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Specification and Estimation Lecture: 5 Basic information necessary to write specification for different Items of Work (Making of a Building)

Items of Work Earthwork in excavation of Foundation Trenches Materials Proportioning Workmanship Clear site of grass, roots of trees and other organic matter Dimensions of the excavation as shown in drawings or as decided by Engineer in charge Side of the trenches vertical and bottom level both longitudinally and transversely Bottom of trenches to be sprinkled with water and rammed Excess digging to be filled with concrete All excavated material to be kept at least 1 m away from the trenches All existing pipes, cables, sewers etc. to be temporarily shored All valuables and materials found during exaction to be the property of the Government The cost of all materials and labour required for fencing in and protection against risk of accidents are born by the contractor The filling to be done in layers not exceeding 20 cm each layer. Each layer to be watered, rammed before the next layer is laid Earth to be rammed with iron hammers where feasible or crowbars In case of filling under floors, the finished level of filling to be in slope as intended in the laying of the floor Sand to be spread in layers not exceeding 20 cm and to be saturated with water Ramming will be through a number of hammers where the distance between two hammers not to exceed 1.5 m. Successive course of ramming to be in transverse direction Before ramming the final layer, the entire filled up area is flooded with water Final filled surface to be leveled in both directions to the desired slope. Testing

Earthwork In Filling

Sand Filling in Plinth

Earth used for filling to be loose, free from brick bats, stone and boulders not larger than 75 mm in any direction, salts, organic or other foreign matter Sand used in filling to be fine, free from dust, organic and foreign material

Brick Soling in Foundation Trenches

Picked Jhama or 2nd class bricks in dry condition to be used

Bricks are used as headers with frog upwards Bricks to be laid breaking joints and small gap between them to be filled with local fine sand or dry loose earth Brick bats used to break joints to be placed at the edges of trenches The finished surface to be leveled in both directions (longitudinally as well as transversely) Coarse aggregate, surkhi and lime proportion to be 100:36:18 The mixing to be done by hand or mechanical mixer. Hand mixing to be done on clean solid water-tight masonry platform Brick ballast to be soaked in clear water for at least 2 hours before mixing and stacked evenly on a platform in maximum height of 30 cm Lime and surkhi to be measured with wooden boxes measuring generally 35 cm x 25 cm x 40 cm and mixed dry till of uniform colour and spread over stacked ballast The whole mixture to be turned over once without adding water and further three times gradually adding water so that the whole surface of the ballast becomes coated with mortar and the mix becomes plastic enough to give uniform concrete The volume of concrete to be limited to what has to be used in 1 day Old and stale concrete not to be used Concrete to be laid (not thrown) in courses not more than 20 cm thick at a time and consolidated until the layer is 15 cm thick Weight of the compacting hammer not to be less than 4.5 kg and area not more than 300 sq cm. Consolidation to be completed only till a skin of pure mortar covers the surface In hot season lime water to be sprinkled regularly during ramming to keep the concrete wet No ramming to be done on the next day when the mortar has started setting Green work to be protected from rain by suitable covering Where joints in layer are unavoidable, the end of each layer to be sloped off to an angle of 30 degrees Concrete to be kept moist with gunny bags, sand for at least 7 days and no masonry to be laid on the lime concrete bed within this period Mixing: Hand Mixing: Hand mixing is permitted only for small works but normally Two days after ramming, the concrete to be tested by digging a hole about 7.5 cm deep and 7.5 cm in dia. And filled with water In this test, the water level does not go down The safe compressive strength of lime concrete is taken as 43 tonnes / sq m.

Lime concrete trenches

in

Coarse aggregate from breaking good quality over-burnt or well burnt dense brick bats small enough to pass through 32 mm dia ring Fine aggregate to be surkhi or cinder(preferably surkhi) made from well burnt first class bricks bats grounded small enough to pass through I.S sieve of 4.75 mm Lime to be freshly burnt, slaked and free from ashes and screened through a sieve of 3 meshes to a cm. The slaking of lime is done at site unless otherwise specified

Cement Concrete

Coarse aggregate is crushed or broken from hard stone

Cement 1

obtained from hard stone. It is hard, strong, dense and durable, clean and free from soft friable, thin, flat, elongated or laminated, flaky pieces and is roughly cubical in shape. It is free from dust and any other foreign matter. It can be gravel or river bed shingles or pit gravel. The size of the coarse aggregate is 20 mm graded down and retained in 5 mm square mesh so that the voids do not exceed 42 %. For road or mass concrete work, bigger size of 40 to 60 mm is prescribed. Fine aggregate is usually coarse sand able to pass through IS sieve of 4.75 mm. Sea sand is not used. Sand is free from dirt and organic matter. Crushed dust stone may also be used as fine aggregate. Cement is fresh Portland cement conforming to IS: 269. Quantity of water: The quantity of water to be used for each mix of 50 Kg cement to give the required consistency is not more than 34 litres for 1:3:6 mix, 30 litres for 1:2:4 mix, 27 litres for 1: 11/2 : 3 mix and 25 litres for 1:1:2 mix. In the case of vibrated concrete, the limit specified may be

Fine aggregate 2 Coarse aggregate 4 i.e. 1:2:4 Measured by measuring boxes 30 cm x 30 cm x 38 cm The above is equivalent to 1 bag of cement of 1/30 cum or .035 cum. Cement is measured by bag weighing 50 kg when dry. While measuring aggregate, shaking, ramming or hammering is not permitted.

all structural concrete is mixed in a mixer machine. The mixing is done on a clean watertight masonry or concrete slab or steel plate platform. Measured quantity of sand is spread evenly after which the cement is dumped on the sand and distributed evenly. The cement and sand are then mixed thoroughly with spade turning the mixer again and again until it is of even colour throughout and is free from streaks. The measured quantity of coarse aggregate is then spread out and the sand cement mixture is spread on its top or a reverse operation is done. The complete mixer is then turned at least three times by shoveling and turning over by twist from center to side and then back to the centre and again to the sides. A hollow is made in the centre of the pile of the mixed pile and three quarters of the water required is added while the mixture is turned towards the centre with spades. The remaining water is added by a water can fitted with rose head, slowly turning the over and over again until a uniform texture and consistency is obtained. The mixing platform is washed at the end of the day. Machine mixing: The mixer drum is flushed clean with water. Measured quantity of dry coarse aggregate is placed first in the hopper. This are followed with measured quantity of fine aggregate and then cement. In case, damp sand is used, add half of the quantity of coarse aggregate. The dry materials are mixed in the mixing drum for at least four turns of the drum, after which the correct quantity of water is added gradually while the drum is in motion, to ensure even distribution with the dry materials. The total quantity of water for mixing is introduced before 25 percent of the mixing time has elapsed and is regulated to achieve the specific water cement ratio. The mixing is thorough to have a plastic mix of uniform colour. The complete contents of the mixed concrete are emptied before recharging.

suitably reduced to avoid segregation. The quantity of water is regulated by carrying out regular slump tests.

When the mixer is closed down for the day or for any time exceeding 20 minutes, the drum is flushed clean. Mixing time: The materials are mixed in a drum for a period of not less than 2 minutes and until a uniform colour and consistency are obtained. The time is counted from the moment all the materials have been put into the drum. Laying: The entire concrete used in the work is laid gently (not thrown) in layers not exceeding 15 cm and is thoroughly vibrated by means of mechanical vibrators till a dense concrete is obtained. The Engineer-in-Charge may however relax this condition at his discretion for certain items depending upon the thickness of the members and feasibility of vibrating the same and permit hand compaction. Hand compaction is done with the help of punning rods and tamping with wooden tampers so that concrete is thoroughly compacted and completely worked into the corners of the formwork. The layers of concrete are so placed so that the bottom layer does not finally set before the top layer is placed. Compaction is completed before the initial setting starts i.e. within 30 minutes of addition of water to the dry mixture. During cold weather casting of concrete is not done when the temperature falls below 4.50C. During hot weather precautions are taken to see that the temperature of wet concrete does not exceed 380C. Concrete is not allowed to be deposited under water. Where found necessary to deposit any concrete under water, the method and equipment is first approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. Concrete is deposited continuously until it is brought to required height; while depositing, the top surface is kept as nearly level as possible and the formation of seams are avoided.

The concrete is deposited under water by one of the approved methods such as Treamic Method. Drop and bottom bucket, bags etc. When the placing of concrete is suspended, or resumed on the following day, necessary roughening of the surface for joining future work is done before the concrete sets. When the work is resumed the previous work must be thoroughly cleaned, roughened, watered and a grout of neat cement slurry of the proportion, I kg of cement per 2 litres of water applied uniformly. Protection and curing: Freshly laid concrete is protected from rain by suitable covering. The work should also be protected from damage and rain during construction. After the concrete has begun to harden i.e. about 1 to 2 hours after its laying, it is protected with moist gunny hags, sand or any other material approved by the Engineer-in-Charge against quick drying. After 24 hours of laying of concrete the surface is cured by flooding with water of about 25 mm depth or by covering with wet absorbent materials. The curing is done for a minimum period of 14 days. Over the foundation concrete, the masonry work may be started after 48 hours of its laying, but the curing of cement concrete is continued along with the masonry work for a minimum period of 14 days. In case of cement concrete used as sub-grade for flooring, the flooring may be commenced before the curing period of sub-grade is over but the curing of sub-grade is continued along with the top layer of flooring for a minimum period of 14 days. The water used for curing shall not produce any objectionably stains or unsightly deposit on concrete surface. Form work: If centering and shuttering are required to be done for this work this are done in accordance with the specifications for form work under Reinforced cement concrete.

Reinforced cement concrete (R.C.C.)

Same as cement concrete except the size of coarse aggregate is 20 mm unless specially mentioned in the type of work. Form work includes all forms or moulds required for forming the concrete which is cast-insitu, together with all temporary construction required for their support. Form work is of plywood, or steel approved by the Engineerin-Charge. Timber used for form work should be easily workable with nails without splitting and of light weight. It is stiff and strong enough to avoid undue deflection when loaded and not liable to warp when exposed to sun and rain or wetted during casting of concrete. Form work is of rigid construction true to shape and dimensions shown on drawings. It is strong enough to withstand the dead and live loads and forces caused by ramming and vibrations of concrete and other incidental loads imposed upon it during and after casting of concrete. It is made sufficiently rigid by using adequate number of braces and ties. To make up

Same cement concrete.

as

Propping and Centering: Props used for centering are of steel, timber, posts, ballies or any other material approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. In case when ballies are used none is less than 100 mm in diameter measured at mid length and 80 mm at thin end. Ballies rest on wooden sole plates of not less than 40 mm thickness having a minimum bearing area of 0.1 square metre laid on ground or on 40 X 40 mm thick brick masonry pillars in mud mortar of height not exceeding 40 cm. All props are further provided with double wedges between the sole plates and the props so as to facilitate tightening and easing of shuttering without causing shock to the concrete. In case a span exceeds 4.50 metres and height exceeds 3.50 metres, suitable horizontal as well as diagonal bracings are provided after accounting for all forces including action of the wind which may produce lateral forces. In case, the height of centering exceeds 3.50 metres, the props may be provided in multi-stages. The detail of splicing the props at each stage is as per approved drawing. Before the casting of concrete is started, the props and wedges are thoroughly checked to see that these are intact. While the casting of concrete is in progress, at least one carpenter is to keep a constant watch on the props and take immediate remedial measures, as soon as any of them gets loosened. Shuttering: The shuttering is of approved dressed timber of well seasoned wooden boards to give a smooth and even surface and the joints do not permit leakage of cement grout. The timber is free from loose knots, projected nails, splits, adhering grout or other defects that may mar the cement surface of concrete. It is not be so green or wet as to shrink after erection. Species of timber which are not affected appreciably by its contact with water are used. When metal forms are used, all bolts and nuts are countersunk and well ground to provide a smooth plain surface. Opening for fan clamps and other fittings connected with services are provided in the shuttering as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. Surface treatment for shuttering: The surfaces of timber shuttering that would come in contact with concrete are thoroughly cleaned and well wetted and coated with soap solution, raw linseed oil, or form oil of approved manufacture, or any other approved material such as polythene sheets, to

Regular mandatory tests on the consistency and workability of the fresh concrete are done to achieve the specified compressive strength of concrete. Work tests and slump tests are carried out as per standing practice. Three test specimens are made from each sample for testing at 28 days.

any settlement in the form work either before of during the placing of concrete, hard wood wedges are provided where required. All form work is so constructed as to be removable in sections in the desired sequence, without damaging the surface of concrete or disturbing other sections. Forms should be easy to strip after connecting and no piece should be keyed into the concrete. The completed form work is approved after inspection by the Engineer-inCharge before the reinforcement bars are placed in position.

prevent adhesion of concrete to form work. The Engineer-in-Charge inspects and accepts the form work as to its strength, alignment and general fitness before placing any concrete in the forms. But such inspection is not to relieve the contractor of his responsibility for safety of man, machinery, materials and for results obtained. Camber: Suitable camber is provided in horizontal members of structures especially in long members to counteract the effects of deflection. The camber for beams and slabs are 4 mm per metre i.e. 1 in 250 and for cantilevers, at free end is 1/50th of the projected length or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. Removal of Form Work: The form work is removed avoiding shock or vibration that may cause any damage to concrete. In a slab and beam construction, sides of the beam are stripped first; then the undersides of slab and lastly the undersides of the beam. The period that elapses after the concrete has been laid before undertaking the work of easing and removal of centering and shuttering is as given below according to IS 456-1978. Parts of structure Where ordinary Portland cement is used forms may be removed after expiry of the following periods:

1- Walls, columns and vertical faces of all structural members 2- Slabs (props under) left

24 to 48 hours as may be decided by the Engineer-in-Charge.

