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ITM,gurgaon

“COMPETENCY MAPPING OF FRONT-LINE STAFF-A


STUDY IN RELATION TO THE RETAIL SECTOR”

PRESENTED BY-
Sandeep Arora
ITM gurgaon

ABSTRACT

To undertake an in-depth study of the competency mapping process which is being


followed in the organizations – Retail sector. As well as understand the framework and
the system, analyzing the effectiveness and implications of the system. And determining
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whether the process helps in improving performance effectiveness, thus identifying what
are the areas that have to fine tuned or reworked.
Research Methodology:
a. Research type: Qualitative exploratory research and quantitative conclusive research
b. Research method:
•In depth interviews- done for customer associates and area sales manager.
•Focus group method
•Structured Questionnaires
Tools of data collection
Primary data:-The questionnaires will be used to gauge the preference of the customer’s
associate whether they are satisfied with their own behavior and are they given the
required attention. Area sales manager will also be informally interviewed for 10-15 min.
Focus group discussion:-It would be done to identify the behavior of customers whether
they are satisfied with the behavior of the customer associate’s and sales managers. It will
consist of a panel of approx.
(8-10) people.
Secondary data: - The secondary data will be collected through internet and literature
from books and various companies report.

Competency mapping is the process of identification and description of the competencies


that are most critical to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a
given point of time
It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and
identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge,
an attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to perform the same successfully.

Expected outcomes and Implications


This is a competency era. It is beyond doubt that it is beneficial and cost effective, to
have competent people to occupy higher-level positions.
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Competency refers to the intellectual, managerial, social and emotional competency.


Many organizations in India and abroad are channeling their efforts to mapping
competencies and implementing assessment and development centers.
The need of the hour as indicated by many organizations is to design and implement low
cost assessment and development centers specially designed to meet the requirements of
developing countries like outs.

Normally, the purpose of analyzing training needs is to uncover the gap that exists
between the present competence of the enterprise and the competency needed to reach the
strategic goals in the future. A determining factor for what problems may arise is the
choice of level of precision or how complex a concept of competency one uses.
Competency mapping process helps in meeting various demands that customers are
expecting from them. This also helps the organization in developing a clear strategy for
developing competencies of their workforce. Overall it will support successful
performance of the employees within the organization
.

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
This is to certify that the thesis has been completed under my guidance.
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I approve the thesis as a complete and final work requiring no further

Alterations

MR Sanjay Govil
(V.P Finance)
Bhartya International

THESIS APPROVAL LETTER SENT OVER MAIL

Dear Kanika,
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This is to inform that the thesis topic “ Competency Mapping of Front-Line Staff - A Study in Relation
to the Retail Sector.”, as proposed by you, has been approved .This email is an official
confirmation that you would be doing your thesis work under the guidance of Mr.

Sanjay Govil. Make it a comprehensive thesis; the objective of a thesis should be


value addition to the existing knowledge base.

Please ensure that the objectives as stated by you in your synopsis are met using the
appropriate research design.

You must always use the thesis title as approved and registered with us.

Your Alumni ID Number is DS68-H046

You are required to correspond with us by sending atleast six response sheets to
Thesis.ss68@iipm.edu ( format attached along with this mail) at regular intervals, before
31st May 2008 (the last date for thesis submission)

Regards,

Sumanta Sharma

Associate Dean (Projects)

The Indian Institute of Planning and Management

New Delhi

Sumanta.sharma@iipm.edu

Phone: 0124 - 4505402 / 29

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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This work is synergistic products of many minds. I am grateful for the inspiration,
encouragement information and wisdom of many resource people who helped me to
bring this project into life.
I owe my sincere gratitude towards following personnel for their endeavors, guidance and
sustained help extended to me during the course of this project.

 To the Sovereign Lord God, Father and Creator of all things for his Grace,
wisdom & energy.
 Mr. Sanjay Govil (VP-Finance – Bharti International)
 Prof. Sumanta Sharma(Dean, projects)
 Mr. Vijay Kumar Boddu
 To our loved ones: parents, friends and colleagues for their prayers, love,
support and guidance.

“Teachers open the door, but you must enter by yourself”

CONTENTS
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1) Chapter-1
Introduction Pg 13-23

1.1 Overview
1.2 Brief about the global Retail Industry
1.3 Emerging trends in the retail industry
1.4 Technology impact
1.5 Indian Retail: A Large and unorganized Sector
1.6 Changes in the Retail Sector
1.7 Core competencies for Retail industry

2) Chapter-2
Literature Review Pg 24-41
2.1 Definition of Competency Mapping
2.2 Steps involved in the process:
2.3 Competency mapping: A Human Resource
Approach for a Globalizing Scenario
2.4 Competency Model
2.5 Need for Competency Frameworks
2.6 Identification of Role Competencies
2.7 Competency Assessment
2.8 Competency Development
2.9 Importance of Competency Based Performance
Management System (CBPMS)
2.10 Common Pitfalls in implementing
A competency mapping system

3) Chapter-3
Methodology Pg 42-43

3.1. Research Design


3.2 Sampling
3.3 Data collection methods
3.4 Research Instruments

4) Chapter-
Reports on data collection Pg 44-54

4.1 Identified Competencies for front-line staff


4.2 Tools of competency mapping
4.3 Competency mapping of UCB
4.4 The competency mapping of ARROW

5) Chapter-5
8

Analysis Pg 55-65
5.1 Questionnaire data analysis

6) Chapter-6
Recommendations Pg 66-67

7) Chapter-7
Conclusion and Implications Pg 68-71

8) Bibliography Pg 72

9) Appendices Pg 73-81

10) Response Sheets Pg 82-87

LIST OF FIGURES
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1. Fig-1: Competency model for HR professionals Pg-28

2. Fig 2: Competency Framework Pg-29

3. Fig 3: Competency based HR practices Pg-32

4. Fig 4: Macro view of Competency Management Pg-33

5. FIG: 5 Competency Based Performance Management System Pg-37

6. Fig-6: Competency mapping of Pantaloon Pg-48

7. Fig-7: Process Map Pg-51

8. Fig-8: Competency mapping process – Ebony Pg-54


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PROJECT SYNOPSIS
Details of the Student:
Name: - Kanika Vashishta
Batch: - Spring Summer 2006-2008
Specialization: - Human Resource and Marketing
Phone No: - 9810538080
Email: - kanika301085@gmail.com

Area of Research : Human Resource in Retail Industry

Title of Project: Competency mapping of front-line staff-A study in relation to the


Retail sector

Problem Definition: Understanding retail staff in terms of knowledge, skill,


attributes and to design exercise for testing competencies

Literature of the problem:


To lay down guidelines for payment of annual performance award, this would further
help in increasing performance standards. Further, also to understand the retail staff and
Area Sales Manager to develop standardized guidelines for a customer associate/sales
man so that he/she can have a clear picture of their assessment.

Scope of the Thesis:


To measure the employees performance against expected skills knowledge and
competencies for the assigned positions. This will help in reducing the gap between
performance and the goals previously set.
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Competencies are becoming a frequently-used and written-about vehicle for


organizational applications such as:
• Defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the
organization
• Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding
jobs and roles
• Mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization
• Assigning compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles
• Selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing
techniques.
Research Methodology:
a. Research type: Qualitative exploratory research and quantitative conclusive research

b. Research method:
• In depth interviews- done for customer associates and area
sales manager.
• Focus group method
• Structured Questionnaires

TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION

Primary data:-The questionnaires will be used to gauge the preference of the


customer’s associate whether they are satisfied with their own behavior and are they
given the required attention. Area sales manager will also be informally interviewed for
10-15 min.
Focus group discussion:-It would be done to identify the behavior of customers whether
they are satisfied with the behavior of the customer associate’s and sales managers. It will
consist of a panel of approx.
(8-10) people.
Secondary data:- The secondary data will be collected through internet and literature
from books and various companies report.
12

Reason for choosing a particular research proposal:


Over the past 10 years, human resource and organizational development professionals
have generated a lot of interest in the notion of competencies as a key element and
measure of human performance.
Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important
results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization.
Evaluation of performance is an important dimension. Evaluation systems should be
designed to motivate people to perform better and it should be fare and transparent.

Details of the External guide:


Name : Mr. Sanjay Govil
Qualification : MBA (Finance)
Designation : V.P(Finance ) in Bhartya International
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Chapter-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview
With changing business scenario and new challenges emerging in the competitive world,
successful performance in any job/task has taken a critical place, for organizational
success. Competency mapping is one such process that helps in identifying and mapping
competencies required for successful performance in a particular role. Competency
mapping and assessment has gained paramount importance in organizations, for keeping
people development strategies and processes in sync with organizational growth &
objectives and maximizing the utilization of human potential.

Creating competency based culture and systems in organizations are the need of the hour.
This creates a demand for HR professionals to have specialized skills and have a
continuous up-gradation of knowledge.
Working on solutions to help the Retail Industry in addressing the front-line staff
Challenges around Hiring, Training, and Retention.

