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s.praveenkumar final year,Department of Civil Engineering VLB Janakiammal College of Engineering and technology, Coimbatore !"# $"%.

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Solid wastes are all wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid in nature and that are discarded as useless or unwanted. It is a generic term used to describe the things we through away that include garbage, refuse, trash, and others. Contamination of ground water is the major

environmental risk related to unsanitary land filling of solid waste. Management of these solid wastes may be defined as that discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics, and other environmental considerations. This project includes a case study on amakkal district, !igh "ate #iomethanation of vegetable wastes at Chennai, Composting of Solid $astes in Tirupur Town, %umpsite "ehabilitation by Chennai Corporation town and &otential "euse of &lastics in "oads. (-+/'D1C+('-0 $ith the rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, infrastructure developmental activities, intensive agriculture and livestock farming, solid waste management is faced with new pressures and challenges. '!ow will solid waste be managed() It is an important *uestion demanding attention all over the world. &ollutants generated from solid wastes have potential adverse effect on the environment. If not dealt with properly, they can cause pollution to groundwater, surface water, create health problems and affect the environment. Successful solid waste management can only be achieved by applying proper techno+scientific principles. The fundamental objectives of solid waste management program are to

minimi,e the pollution of the environment as well as utili,ing the waste as a resource. These goals should be achieved in a way that is financially sustainable. Methods of solid waste management vary greatly with types of wastes and local conditions. The best systems are designed by fi-ing together the fundamental goals, a clear analysis of local conditions and factors, an understanding of the full range of technology options that are available and an awareness of the traditional wisdom and systems that the local people have developed. &'L(D )*&+E0

Since the beginning, humankind has been generating waste, be it the bones and other parts of animals they slaughter for their food or the wood they cut to make their carts. $ith the progress of civili,ation, the waste generated became of a more comple- nature. nonbiodegradable solid waste. .ach household generates garbage or waste day in and day out. Items that we no longer need or do not have any further use for fall in the category of waste, and we tend to throw them away. There are different types of solid waste depending on their source. Segregation is an important method of handling municipal solid waste. /ne of the important methods of managing and treating wastes is composting. 0s the cities are growing in si,e and in problems such as the generation of plastic waste, various municipal waste treatment and disposal methods are now being used to try and resolve these problems. /ne common sight in all cities is the rag picker who plays an important role in the segregation of this waste. 1arbage generated in households can be recycled and reused to prevent creation of waste at source and reducing amount of waste thrown into the ot only did the air get more and more polluted but the earth itself became more polluted with the generation of

community dustbins. Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source. a2 Municipal solid waste. b2 !a,ardous waste. c2 #iomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.

,1-(C(2*L &'L(D )*&+E0 Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. $ith rising urbani,ation and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 3456 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 7 million tonnes of solid waste8 in 3446 it was about 59 million tonnes. 3*4*/D'1& )*&+E0 Industrial and hospital waste is considered ha,ardous as they may contain to-ic substances. Certain types of household waste are also ha,ardous. !a,ardous wastes could be highly to-ic to humans, animals, and plants8 are corrosive, highly inflammable, or e-plosive8 and react when e-posed to certain things e.g. gases. India generates around 6 million tonnes of ha,ardous wastes every year, most of which is concentrated in four states: 0ndhra &radesh, #ihar, ;ttar &radesh, and Tamil adu.

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!ospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immuni,ation of human beings or animals or in research activities in these fields or in the production or testing of biologicals. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human e-creta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimated that of the 5 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 3 kg would be infected. E55EC+& '5 &'L(D )*&+E0 /n an overall point of view, the solid wastes affect our environment, human beings, soil, agriculture, etc... <et us discuss in brief the effects of solid waste. <and pollution. Creation of bad odor. #reeding of mos*uitoes. $hen the solid wastes are mi-ed with water they cases serious diseases. ..like typhoid, dysentery, jaundice, cholera. &ollutes ground water. %umping of ha,ardous medical wastes in agricultural land affects the growth of crops. 0nd thereby the farmers are affected. #urning of solid wastes causes air pollution due to the production of carbon dio-ide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon. This depletes the o,one layer which results in the entry of ;= rays into the