3 days

3- Beams soffits (props left under) 4- Removal of props under slabs

7 days

7 days

. (a) Spanning up to 4.5m (b) Spanning over 4.5 m 5- Removal of props under beams and arches: (a) Spanning up to 6 m (b) Spanning over 6 m 7 days 14 days

14 days 21 days

In case of cantilever slabs and beams, the centering will remain till structures for bearing down have been erected and have sufficient strength.

Reinforcement: Mild steel bars shall conform to the I.S. specification, free from loose rust, dust, loose mill scales, coats of paints, oil or other coatings which may destroy or reduce bond. It is stored in such a way so as to avoid distortion and to prevent corrosion.

Bending of Overlapping: Bars are bent cold, correctly and accurately to the size and shape as shown on the detailed drawing or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. Preferably bars of full length are used. Overlapping of bars, where necessary, is done as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. The overlaps are staggered for different bars and located at points, along the span, where, neither shear nor bending moment is maximum. Overlapping of bars can be kept apart by 25 mm or 11/4 times the maximum size of coarse aggregate, whichever is greater, with concrete between them. But where this cannot be done, the overlapping bars are bound together at intervals not exceeding twice the diameter of such bars, with two strands of annealed steel wire of 0.90 mm to 1.6 mm thickness twisted tight. In case of mild steel the ends of rods are bent in to semi-circular hooks, having clear diameter equal to four times the diameter of bar, with a length beyond the bend equal to four times the diameter of the bar. In case of mild steel the ends of rods are bent in to semi-circular hooks, having clear diameter equal to four times the diameter of bar, with a length beyond the bend equal to four times the diameter of the bar. In case of deformed bars the hooks are not required. Welding of bars are permitted in lieu of overlap if approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. Placing in Position: Reinforcement bars are placed in position as shown in the drawings. Bars at their points of intersection are securely tied together

with two strands of annealed steel wire 0.90 to 1.6 mm thick twisted tight to make the skeleton of the steel work rigid so that the reinforcement does not get displaced during the deposition of concrete. Tack welding is permitted in lieu of binding with steel wire if approved by the Engineerin-Charge. The bars are kept in position by the following methods as the case may be: (1) For beam and slab construction, pre-cast cover blocks in cement mortar 1:2 about 4 X 4 cm section and of thickness equal to the specified cover are placed between the bars and shuttering, to avoid sagging and to maintain requisite cover of concrete. (2) For cantilevered and double reinforced beams or slabs the vertical distance between the horizontal bars are maintained by introducing chain spacers or support bars of steel at 1.0 metre or at shorter spacing to avoid sagging. (3) For columns and walls the vertical bars are kept in position by means of timber templates with slots accurately cut in them; or with block of cement mortar (1:2) suitably tied to the reinforcement. Mixing: Concrete is mixed by mechanical mixer except for small quantity when Engineer-in-Charge permits otherwise. Same as Cement Concrete. Consistency or Workability: The concrete, which will flow sluggishly into the forms and around the reinforcement without any segregation of coarse aggregate from the mortar, is used. The consistency will depend on whether the concrete is vibrated or hand tamped. It is determined by slump tests as per I.S. recommendation. Placing of concrete: Pouring into moulds. Placing of concrete is commenced only after the Engineer-in-Charge has inspected the centering, shuttering and reinforcements as placed and approved the same. Shuttering is clean and free from all saw dust, pieces of wood or other foreign materials and is treated as prescribed in surface treatment for shuttering. In case of casting of concrete of slabs and beams, wooden planks or cat-walks

supported directly on the centering by means of wooden blocks are provided to convey the concrete to the place of deposition without disturbing the reinforcement. Labourers are not allowed to walk over the reinforcement. In deep trenches and footings, concrete is placed through chutes as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. In case of columns and walls, the shuttering is so adjusted that the vertical drop of concrete is not more than 1.5 metes at a time. During cold weather, with below 4.5oC temperature, laying of concrete is not done. During hot weather, precaution is taken to see that the temperature of wet concrete does not exceed 38oC. Unless permitted by the Engineer-inCharge no concrete is laid within half an hour of the closing time of the day. The time between mixing and placing of concrete is not to exceed the initial setting time of cement of 30 minutes. Compaction: Concrete is compacted into a dense mass immediately after placing by means of mechanical vibrators designed for continuous operations during the whole period occupied for placing of concrete. The vibrators are so adjusted that the centers of vibrations approximates to the centre of the mass being compacted at the time of placing. For certain items, such as roof slab, depending on the thickness of the members and feasibility of vibrating the same, the Engineer-in-Charge may permit hand compaction. Hand compaction is done with the help of 16 mm diameter steel tamping rod and tamping with wooden tampers so that the concrete is thoroughly compacted and completely worked around the reinforcement and into corners of the form work. The layers of concrete are so placed that the bottom layer does not finally set before the top layer is placed. Compaction is continued until the mortar fills the spaces between the coarse aggregate and begins to cream up to form an even surface. Needle Vibrators are withdrawn slowly so as to prevent formation of loose pockets in the case of internal vibrators. The specific instructions of the makers of the particular type of vibrator used are strictly complied with. Shaking of reinforcement for the purpose of compaction is avoided. Compaction is completed before the initial setting starts. Over-vibration or vibration of very wet mixes are harmful and is avoided; under vibration is also harmful. Construction Joints: The positions where construction joints are to be made

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will be as shown in structural drawing or as directed by the Engineer-inCharge. Such joints are kept to the minimum and are located where the shear force is minimum and these are straight and at right angles to the direction of main reinforcement. When stopping the concrete on a vertical plane in slabs and beams, an approved, stop-board is placed with necessary slots reinforcement bars or any other obstruction to pass the bars freely without bending. The construction joints on a vertical plane are keyed. Inclined or feather joints are not permitted. Any concrete flowing through the joints of stop-board is removed soon after the initial set. When concrete is stopped on a horizontal plane, the surface is roughened and cleaned after the initial set. In case of columns, the joints are horizontal and 10 to 15 cm below the bottom of beam running into the column head. Concreting is carried out continuously up to construction joints. When the work has to be resumed, the joint are thoroughly cleaned with wire brush and loose particles removed. A coat of neat cement slurry at the rate of 2.75kg of cement per square metre is then applied on the roughened surface before fresh concrete is laid. Curing: same as cement concrete. Finishing: In case of roof slabs the top surface is finished even and smooth with wooden trowel, before the concrete begins to set. Immediately on removal of forms, the R.C.C. work is examined by the Engineer-in-Charge, before any defects are made good. The work that has sagged or contains honeycombing to an extent detrimental to structural safety or architectural concept is rejected. Surface defects of a minor nature may be accepted but should be made good as per direction of the Engineer-inCharge. The R.C.C. work is done carefully so that the thickness of plaster required for finishing the surface is not more than 6 mm.

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Masonry work in Superstructure 1st Class Brickwork

Bricks are first class of standard specification, regular in shape and size with sharp edges and corners. They shall emit a clear ringing sound on being struck. They is of uniform deep red or copper colour, free from cracks, chips, efflorescence, flaws and lumps of any kind. Dry bricks shall not absorb more than 20% of their weight when immersed in water for 24 hours. Brick shall have an average compressive strength of not less than 100kg per sq cm and not more than 125 kg per sq cm. For cement mortar, cement is fresh Portland cement of standard quality. Sand is medium coarse sand, clean, sharp and free from clay, mica or organic matter. For lime mortar, lime is slaked and fresh stone-lime screened at work site conforming to standard specification. Surki is made from first class brick having uniform colour and free from admixture of foreign matter. Water used is clean and reasonably free from oils, acids, alkalies, salts and vegetable growth. Generally potable

Soaking of Bricks: all bricks are thoroughly soaked in water by submerging them in clean water for at least four hours just before use. The wetted bricks are stacked on a clean platform to avoid any contact with mud. Laying: The bricklaying is of English bond unless specially mentioned. A layer of mortar is spread on full width over a suitable length of the lower course. Each brick is properly bedded with frog upward and set home (in position) by gently tapping with handle of trowel or wooden mallet. Its inside faces are buttered with mortar before the next brick is laid and pressed against it. On completion of a course, all vertical joints are fully filled from the top with mortar. Half, or cut bricks is not used except where necessary to complete the bond. No damaged or broken bricks are used. Closers in such cases, is cut to the required size and used near the ends of the walls. In exposed brickwork, selected bricks of the specified class are used for face work. The brickwork is true to line, plumb and all vertical joints are truly vertical. Vertical joints in alternate courses shall come directly one over the other. Thickness of brick course is kept uniform. All connected brickwork is carried up simultaneously and no portion of work is left more than one metre below the rest of the work. Where this are not possible, in the opinion of the Engineer-in=Charge, the work is raked back according to bond (and not toothed) at an angle not steeper than 45 o. The work done per day should not be more than one metre height. All iron fixtures, pipes, outlets of water, hold fasts of doors and windows, which are required to be built into walls are embedded in mortar or cement concrete as specified in their correct position as per direction, as the work proceeds. Joints: Brick is so laid that all joints are full of mortar. The thickness of joints shall not exceed 1.0 cm. All face joints are raked to a minimum depth of 15 mm by raking tool during the progress of work when the mortar is still green so as to provide proper key for plastering or pointing to be done. The face of brickwork is cleaned on the same day on which brickwork is laid and all mortar droppings removed promptly. Brick Coping: The top courses of all plinth, parapet, steps and top wall below R.C.C. is laid with brick on edges unless specified otherwise.

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water is used. Mortar: The brickwork is done with the specified mortar (cement or lime) mixing the ingredients in the specified proportion. In the case of cement mortar the unit of measurement for cement is a bag of cement and this are taken as 0.035 cu m. Sand in specified proportion is measured in boxes of suitable size 35 cm X 25 40 cm. Sand is measured on the basis of its dry volume. In case of damp sand, its quantity is increased suitably to allow for bulkage. Materials of mortar is first mixed dry till of uniform colour on a solid clean watertight platform and then mixed wet at least three times by adding water gradually and evenly to have a workable consistency of a stiff paste. Only the quantity of cement mortar which can be used within 30 minutes are prepared at a time. In case of lime mortar, it is used on the day it is made. All bricks are of first class quality and free from soluble salt. The mortar will consist of 1 part of fresh Portland cement Curing: Brickwork is protected from rain by suitable covering when the mortar is green. Masonry work in cement mortar or lime mortar is dept constantly moist on all faces for a minimum period of seven days. Brickwork carried out during the day is suitably marked indicating the date on which the work is done so as to deep a watch on the curing period. Scaffolding: For all exposed brickwork, double scaffolding having two sets of vertical supports are provided. The supports are sound and strong, tied together with horizontal pieces over which scaffolding planks are fixed. For all other brickwork in buildings, single scaffolding is permitted. In such cases, the inner end of the horizontal scaffolding pole shall rest in a hole provided only in the header course for the purpose. Only one header for each pole is left out. Such holes for scaffolding shall, however, not be allowed in pillars or columns less than one metre in width. The holes left in masonry works for scaffolding purposes are filled and make good before plastering.

Reinforced Brickwork

Laying of bricks: All bricks are thoroughly saturated by submerging them in clear water for at least four hours before use. A line of bricks are first laid with frogs downward in each direction to act as guide and to ensure that cutting of brick is avoided. In case, a part brick has to be introduced this are done at about the middle of the length. The gap between two lines of bricks

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and 3 parts of coarse sand passing through I.S sieve No. 480 and retain on No. 15 sieve (i.e. between 4.75 mm to 5.5 mm). Mild steel bars are straight and free from rust, paint, grease etc. All material as stated above including water is of standard specifications. Shuttering will be of approved dressed timber like seasoned soft wooden boards of not less than 3 cm thick. Faces in contact with concrete is free from adhering grout, projection nails, splits or such other defects. Any timber that shows any tendency to warp, shrink or twist is adjusted. All shuttering and framing is rigid, well braced and sufficiently strong to stand the pressure of wet bricks. All props of approved size is supported on double wedges. Stone for random rubble stone masonry is hard; sound free from decay and weathering. Random Rubble Stone Masonry: Stones with porous matter or with boulder skin are rejected. The size of stones are not less than 15 cm in any direction.

for the reinforced joint is not less than 4 cm or three times the diameter of the reinforced rods whichever is greater. For roof slabs, bricks are arranged in such a way so that the inner edge of the wall and the reinforced joint do not lie on the same line. Laying of reinforcement: Reinforcement rods are then laid exactly at the centre of the joint. The rods do not touch the bricks at any place. Overlapping of bars are avoided as far as possible by using bars of the required length, but where this cannot be done a lap of 45 times diameter of the bar is given with the necessary hooks at the ends and two rods are wired along the lap. Laying of mortar: Mortar of cement and sand in the proportion 1:3 is first mixed dry on a solid, clean platform and then is mixed wet at least three times by adding clean water gradually and evenly. The mortar is placed into the gaps in between the bricks within 30 minutes, surrounding the reinforced rods. Care is taken that bottom of rods in the slabs have the correct cover of mortar under them. The filling of joints by mortar is carried out continuously and no portion of mortar is allowed to start its initial set before the neighboring mortar is in its place. Curing: The work is not to be disturbed and should be kept wet for at lest 7 days. Removal of centering: The centering is removed after 10 days without any jerking of any kind.