Solutions should be developed based on the retail industry’s priorities to address issues
such as:

• Recruitment and Retention: Retail employers struggle to attract and retain the
best and brightest employees because of the misperception that jobs are low-wage
and lack growth potential. In reality, today’s retail industry is dynamic with
diverse career ladders covering a wide range of fields including: information
technology, marketing, communications, loss prevention, finance, and
merchandise sourcing.
• Competency Models: Though the retail industry has started work on initial
training models and skills certifications, they are not yet used consistently across
the industry to build skills competency requirements for positions at all levels and
to encourage career growth. Retailers are struggling to attract qualified
individuals, train them, and have them advance their careers.
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• Diversity: In an increasingly diverse society, multilingual employees are


desirable. Retailers are customer service driven and need workers to speak the
languages of their customer base. Limited English Proficiency (LEP) is a problem
as workers may speak the language of customers, but lack basic English language
and literacy skills to perform all job functions.

Competency is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform a


specific job. It encompasses a combination of knowledge, skills and behavior utilized to
improve performance. More generally, competency is the state or quality of being
adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. For instance,
management competency includes the traits of systems thinking and emotional
intelligence, and skills in influence and negotiation.

Competence is also used to work with more general descriptions of the requirements of
human beings in organizations and communities. Examples are educations and other
organizations who want to have a general language to tell what a graduate of an
education must be able to do in order to graduate or what a member of an organization is
required to be able to do in order to be considered competent. An important detail of this
approach is that all competencies have to be action competencies, which means you show
in action, that you are competent. In the military the training systems for this kind of
competence is called Artificial Experience, which is the basis for all simulators.

1.2 Brief about the Global Retail Industry

Retail, with total sales of $6.6 trillion, is the world’s largest private industry ahead of
financial industries $5.1 trillion. It is also home to a number of the world’s largest
enterprises. Over 50 of the fortune 500 companies, and around 25of the Asian top 500
companies, are retailers. The industry accounts for over 8% of the GDP in western
economies. The level of consolidation within each country has increased significantly
over the last few decades. This is most marked in the grocery, where large chains have
leveraged superior scales of operations and souring to capture share from the unorganized
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players, while offering consumers the best price. This trend has led to organized networks
capturing up to 80% of the groceries market in the developed economies.

Traditionally, most retailers have had very localized operations. This localized nature of
the industry is changing as retailers face low rates of growth and threatened profitability
at home.
New geographies will help them sustain top-line growth as well as permit global
sourcing. Further, global markets will progressively get easier to tap as product market
barriers relaxed and as taste converge.

Profits in retail have steadily been rising and have generated 18% shareholder returns
between 1994 and 1999. Significantly, retail is one of the largest employers, accounting
for instance 16% of the U.S workforce. Factors such as scale in sourcing, merchandising,
operational effectiveness and ambience have driven the spread of organized retail.
Groceries, electronics are examples of categories that compete on the strength of better
pricing, which in turn is driven by superior sourcing and merchandising and cost-efficient
operations. Wal-Mart, Home Depot and Kingfisher are benchmark retailers in these
fields.

In apparel, home furnishings and furniture, the advantage is driven by the marketer’s
ability to provide better products in a comfortable ambience at affordable prices. In these
cases sourcing capabilities has to be backed by strong design capability and store
management. IKEA and GAP are good examples of this model of retailing. Over the last
few decades, retail formats have changed radically. The basic department stores and co-
operatives of the early 20th century have given way to mass merchandisers, hypermarkets,
warehouses clubs, category killers, discounters and convenience stores. Each of these
formats has been driven by the market’s need to offer relevant, distinctive and economic
propositions to an evolving consumer base.

Global retailers have also reached a position of strength that enables their brand to be
leveraged across a wide range of services. Many of them have expanded their offering,
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over the years to include fuel retail, car retail, convenience services and personal finance
services. This has put them in a position where they are not only beginning to capture
growth from geographical expansion, but are also entering large new areas of business.
The recent evolution of the internet has helped further broaden the scope of operations of
large retailers. Further, a large number of retailers are pursuing innovative aggregation
and supply chain-streamlining initiatives using B2B technology.

The emerging sector

For a long time, the corner grocery store was the only choice available to the consumers,
especially in the urban areas. The traditional food and grocery segment has seen the
emergence of supermarkets/grocery chains (Food world, Nilgiries, Apna Bazaar),
convenience stores and fast food chains (McDonalds, Dominos)

The lifestyles/fashions segments (Shopper’s stop, Globus, Lifestyle, Westside),


apparels /accessories (Pantaloon, Levis, Reebok), books/music/gifts (Archie’s, Music
world, Crosswords, Landmark) appliances and consumer durables (Vibe’s, Jenison’s,
Vacant & Co), drugs and pharmacy (Health and Glow, Apollo)
First, the modern retailer is yet to feel the saturation effect in the urban market and has,
therefore, probably not looked at the other markets seriously. Second the modern retailing
trend, despite its cost-effectiveness, has come to be identified with lifestyles.

In order to appeal to all classes of the society, retail stores would have to identify with
different lifestyles. In a sense, this trend is already visible with the emergence of stores
with an essentially value for money.

1.3 Emerging trends in Retail industry

The single most important evolution that took place along with the retailing revolution
was the rise and fall of the dotcom companies. A sudden concept of non – store shopping
emerged, which threatened to take away the potential of the store. More importantly, the
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very nature of the customer segment being addressed was almost the same. The
computer – savvy individuals was also a sub segment of the store frequenting traffic.

Internationally, the concept of net shopping is yet to be proven. And the poor financial
performance of most of the companies offering virtual shopping has resulted in store-
based retailing regaining the upper hand. Other forms of non-store shopping including
various formats such as catalogue/mail order shopping, direct selling and so on are
growing rapidly. However the size of the direct market industry is too limited to deter the
retailers. For all the conveniences that it offers , electronic retailing does not suit the
products where look and see attributes are of importance, as in apparel or where the value
is very high, such as in jewellery or where the performance has to be tested, as of
consumer durables. The most critical issue in electronic retailing, especially in a country
such as ours, relates to payments and the various security issues involved.

1.4 Technology Impact

The other aspects of retailing relates to technology. It is widely felt that the key
differentiator between the successful and not so successful retailers is primarily in the
area of technology. Simultaneously it will be technology that will help the organized
retailers score over the unorganized players, giving both cost and service advantages.

Retailing is a technology-intensive industry- Successfully retailers today work closely


with their vendors to predict consumer demands , shorten lead times, reduce inventory
holding and thereby, save cost. Today, online systems link point of sales terminals to the
main office where detailed analyses on sales by item, classification, stores or vendors are
carried out online. Besides vendors, the focus of the retailing sector is to develop the link
with the consumers.

Data Warehousing is an established concept in the advanced nations-With the help of the
database retailing, information on existing and potential customers is tracked. Besides
knowing what was purchased and by whom, information on softer issues such as
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demographics and psychographics is captured. With differentiating strategies-value for


money, shopping experience, variety, quality, discounts and advanced systems and
technology in the back-end, change in the equilibrium with the manufacturers and a
thorough understanding of the consumer behavior, the ground is all set for the organized
retailers.

It would be important to note, however, that the retailing industry in India is still a
protected industry-It is one of the few sectors, which still has restrictions on FDI.

1.5 Indian Retail: A Large and unorganized Sector


The Indian retail market is in sharp contrast to the global situations .Like the rest of the
world, it is large, with the sales amounting to $180 bn and accounting for 10-11% of the
GDP. However, it is also exceptionally fragmented and unorganized.
India has the largest retail outlet density in the world. However most of these retail
outlets have very basic offerings, fixed prices, zero usage of technology and little or no
ambience. These are highly competitive outlets, drawing on free land (unregistered
kiosks or traditional property), unpaid/cheap labor (family members or village children
paid below minimum wages) and zero taxes. Many of them also leverage the low or no
cost of family labor to provide services like home delivery that would be uneconomic to
any organized retailer.

There are multiple causes for this low level of modernization in Indian retail. Primary
among them are the stringent restrictions on consumer goods and consumerism that
existed till the 1990’s.The inability to offer a wide range of products was further
worsened by the marketer’s inability to create economies of scale in sourcing. The high
fragmentation in supplies and the supply chain, the restriction on inter-state movement
and on stocking prevented development of scale. Further the limited set of organized
options prevented retailers from negotiating better terms with the suppliers.

The lack of consumer’s culture, along with low incomes, prevented the development of
formats such as department stores that work on superior ambience and design to capture
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customers. Limited products put consumers perpetually on the back foot. The high tax
regime and savings biased government programs stressed thrift denial over indulgence.
Further the country was effectively isolated from the rest of the world through a tightly
controlled radio and television media and did not share in the growing consumer oriented
culture sweeping the west and other parts of Asia.
Together with this was also the limited access to capital, land or people available to
aspirant retailers.
Very few banks were willing to invest in retail, while real estate restrictions made it
impossible to access land of reasonable size. The lack of retail oriented education made it
difficult to get the trained people.

