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Definition of Learning and Teaching Process Learning is defined as the process of behavior change in individual because there are

interaction between the individual and its environment. Someone after experience learning process, will experience behavior change, both in aspects of knowledge, skills, and attitude. Example: from cant to can, from not understanding to understanding, from hesitant to believe, and from impolite to polite. Criteria for success in learning is marked with occuring behavior change in individual who learn. Teaching is an act that requires a moral responsibility that is quite heavy. The successful of education on student is very dependent on teacher accountability in implement their duties. Teaching is an act or work that is unique, but simple. Unique because it is related to human who learn, that is the students, and human who teach, that is the teacher, and closely related to human beings in a society which all show the uniqueness. Simple because the teaching implement in a practical situation in everyday life and easily comprehended by anyone. So, learning and teaching process is a process contains a course of teachers and studentss conduct on the basis of interaction that takes place in educational situation to achieve a specific objective. In teaching and learning process, there are principles of teaching and principle of learning. 1. Learning Principle a. Learning Principles According to Mitchell (1987) in The Trainer's Handbook 1. Learn what is ready to learn 2. Learn the best from what we've done 3. Learn from mistakes 4. Learn more easily to something that we know 5. Like the sense of differences in learning 6. Learn methodically and systematically

7. Cant learn something that isnt understood 8. Learn through practice 9. Learn better when we know our progress 10. Give better respond when what we learn is presented uniquely to each person. b. Learning Principles According to Rogers in Freedom to Learn 1. Desire for Learning According to Rogers, humans have a natural desire to learn. It is easy to prove, for example by observing how curious children if theyre exploring their environment. Curious urge to learn is a basic assumption of humanistic education. In the humanistic class, childrens are given the freedom to satisfy the curiosity impulse, to full their interest, and to find what is important and meaningful about the world around them. This orientation very contradicts with the old-style classes where teacher or curriculum determines what should be learned by the children. 2. Useful Learning This matter occurs when what is learned are relevant with students needed and mean. Students will learn quickly if what is learned to have meaning for them. For example, students quickly learn to count pennies because the money can be used to buy a game that they like. 3. Learning Without Threat According to Rogers, learning is easy to do and the results can be stored properly if it takes place in an environment that free of threats. The learning process goes smoothly if students can test their ability, can try new experiences, or make mistakes without get usual criticisms that offend. 4. Learning On Own Initiative For the humanist, the most meaningful learning if it is done on their own initiative and involves the feelings and students thoughts. Able to choose the own direction learning very motivate and extend opportunities for students to learn how to learn. No doubt that got lesson matter is important, but it isnt more important than obtaining skills to seek and find

the source, formulate the problem, test the presumption, and assess the results. Learn on own initiative focuses student's attention, both in the process and the learning outcomes. Learn on own initiative also teach students to be independent, not dependent, and confident. If students learn on their own initiative, they had the opportunity to weigh and make decisions, make choices, and make an assessment. They became more self-reliant and less rely on the other assessment. In addition on own initiative, learning must also involve all personal aspects, cognitive, and affective. Rogers and the other humanist call this type of learning as a wholeperson learning. The humanist believes that if it learning is personal and affective will produce roso handarbeni, a feeling of belonging to students. Thus, students will feel more involved in learning, more energized to handle the tasks, and most importantly is more excited to continue learning. 5. Learning and Change The last principle put forward by Rogers is the most useful learning is learn about the process of learning. According to Rogers, in times past, students learn about the facts and ideas are static. At that time the world is slow to change, and what is learned in school is considered sufficient to full the demands of times. But now, the change is a central fact of life. Science and technology always advancing and speeding. What is learned in the past cant equip people to live and have function successfully in the current world. What is needed today is the people who able to learn in an environment that is changing and will continue to change. 2. Teaching Principle a. Teaching Principles According to James L. Marsell 1. Context Principle Teaching with regard to this principle, the teacher presents the lesson should be able to create a variety of relationships in learning material terms. Connecting learning materials can use a variety of sources, such as newspapers, magazines, library books or environment. With this principle, students will know the "context" of the material being studied. Without a context, a knowledge with other knowledge, even if located in a single family, will be split so that the students knowledge become less robust. 2. Focus Principle

