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In Malaysia, the issues of ethnicity and development have been closely interlinked. Especially after the race riots in Kuala Lumpur in 1969, when more than 200 people, most of them Chinese, were killed. A simplified explanation of the events is that the Malays feared becoming subordinate to the Chinese, immigrants in their society who control the larger share of capital in Malaysia. The New Economic Policy was then Invented to assure that the generally poorer Malays be able to participate in and take part of the rapid development taking place. It was also meant to terminate the connection between ethnicity and economic function. A system which had been promoted by the British colonialists on racist grounds and which had created inequalities between groups. With the NEP, the Malays were given special privileges over the other groups as Bumiputeras or sons of the soil.

In the Borneo state of Sabah, the picture is even more complex. Many indigenous groupings, not belonging to the above mentioned groups, make up a large percentage of the population. While these have also been given bumiputera status, the term and the measures associated with this have still been focussed on the Malays. Sabah has the highest incidence of poverty in the federation , and the economy still relies a lot on farming and the growing of cash crops such as rubber and cocoa. An increase in living standards has been seen also here since the inclusion of the state into the federation of Malaysia, but there is reason to suggest that Sabah can be considered a peripheral state in economic terms. The Kadazan Dusun as they are currently called is the largest ethnic group in Sabah, comprising about 18.5% of the total population . They are normally classified, and represent themselves, as indigenous to the state. KD is in fact a label comprising several related groups, who speak Dusun languages. The group itself is thus far from homogenous.

2. The Early History of Kadazan people. Some believe that the Kadazan ancestors came from present day Yunnan in Southern China. Other says that they came from Mongolia and mixed with Tiong-Kok. The late Rev. Fr. Joseph Dapoz, described in a book entitled The Last Dinosour, said that the Kadazans are Mongoloans in origin. He argued that they have the Mongolian birth mark called pihoh in the Kadazan language. The birth mark is found on the back side of newlyborn Kadazan babies.



Going back to prehistoric history, it was said that there were waves of migration among Asia people Southwards from mainland Asia which we now as China and Mongolia. According to some writers of prehistoric Asia, the last waves of migration occurred before the second ice age was between 150,000 to 200,000 years ago. It was argued that they went to settle in Taiwan first. Some writers stated that there were north-bound migrations from the south. There were two groups, one group was of dark skin with curly hair and the other group was to be fair-skinned.

A new theory had emerged that the migrations started from South East Asia where modern human arrived about 50, 000 years ago. According to this theory, the ancestors of the Kadazan people were among the earliest settlers of South East Asia. The Out Of Taiwan theory was refuted by a study conducted by Leeds University which is supported by HUGO ( Human Gnome Organization ). The Out Of South East Asia is a newest theory on migration among Asian peoples.

Place Guarded by Majestic Nulu Aki Nabalu When the sea level rose up after the second age, the groups of migrating people from the north were trapped within the shores of island that were created as the result of higher sea level. The island of Borneo was one of these islands. The Kadazan ancestors settled at a particular part of Borneo which later came be known as North Borneo. When they reached this land for the first time, they saw a majestic mountain rising high into the sky. They believed that this is the land where Hinokizan the name for the God in their language, had called them to settle down and call home. This is where they had lived, eked a living, died and were buried. Their descendants had lived here ever since. They will continue to live in this land until the end of time.

Most of the present day Kadazans still revere this mountain which their ancestors named Nulu Aki Nabalu. This mountain is still called Nulu Aki Nabalu ( now Mt. Kinabalu ) by that name to this day.

There are many explanations and theories about the origins and meanings of the word Kadazan. Some of the more popular explanations put forward to explain the origins and meanings of the word Kadazan are : Firstly, it is believed that the word came from Kakadazan, which means towns. Secondly, it is believed that the word from kedaian,


