies indigestion. 4. Antispasmodics facilitate / prevent smooth muscle spasm. 5. Laxatives slow / relieve constipation. 6. Antidiarrhoeals absorb / neutralize the excess fluids. 7. Antacids relieve / break down heartburn. 8. Antinauseants act on / evacuate brain control centres. 9. Antacids absorb / neutralize stomach acid. 10. Antiemetics suppress / impress nausea and vomiting. 11. Antiflatulents mildly stimulate / slow down intestinal motility. 12. Antispasmodics increase / decrease smooth muscle spasm. 13. Emetics reduce / induce vomiting in poisoning. 14. Purgatives exacerbate / relieve constipation. 15. Some tranquillizers lack / exhibit antiemetic properties.

Exercise 7 In each group, two of the verbs cannot go with the noun. Which Which ones? A) suppress promote ANTIEMETICS vomit vomit stop control break down _________________________________________________________________________ B) absorb LAXATIVES defecate block promote evacuate relieve

___________________________________________________________________________ C) protrude ANTACIDS inhibit reflux ___________________________________________________________________________ D) relieve induce reduce ANTISPASMODICS alleviate neutralize relieve evacuate

secrete prevent ___________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 8 Test your vocabulary. 1. heartburn 2. hole 3. movement 4. bloating 5. causing vomiting 6. arising suddenly 7. lasting for a long time 8. inside 9. yellowing of the skin 10. outside 11. tissue death 12. protrusion

A hernia B internal C acute D oesophagitis E emetic F perforation G jaundice H chronic I external J motility K flatulence L - necrosis

Some diseases affecting the gastrointestinal system Acute diarrhoea Diarrhoea is an increase in the frequency and looseness of your bowel movements. Water is normally absorbed from the remnants of digested food in the large intestine and the waste left over from this water-recycling process becomes stools, which are then passed out of the body at regular intervals. If this absorption process is upset, less water is taken back into the body and the remainder is passed out in liquid stools. Serious loss of water is called dehydration; it causes thirst, dry mouth, dry skin, reduction in quantity and darkening of urine, fast breathing and fever. Sudden (acute) diarrhoea generally lasts only a few days. Common causes include viral or bacterial infections in the digestive system (food poisoning) or a change of country and climate (often called travellers diarrhoea), which is often accompanied by abdominal pain, cramps feeling or being sick, and occasionally fever. Anxiety, alcohol, food intolerance and some medicines can also cause acute diarrhoea.

Chronic diarrhoea Chronic diarrhoea is a long-term condition where the stools are loose or watery sometimes bloody or fatty. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a very common disorder of bowel movement. Its symptoms include griping, colicky pain across the lower abdomen, bloating and a disturbed bowel habit with frequent, loose stools and/or constipation with hard, rabbit-pellet stools. Diarrhoea often occurs at the onset of pain. You may feel sick or have flatulence, heartburn, wind or fatigue. These symptoms can be intermittent or you may experience them all the time. Sometimes other symptoms, such as back pain, urinary frequency and generalised muscle and joint pains may also be associated with IBS. Symptoms often start after an acute intestinal infection or after a course of antibiotics. Stress, lifestyle changes and intolerance to some foods can trigger IBS. Women aged under 40 seem to suffer most from IBS, and symptoms are often worse before a menstrual period.

Crohns disease Crohns disease is an uncommon inflammatory bowel disease. The wall of the intestine becomes inflamed, causing bouts of colicky pain and frequent diarrhoea with blood. You may feel unwell, lose your appetite and lose weight because food is not properly absorbed. The aim of treatment is to bring about (include) remission with medication in the acute phase, and then to prevent relapse.

Medication/Treatment Medicines for acute diarrhoea In an acute attack of mild to moderate diarrhoea, you can replace the water and salts lost from your body with a glucose and salt solution. Glucose increases the amount of water absorbed in the large intestine, which allows the salts in the solution to get into your body too. This process is called rehydration. The diarrhoea is the bodys way of getting rid of harmful substances and it may be unhelpful to interfere with this natural response. Antidiarrhoeal medicines Treating diarrhoea with an antidiarrhoeal medicine is of less importance than rehydration. Babies, young children, frail people and elderly people must always be rehydrated with glucose and salts solution; they should avoid antidiarrhoeal medicines. Home-made salt and glucose solution: use one small level teaspoon (3.5g) of salt and eight large level teaspoons (40g) of sugar or four large level teaspoons (20g) of glucose powder to one litre of water. A small amount of fruit juice or squash can be added to flavour the solution.