Traditionally three factors have plagued the retail industry


Unorganized: Vast majority of the twelve million stores are small "father and son"
outlets
Fragmented: Mostly small individually owned businesses, average size of outlet equals
50 s.q. ft. Though India has the highest number of retail outlets per capita in the world,
the retail space per capita at 2 s.q. ft per person is amongst the lowest.
Rural bias: Nearly two thirds of the stores are located in rural areas. Rural retail industry
has typically two forms: "Haats" and “Melas". Haats are the weekly markets: serve
groups of 10-50 villages and sell day-to-day necessities. Melas are larger in size and
more sophisticated in terms of the goods sold (like TVs)

Retailing Formats in India


 Malls:-The largest form of organized retailing today. Located mainly in metro
cities, in proximity to urban outskirts. Ranges from 60,000 sq ft to 7,00,000 sq ft
and above. They lend an ideal shopping experience with an amalgamation of
product, service and entertainment, all under a common roof. Examples include
Shoppers Stop, Piramyd, Pantaloon.
 Specialty Stores:
Chains such as the Bangalore based Kids Kemp, the Mumbai books retailer
Crossword, RPG's Music World and the Times Group's music chain Planet M, ITC’s
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Will’s lifestyle are focusing on specific market segments and have established
themselves strongly in their sectors.
 Discount Stores:
As the name suggests, discount stores or factory outlets, offer discounts on the
MRP through selling in bulk reaching economies of scale or excess stock left over at
the season. The product category can range from a variety of perishable/ non
perishable goods

 Department Stores:
Large stores ranging from 20000-50000 sq. ft, catering to a variety of consumer
needs. Further classified into localized departments such as clothing, toys, home,
groceries, etc. Departmental Stores are expected to take over the apparel business
from exclusive brand showrooms. Among these, the biggest success is K Raheja's
Shoppers Stop, which started in Mumbai and now has more than seven large stores
(over 30,000 sq. ft) across India and even has its own in store brand for clothes called
Stop!.

 Hyper marts/Supermarkets:
Large self service outlets, catering to varied shopper needs are termed as
Supermarkets. These are located in or near residential high streets. These stores today
contribute to 30% of all food & grocery organized retail sales. Super Markets can
further be classified in to mini supermarkets typically 1,000 sq ft to 2,000 sq ft and
large supermarkets ranging from of 3,500 sq ft to 5,000 sq ft. having a strong focus
on food & grocery and personal sales.
 Convenience Stores:
These are relatively small stores 400-2,000 sq. feet located near residential areas.
They stock a limited range of high-turnover convenience products and are usually open
for extended periods during the day, seven days a week. Prices are slightly higher due to
the convenience premium.
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 MBO’s :
Multi Brand outlets, also known as Category Killers, offer several brands across a
single product these usually do well in busy market places and Metros

1.6 Changes in the Retail Sector

Experimentation with formats: Retailing in India is still evolving and the sector is
witnessing a series of experiments across the country with new formats being tested out.
Ex. Quasi-mall, sub-urban discount stores, Cash and carry etc.
Store design: Biggest challenge for organized retailing to create a “customer-pull”
environment that increases the amount of impulse shopping. Research shows that the
chances of senses dictating sales are upto 10-15%. Retail chains like Music World,
Baristas, Piramyd and Globus are laying major emphasis & investing heavily in store
design.
Emergence of discount stores: They are expected to spearhead the organized retailing
revolution. Stores trying to emulate the model of Wal-Mart. Ex. Big Bazaar, Bombay
Bazaar, RPGs.

Unorganized retailing is getting organized: To meet the challenges of organized


retailing such as large Cineplex’s, and malls, which are backed by the corporate house
such as 'Ansals' and 'PVR‘ the unorganized sector is getting organized. 25 stores in Delhi
under the banner of Provision mart are joining hands to combine monthly buying.
Bombay Bazaar and food mart formed which are aggregations of Kiranas.

 Multiple drivers leading to a consumption boom:


– Favorable demographics
– Growth in income
– Increasing population of women
– Raising aspirations : Value added goods sales
 Food and apparel retailing key drivers of growth
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 Organized retailing in India has been largely an urban phenomenon with affluent
classes and growing number of double-income households.
 More successful in cities in the south and west of India. Reasons range from
differences in consumer buying behavior to cost of real estate and taxation laws.
 Rural markets emerging as a huge opportunity for retailers reflected in the share
of the rural market across most categories of consumption
– ITC is experimenting with retailing through its e-Choupal and Choupal
Sagar – rural hypermarkets.
– HLL is using its Project Shakti initiative – leveraging women self-help
groups – to explore the rural market.
– Mahamaza is leveraging technology and network marketing concepts to
act as an aggregator and serve the rural markets.
 IT is a tool that has been used by retailers ranging from Amazon.com to eBay to
radically change buying behavior across the globe.
 ‘e-retailing’ slowly making its presence felt.
 Companies using their own web portal or tie-sups with horizontal players like
Rediff.com and Indiatimes.com to offer products on the web.

1.7 Core competencies for Retail industry


A core competency is something that a firm can do well and that meets the following
three conditions:-
• It provides consumer benefits
• It is not easy for competitors to imitate
• It can be leveraged widely to many products and markets.

A core competency can take various forms, including technical/subject matter know how,
a reliable process, and/or close relationships with customers and suppliers. It may also
include product development or culture such as employee dedication. Modern business
theories suggest that most activities that are not part of a company's core competency
should be outsourced.
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If a core competency yields a long term advantage to the company, it is said to be a


sustainable competitive advantage.

Characteristics of Core Competencies: There are three tests for Core Competencies

• Potential access to a wide variety of markets - the core competency must be


capable of developing new products and services
• A core competency must make a significant contribution to the perceived benefits
of the end product.
• Core Competencies should be difficult for competitors to imitate. In many
industries, such competencies are likely to be unique.
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Chapter-2
Literature Review
2.1 Definition of Competency Mapping
So what does `Competency Mapping' really mean? Competency Mapping is a process of
identifying key competencies for a company or institution and the jobs and functions
within it.
Technical or functional competencies: knowledge, attitudes and skills associated with the
technology or functional expertise required to perform the role
Managerial: knowledge, attitudes and skills required to plan, organize, mobilize and
utilize various resources
Human: knowledge, attitudes and skills required to motivate, utilize and develop human
resources
Conceptual: the abilities needed to visualize the invisible, think at abstract levels and use
the thinking to plan future business

2.2 Steps involved in the process:

First: A job analysis is carried out by asking employees that asks them to describe what
they are doing, and what skills, attitudes and abilities they need to have to perform it
well. There would be a bit that requests them to list down attributes needed to make it up
to the next level, thus making it behavioral as well as skill-based.

Second: Having discovered the similarities in the questionnaires, a competency-based job


description is crafted and presented to the personnel department for their agreement and
additions if any.

Third: Having agreed on the job requirements and the skills and attitudes needed to
progress within it and become more productive, one starts mapping the capability of the
employees to the benchmarks. There are several index points within the responsibility
level. An almost (but not quite) arbitrary level of attainment is noted against each
25

benchmark indicating the areas where the assessee is in terms of personal development
and achievement.

These give an adept HR manager a fairly good picture of the employee to see whether he
(or she) needs to perform better or to move up a notch on the scale. Once the employee
`tops' every indicator at his level, he moves on to the next and begins there at the bottom -
in short, he is promoted.

This reasonably simple though initially (the first year only) tedious method helps
everybody to know what the real state of preparedness of an organization to handle new
business (or its old one) because it has a clear picture of every incumbent in the
organization.

It helps in determining the training and development needs and importantly it helps to
encourage the best and develop the rest. “A win-win situation for everyone. “

Retail organizations have unique talent management business challenges. When


combined with Success Factors' technology, Performance Framework for Retail offers
the retail industry access to robust competencies in their own language," a critical
ingredient to improving the quality of talent decisions from the hourly employee to the
executive suite."

This suite is built on industry-standard architecture and is composed of distinct


capabilities, all of which are fully integrated. Its ease-of-use and rapid deployment
features allow organizations to maximize resources while generating robust, powerful
data. The entire suite is highly scalable and modular, allowing customers to add new role-
specific modules when they are ready - on-demand.
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2.3 Competency mapping: A Human Resource Approach for a Globalizing Scenario

Human resources (HR) in any organization can be classified in to four categories using
two simple yet effective criteria ? the ability to learn and the willingness to learn.
Individuals who are high on both counts are the ?stars? of the workplace. They need to be
encouraged and rewarded. Individuals who are low on both dimensions often may need to
be retrenched in the interests of maintaining or improving organizational efficiency. The
in-betweens are those who are high on the ability to learn but low on willingness to
learn ? who need to be re-trained; and those who are high on the willingness to learn but
low on the ability to learn ? who need to be redeployed. Many organizations however, are
unable to effectively manage these four categories of employees, often because they are
unable to match employee with category reliably. As a result, even those organizations
that have the will to proactively manage their HR, ultimately are rendered powerless to
effect change in their employees. Indeed, such has been the story of many Indian firms,
particularly those entrenched in the traditional manufacturing sector.

Today however, globalization is compelling several Indian organizations to march to a


new tune. Increasing competitive pressure is bringing about a keener focus on
profitability and productivity of employees. The older employment relationship
characterized by the existence of only one employer and workplace, an indefinite work
contract, full-time work and some degree of social and legal protection, is being replaced
by performance-driven employment terms. Alongside, job definitions are changing as
well. Based on the idea of competency assessment, the art of human resource
management is shifting focus from performance appraisal to performance management
A competency framework can improve appraisal for the staff member and manager by
making the feedback behaviorally based, descriptive and specific.