EDU3106 CULTURE AND LEARNING 2012 derived from the word kedai and supposedly to mean, people of the town. Thirdly, it is believed that the word came from Kedayan, the name of an ethnic group, residing mainly in Brunei and Labuan andnot identified as part of the so-called Dusunic peoples. Fourthly, it is believed that Kadazan means the people. And fifthly, that the term was coined by politicians. The first explanantion that Kadazan came from Kakadazan. Kakadazan in the Tangaa dialect means towns. Did the Penampang and Papar Kadazan really name themselves after word town? If so, why? Presumably, part of this view is the belief that the word Kadazan was coined in the late 1950s and early 1960s. to judge the merits of this explanation, we have to consider the historical background of urban development in the Penampang Districts. In the 50s, there were only two towns, namely Donggongon and Kasigui. Donggongon had about 20 shops arranged in two rows on each side of the road, and Kasigui had about 10 shops built on one side of the road. Except for one shop, all the shops in both Donggongon and Kasigui were owned by Chinese. The Penampang Kadazans were scattered in numerous villages in the Penampang District . The second explanation for the origin of the word Kadazan was derived from the word Kedaian from the Malay word Kedai. The writer looked for the word Kedaian in the Kamus Dewan, a Malay dictionary but failed to find such a word. Why would a group of people look for a non-existent foreign word to call themselves? Again those who espouse this explanation have not come up with valid reasons why the people of Penampang and Papar called themselves after a shop. The third explanation is that the word Kadazan came from the word Kedayan, which is the name of an ethnic group living mainly in Brunei and Labuan. In this explanation, it is not clear as to when this so-called change was made. As the Kedayan people are not part of the so-called Dusunic group, there was and it is very little contact between the two groups. In pre-Chartered Company days, any contact between disparate groups usually means war, and the Kedayans were residing too far away from Penampang to have any significant relationships with them and to have influenced them to adopt their ethnic name. Those who put forward this explanation have not given any reasons why the Kadazans of Papar and Penampang had decided to call themselves after the Kedayans. Moreover, the word Kedayan is pronounced as [ kedayan ], therefore


EDU3106 CULTURE AND LEARNING 2012 Kadazan Dusun Sub-Ethnic groups

Kadazan dusun is the collective name for more than 40 sub-ethnic groups which can be divided to three main groups:the Kadazan/Dusun, Murut and Orang Sungai.

Kadazan/Dusun group: Central Dusun(Bundu-Liwan of Ranau,Tambunan,Keningau and Papar that is the largest Dusun,Tindal of Kota Belud,Tuaran and Tamparuli,Sinulihan of Kiulu, Penampang, Inanam, Menggatal and Telipok,Tagahas of Ulu Papar in Penampang and Papar interior and in western Tambunan,Tuhawon of Kg. Tikolod,Tambunan,Tolinting of Kg. Tolinting, Ranau, and Tibabar of Kg. Tibabar,Tambunan)

Kimaragang Dusun (Tobilung,Tagas,Talantang/ Tandek /Maragang, Sandayoh, Sonsogon, Sukang and Tagaro) Kadazan /Tangarah/ Tangaa' (Kadazan Penampang, Kadazan Papar) Kadazan dusun of Klias that is Tatanah, Tutung and Kadazan of Membakut, and Bisaya Dusun Lotud of Tuaran Rungus of KUdat, Langkon (Kota Marudu) and Pitas Dusun Kwijau /Kuriyou /Kuyau of Ulu Monsok and Bingkor Keningau Dusun Gana of Bingkor,Keningau Dusun Bonggi of Pulau Banggi,Kudat Dusun Minokok of Ulu Kinabatangan Dusun Mangkaa'k of Beluran Dusun Pingas of Ulu Kinabatangan. Murut group: Tagol Timugon Paluan Keningau Murut Baukan Tenggara of Ulu

Kinabatangan,Sandakan Lun Dayeh Tidong Okolod,Selungai and Serundung Murut near Kalimantan .

Orang Sungai group: Abai Sungai of Kuala Abai,Kinabatangan Sungoi Sungai of Beluran,Sandakan Tambanua Lingkabau Dumpas Dusun Ulu Kinabatangan

(Rumanau/Tampias Lobu, Lanas Lobu, Lobu, Makiang, Kolobuan, Sinobu and Malapi)

The Kadazan dusun ethnic group make up 1/3 of 3.2milion Sabah's population. 600,000 are the Central Dusun.


EDU3106 CULTURE AND LEARNING 2012 Religion In Sabah, a line has traditionally been drawn between Christian and Muslim indigenous Peoples. As part of their melanisation campaign the Berjaya government, and Mustapha before that, sponsored mass conversions to Islam among the groups of the interior areas.25 They also actually encouraged the inflow of illegal immigrants, giving them Identity Cards and the right to vote in order to win the census . The immigrants are almost entirely Muslim and with their incorporation in society, the Muslim groups of the state would be able to hold on to power

The majority of the Kadazan dusuns are Christians, mainly Roman Catholics and some Protestants. Islam is also practiced by a growing minority. The influence of the Spanish missionaries from the Philippines resulted in Christianity, in its Roman Catholic form, rising to prominence amongst Kadazans. A minority of them are Protestants due to later British influence during the 20th century. Before the missionaries came into scene animism was the predominant religion. The Kadazan belief system centres around the spirit or entity called Kinorohingan. It revolved around the belief that spirits ruled over the planting and harvesting of rice, a profession that had been practiced for generations. Special rituals would be performed before and after each harvest by a tribal priestess known as a bobohizan.