atmosphere causing skin cancer to human being and other skin diseases in animals. These effects necessitate the management of solid wastes all over the world. &'L(D )*&+E ,*-*.E,E-+0 &olid 6aste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials. $aste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial, producers. Management for non+ha,ardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non+ha,ardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.There are many techni*ues in solid waste management. <andfill is one among them. The steps involved in landfill are as follows &olid )aste Collection &ystems: This part consists of different collection system adopted around the world and mostly in developing countries. Collection bins are also provided for recyclables such as glass, cans, plastic bottles etc these recyclables are later removed and used for recycling industries Curbside collection system is efficient in many developed countries. $aste is carried out from house and is placed in curb with different colored bins. These wastes are later picked by collection vehicles. These vehicles are single compartmented and multi+compartmented to collect recyclables separately. The collection system is divided into primary and secondary collection system. 0 primary collection system consists of collection of waste from household and put into community collection container. The primary and secondary collection system is carried out by small mechanical vehicles, trucks. Solid waste collection is also done using tractor. The trolley is fi-ed based on the amount of waste to be disposed. Trucks

used as a collection vehicle in developing countries. Street sweeping is also another most important activity. Construction of Landfill &ite0 0 landfill site should be planned for a long period of ;se in view of necessary investment in infrastructure and environmental protection measures. 0t least for ne-t >? years. /ther important planning factors are: "oads for the waste collection vehicles Type of waste =olume of waste other related operations such as composting areas, sorting areas.... Landfill (n .eneral0 <andfill is most important component of any solid waste management system. To reduce the environmental impacts resulting from uncontrolled dumping, the final disposal site should be properly designed, operated and maintained. Traditional practice of open dumping is still an efficient and usual practice. Solid waste is transported in such open dumps and disposed which could become the breeding ground for disease vectors and playing ground for birds and stray animals. /nce disposed in such open areas, the degradation of organic waste and rainfall produces leachate @garbage juice2, which can contaminate nearby surface and ground water. Solid waste is placed in landfill in layers and mechanical e*uipment is used to spread and compact in layers. It is then covered by daily cover @soil2 to prevent from birds and infiltration of rainwater. &roper care should be given to compact and cover the waste. The garbage juice @leachate2 should be prevented to seep through the bottom of landfill. This can be achieved by laying an impermeable bottom and side liner. #ottom liner can be synthetic plastics such as !%&. of compacted clay. The construction of landfill is a comple- process. It should contain separate pipe networks for collection of leachate and landfill gas @contains methane which is e-plosive gas2. The collected gas can be utili,ed for energy or flared to prevent e-plosion. &roper drainage system should be provided around

landfill to prevent seepage of rainwater. This can reduce the *uantity of leachate generation from landfill. The leachate generated should be collected through a pipe network. &roper care should be given to prevent the damage of synthetic bottom liner. /nce solid waste is filled over it, it can not be replaced. /nce complete filling of trench of landfill, it should be covered by a thick layer of cover materials. The cover materials can be combination of different types of soil, or composite liner @soil and synthetic materials2. The cover materials should be compacted properly to prevent water seeping through and gas escaping from landfill. The leachate should be collected and stored in ponds and subse*uently treated before discharging into natural water bodies. The treatment can be onsite or offsite depending upon various factors. &roper care should be given for the management of leachate. &olid )aste 2rocessing0 $aste processing is used to "educe the volume "ecover usable materials, or alter the physical form of the solid wastes. &olid )aste /ecycling0 "ecycling is the best way to solve solid waste management problem. This process e-ists in all cities. !owever, the recycling system differs from developing countries and developed countries. %eveloped countries have well organi,ed source separation and recycling system. 0lthough developing countries have their long tradition of recycling system, it is still in the hand of informal sectors. This sector is unorgani,ed. &olid )aste ,anagement +ransfer &tation0 Transfer station is the place to transfer the waste from small collection vehicles to large transportation trucks. Transfer station is essential if the final disposal site is far from the service area. This is also place to separate recyclables and useful materials. &olid )aste ,anagement +ransportation0 Transportation system is another part of solid waste management system which is becoming costly. ;navailability of suitable land and IM#A syndrome are some of the reasons for locating final disposal site far away from the service areas

C*&E &+1D(E& #.3(.3 /*+E B(',E+3*-*+('- '5 VE.E+*BLE )*&+E& *+ C3E--*( 7 The Chennai Metropolitan %evelopment 0uthority @CM%02 and the Ministry of on+conventional .nergy Sources @M .S2, 1overnment of India, have established a high rate biomethanation plant for power generation from vegetable wastes at Boyembedu, Chennai at a cost of about "s.?C millions.