Medicines for chronic diarrhoea Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) It may not be necessary to take a medicine to control symptoms if they are mild and intermittent or related to foods that you can avoid. However bulk-forming preparations are used to improve the consistency and regularity of bowel movements. An antimotility medicine reduces stool frequency and urgency. Antispasmodic medicines work either by slowing down intestinal movement or by exerting a direct relaxant effect on intestinal muscle. Antispasmodics relieve stomach cramps and colicky abdominal pain. Crohns disease Active disease of the small intestine is usually treated with corticosteroids. Sometimes an antibacterial may be prescribed to control bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine. Crohns disease can cause general ill health because your body may not absorb nutrients and water properly through the intestinal wall. You may need food, mineral and vitamin supplements and rehydration treatment to prevent malnutrition. Antimotility medicines These slow down intestinal movement (peristalsis). Although these medicines relieve diarrhoea symptoms, they can prolong contact between harmful micro-organisms and the intestinal cells. Opioids (derivatives of the poppy plant) have long been used: these include liquid mixtures of opium or morphine. These products are of limited use in controlling acute diarrhoea.

HOW YOU CAN HELP YOURSELF Travellers diarrhoea Avoid drinking tap water, and even using it for cleaning teeth, unless you are sure that it is fit to drink. Use bottled or treated water; add chemical water purifying tablets or ten drops of weak iodine solution to a litre of water in parts of the world where water supplies are suspect. In areas where amoebic dysentery is likely, boiling water for half an hour will kill the organisms and any amoebic cysts satisfactorily. Avoid ice cubes in your drinks unless you are sure of the water. Avoid eating unwashed salads and vegetables and unpeeled fruit (even drinks). Avoid eating dishes containing uncooked eggs, shellfish, unpasteurised dairy products and food from street traders that is not freshly prepared or hot. Wash your hands or use an antiseptic wipe after going to the toilet and before you handle food or eat. Take with you a supply of salt and glucose sachets and an antidiarrhoeal medicine. Do not buy or use an antibiotic to treat diarrhoea, unless under guidance from a doctor. Exercise 9 Comprehension check. Answer the following questions! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. When do we speak about acute diarrhoea? What can be the consequences of diarrhoea? When can we speak about chronic diarrhoea? What are the common medicines for diarrhoea? How do the these medicines work? How do these medicines affect the patients? Are there any risks or special precautions? What is IBS? What kind of medication is suggested in the case of IBS?

10. What kind of medicines are used in the case of Crohns disease? 11. Are any other food supplements needed in the case of Crohns disease?

Exercise 10 Fill the table with the proper information information. ormation. type site symptoms drug type

acute diarrhoea

IBS

Crohns disease

VOCABULARY bulk-forming ballasztanyag-kpz burp bfgs camomille kamilla carminative szlhajt cathartic (enyhe) hashajt cell sejt chew rg chew megrg chewing rgs chronic idlt, krnikus circulatory keringsi colic vastagblcolicky kliks, grcss colon vastagbl common gyakori, ltalnos condition llapot constipation szoruls, szkrekeds contraction sszehzds counteract ellenttesen hat / mkdik course of antibiotics antibiotikumos kezels cramp grcs dandelion pitypang, gyermeklncf defecation szkletrts dehydration kiszrads descending colon leszll vastagbl devils claw rdgkarom diarrhoea hasmens digest megemszt digestion emszts digestive emszt digestive juice emsztnedv disease betegsg disorder rendellenessg dissolve felold, kiold distribute eloszt, sztoszt dizziness szdls dose adag drug gygyszer, drog emetic hnytat entire teljes, egsz enzyme enzim evacuate kirt exacerbate slyosbt, rosszabb tesz, ront excess flsleges, tlzott excrete kivlaszt exert an effect vmilyen hatst fejt ki exhibit mutat

abdominal hasi, hasregi absorb felszv accompany ksr acute heveny, akut agent szer, hatanyag aim cl alleviate enyht amoebic dysentery ambs vrhas antacid savlekt antibacterial baktriuml (szer) antidiarrhoeal hasfog antiemetic hnyscsillapt antiflatulent szlhajt antinauseant szdlscskkent antiseptic wipe ferttlent trlkend antispasmodic grcsold anus (s), ani (pl) vgbl anxiety aggds appendix (s), appendices (pl) fregnylvny appetite tvgy arise fellp, kialakul artichoke articska ascending colon felszll vastagbl at regular intervals rendszeres idkznknt attack roham autonomous nervous system vegetatv idegrendszer bacterial bakterilis, baktrium-okozta be absorbed felszvdik belching bfgs beneficial jtkony hats beverage ital bile duct epevezetk bile epe bite harap bitter (gyomor)keser bloated felfvdott bloating felfvds block elzr bloodstream vrram bloody vres bout roham bowel bl brain agy break down lebont, megemszt

