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The Byzantine Empire (600-1200)

Chapter 9
Christian Europe Emerges (600-1200)
•Christianity official
•Continued the Roman
rule
•Combined imperial rule
Proof of Reading with the Christian
church An Empire
Beleaguered
Consideration Points: •At first, the fact that
there was a emperor
•What role did Christianity play in
brought stability. Later,
reshaping European society in east and
Islamic rule caused more
west?
than 2/3 of the people to
•How did the Roman heritage differently convert to the Muslim
affect the east and the west? faith.
•How can one compare Kievan Russia’s •This and the loss of
resemblances to western Europe and to other territories.
the Byzatine Empire?
•Although relationship
How did Mediterranean trade and the with Roman Latin Pope
Crusades help revive western Europe? was great at first, it
deteriorated.
•In 1054, the Orthodox
Cheng Chen Church created a formal
schism between it and
18th of October of 2007
the Latin Church.
4th Hour: Belch
AP World History
Early Medieval Europe (600-1000)
Society and Urban Life
•As the roman imperial power declined the
•At first, the Imperial power sheltered the local nobles rose in power.
Byzantium from many of the population loss
problems in Western Europe. •Weaker peasants sought the protection of
lords with castles more than distant kings.
•However, the 527-565 Bubonic Plague (Plague of
Justinian [Rule @ the Time]) was shared •This style of local courtship continued after
throughout Europe and Asia. the decline of the Western Roman empire.
•Egypt and Syria were lost to the Muslims.
A time of Insecurity
•As time passed on, the traditional class of local
urban notables nearly disappeared and barter, at •711 Arabs and Berbers under the
many places, replaced money. Umayyad Caliphate attacked Spain and
kicked out the Visigoths. They then
attacked France and were only stopped
•With the shrinkage of urban elites, by Charles Martel in 732.
the aristocrats of imperial courts
became more and more powerful. •The Carolingian family were at firs
protectors of Frankish kings, then kings
•Women lost more power and stayed
themselves after Pepin (father of
home more often. Charlemagne), then finally emperors.
•The technological advances of these
•After Charlemagne’s sons Louis and
Eastern Europeans were slower and Pious died, the land was split into 3
later than that of Western Europeans.
parts (French area, Burgundy, and a
•The social conditions in the Byzantine German area) in the Tready of Verdun
empire is slowly deteriorating. (843).
•Charlemagne was illiterate.
•By 793, Vikings were the new threat. They were sea raiders
from Scandinavia.
Cultural Achievements
•The ships of Vikings allowed them to cross the North
•The greatest monument was Atlantic and into rivers of West Europe.
Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia
(“Sacred Wisdom”) •These Norsemen pushed into Europe and eventually
attacked Muslim Sicily, causing 30 years of fighting that
separated it from the Muslim world.
A Self Sufficient Economy
•As the Roman empire declined and the Germanic local political order rose,
The Western Church
society declined. •The Roman nobles lost control of
•Roads were un checked and grand marble buildings were not maintained. the papacy, the office of the Pope.
•Urbanization dissipated and gave rise to villages and thatched houses in •This office eventually became a
Politics and the Church
the country side.
powerful international position. •Both Oeoin and Charlemagne
•Coinage gave way to much barter and trade. were strong supporters of the
•The Councils of bishops set the
•The people in the northern areas traded much less and depended on their rules called “canons” for their Pope.
meager lands. (However, the food they had was considerably better and
more than their descendants 300 years later.)
people. •The Holy Roman Empire had
little influence west of the Rhine
•Southern people kept the Roman diet and rarely traded.
River.
•Manors of self-sufficient farming rose in popularity in both the north and
south. •There has always been power
tension between a Pope and an
•Since there was a lot of insatiability, the land owners gave way as
protectors for their sworn workers.
emperor/king. This can be defined
with the term investiture
•The nobles had quite a lot of power over the serfs, the workers. controversy.
•Slavery gave way to more and more serfs.
•Henry IV defined Pope Gregory’s
Early Medieval Society in the West reforms. This caused him to be
excommunicated. He was later
•Individual advancement became harder with the backward step in society.
However, higher class people reaped the benefits. forgiven, but then forced Gregory
to flee from Rome to Salerno.
•The warriors started focusing on horses and mounted fighting. This was essential
to the Carolingian army. •The tension was slightly reduced
•This became a feudalism. when the Concordat of Worms
was made in 1122 in Worms,
•Soon stirrups were invented and armor of the knights became important.
Germany.
•At first, knights had open face armor and then slowly evolved into a more Monasticism
protective type.
•The expensiveness of knights created a correlation to the size of their land. •Monasticism was the practice of living with celibacy away from
society.
•Fief was a grant of land in return for military service.
•Noble followers on lands were vassals. They may be granted by kings in fief
•Monasteries preserved literacy and learning during the
agreements. Medieval times.
•Vassals may also have had their own vassals. [We see a hierarchal structure] •Convents were places for females/widows to seek spiritual
•Monasteries and nunneries fell under the jurisdiction of the church. exercises.
•Marriages were used as financial and social tools of advancement. •A bishop had power over an abbot or abbess, however, he
•Women could own land. During war time, a noblewomen could have administered
could not control what actually occurred at these areas. These
their men’s land. abbots may at certain point allianced with others besides the
sides of the bishops.
•Many women were also artisans. This included embroidery, weaving, sewing, etc.
Kievan Russia (900-1200) Western Europe Revives (1000-1200)
•During this time, food surplus
increased.
The Rise of the Kievan State •This may be due by new
technologies.
•The Russians were Slavic-speaking
Varangians. The Role of Technology
•The people of this new government •At the time, the advancement of technology came back.
actually debated on choosing the best
national religion from many sources. •Between 1000-1200, the Western European population
doubled.
•New plowing technology allowed farmers to farm on
previously difficult lands and areas.
•Iron horseshoes were widely adopted during this
Society and Culture period.
•Political power from landowning was more •Camel movement is still in Tunisia these days.
important than from landholding.
Cities and the Rebirth of Trade
•Artisans enjoyed a higher status than normal
•Communes originally defended
farmers.
independent cities.
•There was Christianity but not very strong.
•These communes eventually turned to
•Many women still created multitheistic manufacturing for trade.
clothing.
•Eventually, Christianity spread throughout
Kievan Russian.