2.4 Competency Model

A competency model is a valid, observable, and measurable list of the knowledge, skills,
and attributes demonstrated through behavior that results in outstanding performance in a
particular work context.
27

Competency model is a model that describes the requirements and attributes for
competent human performance in one or more roles or performance settings. As such, the
elements of a competency model communicate, in clear terms, the circumstances and
conditions of performance. Individual competencies are organized into competency
models to enable people in an organization or profession to understand, discuss, and
apply the competencies to workforce performance.

The element to be included in the competency model is decided based on the purpose that
the model is going to serve. There are few aspects that has to be taken into consideration
when a model is been developed by any organization.

Every Competency Model should include the following:

1. The significance of the competency model elements is that it should be developed


for meeting the organization’s strategic business objectives.
2. The model developed is expected to produce outputs or results of the
performance.
3. The roles that performers will assume when performing in a particular task or job.
4. The competencies that must be used for producing successful performance
outputs.
5. The competencies identified, must me able to distinguish the performance of
exemplary performers from that of their fully successful colleagues who perform
the same body of work.
6. It should help in differentiating best performers from average.
7. For each competency, behavioral indicators are included that describe when the
competency is appropriately being used for performance effectiveness
identification.
28

Fig-1:Competency model for HR professionals

HR Expert
Business
Knows HR Principles
Mission Oriented
Customer Oriented
Strategic Planner
Applies Business Procedures
Systems Innovator
Manages Resources
Understands Team Behavior
Uses HR Tools

Change Agent
Manages Change
Consults
Analyzes Advocate
Uses Coalition Skills Values
Leader
Influences Others Diversity
Ethical
Takes Risks Resolves
Decisive Conflict
Develops Staff Communicates
Creates Trust Well
Respects
Others

This is a competency era. It is beyond doubt that it is beneficial and cost effective, to
have competent people to occupy higher-level positions. Competency refers to the
intellectual, managerial, social and emotional competency. Many organizations in India
and abroad are channeling their efforts to mapping competencies and implementing
assessment and development centers. The need of the hour as indicated by many
organizations is to design and implement low cost assessment and development centers
specially designed to meet the requirements of developing countries like outs. Normally,
the purpose of analyzing training needs is to uncover the gap that exists between the
present competence of the enterprise and the competency needed to reach the strategic
goals in the future. A determining factor for what problems may arise is the choice of
level of precision or how complex a concept of competency one uses.
29

Fig 2: Competency Framework

COMPETENCY
STRATEGIC COMPETENCY
MODELING
FRAMEWORK FRAMEWORK
FRAMEWORK

Organizational Strategy
Stakeholder
Vision, Mission, Values,
Strategic,
Core Competencies Interest

Intent, Corporate Governance, (Organizational wide) Market Positioning


Corporate Social Responsibility
& Ethics

Business Strategy Business Achieving Business


Competencies Targets
Business Plan & Goals, Culture
People, Technology (SBU specific) Employee Satisfaction

Teamwork Strategy Team Competencies Profit Center Orientations

Leadership, Communication (Project driven) Team Development &


Conflict Management, Synergy
Interpersonal
Skills, Project Orientation, Self
Managed Teams (SMT)

Role Strategy Role Competencies Performance


Accomplishment
Ability, Autonomy,
(Role wise)
Multiskilling, Individual Development
Task identity, Performance
Evaluation & rewards and
performance
development

2.5. Need for Competency Frameworks

If a leading-edge organization seeks to create an efficient and effective competency


management system, what would they typically uncover? Let us look at the priority list

• Translate agency vision into clear measurable outcomes that define success and
that are shared throughout the agency and with customers and stakeholders
30

• Provide a look for assessing, managing and improving the overall health and
success of business systems.
• Continue to shift from perspective, audit and compliance-based oversight, to an
ongoing, forward-looking strategic partnership, involving agency headquarters
and field components.
• Identify core capabilities in the business and in the individual to help connect
work with behaviors, consequently influencing the performance and results.
• Include measures of quality, cost, seed, customer service and employee
alignment, motivation and skills to provide an in-depth, predictive performance
management system; and
• Replace existing assessment models with a consistent approach to competency
management.
• Implement efficiently
• Undertake pilots as necessary
• Go for the kill once acceptance is gained for across the broad execution.

The traditional approach of job analysis used by many organizations earlier is slowing
changing into a competency approach. The competency approach is different and
effective when compared to the job analysis approach used.

Job Analysis Leads to:

- Long lists of tasks and the skills / knowledge required to perform each of those tasks
- Data generation from subject matter experts; job incumbents
- Effective Performance

Whereas Competency approach leads to:

- A Distilled set of underlying personal characteristics


- Data generation from outstanding performers in addition to subject matter experts and
other job incumbents
31

- Outstanding Performance

Competency Approach allows executives and managers to make distinction between a


person's ability to do specific tasks at the minimum acceptable level and the ability to do
the whole job in an outstanding fashion.

Currently many organizations have adopted system which relate to the competencies or
rather competency approach such as

Competency Based Performance Appraisal


Competency Based Training
Competency Based Development
Competency Based Pay etc…

Link between Competency and other parameters is gaining more importance in the
current industrial scenario as Competencies have started playing a major role in the
development of the organization as well as the employees of the organization.

Competency Model development is a critical activity to be carried out by any


organization so as to make sure their Competency Framework is effective enough to help
their mapping process. Only if the model and the framework are designed effectively so
will be the outcomes of the judgment as well as the increase in the performance
effectiveness.
32

Fig 3:Competency based HR practices

Performance
Management
System
Reward
System

Career Plan
& Career
Competency
Development
requirement
Competency
availability
Competency
acquisition/
Development
Recruitment
& Selections

Succession
plans &
Training Succession
/developme Development
nt Plans &
Programs

The most important concepts of competency management is the continuous process of


managing and developing competency standards which reflect normal good practices of
direction setting, monitoring and measuring competencies, providing feedback and taking
action accordingly. Feedback is a very important aspect of any competency mapping
system, as it this which helps an individual to understand things better and achieve the
desired resul
33

Fig 4:Macro view of Competency Management


34
COMPETENCY
IDENTIFICATION
COMPETENCY • Identification
FRAMEWORK process (4 steps)
• Core • Consolidation of
competencies checklist
(Organization • Rank Order and
wide finalization
• Business • Validation and
competencies Benchmark COMPETENCY
(SBU specific) MAPPING
• Team Strategy-Structure
Competencies Congruence
(project driven) Structure Role
• Role competencies Congruence
(Role wise) Vertical & horizontal
Role linkages
COMPETENCY Positioning to bring in
ASSESSMENT competitive
Psycho-metric tool advantage
360 Degree approach

COMPETENCY
DEVELOPMENT
Maturity framework & matrix
Areas of improvement
Action Plan
35

2.6 Identification of Role Competencies


It means a set of competencies required to perform a given role. Each competency has a
skill set. Following are the various steps involved in it.
• Structure and list of roles: Organizational structure study and examination

Listing all the roles in the structure, Identifying redundant and overlapping roles
And preparing the final list of roles.
• Definition of roles: Identify KPAs of the role, Linking the KPAs with Dept. and
Organizational goals, state the content of the above in one or two sentences
Then Position the role in perspective with that of others.
• Job description: List down all the activities/tasks (small,big,routine and creative)

And categorize activities under major heads.


• Competency requirement
Competency Identification: Steps
• Identify against each activity the following:
 Role holder interview and listing
 Internal/External customer interview and listing
 Star performer interview and listing
 Role holder critical incident analysis
-Consolidate the above and make a checklist of competencies
-Rank- order and finalize on 5/6 competencies critical to the role
2.7 Competency Assessment
 Following methods are used:
 Assessment/Develop
ment Centre
 360 Degree feedback
 Role plays
 Case study
36

 Structured
Experiences
 Simulations
 Business Games
Competency Assessment is the, Evaluation of the extent to which a given individual or a
set of individuals possess these competencies required by a given role or set of roles or
levels of jobs. Competency Assessment is given importance in organization, so as to
determine the competencies that an individual posses to work in that particular job as
well as in that organization. Assessment helps in identifying the skill, capabilities and
experience that one has to carry out the job in a successful manner.

2.8 Competency Development


Role Identified competencies Assessment result Area of improvement Action plan

Impact of a Competency Development Processes:


Competency development activities tend to identify individual and group developmental
needs and problems including issues of concern and the members need to help each other
to identify solutions, select the resources necessary to achieve success in such problem
solving situations.
The impact of the competencies can be better understood by classifying it into five
specific skills, they are

Interpersonal Competencies Impact:


Interpersonal competencies consist of the whole range of skills, needed to interact
effectively with another person or persons. This is an additional skill and includes critical
capabilities and skills as listening, reflecting on ideas to build its implementation through
people processes and giving and receiving feedback while going through the
communication process.
37

Personal Competencies Impact:


Personal Competencies are associated with the needs or demands placed by other
manager as individual. Personal task competencies are objectives that define the data
scope of the responsibilities.
Team Competencies Impact:

Team competencies are those that are concerned with the needs of self with that of the
world group of which the individual is a part. These competencies that have been agreed
with the other members of the team, and are seen as being of benefit to the team as a
whole. Team competencies, are different in kind to the personal goals of the team
members and do not represent a simple connection of their personal goals. One crucial
difference is that team competencies will reveal the extent of which there is an
interdependence and synergy between the group members and extent of which it is an
effective and a cohesive unit.