expulsion eltvolts, eltvozs facilitate elsegt faeces szklet fatigue ltalnos gyengesgrzet fatty zsros, zsrfennel seed kmnymag fever lz flatulence puffadtsg flavour zest fluid (test)nedv, folyadk food intolerance tel-allergia frail trkeny /gyenge egszsg frequency gyakorisg fuel zemanyag, hajtanyag gall bladder epehlyag garlic fokhagyma gaseousness felfvds gassiness szelessg gastric gyomor gastritis gyomorhurut gastrointestinal gyomorra s blre vonatkoz generalised ltalnos GERD reflux-betegsg GI tract emszttraktus ginger gymbr glucose gllz goldenseal hidrasztisz (hydrastis canadiensis) greasy zsros griping pains hascsikars, szlgrcs gullet nyelcs gut bl harmful kros, rtalmas heartburn gyomorgs herb gygynvny hernia srv hole lyuk, nyls hydrochloric acid ssav improve fokoz increase nvel, fokoz indigestion gyomorronts induce kivlt vmit, elidz infection fertzs inflammatory gyulladsos inhibit gtol interfere with beleavatkozik intermittent idnknt fellp, visszatr intestinal blintestinal motility blmozgs

iodine jd irritable bowel syndrome irritbils bl tnetegyttes (IBS) jaundice srgasg joint zlet lack hinyzik belle vmi large intestines vastagbl large level teaspoon ppozott kvskanl laxative szkletlazt leftover (tel)maradk lifestyle letmd lining bls liquid folyadk, ital liver mj loose bowel movement hasmens lose ones appetite elmegy az tvgya lose weight (le)fogy magnesia magnzium malnutrition rosszul tplltsg, alultplltsg mash sszetr, ppest medication gygyszer, gygyszerezs menstrual period havivrzs, menzesz metabolise tvltoztat, anyagcservel talakt mild enyhe mineral svnyi anyag mint menta mixture keverk moist nedves molecule molekula morphine morfium motility mozgs motion sickness mozgs kvetkeztben kialakul melygs movement mozgs muscular izmos natural termszetes nausea hnyinger necrosis szvetelhals nerve ideg neutralise kzmbst, semlegest nutrient tpllk, tpanyag oesophagitis nyelcsgyullads oesophagus nyelcs opioid pium szrmazk oregano oregano overgrowth tlszaporods, elszaporods pain fjdalom, fjs pancreas hasnylmirigy

parsley peterzselyemzld particle rsz, rszecske peppermint borsmenta perennial vel perforation kilyukads, perforci peristalsis perisztaltika, perisztaltikus mozgs pharmacology gygyszertan poisoning mrgezs poppy mk preparation ksztmny prescribe receptre felr prevent megelz, megakadlyoz process feldolgoz, talakt prolong meghosszabbt promote elsegt, serkent property tulajdonsg protrude kitremkedik protrusion kitremkeds pulp ppes anyag purgative hashajt rabbit-pellet stools nyl bogys szklethez hasonl szklet radiological, radiolgiai, rntgenraw material nyersanyag rectum rektum recycling visszanyers reduce cskkent, enyht reflux visszafolys reflux oesophagitis gyomorgs regurgitate visszajut, visszakerl rehydration rehidrls relapse visszaess relaxant lazt relieve enyht, cskkent remains maradvny, maradk remission javuls remnant maradk, maradvny removal eltvolts remove eltvolt response reakci root gykr saliva nyl salivary gland nylmirigy seasoning fszerezs, fszer secrete elvlaszt semi-solid flig kemny, flig szilrd sickness melygs sigma bowel szigmabl sigmoid szigmabl

slippery csszs sloppy ppes, ppszer small intestines vkonybl small level teaspoon csapott kvskanl smooth muscle simaizom sodium bicarbonate szdabikarbna solution oldat soothe nyugtat, csillapt spasm grcs spasmodic grcss spastic grcss spicy fszeres squash szrp squeeze kiprsel, kinyom stimulate serkent, stimull stomach gyomor stools szklet store raktroz substance anyag suffer from szenved vmiben supplement kiegszts/kiegszt suppress visszaszort, elfojt surgery sebszi beavatkozs, mtt suspect gyans swallow lenyel tap water csapvz thirst szomjsg tissue szvet tract traktus, rendszer tranquillizer nyugtat transport szllt transverse colon harntvastagbl treatment kezels trigger kivlt, elidz ulcer fekly uncommon ritka urge to vomit hnyinger urinary frequency gyakori vizels urinary hgy-, vizeletvinegar ecet viral vrusos, vrusvomit hnys waste salakanyag water purifying tablet vztisztt tabletta water supply vzellts watery hg wave hullm woodland erds-tiszts yellow dock fodros sska (rumex crispus)