Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

IGNITION

Initiation of a combustion reaction process i.e. Starting of flames in gaseous phase. Ignition of gaseous fuels is easier than liquid and liquid easier than solid fuels. Example: Aircraft combustion chamber, flame extinction can result due to rain droplet ingestion. Understanding IGNITION phenomenon is crucial for the calculation of energy required for ignition and location of igniting source. Two basic methods of ignition: Spark ignition (=10kV) and Naked flame ignition ~ 20J.

Octane Number
The octane rating of gasoline tells you how much the fuel can be compressed before it spontaneously ignites. When gas ignites by compression rather than because of the spark from the spark plug, it causes knocking in the engine. OCTANE is a hydrocarbon, a colourless liquid obtained during crude refining. Higher the octane number, higher the compression ratio the fuel mixture can withstand. One member of the octane family, isooctane, is used as a reference standard to benchmark the tendency of gasoline/petrol or LPG fuels to resist self-igniting. Heptane handles compression poorly. Thus, an 87 octane fuel has 87% Iso-octane and 13% Heptane.

It is possible for a fuel to have a Research Octane Number (RON) more than 100, because ISO-octane is not the most knock-resistant substance available. Racing fuels, avgas, LPG and alcohol fuels such as methanol may have octane ratings of 110 or significantly higher. Typical "octane booster" gasoline additives include MTBE, ETBE, isooctane and toluene. Lead in the form of tetraethyl lead (TEL) was once a common additive, but its use for fuels for road vehicles has been progressively phased-out worldwide, beginning in the 1970s. Typical "octane booster" gasoline additives include Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), Methyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), isooctane and toluene.

Research Octane Number (RON) The most common type of octane rating worldwide is the Research Octane Number (RON). RON is determined by running the fuel in a test engine with a variable compression ratio under controlled conditions, and comparing the results with those for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane. Motor Octane Number (MON) There is another type of octane rating, called Motor Octane Number (MON), which is a better measure of how the fuel behaves when under load, as it is determined at 900 rpm engine speed, instead of the 600 rpm for RON. MON testing uses a similar test engine to that used in RON testing, but with a preheated fuel mixture, higher engine speed, and variable ignition timing to further stress the fuel's knock resistance.

Depending on the composition of the fuel, the MON of a modern gasoline will be about 8 to 10 points lower than the RON, however there is no direct link between RON and MON. Normally, fuel specifications require both a minimum RON and a minimum MON. Anti-Knock Index (AKI) In most countries, including Australia and all of those in Europe the "headline" octane rating shown on the pump is the RON, but in Canada, the United States, Brazil, and some other countries, the headline number is the average of the RON and the MON, called the Anti-Knock Index (AKI, and often written on pumps as (R+M)/2). It may also sometimes be called the Pump Octane Number (PON).