Team task competencies, are goals of task objectives which a recognizable team is
required to achieve. The team task goals require a successful integration.

Organizational Competencies Impact:

Organizational Competencies are seen to be of benefit to the organization and its


employees as a whole. These are competencies that determine the continued existence
and development of the organization, as it relates to your environment. Organizational
competencies are achieved either by increasing the organization’s internal efficiency in
processing its order and determining a successful strategy for the survival of the changing
environment of the organization.

Organizational development competencies represent the goals of any program or change


upon which the organization could embark. They could also include changes in methods
of procedures so that the organization can adapt to developments in its environment
38

FIG: 5 Competency Based Performance Management System

Link critical success Confirm Competency


factors to Org. Core Dictionary
Competencies
ARTICULATE ENABLING
STRATEGY PERFORMA
Enabling NCE
Infrastructure CULTURE

Confirm Matrix of Employee LINK STRATEGY Agree on


bands TO VALUE Assessment Set

REWARD & SET MEASURES


COACH AND TARGETS
Performance
Management
Design and implement Cycle Prepare Assessment
infrastructure Work sheet

MONITOR & PLAN &


EVALUAVATE EXECUTE

Confirm Linkage to Critical Select Assessment Techniques


HR processes & Materials

2.9 Importance of Competency Based Performance Management System (CBPMS):

• It helps to align people effectively in a culture with a vision, common purpose and
a reason for existence.
• The vision when clearly defined helps employees to follow a path to achieve what
is required and even more.
39

• The most important aspect of CBPMS is that it brings in a behaviour


modification, facilitating, creating, and nurturing a culture which fosters sharing,
trusting, collaborating and contributing towards the goals setting and achieving
process.
• CBPMS is a performance improvement process, based on a joint problem
solving approach rather than an evaluation and control system.
• It is a business intervention tool seeking to achieve an effective mix of
organizational variables.
• It develops a sense of leadership and commitment and it works to create an
atmosphere to perform, lead tasks, set standards, and seek excellence in all times.
• It helps in effective planning and proper utilization of resources.

CBPMS is important as it defines the following for the organization, team working as
well as the individuals:

1. Measurable and Quantitative goals on the basis of measurability, with a dead


line, with numbers to chase for.
2. Soft and Sensitive Qualitative goals as that which involves value addition,
doing things differently, team sprit, organizational clarity, influencing the culture
and climate of the organization.
3. Human Process and People management goals to involve value orientation,
team building, learning, peer working, self management, cooperation and support,
training/retraining and an overall responsibility towards people.
4. Architecture Management and Overall Systemic goals necessitate on going
systemic improvements in process, methods and activities etc…
5. Rare and Unique goals make ordinary people do extraordinary things; stretches
people to surpass their standards and perform exceptionally well.
6. Individual and Self appraisal inculcates learning necessities.
7. Critical competencies and skill attributes identification to match skills with
person and job demands.
40

8. Overall comprehensive details to carry out comprehensive analyze of


achievements, failures etc…
9. Development of Team and Individual Strengths, as well as understanding the
weaknesses.
10. Performance review, feedback and counselling to help the superior in playing a
constructive role for development planning and improvement opportunities.
11. Future setting and scenario and potential assessment in the short term and long
term help in early identification of high performers, tracking, monitoring inputs,
bringing in mentors, role models, list of possibilities of growth, lateral
movements, cross functional exposure, development of leaders for the future and
planning succession at various stages.
12. It plays an important role in career planning and career management
programs.
13. Overall ranking and tiering – it focus on generating overall ranking of
employees as well as defining the levels in which they are currently performing
and what must be done to improve performance.
14. It helps in focusing on results and thus reduces the problems.

2.10 Common Pitfalls in implementing a competency mapping system

Usual pitfalls about competency development are the following:


• Lack of internal rooting
• Lack of information
• Lack of co-ordination
• The wrong time
• Wrong use of tools
• No consequence analysis
• Dependence on external consultants.

Pitfall No: 1 Believing the Map is Ultimate Goal

Mapping is an easy task but the difficulty lies in the audit and analysis. These are the areas where
most fraught with stumbling blocks and problems. The process or the map becomes a colossal
41

waste of time and money without proper analysis. The major pitfall occurs when the map is
considered as the desired end result without going into proper analysis. This is where many
organization loss out as they do not get into a proper analysis. For a proper analysis there should
be proper questions at the outset.

Pitfall No: 2 No Purposeful Questions

If the questions is not asked properly one is bound to get an improper answer rather a bad answer.
So valuable questions will results in valuable answer. If the questions are not proper it means the
objective or mission of a competency map is not defined clearly. The map is not in itself good,
but it is best only when it brings a positive change in the organization.

This can be achieved by understanding the communication flow in the organization. This will
help in knowing how and where to close the flow and decide what is desirable and not desirable
for strategies developed by the organization.

Pitfall No: 3 Not Knowing Where you are Going

This is what is called not knowing what the MISSION of the organization is. One should know
where the organization is heading to. If the organization has to be in the reality then it should
focus on something beyond reality so that it land in reality.

The mission must be to create and sustain a knowledge flow that is more profitable to your
organization. Then the map becomes a measure of how close to the ideal you already are in order
to benchmark for future measures of how much change you have been able to effect. The mission
must reach far beyond the map.

Focus should be on achieving what is always better than where you are right now.

Pitfall No: 4 Not Ensuring Both Reliability and Validity

Data from any source should be reliable and be valid so that it can be used for further process
effectively. Reliability and validity are indications of how usable a particular measuring tool
really is.

"Reliability tells us how consistently we are measuring whatever we are measuring. Validity is
concerned with whether we are measuring what we say we are measuring."
42

Reliable data should be consistent both internally and across time. If one measure any part any
time anywhere the results should be consistent.

The reliability and validity of data depends on the questionnaire as well as the measurement tool.
The data cannot be reliable and valid, if our measuring tool is not accurately consistently
measuring what we say we are measuring. The question is really the key. If the question cannot
be assessed to be reliable and valid, there is no sense in even beginning the process.

Pitfall No: 5 Not Assessing the Results Accurately

Once if all the above pitfalls have been successfully flowed through, the greatest challenge lies in
using the results effectively with proper assessment. The greatest danger lies in potential misuse
of data.

Now once we know the pitfalls, we should go ahead boldly and map it. But it should always be
done with knowledge. Knowing about the pitfalls will help the organization to chart the mapping
activities with confidence.

The effective mapping processes requires, Involvement and participation of the management,
Proper planning and allocation of responsibilities, Participation and involvement of employees,
Use of consultants, Proper follow up and feedback.
43

Chapter-3
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design:

• Sampling,
• Data collection methods,
• Research instruments.

3.2. Sampling:
Simple Random sampling was done for the study. Various players like UCB, Levis
Pantaloon, Color plus, Zodiac, Arrow etc were identified and the sample was selected at
random. The respondents were from HR and front-line departments of the companies

3.3. Data collection methods


Sources of data collection:
For the purpose of research both primary and secondary data were collected. Secondary
data was collected from a number of books, newspaper articles, and websites. Primary
data was collected from the employees with the help of questionnaires, discussion
guidelines and interviews.

3.4 Research Instruments

Secondary data was collected to gain more knowledge about the topic under study; it was
done to get to know the topic and its relevance in present scenario. Primary data was
collected with the help of questionnaires which were filled and answered by the
employees who were selected randomly.
Primary data:-The questionnaires will be used to gauge the preference of the customer’s
associate whether they are satisfied with their own behavior and are they given the
required attention.
44

Focus group discussion:-It would be done to identify the behavior of customers whether
they are satisfied with the behavior of the customer associate’s and sales managers. It will
consist of a panel of approx.
(8-10) people.

Research Design:

The design consists of using both the exploratory research as well as to use Conclusive
research so as to bring about the relationship that competency mapping has and its effect
on the performance effectiveness.

Exploratory Research – Experience Survey carried out to obtain an insight and ideas
about the topic through depth interviews so as to probe deep into the competency
mapping system of the company.