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Cement and sand for cement mortar or lime and surkhi (sand) for lime mortar are of standard specification.

Mortar: The ingredients of mortar, cement and sand or lime and surki are first mixed dry in the specified proportion till of uniform colour on a solid clean platform and then mixed wet at least three times by adding water gradually and evenly. Laying: All stones are first thoroughly wetted before laying. The stones are hammer dressed with wooden mallet on the bed and from all other faces to enable them to come into close proximity with each other securing close joint. The walls are carried up truly plumb. Face stone is not narrower than its height and is tailed back and bond well into the backing. The stones are arranged to break joint on the face for at least half the height with those of courses above or below. Stones are so laid that all joints are quite full of mortar and the thickness of joints does not exceed 20 mm. Interstices between stones are wedged with stone chips and spalls to avoid thick beds of joints and mortar. In the interior thickness of the wall, bond stones at least 45 cm long are given one for every half sq m of face so as to approximately provide through bond of long stones. The masonry is carried out together so as to maintain uniform height as far as possible. If any part of a wall is required to be raised in advance, toothing is formed by giving projections to bond with the wall to be built later. Curing: The work is to be protected from rain or sun while it is green. At the end of the days work the tops of walls are left flooded. The masonry is kept moist on all the faces for at least 7 days.

Same as specified in Random Rubble Masonry.

Coursed Rubble Stone Masonry

Laying: All stones are to be thoroughly wetted before laying. Every course of stone is hammer dressed and laid truly horizontal and every vertical joint is kept truly vertical. Faces are accurately squared and each face joint is dressed at right angles. The face stones are laid alternate headers and stretchers. No pinning is allowed on the face. Each course consists of stones of even thickness not less than 3 cm and not more than 23 cm. No stones in face are to have less breadth than height and no stone is tailed into the wall less than its height. At least 1/3rd of the face stones are tailed into the wall twice their height. The masonry is carried up regularly and true to plumb. The thickness

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of joints are kept so as no to exceed 12 mm. In case plastering or pointing is not to be carried out, the joints are struck flush and finished at the time of laying. Bond or through stones: The stones going through the wall are well distributed provided in the whole wall by arranging them in a staggered fashion in successive courses. The intervals of through stones are not be less than 1.5 m in each course. For walls up to 60 cm thickness, a through stone is extended from one face of the wall to other. But in case for wall of greater thickness at least 15 cm side over-lapping headers forming a stone joint is laid from face to back. Quoins: Corner stones or quoins are dressed to correct angle. The short bed of the stone is at least equal to height. The quoins are laid with header and stretcher in alternative layers. Curing: Same as described in Random Rubble stone masonry.

Damp Proof Course

Coarse aggregate is of clean, hard and dense stone chips 12 mm down and is washed before use. Sand is clean, sharp and coarse of average 5 mm size and is free from dust, and dirt and screened before use. Cement cement. is fresh Portland

D.P.C. of cement concrete should have a mix of 1:2:4 or 1:11/2:3. Usual thickness 2.5 cm to 4 cm.

Mixing: Coarse aggregate and sand are measured by volume with gauge boxes and cement by bag having a weight of 50 kg or volume of 0.0347 cu m. Some sample tests of cement bags are made at work site to ensure the specified weight and volume. The mixing is done on a clean solid platform. Dry coarse aggregate is stacked evenly on the platform. Sand and cement in the specified quantities at first is mixed dry till of uniform colour and spread over the stacked coarse aggregate. The materials are mixed dry till of uniform colour and spread over the stacked coarse aggregate. The materials are then turned over once without adding water and then at least further 3 times, adding the required quantity of water gradually and slowly to give a uniform concrete. Water-proofing compound Pudlo or Cico @ 5 or 3 per cent by the weight of cement as specified is mixed with concrete to make it water proof.

All the including

materials in use water proofing

16

compound are to be of their respective standard specifications.

Preparation of base: The top of the walls on which damp-proof course is to be laid is constructed with bricks on edge or with frogs of the bricks down. The top of the plinth bed over which damp-proof course is to be placed is thoroughly cleaned with a steel brush, washed and wetted before laying the course of concrete. Wooden straight edges are fixed on plinth wall having the same inner width as that of the required with of the D.P.C. Laying: Damp-proof course may be laid to the full width of the plinth or of the superstructure as specified in the drawing or specially mentioned. It is laid to the specified thickness (2.5 cm or 4 cm) over the plinth wall flush with the floor surface and is not carried across the doorways or such other openings. D.P.C. is then consolidated by tamping and leveled both longitudinally and transversely. Laying is completed on same day; the joints or breaks are given at the door opening. The surface of the concrete is roughened and chequered when air dry so as to form a key for the joint with the brick wall above. Curing: Damp-proof course is to be kept wet for at least 7 days after laying, if the brickwork is not ready to proceed further. But in any case no brickwork is commenced on the freshly laid damp-proof course unless the D.P.C. has been flooded with water for at least 48 hours. [Alternatively; the damp proof course may also be of 2 cm thick layer of cement mortar (1:2) mixed with water-proofing compound or with 5% of Pudlo by weight of cement. In this case only write the specifications of sand and cement. The mixing is same as that of cement mortar for brickwork. All other clauses are same as stated above]

Flooring Brick on Edge Flooring

Bricks of the specified strength are used, conforming to its

Sub-grade: flooring.

The sub-grade is provided with the slope required for the

17

standard specification. Broken bricks are not used in the flooring except for closing the line. The bricks are laid on edge. Mortar: The mortar used is as specified. In case of dry brick flooring, fine sand is filled in the joints.

The sub-grade for flooring may be on concrete. In this case the plinth masonry off-set are depressed so as to allow the sub-grade concrete to rest on it. In case of lime concrete sub-grade, it is allowed to set for seven days. If the sub-grade is of lean cement concrete, the flooring is commenced within 48 hours of the laying of sub-grade failing which, the surface of sub-grade is roughened with steel wire brushes without disturbing the concrete. Before laying the flooring, the concrete sub-grade is made wet and a coat of cement slurry at the rate of 2 kg per sq m is spread over the prepared sub-base in order to get a good bond between sub-grade and flooring. Where concrete sub-grade is not provided, the earth below is properly sloped, watered, rammed and consolidated. Before laying the flooring, it is moistened.

Soaking of bricks: Bricks required for flooring are thoroughly soaked in stacks before use by spraying clean water sufficiently at regular intervals for a period of not less than six hours so as to keep wet to the satisfaction of the Engineer-in Charge. In case the joints are to be filled with sand, the bricks need not be soaked. Laying: The bricks are laid on edge in plain, diagonal herring bond or other pattern as specified or directed. Bricks are laid on edge on 12 mm thick mortar bed, and each brick is properly bedded and set home by gently tapping with handled trowel or wooden mallet. The inside faces are buttered with mortar, before the next brick is laid and pressed on it. The vertical joints are fully filled from the top with mortar. The surface of the flooring, during laying, is frequently checked with a straight edge at least 2 m. long, so as to obtain a true plain surface with the required slope. Dry brick flooring is laid on a bed of 12 mm thick mud mortar with the required slope.

18

Joints: All bricks are so laid that every joint becomes full of mortar. All face joints are raked to a minimum depth of 15 mm by raking tool during the progress of work when the mortar is still green in order to provide proper key for the pointing or plastering to be done. If plastering or pointing is not required to be done, the joints are struck flush and finished at the time of laying. The face of brickwork is cleaned on the same day on which the brickwork is laid and all mortar droppings removed promptly. For dry brick flooring joints are as fine as possible and not exceeding 5 mm and are filled up with fine sand. Curing: Except dry brick flooring the work is protected form rain by suitable covering when the mortar is green and is kept constantly moist for a minimum period of 7 days. Terrace Flooring over brick flat Bricks ballast that will pass through 3 cm dia. Ring, surki and lime are of their standard specifications. The ingredients are mixed at first dry and then wet to the required proportion (100 brick ballast: 36 surkhi: 18 lime as are usual). Preparation of base: Excess earth or sand that has been thoroughly compacted in the plinth is removed to a depth equal to the thickness of the floor to provide room for this. The bed is then dressed with required slope of the floor towards its water outlet. A layer of second class or picked jhama brick as specially mentioned are then laid with break joints and the small gaps between them are filled up with local fine sand. Placing of concrete: The concrete is then laid to the specified thickness and thoroughly rammed and consolidated into position till the surface is smooth and no further impression can be made. During ramming lime water is sprinkled on the surface to keep the concrete wet. Corners and edges where ramming is difficult are specially to be consolidated by wooden battens according to the direction of the Engineer-inCharge. The surface is checked frequently with spirit level and wooden straight edge to have a true surface. Curing: The floor is kept wet for at least a week.

Artificial stone flooring

Usual thickness are 2.5 cm. The ingredients are cement,

1:2:4 or specified.

as

Sub-grade: The sub-grade is provided with the slopes required for the flooring. Flooring in verandah, kitchen, baths, water-closets and courtyards

19

or Cement concrete flooring

sand and stone chips. This are also known as patent stone flooring when crushed blast surface slag is used as coarse aggregate. Coarse aggregate is stone chips well graded from 12 mm down, free from dust, dirt etc. hard and rough. Sand is coarse 5 mm maximum size, clean, free from dirt etc. Cement cement. is fresh Portland

are invariably to be provided with suitable slope to drain off waste and rain water. Plinth masonry off-sets are depressed so as to allow the sub-grade concrete to rest on it. If the sub-grade consists of lime concrete, it is allowed to set for seven days and the flooring is laid in the next three days. If the sub-grade is of lean concrete, the flooring is commenced preferably within 48 hours of the laying of sub-grade. The surface of the sub-grade is roughened with steel wire brushes without disturbing the concrete. The sub-grade may also be R.C.C. slab. In all cases the surface is cleaned and before laying the flooring, the sub-grade is wetted with a coat of cement slurry at 2 kg of cement spread over an area of one sq m so as to get a good bond between the sub-grade and concrete floor. Mixing: Mixing of concrete is done by hand or by mechanical mixer. In case of hand mixing the cement and sand are at first mixed dry and this dry mixture is further mixed with dry coarse aggregate till the coarse aggregate is well coated with dry mix of cement and sand. Required amount of water - 32 litres per bag of cement as per water cement ratio is added slowly and gradually to mix the concrete wet to have a uniform plastic mix. The mixture will have a slump of not more than 4 cm. Concrete for one panel only is mixed at one lot. Laying: Flooring of specified thickness are laid in the pattern as given in the drawings or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. The panel is of uniform size and no dimension of a panel will exceed 2m and the area of panels will not be more than 2 sq m. The whole operation of laying in one panel is completed within 30 minutes. Laying with strips: Normally cement flooring is laid in one operation using glass or plain asbestos sheet strips at the junction of two panels. This method ensures uniformity in colour of all the panels and straightness at the junction of the panels.

All the materials as stated above and water comply with their respective standard specifications.

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Strips fixing: 4 mm thick glass strips or 5 mm thick plain asbestos strips are fixed with their top at proper level, giving required slopes. Laying without strips: Laying of cement concrete flooring in alternate panels may be allowed by Engineer-in-Charge in case strips are not to be provided. Shuttering: The panels are bounded by wooded battens. The battens should have the same depth as the concrete flooring. These are fixed in position, with their top at proper level, giving required slopes. The surface of the battens that come in contact with concrete is oiled with raw linseed oil or a coat of soap solution may be applied before casting the concrete. Casting of concrete: The concrete is placed gently and evenly spread within the panel and thoroughly compacted with wooden thapies to the required thickness. The surface is then smoothed with wooden floats. The battens used for shuttering, are removed on the next day of the laying of cement concrete. The ends thus exposed are repaired, if damaged, with cement mortar 1 cement: 2 coarse sand, and allowed to set for a minimum period of 24 hours. The alternate panels are then cleaned of dust, mortar-droppings etc. While laying concrete, care is taken to see that the edges of the previously laid panels are not damaged and fresh mortar is not splashed over them. Finishing: The surface is left for some time, till moisture disappears from it. Excessive trowelling is avoided. Use of dry cement or cement and sand mixture sprinkled on the surface to stiffen the concrete or absorb excessive moisture, is not permitted. Fresh quantity of cement at 2.0 kg of cement is mixed with water to form thick slurry and spread over an area of one sq m of flooring while the concrete is still green. The cement slurry is then properly pressed and finished smooth. The men engaged in finishing operation are provided with raised wooden platform to sit on, so as to prevent damage to new work. Curing: the curing is done for a minimum period of ten days. Curing will not commence until the top layer has hardened. Covering with empty cement gunnies are avoided as the colour is likely to be bleached with the remnants of cement matter from the bags.