Teaching with regard focus principle is teachers in discussing specific subjects need to determine the issues that become the center of consideration. If the context principle requires the teacher link teaching materials as possible, so the focus principle requires concentration of subject matter. In practice, both must be implemented so that complement each other. Both of them are the criterion of effective teaching. 3. Order Principle Teach with implement the order principle is the teaching materials should be arranged in logical and systematic so easy to learn by students. Sequence of learning materials should support the teaching and learning process. For example: teacher teach mathematics with graphics functions subject certainly would specify what activities should be controlled by students, to easily understand the function graph problems. To understand the principle, teachers need to specify which activities comes first and which later. The arrangement of these activities must be systematic and logical. 4. Evaluation Principle This principle emphasizes that teachers in teaching should not be left the evaluations. Evaluation is an integral activity in teaching. Function of evaluation enhance learning effectiveness, make student encouragement to more increase their learning and enable teachers to improve their teaching methods. This evaluation can be done either in writing or orally in the form of "assasment". 5. Individualization Principle Implement the individualization principle is realized in the form of teaching should pay attention to the difference of inter students. Students as being different individuals, both mentally, for example differences in intelligence, talents, interests, and so on or differences in tendency, for example, there are likely to be better in aesthetics, but less better in math, and so on. Individual differences can done in provision of learning services, such as tutoring, tasks, and so on. 6. Socialization Principle This principle emphasizes that teachers in teaching should able to create a learning atmosphere that raises students mutual cooperation in handling the problem. The learning method like that has two advantages that can be obtained as follows:

a. Can build and develop the personality of students, especially democratic attitude. b. Students knowledge will increase sturdy because in the learning process among students occur giving and receiving.

In practice, the six principles should be implemented integrally. The principle of context, order, and evaluation are the principles that dig from how is the method to arrange and present the material to students, whereas the principle of individualization and sosialization based on full the needed of learning.

b. Teaching Principles According to Mandigers 1. Mental Activity Principle Learning is a mental activity. Therefore teachers should be lead mental activity, not just hear, keep in mind, and so on, but more extensively on aspects of cognitive, effective, and psychomotor. CBSA principle very fulfilling these principle. 2. Attention Principle If in teaching and learning, students have the full attention to material, so learning outcomes will be improved because attentive, there was a concentration which in its turn the learning outcomes will be more successful and not easily forgotten. 3. Adjustment to Student Development Principle Children will be more attracted of their attention if the learning material that they received accordance with their development. 4. Apperception Principle This principle give guidance to teachers that in teaching should always relate to things already known. In this way, children will be more interested so learning materials easily absorbed. This principle is implemented in the beginning of teaching. 5. Exhibittion Principle Exhibittion principles gives guidance that in teaching should use props. With props, the teaching and learning process is not just with words (verbalistic). Implementation of this principle can be done using a variety of teaching props or media. If teaching is implemented using props, student learning outcomes more clearly and they was not quickly forgotten. 6. Engineer Principle Teaching should be cause engineer activity to learners. Learning which involves engineer activity causes students not quickly forget and cause long-lasting outcomes. 7. Motivation Principle Motivation is the impetus that there was in theirself to do something in order to full their needed. Motivation plays an important role in learning. The stronger of a person's motivation in learning, so more optimal in doing learning activities. In other words, the

intensity (strength) of learning is very determined by the motivation. In applying these principles, teachers can: Connecting learning to student's needed Connecting learning to students experiences Choosing the right variety of teaching methods. These principles in the application should be apply integrally. It can be explained that successful learning is when students do learning activities can take place intensively and optimal so cause behavioral changes that are more permanent (fixed). Therefore, teachers should teach that can cause mental and physical activity (CBSA). Teaching and learning process will be achieved if get support from learning situations which the principle of exhibittion, apperception, the correlation can be implemented.

Teaching and learning process is a process contains a course of teachers and studentss conduct on the basis of interaction that takes place in educational situation to achieve a specific objective . The principle of teaching and learning includes learning principle and teaching principle. The learning principle includes desire for learning, useful learning, learning without threat, learning on own initiative, and learning and change. The teaching principle according to James L. Marsell includes context, focus, order, evaluation, individualization, and socialization principle, whereas the teaching principle according to Mandigers includes mental activity, attention, adjustment to student development, apperception, exhibittion, engineer, and motivation principle.