Conclusive Research in the form of descriptive research will used just for determining the
relationship and effect of competency mapping on performance management system.
45

Chapter-4
REPORT OF DATA COLLECTION

4.1 Identified Competencies for front-line staff

1. Team Work • Ability to work in a • Actively involves others • Is focused on individual goals
group, supporting and • Shows sensitivity to team members • Does not cooperate with other team members
involving team • Seeks and shares information • Does not listen – shoots down opinions without
members, integrating evaluation
• Listens to contribution from others
contributions and • Does not seek others involvement /opinion
• Focuses team efforts towards the • Creates decibels without impact on the objective
working towards the goals • Insensitive to the needs of others
team objective • Asks questions to gain interest and
• Seeks to gain the involvement from others
cooperation of others & • Actively confronts barriers to team
to develop a good team effectiveness
spirit when working in a
• Proactively encourages others to
team
participate
• Empathizes with team members
• Builds on team members points

2. Analytical Analyses issues and breaks • Develops and uses clear criteria for • Gets bogged down in detail
Reasoning / information down into • Has difficulty in analyzing and evaluating information
guiding decisions
Problem component parts; makes • Is not able to recognize what is relevant
Solving • Identifies cause and effect
systematic and rational • Judgments based on ‘gut feeling’ rather than a
relationships
judgments based on rational interpretation of data
• Thinks through the consequences • Judgments based on part information
relevant information of different courses of action
• Evaluates information effectively
and systematically identifying
relevant and irrelevant issues
• Arrives at logical conclusions using
information available to good effect
• Performs calculations and
combines quantitative information
to diagnose and solve a problem

Resilience- maintaining own • Resourceful in seeking alternative • Loses sight of objective easily
3. Resilience/ effectiveness when approaches • Confused by external influences
Man objectives/ rules/ procedures • Is unable to adapt to changed circumstances in
agin
• Maintains focus on objectives
are changed by others despite setbacks meeting objectives
g
Cha (People/ resources, etc.) Shows initiative in modifying approach
nge Flexibility – Modifies with alternative methods
approach to gain the same
objective

4. Initiative Engaging in proactive • Demonstrates positive energy • Plays a passive role in the group
behavior; seizing opportunity • Takes the lead for a task • Is not able to identify opportunities
• Questions the way things are done • Brings the group to focus on the what’s not
• Sees an opportunity and takes there/not fair/sees the gloomy side of the picture/does n
action options
• Proactively scans the environment
for new ideas, trends, etc.
• Brings the group to focus on the
available options, what’s there,
actions to minimize the damage
46

• • •
5. Result • Focusing attention on • Demonstrates a clear concept of • Has difficulty in identifying objectives / goals
Orientatio key objective; wanting goal • Does not break task into activities
n effective outcomes • Can develop realistic objectives to • Is unable to prioritize
achieve the goal • Has no concept of urgency or dead lines
• Readily identifies priorities • Is overwhelmed by information
• Is conscious of time lines •
• Plans and schedules activities to
achieve objectives
• Monitors progress vis-a- vis
resources / constraints

6. Ability to Focusing attention on key • Demonstrates a clear concept of • Has difficulty in identifying objectives / goals
see bigger objective; wanting effective goal • Does not break task into activities
picture outcomes • Can develop realistic objectives to • Is unable to prioritize
achieve the goal • Has no concept of urgency or dead lines
- Planning • Readily identifies priorities • Is overwhelmed by information
- • Is conscious of time lines • Does not evaluate the long term impact of a
Organizin • Plans and schedules activities to decision
g achieve objectives
• Monitors progress vis-a- vis
resources / constraints
• Evaluates the long term impact of a
decision

The value of competency mapping and identifying emotional strengths is that many
employers now purposefully screen employees to hire people with specific competencies.
They may need to hire someone who can be an effective time leader or who has
demonstrated great active listening skills. Alternately, they may need someone who
enjoys taking initiative or someone who is very good at taking direction. When
individuals must seek new jobs, knowing one’s competencies can give one a competitive
edge in the job market.

4.2 Tools of competency mapping


• Group Discussion
• Case Studies
• Extempore
• Presentation
• Psychometric Exercises
• Dream Team
47

How to test these Exercise

Group Discussion

• Don’t speak for the sake of speaking - weigh what you are saying
• You would only be heard when you have a reasonable/logical thought
• DON’T GET AGGRESSIVE or PERSONAL
• POSITIVE LANGUAGE… e.g use however not but, we not I
• 10 People …. 10 Mins… you have only ONE MINUTE to be heard
• LISTEN….
• Be Proactive and not Reactive..think before you speak.
• Don’t be the only one talking, give others a fair chance
• Acknowledge and appreciate your peers if you agree with them..

Case Study/Presentation

• Get your self to present at least one Case Study and speak for the Team.
• Approach - Think of Solutions and don’t get stuck with the problem
• Keep an Open Mind - try and think OUT OF THE BOX
• DON’T GET AGGRESSIVE or PERSONAL
• Convince or be Convinced, be a TEAM PLAYER
• Don’t digress from the Point of Discussion
• Acknowledge and appreciate your peers if you agree with them..

Extempore

• You would get time to prepare… Get your thoughts together


• Don’t use Slangs/ Jargons
• Use simple words
48

• Use your time well


• Believe in what you say… it shows in your body language
• Have an open Body Language
• Don’t get conscious of the observers
• Look at all the Team Members… maintain eye contact with all

Psychometric Exercises

• Relax…
• Your being Natural would help the most
• Think POSITIVE and be consistent
• Don’t contradict yourself…. Be Clear in your thoughts
• Time your self well, you may not get too much time to respond
• Believe in what you say and don’t pretend
• Don’t get conscious of the observers

Dream Team

• Think Diverse, what qualities do you want your team to possess


• Don’t get your favorites in the team just because like them
• Get the right mix of qualities/people in your team
• If a person is not in the team, have a reason - WHY NOT and not a personal
one….
• YOUR DREAM TEAM STARTS WITH YOU… include your name and what
Value Add you bring to the Team
49

Fig-6: Competency mapping of Pantaloon

Pantaloons priority test

The Priorities process consists of 5 Simple Steps, which will be expanded on through the
balance of this document. The 5 Simple Steps are:

Step 1: Clarify Role Purpose and Key Accountabilities - Employees and


managers understand the expectations of the employee's role, how it adds
value to the business and the key accountabilities of the position.
Step 2: Establish Operating Objectives and Behavioral Expectations -
Employees and managers together set the specific, tangible and measurable
operating objectives that must be accomplished within the scope of the
employee's role accountabilities.
50

Employees also understand how they are expected to achieve their


deliverables through behavioral expectations that are based on Core Values.
Step 3: Create a Development Plan and Facilitate an Individual Value
Proposition Discussion - Employees and their managers together should
establish a development plan focused on enhancing employees' skills,
experience and overall contribution to company and, at their option, have
further discussions regarding what interests and motivates the employee.
Step 4: Complete Regular Progress Reviews - Employees receive feedback, from
their manager, throughout the performance period on how they are doing
relative to both the operating objectives that were established and the
behavioral expectations based on company’s Core Values. Feedback should
be documented by the manager and retained by both the manager and
employee.
Step 5: Complete a Contribution Assessment - Employees' contributions will be
assessed based upon the degree of achievement against their operating
objectives and whether they have demonstrated the behavioral expectations
based on Core Values. Contribution assessment will also reflect each
employee's contribution relative to peers in similar roles based upon role
type, scope and complexity, in order to ensure greater accuracy and
consistency in application. Managers will also be provided with guidelines,
which establish an expected distribution curve across the four contribution
indicators. The guidelines are intended to reinforce the differentiation the
company expects to see at an overall business unit and lower level when the
contribution assessment process is completed and results are rolled up for
these larger groups of employees.

How Priorities Works - Five Simple Steps

Step 1. Establishing Role Purpose and Accountabilities:

Role purpose defines what an employee is expected to do and should support the business
priorities.

• Accountabilities define the major outcomes expected from a role.

Step 2. Establishing Operating Objectives & Behavioral Expectations

Operating Objectives:
51

• Operating objectives are:


o "Deliverables" that the employee must achieve during the 1st and 2nd half
year performance cycles.
o Aligned to the employee's role and accountabilities; as well as Vision,
Strategy and key business priorities.

Step 3. Development Planning:

The manager and employee are expected to jointly create the employee's
development plan, which should, to the extent possible, be a blend of the
employee's professional /career interests along with the knowledge, skills, training
and experience necessary for the employee to meet the immediate and future
needs . Identifying key motivators, interests, professional and career development
goals and opportunities should take place in conjunction with the development
planning discussions.

Step 4. Progress Reviews:

• Managers are expected to have on-going discussions with employees to ensure


progress is being made relative to the operating objectives, behavioral
expectations and the Individual Development Plan. At a minimum, the review is
expected to occur at mid-year and / or more frequently as required due to role or
business priorities.
• Progress reviews also help ensure that both role accountabilities and operating
objectives in particular continue to align to the business priorities.
• Input and feedback can also be solicited by managers or employees from
additional sources who have knowledge of the employee's performance.
Additional sources of input may include team or project leaders, customers and/or
clients.
52

Step 5. Contribution Assessment Process:

• Managers are ultimately accountable for assessing an employee's overall


contribution and documenting and communicating the overall contribution
assessment and indicator to the employee

• Input and feedback can also be solicited by managers or employees from


additional sources who have knowledge of the employee's performance.
Additional sources of input may include team or leaders, customers .
4.3 Competency mapping of UCB
To set systematic and objective processes to evaluate nominated Customer Facilitator’s
capabilities (in simulated conditions) that are critical to performing in the role of future
Store Managers and Area Sales Executives

Nomination
Fig-7: Process Map on basis of >
= Regional
Appraisal
Rating

Preliminary
Conduct Presentation
Steps
of Know Your Ops
Short-listing for
Assessment GD
Next Round
Centre
Carries 40 Marks,
To score 28 to qualify for
next Round at HO
Announce Results
and Give Consensus
Performance of
Counselling to Assessors
each Participant

4.4 The competency mapping of ARROW goes as follows

Their chain is
Sales manager – retail associates
Name of their assessment exam is DAT
Exercises are
53

• Written test
• In basket exercise
• Average billing system
• One to one session
• Store performance is important than individual performance

The employee can sit in the exam after one year. For one year the company observes
his/her on the job behavior.