21

Patent floor

stone

The preparation and method of construction is the same as that of the artificial stone or cement concrete floor. The only difference is that the coarse aggregate is of crushed blast furnace slag.

Cement concrete flooring with topping of red oxide of iron

The proportion of mix is 1:2:4 (4 graded stone chips 12.5 mm nominal gauge) by volume unless otherwise described.

Sub-grade: it is as specified for artificial stone flooring. Under layer: The under layer of flooring is of cement concrete of specified thickness. As regards cement concrete the work is carried out in the manner conforming to the specification of artificial stone flooring. As regards laying the work, it is carried out in the manner specified in artificial stone flooring except that: a. b. the wooden battens used for shuttering are to be the height of both, under and top layers of the floor; the under layer is roughened with 2 mm deep diagonal lines at 7.5 cm centres both ways with a scratching tool to form a key for the finishing coat of red oxide of iron, no cement slurry being added to the concrete surface, and The battens are removed only 24 hours after the top layer has been laid. The surface of the under layer is left even and true to slope.

c.

Top layer: This consists of uniform and smooth layer of plaster of specified thickness (generally 10 mm) and of mix 1:3 (1 cement: 3 coarse sand), unless otherwise specified, finished with a floating coat of neat cement. Unless mentioned 3.5 kg. of red oxide of approved quality to 50 kg of cement is to be mixed thoroughly by hand till of uniform colour and then sand added and mixed. The full quantity of dry mortar required for a room is prepared in one lot in order to ensure uniform colour, water is then added to form a stiff paste in the usual manner as and when required. Laying: The top layer is laid, the following day after the under layer has been laid. The plaster is done to a uniform thickness, of 10 mm and finished smooth with cement slurry (2.0 kg of cement red oxide mix per square meter of flooring mixed in the ratio used) for the plaster. The surface is then brought to a fine polish by use of polishing stones.

22

The battens used for shuttering of panels are removed the next day after laying of the top layer and broken edges repaired with the same coloured mortar as in plaster. Curing: The curing is done for a minimum period of ten days. Curing is not to commence until top layer has hardened. Covering with empty cement gunnies are avoided as the colour is likely to be bleached with the remnant of cement matter from the bags.

Terrazzo Mosaic Flooring

or

The terrazzo floor consists of two layers, the under layer usually of 20 mm thick cement concrete 1:2:4 or as specified and the top layer usually 6 mm thick terrazzo consisting of cement, marble powder, marble chips in the specified proportion and water.

Under layer: Coarse aggregate for cement concrete is of granite stone chips of 12 mm gauge, sand is coarse, cement is fresh Portland cement each of them with their standard specification. Cement concrete of specified mix usually 1:2:4 is prepared following the standard specification as for cement concrete work. The bed for the under layer is cleaned and cement slurry @ 2.0 kg per sq. m is applied before laying of under layer over the cement concrete or R.C.C. surface. The whole area is divided into panels of uniform size by 4 to 6 mm glass strips or 2 mm aluminum strips with their tops at proper level, giving slopes. Each panel will not exceed 2 sq. m in area and 2 m in length for inside situations. In exposed situations the length of any side of the panel will not be more than 1.25 metres. Cement slurry @ 2.0 kg per sq m is applied before laying of under bed over concrete or R.C.C. surface. The concrete is laid within the panel and thoroughly compacted with wooden thapies with the required thickness generally 20 mm and smoothed with wooden floats. Top layer: The mix for terrazzo topping will consist of cement with or without pigment, marble powder, marble chips and water. The marble chips can be white or pink, black, yellow or any other colour as specified. These are hard, sound dense and homogeneous in texture. These are uniform in colour and free from stains, cracks, decay and weathering. For 6 mm to top layer, size of

23

marble chips are 1 to 2 mm. The minimum thickness of topping is not less than 11/3 times the maximum size of chips. The cement to be used is ordinary grey cement or white cement of required shade as specified. Colouring matter where specified is mixed dry thoroughly with the cement and marble powder and then marble chips added and mixed as specified. The full quantity of dry mixture of mortar required for a room is prepared in a lot in order to ensure a uniform colour. The mixture is stored in a dry place and well covered and protected from moisture. The dry mortar is homogeneous and stiff and contains just sufficient water to make it workable. The terrazzo topping is laid while the under layer is still plastic, but has hardened, this are normally achieved between 18 to 24 hours after the under layer has been laid. A cement slurry preferably of the same colour as the topping is be brushed on the surface immediately before laying is commenced. It is laid to a uniform thickness slightly more than that specified in order to get the specified finished thickness after rubbing. The surface of the top layer is trowelled over, pressed and brought true to required level by a straight edge and steel floats in such a manner that the maximum amount of marble chips come up and spread uniformly over the surface. Polishing, Curing and Finishing: Polishing is done by machine. About 36 hours after laying the top layer the surface is watered and ground evenly with machine fitted with rapid cutting grit blocks (carborundum stone) of coarse grade (No. 60) till the marble chips are evenly exposed and the floor is smooth. After first grinding, the surface is thoroughly washed to remove all grinding mud and covered with a grout of cement and colouring matter in same mix and proportion as the topping in order to fill any pin holes that appear. The surface is allowed to cure for 5 to 7 days and then ground with machine fitted with fine grit blocks (No. 120). The surface is cleaned and repaired as before and allowed to cure again for 3 to 5 days. Finally the third grinding is done with machine fitted with finest grade grit blocks (No. 320) to get even and smooth surface without pin holes. The finished surface should show the marble chips evenly exposed. Where use of machine for polishing is not feasible rubbing, and polishing is

24

done by hand in the same manner as specified for machine polishing except that carborundum stone is grade No. 60 for 1st rubbing, grade No. 80 for 2nd rubbing and grade No. 120 for final rubbing and polishing. After the final polish, oxalic acid is dusted over the surface @ 33 gm per square metre sprinkled with water and rubbed hard with a pad of woolen rags. The following day, the floor is wiped with a moist ran and dried with a soft cloth and finished clean.

Pre-cast terrazzo Flooring

tile

Terrazzo tiles generally conform to IS-1237 (modified up to date). The specific sizes of tiles are used. When the nominal size of a tile is 20 cm x 20 cm the actual size is 19.85 cm X 29. 85 cm and thickness are not less than 25 mm. Tolerances on length and breadth are plus or minus one millimeter; tolerance on thickness are plus or minus 5 mm. The tiles are manufactured under hydraulic pressure of not less than 140 kg per square centimeter and are given the first grinding with machine before delivery to site. The proportion of cement to aggregate in the backing of the tiles are not leaner than 1:3 by weight. The finished thickness of the upper layer is not less then 5 mm for size of marble chips from the smallest up to 6

Preparation of Surface: Sub-grade concrete or the R.C.C. slab on which the tiles are to be laid is cleaned, wetted and mopped. The bedding for the tiles are of lime mortar of either 1 lime putty: 1surkhi:2 coarse sand or 1 lime putty: 3 surki or 1 lime putty: 3 coarse sand. The ingredients are thoroughly mixed by volume in dry form. Care is taken to ensure that there are no hard lumps present. Water is then added and the ingredients thoroughly mixed. The average thickness of the bedding mortar is 30 mm and the thickness at any place is not less than 10 mm. Laying: Lime mortar bedding is spread, tamped and corrected to proper levels and allowed to harden for a day before the tiles are set. Over this bedding, neat grey cement slurry of honey like consistency is spread at the rate of 4.4 dg of cement per square meter over such an area as would accommodate about twenty tiles. Tiles are washed clean and are fixed in this grout one after another, each tile being gently tapped with a wooden mallet till it is evenly bedded, and in level with the adjoining tiles. The joints are kept as thin as possible not exceeding 1.5 mm and in straight lines or to suit the required pattern. The surface of the flooring is checked with a straight edge during laying of each tile, so as to obtain a true surface with the required slope. When full size tiles cannot be fixed, these are cut to the required size with straight edge, rubbed smooth to ensure a straight and true joint. Tiles which are fixed in the floor adjoining the wall enter not less than 12 mm under the skirting or dado. After the tiles have been laid, surplus cement grout that may have come out of the joint is cleaned off. Curing, Polishing and Finishing: The day after tiles are laid all joints are cleaned to a depth of 5 mm and all dust and loose mortar removed. Joints are

25

mm. For other size of marble chips, the finished thickness are as specially mentioned.

then grounded with grey or white cement mixed with pigment to match the shade of the topping of the wearing layer of the tiles. The same cement slurry is applied to the entire surface of the tiles in a thin coat with a view to protect the surface form abrasive damage and fill the pin holes that may exist on the surface. The floor is then kept wet for a minimum period of 7 days. The surface is thereafter grounded evenly with machine fitted with coarse grade grit blocks (No. 60). Water is used profusely during grinding. After grinding, the surface is thoroughly washed to remove all grinded mud, cleaned and mopped. It is then covered with a thin coat of cement slurry mixed with pigment as applied after laying the tiles. The surface is again cured. The second grinding is then carried out with machine fitted with fine grade grit blocks (No. 120). The final grinding with machine fitted with the finest grade grit blocks (No. 320) is carried out the day after the second grinding as described above. For small areas or where circumstances so require, hand polishing may be permitted in lieu of machine polishing after laying. For hand polishing, the following carborundrum stones are used: 1st grinding No. 60; second grinding, medium grade No. 80; and for final grinding, fine grade No. 120. In all respects the process are similar to machine polishing. After the final polish, oxalic acid is dusted over the surface at the rate for 33 gm per square metre sprinkled with water and rubbed hard with a pad of woolen rags. The following day the floor is wiped with a moist rag and dried with a soft cloth and finished clean.

Dado & Skirting Terrazzo Tiles

Terrazzo Tiles in Rises of Steps, Skirting and Dado: Terrazzo Tiles: Same as specified in 15-39. The minimum finished thickness are 12 mm. When the bigger sized chips are used, the tiles are not less than 20 mm thick. Preparation of surface: The joints are raked out to a depth of at least 15 mm in masonry walls, while the masonry is being laid. In case of concrete walls, the surfaces are roughened by hacking. The surface is cleaned thoroughly and washed with water.

26

Laying: 12 mm thick cement mortar 1 cement: 3 coarse sand or mix as specified is then applied and allowed to harden. The plaster is roughened with wire brushes or by scratching diagonal lines at close intervals. The back of tiles are buttered with a coat of grey cement slurry and edges with grey or white cement slurry with or without pigment to match the shade of tiles, and set in the bedding mortar. The lines are then tamped and corrected to proper planes and lines. The tiles are set in the required pattern and butt jointed. The joints are as fine as possible. Top of skirting or dado is truly horizontal and joints truly vertical except where otherwise mentioned. The rises of steps, skirting or dado shall rest on the top of the tread or flooring. Where full size tiles cannot be fixed, the tiles are cut to the required size and their edges rubbed smooth. Curing, Polishing and Finishing: Same as in article 15-39 shall hold good as far as applicable. Polishing is done by hand. Glazed Tiles Glazed Tiles in Skirting and Dado: Glazed Tiles: The tiles are of approved made confirming to IS 777-1970. They are flat, and true to shape and free from cracks, crazing spots, chipped edges and corners. The glazing is of uniform shade. The tiles are of nominal sizes as 150 x 150 mm and 100 x 100 mm or as specified. The thickness of the tiles are 5 mm or 6 mm as specified. The top of the tiles are completely free from glaze in order that the tile may adhere properly to the base. The edges of the tiles are free from glaze, however, any glaze it unavoidable, is permissible on any one edge of the tile. Preparation of Surface: While the masonry is being laid, the joints are raked out to a depth of at least 15 mm in masonry wall. In case of concrete wall, the surfaces are roughened with wire brushes or by scratching diagonal at close intervals. Laying: 12 mm thick plaster of cement mortar 1 cement: 3 coarse sand or mix as specified is applied and allowed to harden. The plaster is roughened with were brushes or by scratching diagonal at close intervals.