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;dunuwara <0 is responsible for the collection, treatment and disposal of solid waste generated at 1elioya town and surrounding villages. 0bout DMT of solid waste is collected per day. early >MT goes for composting and 3MT of non+biodegradable materials like polythene are dumped. The production of bio+ fertili,er is the main aim of the <0. The operation is still at an e-perimental stage,

although the system was established in %ecember >CCD, under the supervision of an eminent MS$ specialist. &alient 5eatures of the Digester0 +ype of digester0 #iogas Induced Mi-ing 0rrangement %igester @#IM02. &olid handling capacity0 >+3>E dry solids Loading rate0 D+5 kg dry =SFmDFday 3ydraulic retention time0 >? days &pecial features0 The digestion is in two chambers and the mi-ing arrangement is well designed to prevent scum formation as the top layer is forced down every few hours. This arrangement prevents scum formation at the top of the digester. Can remove hydrogen sulfide if the range of 3CCC ppm in the same digester with an additional compressor to send air. The *uantity of air depends on hydrogen sulfide levels. 2rocess Description G =egetable waste is loaded on to a moving conveyor using a hydraulic grab. G &lastics and other non+biodegradable constituents are manually removed. Iron particles are removed using a magnetic separator. G The waste is shredded to obtain particles in the range of 6mm H 3>mm. Shredded waste is fed into a feed preparation tank where waterFrecycled water is added to prepare feed slurry. G $aste is further macerated to reduce the si,e of the particles @less than 5mm2. G The feed slurry is pumped through a macerator into a high rate anaerobic #IM0 digester. G The biogas generated is used in biogas engines to generate power. G &art of the power produced is used to meet the plant re*uirement @DC k$2 G The e-cess power is sold to Tamil consumption @>CC k$2. G The substrate leaving the digester is mechanically dewatered in a screw press and used as fertili,er after drying. adu .lectricity #oard for in+house

G The water is taken back to feed preparation tanks. %.-*,*88*L ,1-(C(2*L(+9 7 * &E/' .*/B*.E C(+90 amakkal is the first municipality in India to attain ,ero garbage status through privati,ation of all components of Solid $aste Management @S$M2. Infact, the Supreme Court of India has applauded this town for having complied with Municipal Solid $aste Management "ules with no financial input from State or Centre. This has been possible due to cooperative efforts from the district administration, the municipality, pickers. amakkal is known for two major industries, vi,., body+building of 7CE of C 1 tankers in the country and poultry farms. The town sprawls over an area of 3C.?5 s*.km with a population of ?C,CCC+7C,CCC. It comprises of DC wards, >>D streets and ?D.69 km of roadways. The public health staff in the municipality includes D sanitary inspectors, 9 sanitary supervisors and 353 sanitary workers. The vehicles used for S$M consist of D mini lorries, > tipper lorries, > mop up vans, 3 sullage tanker, 4C door to door private push carts, D5> door to door private containers and 4C municipal sweeping push carts. The waste generation rate of the town is 5CC gpcd. The municipality handles >3MT of garbage daily. 1arbage consists of 9 MT organic, 3C MT inorganic and D MT recyclables. 1/s, women self+help groups, schools, residential and industrial associations and rag