4.5 Competency mapping of Levis

Customer facilitators- floor manager- sales staff- sales manager

There is no appraisal system as such in Levis as they don’t believe in paper work. The
criteria for their evaluation are:

• Work Experience
• Interest of the employee
• If he/ she is their from some references
• Internal promotions
• Knowledge
• On the job behavior

In all there are 30 employees working in levis.


There are no exams only promotion is done through observation and their
behavior.

The same goes with Color plus and Zodiac.


54

Employees are expected to work harder in order to meet its targets. However, driving
performance is not all about pushing employees to make figures but equally important is
for them to know how to meet their targets. Many leaders concentrate on what needs to
be done instead of how to get there. Refocusing on how goals are achieved becomes more
essential because it facilitates learning and initiating action in the employee. It also
provides support in terms of enhancing an employee’s capabilities, preparing them to
meet future challenges. However, an effective performance management system is
necessary. Results indicate that a good performance management system enables
employees to attain all their performance goals, which leads to successful business
outcomes. Depending on the type of outcome, such as hard results like revenue growth,
productivity and profitability, or soft results like customer or employee satisfaction,
organizations with effective performance management systems are more likely to
outperform their competitors. To the respondents, these qualities made their performance
plan more meaningful and valuable to them, influencing a positive impact on business
outcomes, employee productivity and satisfaction.
However, one of the biggest challenges that leaders face is how to effectively motivate,
initiate change and sustain improved performance among employees. Not all employees
have the same sources of motivation or can they be influenced to initiate action and
change behavior by the considering the same factors. Factors that contribute to an
employee’s performance are can be specific and vary per individual. It then becomes
imperative for leaders to determine what organizational factors contribute to effective
outcome and must be able to enhance and maintain them, both on an individual and group
level.

4.6 Response of the front-line staff about Competency mapping


• Opportunity to express own views
• Opportunity to find out about own S/W
• Opportunity to discuss own objectives/company/dept. objectives
• Identification/clarification of own role
• Improved working relationships
• Increased job satisfaction/self-confidence
55

• Find out reasons for salary


• See relationship to training provided/development plans

Fig-8:Competency mapping process - Ebony

Using the Performance Planning &


results for Goal setting
different
organizational
decisions
Observation
Competency of
Appraisal mapping Process performance
Interview & continual
feedback

Performance
Appraisal using a
predetermined
format
56

Chapter-5
ANALYSIS
5.1 QUESTIONNAIRE DATA ANALYSIS

1. The first question-


My role is important in this organization; I feel central here

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

It is aimed at understanding the employee’s role. How do they perceive their role,
performed in the organization .Do they feel that the respective role performed by them
adds any value to the organization. .The results were: 70% of the respondents felt that
their role holds a great importance. Whereas 10% of them slightly agree with the
statement, 17% of them slightly disagree with the statement questioned and 3% of them
did not have much of an opinion to voice.

Role importance

10% 3%
17%

Strongly disagree
Slightly disagree
strongly agree
Slightly agree

70%

It was found that there is a very clear understanding of the reason for the existence of the
process from the percentage of people who feel their role being important. 70% of the
employees felt that there is a definite contribution of their role in the organization. On
average combining the respondents who felt it important i.e. 10%, it is determined that
57

the employees of the organization feel that the role play a somewhat importance in the
organization.
This is also to find the link that the competencies had in relation to the critical success
factors of the job that they were performing. Like the front-line staff felt that the main
purpose of their job was, delighting the customer by performing on time deliver, effective
communication and meeting targets on time and if possible under promise.

2. The second question goes like this-


My training and expertise are not fully utilized in my present role.

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

This question helps to analyze that how important the training program is and are they
able to utilize the training and expertise in the role performed by them. This is to
understand whether the organization has proactively planned system to handle employees
who were low on competencies and whether proper expertise and training is provided. No
system or process is effective without an immediate feedback as well as traning.It not
only tell the individual his current position, but also help to understand the individual’s
problems and reasons for not exhibiting that kind of behavior.
It will also help the organization from bringing in more clarity to the system and how the
individual understand the training system. It helps in identifying the right training needs.

0% 5% 0%

Strongly disagree
Slightly disagree
strongly agree
Slightly agree

95%
58

95% of the respondents confirmed that there is an effective training provided to them
soon after their evaluation and appraisals. Just about 5% felt that they are not able to
make the effective use of training and expertise given to them and they do not have solid
reasons to support the same.

3. The third question-


In my role I am able to use my creativity and do something new

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

The purpose of asking this question was to know is there any value addition done by the
employees to enhance their role. Are they able to add any creativity to their role?

5%
15%
15%

Strongly disagree
Slightly disagree
strongly agree
Slightly agree

65%

Since front-line staff have direct interaction with customers and their main job is to
satisfy customers. Customers like to inquire about many things, and front-line staff have
to attend their inquiries, so this question help us to analyze how much value do they add,
and how they use new tactics to satisfy customers. The result shows that 65% strongly
agree that they are able to do some new things in their role,whereas15% slightly agree, as
the job structure is very rigid.15% of them slightly disagree and 5% of them didn’t raise
any voice.
59

4. The fourth question talks about the opportunities and scope given to the employees to
enhance their professional growth.

I have tremendous opportunities for professional growth in my role

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

This is an important question which aimed at understanding the perception of the


respondents on the opportunities given for the improvement of performance. Only if the
employees feel that opportunities given through competency mapping can improve
performance, its only then they can actually feel that they show a considerable
improvement in the performance.
Usually organization develops system to make sure they provide opportunities which are
aimed at improving the overall performance of the employees as well as the organization.

0%
13%
0%

Strongly disagree
Slightly disagree
strongly agree
Slightly agree

87%

So majority of the respondents do strongly agree that they are given opportunities to
enhance their growth in career.. 87% of the respondents believed that the competency
mapping process helps in doing this. Most of them agreed that the have seen a
considerable increase in the improvement of their performance over years.
60

Only about 13% felt that they do not get enough opportunities. They felt competency
mapping is another tool to evaluate them along with the performance evaluation and it
only aimed at their behavioral aspects.

So with an 87% majority of respondents in favour of the question,. Competency Mapping


helps an individual to understand his capabilities, his strength and weakness better, thus
helping him to work more on his capabilities and strengths and minimize his weaknesses.

5. The fifth question is as follow -


I have little freedom in my job description
a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

2%
0%
23%

Strongly disagree
Slightly disagree
strongly agree
Slightly agree

75%

6 In the question performance improvements signifies the process of competency


mapping
Company focuses on performance improvements rather than
Just evaluation of individuals.
a) Yes b) No

This question was aimed at finding out whether the respondents think that company
focuses on improving performance of the employees rather than just evaluation. In the
present scenario many organization follow a competency based performance
61

management system. This is the same in case of retail industry. This question gives clear
picture on whether the employees think that competency mapping plays an important role
in performance evaluation. Do they think whether competency mapping should be given
importance along with performance evaluation, and whether it should be linked with the
performance management system?

13%

yes
no

87%

The chart shows a large percentage of 87 % of respondents do think that Competency


Mapping does have an important role in Performance Evaluation. About 13% of them
feel it is not important. They feel competency mapping has its own importance and so
does performance evaluation. They are not sure about the importance when it is linked
with performance evaluation.

But the chart clearly shows that a majority of the employees strongly give importance to
both the process and system and strongly feel that competency does play an important
role in the performance evaluation and feel that it should always be linked with the
performance management system.

The question was also aimed at knowing whether they appreciate the companies system
of linking it with the performance evaluation. So the inference from this chart is that
62

majority of the respondents do prefer do have the system linked and find it really
important, that competency mapping plays a key role in performance evaluation.

7. Is the performance appraisal system linked with the identification of


developmental needs?

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

40%

strongly agree
Slightly agree

60%

This question helps to analyze why is Performance Measured? Is it helps in identification


of developmental needs? Or not.
Reasons for emphasizing the development of personnel include-:
• Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who
may leave or move up in the organization
• Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology because
of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff
• Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances
the company's competitive position and improves employee morale
• Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs
• The result obtained shows 60% of company’s measure performance for
identifying developmental needs and some of these
• Developmental reasons are:-
63

o Identifying strengths
o Identifying areas of growth
o Developmental planning
o Coaching and career planning
o How might a performance appraisal contribute to an individual’s
development

40% companies still link the performance appraisal with administrative factors like
o Compensation
o Promotion dismissal
o Downsizing layoffs
8. The eighth question is in continuation of the previous question. This is a follow up
questions so as to know from the respondents that determining training needs helps in
encouraging the best talent.
Determining the training needs helps in encouraging the best talent.