27

The tiles should be soaked in water, washed clean, and a coat of cement slurry applied liberally at the back of tiles and set in the bedding mortar. The tiles are tamped and corrected to proper plane and lines. The tiles are set in the required pattern and butt jointed. The joints are as fine as possible. Top of skirting of dado is truly horizontal and joints truly vertical unless specially mentioned. Skirting and dado shall rest on the top of the flooring. Where full size tiles cannot be fixed these is cut to the required size and their edges rubbed smooth. Curing and Finishing: The joints are cleaned off the grey cement grout with wire brush or trowel to a depth of 2 mm to 3 mm and all dust and loose mortar removed. Joints are then flush pointed with white cement added with pigments if required to match the colour of tiles. The surface is kept wet for 7 days. After curing, the surface shall not sound hollow when tapped with a wooden mallet. Thickness: The thickness of the skirting is measured exclusive the thickness of key i.e. grooves or open joints in brickwork. The average thickness should be regulated at the time of plastering by keeping suitable thickness of the gauges. Extra thickness required in dubbing behind rounding of corners at junctions of wall is ignored. Cement plaster skirting finished with red oxide of iron (a band of plaster at the bottom of wall not exceeding 30 cm in height above the floor is classified as skirting): iron Cement is fresh Portland cement and sand is medium quality, clean, free from organic matter and salts. Red oxide is of approved quality. All the materials including water is of I.S. specification. Preparation of wall surface: The joints are raked out to a depth of at least 15 mm in masonry wall, while the masonry is being laid. In case of concrete walls, the surfaces are roughened by hacking. The surface is cleaned thoroughly, washed with water and kept wet before skirting is commenced. Application of under coat: The under coat of skirting is of cement plaster of the thickness and mix described in the item. The cement plaster for under coat is laid immediately after this are prepared. The under coat is finished rough with a scratching tool to form a key for the top coat. Mortar for top coat: This shall consist of uniform and smooth layer of plaster of specified thickness and of mix 1: 3 (1 cement: 3 coarse sand) or as specified. Unless specified 3.5 kg of red oxide to 50 kg of cement (i.e. per bag) is mixed thoroughly with the cement and then sand added and mixed. The full quantity of dry mortar required for a room is prepared in one lot in

28

order to ensure uniform colour. Wet mortar is prepared in the usual manner as and when required. Application of top coat: The top coat is done the next day after the under coat has been applied. The plaster is done to the thickness specified and finished smooth, by application of cement red oxide mix at the rate of 1.0 kg sq m of surface. The ratio is 3.5 kg of red oxide to 50 kg of cement if not otherwise mentioned. When the surface has hardened sufficiently it is brought to a fine polish by use of polishing stones. Woodwork Doors window frames Timber is of teak, sal, deodar etc. as mentioned, well seasoned, dry, free from sap, knots, crack or any other defects or diseases. It is sawn in the direction of the grains. Sawing is truly straight and square. The scantling is planned smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, roundings and mouldings as shown in the drawing made, before assembling. Patching or plugging of any kind is not permitted except as provided.

and

Joints: These are mortise and tenon type, simple, neat and strong. Mortise and tenon joints shall fit in fully and accurately without wedging or filling. The joints are glued framed, put together and pinned with hardwood or bamboo pins not less than 10 mm dia. After frames are put together pressed in position by means of a press. Surface Treatment: Wood work is not painted, oiled or otherwise treated before it has been approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. All portions of timber abutting against masonry or concrete or embedded in ground is painted with approved wood primer or with boiling coal tar. Gluing of Joints: The contract surface of tenon and mortise joints are treated before putting together with bulk type synthetic resin adhesive of a make approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. Fixing in position: The frame is placed in position truly vertical before the masonry reaches half the highest of the opening with iron clamps or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. In case of door frames without sills, the vertical members are embedded in the flooring to a depth of 40 mm or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. The door frames without sills while being placed in position, is suitably strutted and wedged in order to prevent warping during construction. The frames shall also be protected from damage, during construction.

Doors

and

Specified timber is used, and it

Joinery work: All pieces are accurately cut and planned smooth to the full

29

window shutters

is well seasoned, dry, and free from sap, knots crack or any other defects or disease. Patching or plugging of any kind is not permitted except as provided.

dimension. All members of the shutters are straight without any warp or bow and shall have smooth, well planned faces at right angles to each other. In case of paneled shutters the corners and edges of panels are finished into grooves to the full depth of the groove leaving an air space of 1.5 mm and the faces are closely fitted to the sides of the grove. In case of glazed shutter, sash bars shall have mitered joints with styles. Styles and rails are properly and accurately mortised and tenoned. Rails which are more than 180 mm in width shall have two tenons. Styles and end rails of shutters are made out of one piece only. The tenons shall pass through styles for at least 3/4th of the width of the style. When assembling a leaf, styles are left projection as a horn. The styles and rails shall have 12 mm groove in paneled portion for the panel to fit in. The depth of rebate in frames for housing the shutters shall in all cases be 1.25 cm and the rebate in shutters for closing in double shutter doors or windows are not less then 2 mm. The rebate is splayed. The joints are pressed, and secured by bamboo pins of about 6 mm diameter. The horns of styles are sawn off. For battened shutters: Plank for battens are 20 mm thick unless otherwise specified and of uniform width of 125 to 175 mm. These is planned and made smooth, and provided with minimum 12 mm rebated joints,. The joint lines are chamfered. Unless otherwise specified the battens for ledges and Braces are 30 mm thick and fixed with the battens on the inside face of shutter with minimum two number 50 mm long wood screws per batten. The ledges are 225 mm wide and braces 175 mm wide, unless otherwise specified. The braces shall incline downwards towards the side on which the door is being hung. Gluing of joints for panelled or Glazed shutters: The contact surfaces of tenon and mortise joints are treated before putting together with bulk type synthetic resin adhesive of a make approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. Shutters are not painted, oiled or otherwise treated, before these are fixed in position and passed by the Engineer-in-Charge. For glazed shutters, mounting and glazing bars are tub-tenoned to the

30

maximum depth which the size of the member world permit or to a depth of 25 mm, whichever is less. Fittings: Details of fittings to be provided is as per the schedule of fittings supplied by the Engineer-in-Charge in each case. The cost of providing and fixing shutters shall include the cost of hinges and necessary screws for fixing the same. All other fittings are enumerated and paid for separately. The fittings shall conform to their respective IS specifications. Where fittings are stipulated to be supplied by the department free of cost, screws for fixing the fittings are provided by the contractor and nothing extra will be paid for the same. Steel doors windows and Steel doors and window are manufactured using rolled steel sections of the weights specified in IS: 1038 latest issue. They is fixed, centre hung, top hung, bottom hung or composite as specified. The steel is of S.T. 32-0 grade conforming to IS: 1977 or latest issue. Size: The steel doors and windows are according to the specified sizes and design. The sizes of doors and windows are calculated so as to allow 1.25 cm clearance on all four sides of openings to allow for easy fitting of door, windows and ventilators into opening. The actual sizes of doors, windows and ventilators shall not vary by more than 1.5 mm form those given in drawing. Fabrication: Both the fixed and opening frames are constructed of sections which have been cut to length and mitered. The corners of fixed and opening frames are welded to form a solid-fused welded joint conforming to the requirements given below. All frames are square and flat. The process of welding adopted may be flash or butt welding or any other suitable method which gives the desired results. Requirements of welded joints: Visual inspection test : when two opposite corners of the frame are cut, paint removed and inspected, the joint shall conform to the following: (i) (ii) (iii) Welds should have been made all along the place of meeting members. Welds should have been properly ground, and Complete cross section of the corner is checked up to see that the joint is completely solid and there is no cavity visible.

Micro and macro examinations: From the two opposite corners obtained for visual test, the flanges of the sections are cut with the help of a saw. The cut surfaces of the remaining portions are polished, etched and examined. The polished and etched faces of the weld and the base metal is free from cracks and fairly free from under cutting, overlaps, gross porosity and entrapped slag. Fillet weld test: The fillet weld in the remaining portion of the joint obtained

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is fractured by hammering. The fractured surfaces are free from slag porosity, crack, penetration defects and fusion defects. Door: The hinge pin is of electro-galvanized steel of suitable thickness and size. In case of double doors, the first closing leaf is the left hand leaf locking at the door from the push side. The first closing shutter shall have a concealed steel bolt at top and bottom. The bolts are so constructed as not to work loose or drop by their own weight. Single and double shutter door is provided with a three way bolting device. Windows: For fixed windows the frames are fabricated as described in fabrication. But side hung windows for fixing steel hinges slots are cut in the fixed frame and hinges inserted inside and welded to the frame. The hinges are of projecting types the hinge pin is of galvanized steel. Friction hinges are provided for side hung windows shutters if specified. The handle plate is welded, screwed or riveted to the opening frame in such a manner that it should be fixed before it is glazed and should not be easily removable after glazing. The handles shall have a two point nose which shall engage with a brass striking plate on the fixed frame in a slightly opened position as well as in the closed position. The boss of the handle shall incorporate a friction device to prevent handle from dropping under its own weight and the assembly is so designed that the rotation of the handle may not cause it to unscrew from the pin. The strike plate is so designed and fixed in such a position in relation to the handle that with the latter bearing against it stops; there is adequate light fit between casement and outer frame. In case where nonfriction type hinges are provided, the windows are fitted with peg stags which are either of black oxidized steel or as specified, 300 mm long with steel peg and locking brackets. The pegs stays have three holes to open the side hung casement in three different angles. Side hung casement fitted with friction hinges is not provided with a peg stay. Galvanizing: All steel surfaces are thoroughly cleaned of rust, scale and dirt. Where so specified, the steel surfaces are treated for rust-proofing by the hot dip, zinc spray or electro-galvanizing process. The rate is exclusive of final

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finishing coats but shall include the priming coat. Fixing: Where openings are flush and with a rendered finish a clearance of 1.25 cm is provided between the steel frame and opening. In the case of external masonry finish Fair-Faced and with rebated jambs a minimum 1.25 cm clearance between frame and opening is provided. Plastering and finishing Cement Plastering

Cement is fresh Portland cement and sand is medium quality, cleaned, free from organic matter or salts. All the materials including water are of standard specification. Preparation of mortar: The materials are at first mixed dry thoroughly till uniform in colour in the required proportion and then is mixed wet adding water slowly and gradually for at least four times to give a uniform paste. Only as much material is prepared at a time as can be used within the initial setting time (30 minutes) of cement.

Preparation of surface: The surface of the wall is brushed, cleaned, washed, watered and wetted with water before plastering. In case of cement plaster on cement concrete the face is lightly roughened, cleaned, washed and wetted. To ensure uniform thickness of plaster as specified, narrow strips of about 10 cm wide plaster is applied first a distance of about 1 m centres and the gaps between such strips shall immediately be filled up with mortar. Laying: The plastering is started from the top and worked towards the ground. The whole surface is made flush with wooden straight edges and rubbed thoroughly with wooden floats to ensure an even surface. Rounding of corners if desired by the Engineer-in-Charge is carried out in one operation. Curing: Plastering surface is kept wet by sprinkling water after 12 hours for at least 7 days and is protected from rain or sun.

Cement plastering with a floating coat of neat cement

Cement is fresh Portland cement and sand is medium quality, cleaned, free from organic matter or salts. All the materials including water are of standard specification

State the specification of cement plaster except for the additional floating coat which is carried out as below: When the plaster has been brought to a true surface with wooden straight edge it is uniformly treated over its entire area with a paste of neat cement and rubbed smooth, so that the whole surface is covered with neat cement coating. The quantity of cement applied for floating coat is 1.0 kg per sq m. Smooth finishing is completed with trowel immediately and in no case later

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than half an hour of adding water to the plaster mix. (Note: The floating coat may be of red-oxide. In that case 3.5 kg of red oxide to 50 kg of cement if not otherwise mentioned is mixed dry and is applied at the rate of 1.0 kg per sq m of surface area) 6 mm thick cement plaster in ceiling Scaffolding: Stage scaffolding is provided for the work. independent of the walls. These are

Preparation of surface: Projected bars of mortar formed due to the gaps at joints in shuttering are removed. The surface is scrubbed clean with wire brushes. In addition concrete surfaces are pock-marked with a pointed tool, at spacings of not more than 5 cm centres, the pocks being made not less that 3 mm deep. This is to ensure a proper key for the plaster. The mortar is washed off and surface cleaned of all oil, grease etc. and well wetted before the plaster is applied. Materials for mortar: Same as cement plaster Preparation of mortar: Same as cement plaster Laying: In the case of ceilings of roof slabs, plastering is not commenced until the terrace has been complete. This precaution is necessary in order that the ceiling plaster is not disturbed by the vibrations set up in the above operations. To ensure even thickness on a true surface, gauges of plaster 15 cm x 15 cm is first applied at not more than 1.5 m intervals in both directions to serve as guides for the plastering. Surfaces of these gauged areas are truly in plane of the finished plaster surface. The plaster is then brought to true and even surface by working a wooden straight edge reaching across the gauges. Finally the surface is finished true with wooden float. Over working of the floats are avoided. The plastering and finishing is completed within half an hour of adding water to the dry mixture. Finish: The plaster is finished to a true and plumb surface and to a proper degree of smoothness as required. The work is tested frequently as the work

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proceeds with a true straight edge not less than 2.5 m long and with plumb bob as the work proceeds. Thickness: The average thickness of plaster is not less than 6 mm. The minimum thickness over any portion of the surface is not less than 6 mm. The minimum thickness over any portion of the surface is not less than 5 mm. Curing: Plastering surface is kept wet by sprinkling water after 12 hours or when the surface has hardened sufficiently not to be damaged when watered for at least 7 days. During this period it is protected from all damages. Cement pointing: Preparation of surface: The joints of the brick work are raked out to a depth of at least 12 mm. Ranking is done with long nails bent at one end. The surface of wall including the raked joints are brushed, cleaned and washed with water and kept wet for 2 hours before pointing. Mortar: Pointing to new brickwork is done while the mortar in the joints is still green. Ingredients of mortar i.e. cement and sand is of their standard specifications and is at first mixed dry with a required proportion (1:2 or1:3) and then wet by adding water gradually and slowly to form a stiffer mortar. Pointing: For flush pointing: both horizontal and vertical joints are filled up with mortar and pressed with a pointing trowel and finished off flush with the edges of the bricks so as to produce an even appearance to the brick surface. For rule pointing: horizontal joints are at first filled up with mortar and pressed to form U-shaped horizontal lines. The vertical joints are then filled with mortar and pressed flush with the edges of bricks. During pointing work mortar is spread over the faces of bricks and the edges of the bricks are suitably protected from sum, rain and other damages.