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+he 2rogram0 The highlight of the S$M program is the vermi culture unit e-tended over an area of 9.?D acres located > Bms outside the town. The activities include the following: G Segregation and collection: %oor to door collection, no storage depots or collection spots. Color coding for collection of segregated waste 0t Source: two #in systems at each household S$..&I 1 M0C!I . + 1reen bin for wet @organic2 waste %oor to door collection: Iive #in system + 1reen color for organic waste + #lue color for inorganic waste + /range color for recyclable waste + "ed color for ha,ardous waste + #rown tray for metallic waste G =ermi+composting of organic waste: &roduction of > MT of vermi+compost from organic waste daily. Income generation of "s. C.5 million per annum @operated on #./.T basis2. Sale of recyclables at the rate of "s.?CF+ per MT. G <evying service charges to commercial establishments generating an income of "s >,67,DCCF+ p.a. Cleaning activities: "egular day and night sweeping even on Sundays and holidays. Mechanisation of street sweeping and transport of MS$. ST"..T + #lue bin for dry @inorganic2 waste

Two mop+up vans with public address systems "emoval of encroachments, encroachments. G ;p gradation of dumpsite at Bosuvampatti: Closure of e-isting dump with passive gas vent systems and cover layers. "estriction of dumping to 5CE of e-isting dumpsite. >C E of dump yard developed into a garden and for vermi+composting . G #an on littering, burning of waste, use of plastics stray animals from streets and preventing re+

:.C',2'&+(-. '5 &'L(D )*&+E& (- +(/121/ +')-0 Tirupur is well known for its hosiery and te-tile industries. The town is spread over an area of nearly DC s*.km with a population of 5 lakhs. 0round 3CC tons of solid waste is generated in the town per day. Tirupur Municipal Corporation @TMC2, in agreement with I=" .nviro &vt <td, !yderabad, has implemented a Municipal Solid $aste @MS$2 composting project on #uild, /wn, /perate and Transfer @#//T2 basis. 0 site covering 6 acres at Muthannampalayam villages at a distance of ? km from the town has been allotted to I=" .nviro project on a lease rental basis for a period of >C years. $indrow composting involving physical and biological processes is carried out on daily basis Juantity of MS$ composted: ?C + 7C tFday Compost yield: DD + 5D tFday &rocess %uration: D? H 5? %ays Man power: >C &lant and machinery: "otating drums8 #ob cut8 Conveyor8 =ehicles.

#/#C;T $I %"/$S S.&."0TI/ 2hysical 2rocesses Collection and Separation at source G Two #in system: 1reen colored for degradable K "ed for on degradable G Transport+trucks, mini <orries, tractors are used for transport. Manual Separation G "ecyclable and combustible materials are recovered G =isible inert material is removed @e.g. plastics and glass2 Mechanical separation

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G MS$ is conveyed into trommel screen to separate different si,ed waste @fine materials, soil, grit, and organic wastes2 and moved to magnetic belts and overhead magnetic conveyors, to separate ferrous metals. J;0 TITA /I C/M&/ST
Total organic matter Total itrogen Total &hosphorus Total &otassium Calcium Magnesium Sulphur Iron @ppm2 Linc @ppm2 Manganese @ppm2 Copper @ppm2 >?+DCE 3+3.?E C. ?+3E 3+>E 9+9.7E C.?+3E 9+9.7E 3CCC 5C+?C Trace DC+7C

p! .C @mmoleFcm2 Microbial Count

9+9.? 5CC D to 5 billion CI; F ml

Biological 2rocesses Si,e reduction and homogeni,ation G <arge pieces, of paper, cardboard, food and yard waste are broken down slowly to si,e between 3.> to ? cm using a bobcut Mi-ing materials, forming and shaping the $indrows G $indrows are 3.? to D m height and D to 7 m wide. G %uring autumn the height is increased to >.? m and width to ? m G In winter height is further increased to D.?m. Turning $indrows G $indrows are turned once in every 3? days during which the .ffective Microbes @.ms + mi-ed culture of <actic acid, photosynthetic bacteria and yeast2 are added at a *uantity of 3 litersFt of MS$. /ptimal composting conditions /-ygen: M 3CE Moisture: 5C H 7CE CF "atio: DC: 3 Temperature: D> + 5DNC /emarks0 The &roject is being implemented with an investment of "s. >9?CFt. The compost produced is sold to the farmers at "s DCCCFt.

C'-CL1&('-0 Thus the various case studies have been e-plained briefly. This paper makes it very clear that, the solid waste management is very important in order to protect our environment. Therefore the solid waste management techni*ues should be affordable. It is our duty to protect our mother earth lets do itO....