Cement Pointing

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Sand Rubbing (applied mainly as an external wall finishing):

Unless specially mentioned the mortar is composed of 6 parts of fine sand, 2 parts of stone lime and 1 part of cement. All the ingredients are fresh, clean and they follow their respective standard specifications. Lime and sand is mixed at first before 12 hours and cement is mixed 30 minutes from the time of completion of a batch. The prepared paste is laid on about 1.5 mm thick thoroughly smoothed, rubbed and finished off. The work is kept wet for at least 3 days. (i) Coarse aggregate is of well burnt first class brick ballast of uniform deep cherry red or copper colour. It is homogeneous in texture and roughly cubical in shape. It must not be porous of with any sign of saltpeter. It is free from dust, dirt or other vegetable matters and shall pass trough 25 mm dia. Ring but retain on 6 mm squares mesh screen. It is well graded. (ii) Fine aggregate is of surki grounded from new first class bricks and shall pass through a screen 25 meshes per sq cm. Surki is of uniform colour, free from dirt, vegetable of other foreign matters. (iii) Lime is freshly burnt stone lime and is free from ash, unburnt stone particles or other foreign matters. Lime is screened at site of work through a sieve of 3 meshes per sq cm. Besides these, all the materials including water is of standard specifications. The proportioning of ingredients is by volume. Generally the internal size of boxes for measuring the materials is 35 x 28 x 40 cm deep. While measuring aggregate, shaking, ramming or heaping is not done. The proportion may be 2 parts lime 2 parts surki and 7 parts coarse aggregate or as specified.

Lime Terracing

Mixing: The mixing is done on a clean solid platform. Brick aggregate is well soaked with clean water for not less than 3 hours before mixing and it is stacked evenly on the platform. Lime and surki in the specified quantities shall at first be mixed dry till of uniform colour and it is spread over the stacked ballast. The materials are then turned over once without adding water and then at least further three times gradually adding water to give a uniform concrete. Laying: The R.C. roof slap over which lime terracing is to be laid is at least 28 days old. The surface of the R.C. is cleaned and is moistened by sprinkling clear water before laying concrete. Concrete is then laid (not thrown) on the roof slab in a single layer about 20% thicker than specified for consolidation with slope (minimum 1 in 50) towards gutter. The concrete is used when it is quite fresh, concrete left over form the previous days work shall in no circumstances be used. Consolidation: Levelled concrete surface is preliminarily rammed with 6 kg rammers. During this preliminary ramming, the surface is tested and kept perfectly true and even by means of a trowel, straight edge and spirit level. The concrete is then thoroughly consolidated by beating with wooden mallets (thapies) weighing about 1 to 2 kg slowly and gradually to the specified thickness 10 cm. The beating is systematic by lengthwise movement of two rows of labourers from two ends on the entire width of the roof. The labourers are seated close to each other in a row, shall keep on moving backwards and forwards. Special care is taken to consolidate the concrete properly at its junction with parapet wall. While the beating of concrete is going on, the surface of the concrete is frequently sprinkled with lime water and a mixture of molasses, and methi seeds for water-proofing. The quantity

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of materials per 10 sq m is as follows: molasses 1.5 kg, and methi seed 250 grams. Consolidation by regular beating will be continued until the mortar shall have almost set and the wooden mallets rebound from the surface readily when struck on it which shall generally occur after 5 days. Special care must be taken not to allow the concrete to dry before its thorough consolidation. Finishing: The surface is softened by sprinkling pure water and the mortar which is brought to the surface by beating is then rendered smooth and finished off with lime rubbed with the face of a trowel. On no account plastering is used on the surface but lime putty prepared from lime and surki (1:1) may be used if the floated mortar is found insufficient to fill the surface pores. The roof surface shall slope from all sides towards the outlet. The minimum thickness of the concrete at a junction with parapet is 7.5 cm. The lime concrete is rounded at the junction of roof slab and parapet. The finished lime concrete shall present a smooth surface with correct slopes and uniform roundings wherever they occur. The concrete is leak-proof and free from cracks. Curing: The roofing is kept wet for at least 10 days, intermittently spraying water at some intervals on straw or old gunney bags or fine sand laid on the roof. Finishes White washing Preparation of Lime-wash: The wash is prepared from fresh stone white lime. The lime is thoroughly slaked on the spot, mixed and stirred with sufficient water to make a thin cream. This are allowed to stand for a period of 24 hours and then is screened through a clean coarse cloth. 40 gm of gum dissolved in hot water, is added to each 10 cubic Scaffolding: Wherever scaffolding is necessary, it is erected on double supports tied together by horizontal pieces, over which scaffolding planks are fixed. No ballies, bamboos or planks shall rest on or touch the surface which is being white-washed. Where ladders are used, pieces of old gunny bags are tied on their tops to avoid damage or scratches to walls. For white-washing the ceiling, proper stage scaffolding is erected. Preparation of Surface: Before new work is white-washed, the surface is thoroughly brushed free from mortar droppings and foreign matter. In case of old work all loose pieces and scales are scraped off and holes in plaster as well as patches of less than 50 sq cm area is filled up with mortar of the same mix. Application: The white-wash is applied with moonj or jute brushes to the

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decimeter of the cream. The approximate quantity of water to be added in making the cream will be 5 litres of water to one kg of lime. Indigo (neel) up to 3 gm per kg of lime dissolved in water, is then added and wash stirred well. Water is then added at the rate of about 5 litres per kg of lime to produce a milky solution.

specified number of coats. The operation for each coat shall consist of a stroke of the brush given from the top downwards, another from the bottom upwards over the first stroke, and similarly one stroke horizontally from the right and another from the left before it dries. Each coat is allowed to dry before the next one is applied. Each coat is inspected and approved by the Engineer-in-Charge before the subsequent coat is applied. No portion of the surface is left out initially to be patched up later on. For new work, three or more coats are applied till the surface presents a smooth and uniform finish through which the plaster is not visible. The finished dry surface shall not show any signs of cracking and peeling nor shall it come off readily on the hand when rubbed. For old work, after the surface has been prepared a coat of white-wash is applied over the patches and repairs. The washing on ceilings should be done prior to that on walls. Protective Measures: Doors, windows, floors, articles of furniture etc. and other parts of the building not to be white-washed is protected from being splashed upon. Splashings and droppings, if any, is removed and the surface cleaned and no payment for such cleaning is made separately.

Colour washing

The same as white-washing except that the mineral colours, not affected by lime, are added to white wash. Indigo (Neel) shall, however, not be added. No colour wash is done until a sample of the colour wash of the required shade has been got approved from the Engineer-inCharge. The colour is of even shade over the whole surface. For new work, the priming coat is of white-wash with lime or with whiting as specified. For old work, a coat of colour wash is applied over the patches and repairs. The colour washed

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surface shall present a uniform finish.

Lime punning to walls

1 part of shell lime with 3 parts of stone lime is thoroughly mixed, stirred with water and then strained through a cloth to remove gritty and foreign matters, if any. Both types of lime is slaked and tempered by keeping under water for at least 7 days before use. After mixing the lime with water it is allowed to run off from the container and soft lime putty which has settled down at the bottom is taken out and used for punning.

Preparation of base: The sand plaster is cleaned thoroughly and washed with water before application of the punning. Application of punning: Lime punning is applied uniformly for 1.5 mm thick and rubbed through with wooden trowel. The coat is finished by rubbing with a steel trowel to a shining white surface. The finished surface is kept moist for seven days.

Distempering

The distemper is of the colour as specially mentioned and is thoroughly mixed with the quantity of water as prescribed by the manufacturer. Only the required quantity (generally 12 kg per 100 sq m for 1st coat and 7.5 kg for subsequent coats) is mixed at a time as required for the days work. It is well stirred before and during use to maintain an even consistency.

Preparation of surface: New plastered surface is thoroughly brushed free from mortar droppings and other foreign matter and rubbed smooth with sandpaper. Before distempering, efflorescence, if any, is wiped out with a clean cloth. New plastered surface is allowed to dry up before any operation for distempering and the surface is washed over with a solution of zinc sulphate. One kg of zinc sulphate is mixed in 10 litres of water. The washed surface is allowed to dry up. In the case of old work, all loose pieces, scales etc, is removed by rubbing with sand-paper. The surface is cleaned of all grease, dirt etc. Pits in plastering are made good with plaster of paris mixed with dry distemper of the colour to be used. The surface is then rubbed down again with a fine sand-paper and mode smooth. A coat of the distemper is applied over the patches. The prepared surface is allowed to dry thoroughly before application of regular coat.

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Application: No distemper is applied in wet weather. Distemper is applied with proper distemper brushes but not with white-wash brushes, first horizontally and then immediately crossed off vertically which together shall constitute one coat. The subsequent coats are applied only after the previous coat has dried. The finished surface is even and uniform and shall show no brush marks. The application of a coat in each room is finished in one operation and no work is started in any room, which can not be completed the same day. After the days work the brush is washed with hot water and kept dry. Painting Painting to new woodwork

Painting is carried out at the driest season of the year. All woodwork is seasoned and the surface to be painted is dry, rubbed down smooth with medium and fine sand-paper and thoroughly cleaned. Knots or holes are covered or filled in with a mixture of red lead and glue in equal quantities laid on hot, which is called knotting. Knots in resinous wood such as deodar, is painted over with hot lime and scraped off after 24 hours and be primed with red or white lead and linseed oil. When dry they is rubbed with pumicestone. Nail-holes, cracks and other inequalities are filled with putty (made of 2 parts of whiting, 1 part of white lead mixed together in linseed oil) or with a mixture of glue and plaster of paris and leveled to the surface level, known as stopping. All wood work shall receive at first a coat of priming composed of one part of white lead to eight parts. Of chalk ground and mixed together with 4 parts of double boiled linseed oil. The stopping for nail holes etc. is then rubbed down with a sand-paper before applying paint. Two coats of paints are applied over the priming coat if not otherwise specified. Ready-made moist paints or ready mixed paints of the same brand as specified are used. The paint is applied with brushes, smoothly spread in a direction opposite to that final coat (in case of 3 coats same direction for 1 st coat and opposite direction for 2nd coat) without any visible brush mark. Each coat is allowed to dry up perfectly before the succeeding coat is laid over it protecting the surface form dust or dirt. Final coat is applied in a perpendicular direction to that of 1st coat.

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The paint in the can is stirred up occasionally with a stick so that the paint does not settle down. Prepared paint is covered with water to prevent oxidation and drying, if the paint is left unused for a time in an open vessel. Guards or warning pamphlets are provided while the paints are wet to prevent sticking for unmindful visitors. Painting to Iron work All rust scales, dirt, suppliers, delivery marks, oil, grease etc. is removed by approved means before painting. Special care is taken for cleaning of corners. All structural steel work is primed with red lead before erection except the surfaces which will be in contact with concrete. Where there is likelihood of corrosion from sea atmosphere, a coat of raw linseed oil is applied on the surface immediately after cleaning and before the 1 st coat of red lead. Two to three coats of approved ready-made paint or ready-mixed paint is applied at right angles to each other after erection of the structural member. Each coat is allowed to dry up perfectly before succeeding coat is laid over it. Painting is carried out during the dry season. The plaster on walls are cleaned and primed with boiled linseed oil or glue size. The latter is not used if the walls have been white washed. In case of new cement plaster the priming coat is applied with a solution of 2.25 kg of Zinc Sulphate in 5 litres of water and when it is dried up a coat of raw linseed oil should be given. The first and second coat shall consist of white lead and boiled linseed oil. The third coat is applied with white lead only, tinted to approach the desired colour mixed with linseed oil and a small proportion of turpentine as the drier. The final coat shall consist of a larger proportion of turpentine with a little varnish to serve as a binder and it is applied evenly with a hard brush when the previous coat is still tacky. Knots, holes and cracks are stopped with putty made of whiting (ground chalk) and linseed oil. The woodwork is cleaned beforehand. The varnish is applied freely being worked well in using strong, firm strokes with brushes and spread evenly. The brushed surface is well worn and perfectly cleaned. In no case sand-papers are rubbed across the grain, which may cause the finest marks on the finished surface. Two coats of boiled linseed oil or two thin coats of glue as mentioned is applied and each such coat is allowed to dry up and rubbed down smooth with a fine sand-paper. Specified quality of Copal varnish is laid on the prepared surface in thin coats unless any other

Painting Plaster

to

Varnishing

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brand is specially mentioned. For new wood work a second coat is applied after the first coat of varnish has thoroughly been dried up. No varnishing work is allowed to be undertaken in rainy days.

French Polishing

Pure shellac varying from pale orange to lemon yellow colour, free from resin or dirt is dissolved in methylated spirit at the rate of 1.5 kg of shellac to 1 litre of spirit. Suitable pigment is added to get the required shade.

Preparation of surface: Unevenness are rubbed down smooth with sand paper and well dusted. The surface is cleaned. Visible knots, if any, is covered with a preparation of red lead, glue size laid on while hot. Holes and indentations on the surface is stopped with glaziers putty. The surface is then given a coat of wood filler made by mixing whiting (ground chalk) in methylated spirit at the rate of 1.5 kg of whiting per litre of spirit and rubbed down again with glass paper and wiped clean. Application: The polish is then applied by a pad of woolen cloth covered by a fine cotton cloth. The pad is moistened with the polish and rubbed hard on the wood in series of overlapping circle applying the mixture sparingly but uniformly over the entire area to give an even level surface. Finishing: The surface is allowed to dry and the remaining coats applied in the same way. To finish off, the pad is covered with a fresh piece of clean fine cotton cloth, damped with methylated spirit and rubbed lightly and quickly with circular motions.

Decorative waterproof cement coating (known as Snowcem, Supercem, Durocem etc. supplied in powder form and available in various colours)

These are made with a base of white Portland cement and are supplied in powder form and only requires the addition of water in one stage. The waterproof cement paint is of approved brand and manufactured as mentioned.

Preparation of surface: For new work, the surface is thoroughly cleaned of all mortar droppings, dust, and other foreign matters by use of stiff wire brushing and washing. The surface is thoroughly wetted with clean water which is allowed to run off before the water-proof coating is applied. In the case of old work, all loose pieces and scales are removed and the surface is thoroughly cleared of all dust, dirt, algae, grease etc. by stiff wire brushing and washing. Mixing: The paint is mixed in such quantities as can be used up within an hour of its mixing. The contents of each fresh container are loosened by rolling or shaking the container before opening for first time. Waterproof cement paint is mixed with water as per manufacturers; for Snowcem equal

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volumes of clean water and snowcem is mixed in a clean container and is well stirred to get uniform consistency. The lids of cement paint drums are kept tightly closed when not in use, as by exposure to atmosphere the cement paint rapidly becomes air set. Application: The mixture is applied on the clean and wetted surface with good quality broad brush or spraying machine. The mixture is well stirred during the period of application. For hand brushing horizontal strokes are given first and vertical strokes are applies immediately afterwards. The entire operation will constitute one coat. The surface is finished as uniformly as possible leaving no brush marks. Second or subsequent coats are applied after the previous coat has set for at least 24 hours. Before application of the second or subsequent coats, the surface of the previous coat is well wetted. Curing: At the end of the days work each coat is wetted with a fine water spray. Any painted surface is wetted after an interval of at least 6 to 8 hours of the application of paint. Roofing Mangalore Tiled roof (i) Battens (reepers) is from first class well seasoned structural timber as mentioned free from cracks, knots, flaws and other defects in accordance with IS : 883-1970. The size is 50 x 25 mm unless otherwise designed, sawing truly straight. Battens are treated for protection against decay and termites in accordance with IS : 401-1982. (ii) Tiles are regular in shape and size, free from flaws, chips, well burnt with an uniform dark red colour and shall give a clear ringing sound when struck. Tiles shall not absorb water more than Fixing of battens: The battens are fixed over rafters at the designed spacing and nailed. The nails shall penetrate at least 2 cm into the rafters. In the battens no joint for a length less than three spans between the rafters are permitted. Their lengths are extended only over the rafters. The joints of two adjacent rows of rafters are not permitted on the same rafter. Laying of tiles: The tiles are laid from the eaves towards the ridge properly interlocked according to the design of the tile. Tiles are laid breaking joint that is, the left channel of the upper tile shall lie in the right channel of that below and shall fit properly one to another, the catches resting fully against battens. Special mangalore ridge tiles are edge-bedded in composite mortar 1:2:9 (one part cement, two part lime and 9 parts sand) or lime mortar 1:3 (one part lime and three parts sand) and shall cover the hips and ridges of the roof. Tiles to be set in mortar shall first be soaked in water at least two hours before laying. The joints between hip and ridge tiles are grouted with composite mortar in the proportion as specified above. So as to be leak proof. The eaves line and the ridge line is perfectly straight, horizontal and parallel to each other. Special care is taken to provide an undisturbed channel at

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/6th of their weight and conform to IS: 654-1972. Ridge tiles shall conform to IS: 14641973. (iii) Nails for fixing battens are galvanized plain head nails of size 2.50 mm or 2.24 mm conforming to IS : 723-1972. (iv) Wire for tying down the tiles are galvanized conforming to IS : 280-1978.

valley. Valley gutters are minimum 1.25 mm thick and 1.2 m wide galvanized steel sheet. The valley gathers are laid over the battens and on nailed on to them from underneath. On either side of the valley, the roof is plastered with mortar as specified before to a thickness of 12 mm. Protective measure against wind: To prevent the tiles of the roof from being blown up by wind, at least the lower most course of tiles of the roof is tied to the battens or other roof structure by means of galvanized wire.

Corrugated Galvanized Iron Roofing

C.G.I. sheets are of the specified gauge. If the gauge is not specified, they is 0.63 mm thick (24 B.G.) The sheets are free from twist or buckle and shall have uniform corrugations, true in depth and pitch, and parallel to the sheet. The galvanizing is clean and undamaged in the carriage by the rubbing of zinc covering and free from ungalvanised spot or other defects.

Laying: Sheets are laid on wooden or steel purling as indicated on the working drawing. The tops of all purlins are in one plane so that the sheets may be fixed with purlins without exerting any pressure hammering. According to I.S. specification 277-1962 an end lap of 15 cm in the lengthwise direction and side laps of two corrugations are provided. In ridges and hips where plain sheets are used a lap of 23 cm is maintained. The lines of corrugations are parallel to the sides of the roof unless specified. The roof slop is not laid flatter than 1 in 4 if not otherwise specially mentioned. Holes for hook bolts etc., is drilled but not punched in the ridges of the corrugations from the underside while the sheets are on the ground. A sheet is fixed on every purlin passing under it at least at three places at three places at regular intervals. Care is taken so that all holes, on the corrugation shall occur in the ridge of the sheet as laid. Sheets are fixed to the purlins by means of 8 mm diameter galvanized hook bolts and nuts with a washer of bitumen, and a limpet washer in each fixation. The diameter of the holes in the washer is same as the G.I. bolts or hook bolts. All nuts are tightened from top of a sheet uniformly to give a leak-proof covering. Wind Ties: If specified wind ties of 40 mm x 12 mm flat iron is fixed at the end laps and eaves of the sheets. The fixing is done with the same hook bolts which secure the sheets to the purlins.

Asbestos Cement

The sheets are of the specified approved quality, and shall

Frame work: The sheets are laid on the purlins and battens as per working drawing. The maximum spacing of purlins under the sheets are 1.6 m in the

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Corrugated Sheet Roofing

conform in all respects to the I.S. specification No. IS 4591962. The sheets are free from all cracks, chipped edges or corners and any other damages.

case of 7 mm thick sheets. For 6 mm thick sheet the spacing of purlins are 1.40 m. The top bearing surface of all purlins and other members are in one plane so that the sheets can be fixed on the purlins without exerting any force. Laying: The sheet is laid with the smooth side upwards and the first sheet is laid uncut starting at the eaves. The side lap is of half a corrugation and an end lap of 15 cm minimum. Side laps should be laid on the side facing away from the prevailing monsoon winds. The free overhang of the end opposite to the direction of prevailing wind and rain. Slope: The roof slope is flatter than 1 vertical to 5 horizontal. Normal slope is usually 1 vertical t0 2 horizontal or as specified. Fixing: The sheets are fixed to purlins from top of corrugations through 9.5 mm dia. holes (1.5 mm greater than the dia. of the screws) drilled but not punched to receive 8 mm dia. galvanized iron J or L hook and nuts. The grip of the J or L hook bolt on the side of the purlin is not less than 25 mm. Each G.I.J or L hook bolt shall have abitumen washer and a galvanized iron washer placed over the sheet before the nut is screwed donw from above. At first each nut is screwed lightly and thus after a dozen of sheets are laid, the nuts are tightened to ensure a leak-proof joint. Every sheet is secured in position at six places, two at the head, two at the bottom and two at the middle. Roof ladders or planks shall always be used during laying and fixing of the sheets, to avoid damage to the sheet and to provide security to the workers. Wind ties: Unless otherwise specified wind ties are of 40 x 6 mm flat iron section and is fixed at the eave ends of the sheets. The fixing is done with the same hook bolts which secure the sheets to the purlin. Ridges and hips: Ridges are of the type as specially mentioned such as One piece plain angular for a slope exactly 30 o or Serrated adjustable or plain wing adjustable etc. as appropriate for the corrugated roof which is to be covered. Ridges and hips are of the same manufacture as the corrugated sheets used for the roof. The section is free from cracks, chipped edges or corners. The ridge sections are laid as per manufacturers instruction. The ridge is formed with the aid of a pair of ridge cappings each overlapping the other. These adjustable ridge cappings are secured to the ridge purlin by the

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same kind of bolts which are used for fixing sheeting.

Civil work in water supply and sanitation Cast Iron Water Pipes

Pipes are of approved manufacture, true, smooth and cylindricals. They is sound and of uniform casting free from laps, pin holes or other imperfections and is neatly finished. C.I. pipes are of the diameter specified and are in full length of 1.8 metres including socket ends of the pipes, unless shorter lengths are required at junctions with fittings. The pipe lengths are in each case be with socket. The pipes are supplied without ears unless otherwise specially mentioned. The pipes supplied is factory painted both inside and outside which is sooth and tenacious. Every pipe shall ring clearly when struck all over with a light hand hammer. When shorter pipes are cut from full length they is cut with a hacksaw. Nominal weight of 1.8 m length pipe without ears are 11 kg for 75 mm internal dia. pipe and 14 kg for 100 mm internal dia. pipes with a tolerance of 10%. The thickness for the above

Fixing and Jointing: Pipes are fixed on face of wall (or may be embedded in masonry, if specially mentioned in the description of the item). Plain pipes (without ears) are secured to the walls at all joints with M.S. holder bat clamps. The clamps are made from 1.6 mm thick M.S. sheet 30 mm width, bent to the required shape and size so as to fit tightly on the socket of the pipe, when tightened with screw bolts. The clamp is provided with a hook made out of 27.5 cm long 10 mm diameter M.S. bar, riveted to the ring at the centre of one semi-circular-piece. The clamps are fixed to the wall by embedding their hooks in cement concrete blocks 10 x 10 x10 cm 1:2:4 for which necessary holes are made in the wall at proper places. The clamps are kept about 25 mm clear off finished face of wall, so as to facilitate cleaning and painting of pipes; The pipes are fixed perfectly vertical or to the lines as directed. The spigot of the upper pipe is properly fitted in the socket of the lower pipe such that there is a uniform annular space for filling with the jointing material. The annular space between the socket and the spigot is filled with a few turns of spun yarn soaked in neat cement slurry. These are pressed home by means of caulking tool. More skins of yarn is wrapped if necessary and is rammed home. The joint is then filled with stiff cement mortar 1:3 well pressed with caulking tool and finished smooth at top at an angle of 45 o sloping up. The joints are kept wet for not less than 7 days by tying a piece of gunny bag four-fold to the pipe and keeping it moist constantly. C.I. fittings: The general specifications for C.I. fittings such as bends of various degrees, heads offsets, branches and shoes shall conform to those as described for pipes in (a). The fittings are supplied without ears unless otherwise specially mentioned in the item. The fixing and jointing of these specials are made as described in for pipes in (b). The shoe is fixed 15 cm above the ground level.

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mentioned pipes are of 3 mm.

Asbestos Cement Rain Water Pipes

The pipes shall conform to I.S. Code 1626 with up-to-date modification. These pipes are straight true and smooth and regular in thickness. These is sound homogeneous and free from cracks and other flaws. The pipes should be in lengths of 0.5 m 1.0 m. 1.5 m 2.0 m and 3.0 m excluding the depth of socket and the pipes are of the diameter specified in the item. The pipes are fixed in full length of 2 metres as far as possible. For 100 mm internal diameter of pipes having effective length of 2 metres, approximate weight will be 12 kg and for a length of 1.5 m approx weight should be 8 kg. Thus for 8 mm internal diameter pipes with an effective length of 2 metre, the weight is 6 kg. The weights include the weight of socket at 10 m.

Fixing and jointing: Below all joints standard holder bat clamps are fixed to secure the pipes to the face of the wall. The bat clamps shall consist of cast iron base with a projecting I shaped lug to the web of which the two semi circular halves of the flat iron clamps are bolted. The base of the holder bat clamp is screwed on a pair of wooden plugs fixed in the wall with its screw of slotted counter sunk head wood screws driven through the holes in the base. These screws are not less than 75 mm long for 80 mm diameter pipes and for 100 mm diameter pipes. The plugs are fixed on the wall to a depth of 15 cm, in cement mortar 1:2 centrally to the holes in the base of the bat clamps. The bat clamps are well galvanized. The spigot of the upper pipe is properly fitted into the socket of the lower pipe, such that there is uniform annular space of filling with the jointing materials. One third depth of this annular space between socket and spigot is filled in with spun yarn soaked in bitumen such as cut back bitumen of approved quality, and properly pressed with caulking tool. The remaining 2/3 rd depth of the joint is filled in with stiff cement mortar 1:2 and is pressed with caulking tool and finished smooth at top at an angle of 45 o sloping up. The will be cured for a period of 7 days by tying a piece of gunny bag, four fold, to the pipes and keeping it wet. Finish: the pipe line is truly vertical or to lines and slops as directed and is at a distance 40 mm from the finished face of the wall.

Indian Pattern water closet

All materials and fittings used in the construction shall conform to lines additions of the relevant Indian Standard.

Flushing cistern: The flushing cisterns are manually operated (for domestic purpose) or high level as specified. The flushing cisterns are manually operated (for domestic purpose) or high level as specified. The cistern may be cast iron or porcelain as specified and shall have a removable cover which shall fit closely on it and be screwed against displacement. In the case of high

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The Indian pattern water closet pans are either of white glazes earthenware, white vitreous China or white glazes fire clay as specified. The pan is long pan pattern (size 430 mm) or Orissa pattern (size 580 mm) size, make, design and approved by the Engineer-inCharge. Each pan shall have an integral flushing rim of suitable type. It shall also have an inlet or supply horn for connecting the flush pipe. The flushing rim and inlet is of the self draining with weephole at the flushing inlet to the pan. A pan is provided with a 100 mm Sand Cast iron (S.C.I.) trap P or S type with approximately 50 mm water seal and 50 mm dia. vent horn where required by the Engineer-in-Charge.

level cisterns, the outlet is of 32 mm nominal bore and in the case of low level cistern; the outlet is 40 mm nominal bore. The discharge rate of the cistern is about 5 litres in 3 seconds when connected to an appropriate flush pipe, and there is no appreciable change in the force of flush during the period of discharge. The cistern shall have a discharge capacity of 5 or 10 litres as specified. A high level cistern shall have to operate with minimum height of 125 cm and a low level cistern with a maximum height of 30 cm between the top of the pan and the underside of the cistern. The body thickness of a cast iron cistern shall not at any place, be less than 0.5 cm. The body of a pressed steel cistern is of seamless or welded construction of thickness not less than 1.6 mm and is porcelain enameled or other-wise protected against corrosion. All working parts are designed to operate smoothly and efficiently. Cistern is mosquito-proof. A cistern is considered mosquito proof only if there is no clearance any where which would permit a 1.6 mm wire to pass through in the flushing position or filling position or over-flow position. The siphonic action of a flushing cistern is capable of being rapidly brought into action by the operation lever, but shall not self siphon or leak. Fixing of pan: The pan is sunk into floor and embedded in a cushion of average 15 cm cement concrete 1:5:10 (1 cement:5 sand: 10 brick ballast of 40 mm size). The concrete is left 11.5 cm below the top level of the pan so as to allow for flooring and its bed concrete. The joint between the pan and the trap is made leak-proof with cement mortar 1:1. Fixing of flushing cistern: The cistern is fixed on C.I. or R.S. cantilever brackets which is firmly embedded in the wall in cement mortar 1:4 (1 cement: 4 fine sand) or fixed by using wooden plugs and screws. The outlet or flush pipe from the cistern is connected to the pan by means of cement or putty joint. The flush pipe is fixed to wall by using holder butt clamps. Foot rests: After laying the floor, as specified, a pair of foot rests not less than 25 x 13 x 3 cm of white glazed earthenware is set in cement mortar (1 cement: 3 sand). The position of foor rest from its inside back edge is 17.5 cm of the pan for a 500 mm (inside) pan. All sanitary and plumbing works are carried out through licensed plumbers. On completion of the work the site is cleaned and all rubbish is disposed off

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as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

European pattern water closet

Water-closets: Water closets are white glazed earthenware, white vitreous China or white glazed fire clay as specified and approved by the Engineer-inCharge. At base of each watercloset there is 4 holes having a minimum diameter of 6.5 mm for fixing to floor. Each watercloset shall have an integral trap with either P or S outlet with at least 50 mm water seal. In order to enable an efficient flush the inside surface of water-closets and traps are uniform and smooth.

Hand Basin

Flushing cistern and Flush pipe: Same as Indian Pattern Wash basin is of white glazed earthenware, white vitreous China or white glazed fire clay as specified. The size of the basin may be 630 X 450 mm or 550 X 400 mm flat back as specified. For angle back, the size may be 600 X 400 mm or 400 X 400 mm as specially mentioned. Basin is provided

Fixing of wash basin: The installation shall consist of an assembly of wash basin, pillar taps, R.S. or C.I. brackets, lead or porcelain pipe, stop-cock and waste pipe. The height of front edge of wash basin from floor level is 80 cm. The basin is supported on a pair of R.S. or C.I. cantilever brackets with two coats of approved paint in cement mortar (1 cement: 3 sand) or fixed in position by means of wooden plugs and screws. The R.S. or C.I. brackets shall conform to I.S. 775. If not otherwise specified, the brackets are 40 x 40 x 6 mm angle or T iron brackets. The wall plaster on the rear is cut to rest over-hang the top edge of the basin. After fixing the basin, plaster is made good and surface finished matching with the existing one. White glazed pedestals for wash basin are provided where specified. The quality and colour of the pedestal is exactly the same as that of the basin

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with single or double taps holes as specified. The tap holes are square. Each basin shall have a circular waste hole to which the interior of the basin shall drain. Each basin is fitted and fixed and provided with a non-ferrous or approved brand 32 mm dia. waste fitting. To discharge the waste water from a basin 32 mm dia. G.I. or P.V.C. waste pipe coupling at one end fitted with brass or aluminium nut is provided for a length of 60 to 105 cm as required. To receive the brackets on the underside of a wash basin stout slots not exceeding 13 mm diameter 5 mm high and 300 mm from the back of basin to the centre of stud is suitable. Each basin shall have an integral soap holder recess or which shall fully drain into the bowl. All the waste fittings are chromium plated of grade B type conforming to IS specification 1068. The basin is provided with one or two 15 mm chromium plated (C.P) brass pillar taps as specified and one C.P. stop-cook on the supply line of grade B conforming to IS 1068. The lead or porcelain connection pipe as specially mentioned is of the specified diameter and length 30 to 45 cm

which is to be installed. It is capable of supporting the basin rigidly and adequately and is so designed as to make the height from the floor to top of the rim of basin 75 to 80 cm. All sanitary and plumbing works are carried out through licensed plumbers. On completion of the work the site is cleaned and all rubbish disposed off as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

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with wiped solder joints. A sample of each kind of fitting is duly approved from the Engineer-in-Charge and all supplies made according to the approved samples. Galvanized Iron water pipes The pipes are galvanized mild steel welded pipes and seamless, screwed and socket tubes conforming to the requirement of I.S. 1239 for medium grade. They is of the diameter (nominal bore) specified in the description of the item. The pipes, sockets and pipe fittings are cleanly finished, well galvanized and free from cracks, surface flaws, laminations and other defects. The fittings shall have screw threads at the ends, clean and well cut. The ends are cut cleanly, and square with the axis of the tube. Female threads on fittings are parallel and male threads are tapered. Cutting, laying and jointing: The pipes are inspected before use to ascertain that they conform to the specification given above. Where the pipes have to be cut or rethreaded, the ends are carefully filed out so that no obstruction to bore is offered. The end of the pipes are then threaded conforming to the IS 554 with pipe dies and taps carefully in such a manner as will not result in slackness of joints when the two pieces are screwed together. The taps and dies is not used for turning the threads so as to make them slack, resulting in the joints being not water tight. The screw threads of pipes and fittings are protected from damage until they are fitted. In jointing the pipes, the insides of the socket and the screwed end of the pipes are oiled and rubbed over with white lead and a few turns of spun yarn wrapped round the screwed end of the pipe. The end is then screwed in the socket, Tee, bend with the pipe wrench. Ground piping, it is thickly coated with approved anticorrosive paint to prevent corrosion. The pipes and fittings shall run on surface of the wall unless otherwise specified. The fixing is done by means of standard pattern holder butt clamps of required shape and size so as to fit tightly keeping the pipes about 1.5 cm clear of the wall. The clamps are embedded in brick-work in cement mortar (1 cement: 3 sand)at regular intervals in straight length. The clamps are fixed at shorter length near bends and fittings as directed by the Engineer-inCharge. When it is found necessary to conceal the pipes chasing may be adopted or pipes fixed on ducts providing sufficient space to work on the pipes with the usual tools. All pipes and fitting is fixed truly vertical and horizontal unless unavoidable. Testing the joints: After laying and jointing, the pipe line is inspected under pressure and flow of water. Any joint found leaking is redone and all leaking

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pipes removed and replaced free of coat. The pipes and fittings after they are laid is tested to hydraulic pressure of 6 kg/cm2 (60 meters). Glazed stoneware pipes Stoneware pipe: All pipes with spigot and socket ends shall conform to IS 651 up to date of publication and is of grade as specified. These are sound, free from visible defects such as fire cracks or hair cracks. The glazes of the pipes are free from crazing. The pipes shall give a sharp clear note when struck with a light hammer. There are no broken blisters. The internal diameter of the pipe may be 100 mm, 150 mm or 200 mm as specified. The length of pipes is 60 cm exclusive of the internal depth of the socket. The approximate thickness of the barrel and of socket of the above pipes is 12 mm, 16 mm and 17 mm respectively. Trenches: The trenches for the pipes are excavated to lines and level as directed. The bed for the pipes shall have to be truly and evenly dressed throughout from one inspection chamber to the next. The gradient as specified (according to IS 1742 for 100 mm 1 in 57, 150 mm 1 in 100, 200 mm 1 in 145) is to be set out by of the pipe. The width at bottom of trenches up to an average depth of 120 cm is diameter of pipe + 30 cm. Laying: All pipes are laid on a bed of 15 cm cement or lime concrete as specified, projecting on each side of the pipe, to the specified with of the trench. The pipes with their crown level at 1.20 m depth and less from ground is covered with 15 cm thick concrete. The pipes are carefully laid to the alignments, levels and gradients shown on the plan and sections. Great care is taken to prevent sand etc. from entering the pipes. The pipes between two inspection pits (or manholes) are laid truly in straight line without vertical or horizontal undulation. The pipes are laid with socket up the gradient. The body of the pipe shall for its entire length rest on an even bed of concrete and places are excavated in the concrete to receive the socket of the pipe. Jointing: Tarred gasket or hemp yarn soaked in thick cement slurry shall first be placed round the spigot of each pipe and the spigot is slipped home well into the socket of the pipe previously laid (as in fig. 7-22). The pipe is then adjusted and fixed in the correct position and the gasket caulked tightly home so as to fill more than 1/4th of the total depth of the socket. The remaining depth of the socket is thoroughly filled with a stiff mixture of cement mortar in the proportion of 1:1. When the socket is filled, a fillet is formed round the joint with a trowel, forming an angle of 45o with the barrel of the pipe. After a days work any extraneous material is removed from the inside of the pipe. The newly made joints are cured for at least three days. Testing of joints: Stone ware pipe used for sewers are subjected to a test pressure of 2.5 m head of water at the highest point of the section under test. If any leakage is visible, the defective part of the work is cut out and made good. A slight amount of sweating which is uniform may be allowed but excessive sweating portion is rectified. Any joint found leaking, is rectified or embedded into 15 cm layer of concrete (1:2:4) 30 cm in length. Refilling: The backfilling earth is packed by hand and rammed with a light tamper. No tamping should be done within 15 cm of the top of pipe.

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