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

10%

strongly agree
Slightly agree

90%

The result obtained shows a clear inclination towards the importance of training needs.
As 90% of the respondents feel that training can help in encouraging the best talent.
• Makes an employee more useful to a firm
64

• Makes employees more efficient and effective


• Enables employees to secure promotions
• Employees can avoid mistakes, accidents on the job

Only 10% feel that it does not deliver the benefits and does not ensure the best talent to
come up.
9. Are you satisfied with the assessment methods used by the company?

a) Yes b) No

This is to know the views of the respondents, whether are they really satisfied with the
competency framework developed by the organization as well as the framework on which
they are being evaluated. For any system to be implemented and carried out effectively it
requires the acceptance and willingness to adapt to the system with interest, commitment
and a level of satisfaction that the individual is benefited from the same.

15%

yes
no

85%

85% of the respondents are satisfied with assessment methods, whereas about 15% of the.
The respondents were dissatisfied about the entire framework.
65

The satisfied respondents felt that the assessment framework on which they were
evaluated and assessed was effective in terms of analyzing their competencies in relation
to their job and believed that the system is good enough to assess them and link it with
their performance evaluation.
The dissatisfied respondents felt that the framework needs to be revamped and cannot be
generalized for all, as even the behavioral and soft skills differ from person to person and
it cannot be changed with a help of a common assessment module.

10. Would you like to make some improvements in current performance


appraisal system?

a) Yes b) No

40%

yes
no

60%

Various suggestions were given by the respondents on the methods for competency
development. Some suggestion provided by the respondents is as follows

- Competency Assessment methods


- Continual Competency enhancement program
- Role description
66

- Continuous feedback from employees, exposure to different environment

- Focused training
- Competency Maps

Thus these are some the general methods that the respondents felt was best for the
employees performance.

11. What are your career plans for next six months?
This question was an open-ended question and subject to get an insight about the career
plans of the front-line staff.
Most of them were looking to move up the ladder in their respective hierarchy .Like the
Sales personnel aims to become supervisor or floor manager. And ASM heads towards
store manager.
67

Chapter-6
Recommendations

• Increasing business literacy of the workforce to help employees better


understands how competency mapping contributes to the organization’s success.
• Actively involving a broad-base of employees in the development of competency
mapping actions and initiatives for driving strategy execution..
• Employee’s response in a mixed way to any kind of modifications on policies.
Proper communication results in conveying the vision of competency mapping in
an effective way.
• Regular feedback improves the performance of employees and makes them
connected to the organization.
• Training and socialization play a crucial role as training improves their lacking
skills, ability and knowledge and socialization helps in improving inter-personal
relations, expand business and explore new opportunities.

• The competency evaluation and the performance evaluation are done on yearly
basis. Competency Evaluation can be more effective if it carried out at least twice
a year, so that it keeps reminding the employees where they stand and what they
have to achieve the required objectives. The organization can also focus on
providing regular counseling and feedback every month or quarter. This can be
done by the superior or the boss who can act as a mentor and guide him to do
better. This will help the individual to correct and change accordingly. This will
yield better results in the time of appraisal making it easier to judge the
individuals progress.
• Combining performance appraisal with assessment centre will help in improving
the competencies, skills, ability and compensation which makes employees to
work with passion and feel strong connection to their company.
68

• HRD function is to ensure competencies in each role, if there is inadequate role


competencies then either develop the competencies within a timeframe or quit the
role.
• Formalization and automation of competency analysis database to define
competencies in terms of tasks, skills and knowledge required for different roles
in the organization..
• Self-mapping of employees against the competencies for their current or next
immediate role.
• Utilization of competency information across all policies including training,
career development, competency development, recruitment and mentoring.
• Training on competency framework to generate awareness among employees to
participate and contribute in this initiative.
• Alignment of India-specific competencies with the organizational global roles and
requisite set of competencies.
• Periodic review of competency mapping by employees to remain current with the
organization’s business needs.
• Periodic review of the skills and knowledge required to perform a particular role
ensuring they are complete and correct.
• Development of competencies can be done also with help of other effective
techniques, like
Behavioral Event Interview using BARS
Competency Card which help is effective follows up of work
Focus group etc...
This will help in preparing a more comprehensive list of competencies for evaluation
parameters.
• Focus on developing inventory of competencies for the future. The organization
has to plan to meet the changes expected in technology, product and process in
the coming years.
• The organization should focus on making the system more efficient by making the
employees feel that the system is excellent, and it benefits both the individual and
organization.
69

Chapter-7
Conclusions & Implications
Dictionary definitions often fall short in describing a concept. But the leading companies
might describe a Competency as “a cluster of related knowledge, attitudes, skills and other
personal characteristics that …
• Affects a major part of one’s job
• Correlates with performance on the job
• Can be measured against well-accepted standards
• Can be improved via training and development”
This is Competency era and a significant shift towards Competency Based Organization
has been observed. People and their competencies have become the most significant factors
that give a competitive edge to any corporation. HR Professionals and Line Managers can
contribute a great deal to develop competency-based organizations.
Any underlying characteristic required for performing a given task, activity or role
successfully can be considered as competency. Competency may take the following forms:
Knowledge, attitude, skill and Other characteristics of an individual including motives
values, traits, self concept etc.
Competency-based performance management processes are becoming more prevalent in
many organizations, but they are particularly appropriate for organizations where there are:
• Uncertain environments
• Qualitative/process service jobs
• Self-managed teams
• Developmental jobs
• Changing organizations
Competency mapping begins with identification of the workforce competencies required
To perform the organizational business activities. Once the competencies are identified,
a mapping between the targeted vs. actual value of competencies is required to
Measure, analyze and predict the future capability of competencies and take necessary
Corrective/preventive action to either enhance or maintain the current capability.
Identifying the tasks, skills, knowledge and attitude required to perform various
70

Organizational roles can be used in formulating job description, assessing employees’


Current level of competency, and activities like planning career development and
Coordinating competency development.
Organizations describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four
strategies:
1. Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for
organization success)
2. Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets
3. Position-Specific Competency Sets
4. Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e.
Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader)

Competencies Relate to Individual Career Development


First and foremost, competencies must be demonstrated by individuals. Perhaps the most
common place where they are demonstrated is within the scope of a particular job or
project involvement. However, competencies are also developed and demonstrated by
individuals in the following settings: volunteer roles in the community, professional
associations, school projects, sports participation settings, and even within one’s own
home life.
One of the first encounters with competencies for most individuals is in securing
employment with a new organization. Organizations that are purposefully using cutting-
edge methods to choose talent for positions or project roles are engaging in what is called
“competency-based interviewing and selection”. These interviewing and selection
methods are being used not only for hiring external applicants, but also for staffing
internal roles.
Many organizations that use competency-based interviewing and selection are also later
using the same competencies to assess performance, to encourage future development
plans from individuals, and to plan for succession in the organization. Therefore, the
individual employees in such an organization will have an ongoing need to use and map
their competencies.
71

Why Should Individual Employees Map Their Competencies?


• Gains a clearer sense of true marketability in today’s job market; once the individual
knows how his/her competencies compare to those that are asked for by the job market in
key positions of interest.
• Projects an appearance as a “cutting-edge” and well-prepared candidate, who has taken
the time to learn about competencies, investigate those in demand, and map his/her own
competencies prior to interviewing.
• Demonstrates self-confidence that comes from knowing one’s competitive advantages
more convincingly, and from being able to articulate those advantages in specific
language.
• Secures essential input to resume development - a set of important terms to use in
describing expertise derived from prior career experience.
• Gains advanced preparation for interviews, many of which may be delivered using a
competency-based approach called “structured behavioral interviewing” or “behavioral
event interviewing.
• Develops the capability to compare one’s actual competencies to an organization or
position’s required/preferred competencies, in order to create an Individual Development
Plan.
But what about individuals who work in organizations (or have their own businesses) that
do not hire, appraise or develop employees using competencies? There are several
reasons for these individuals to map their competencies, as well:
1. If the individual ever has a desire to leave the current organization, it is very possible
that competencies may be a part of the HR practices used by the next employer.
2. The true factors for success don’t really vary that much in most organizations. This is
another way of saying that competencies tend to be valid across a wide range of jobs,
work roles, organizations, industries, and professions. Therefore, even if competencies
are not officially being used, they do indeed have a lot to do with success in most
organizations. So an individual who is prepared with insight into his/her own
competencies will probably be able to use them in service of success in the organization
anyway.
72

Assessment centers make it possible for organizations to make use of the best
methodology for assessing their employees. “And if the assessment is competency-based
—the information available on individuals can be aggregated for the organization to
provide data on the overall levels of capability in the business relative to the business
needs in the future. We call this ‘real-time succession planning’—where the organization
can use the overview data to plan, acquire and develop the capabilities that it will need
for the future. This is potentially hugely beneficial and cost effective for the
organization,” adds Martin.
The pertinent question is: Is it essential for all organizations (irrespective of size) to set
up an assessment centre? It is necessary for all organizations to have an objective process
(like the assessment centre), the fact remains that they can be quite ‘resource intensive’,
so particularly for smaller organizations the value-for-money issue is the key. “It is vital
to have the necessary expertise either in-house or available via appropriate qualified
external providers—to ensure appropriate design and effective delivery. Just like
anything else, the ‘rubbish in/rubbish out’ principle applies. If the ‘assessment’ assesses
wrong things, or the process is delivered by untrained, unskilled assessors—it will tell the
organization nothing of value and will be a waste of money.

To make sure an organization achieve excellence, the strategies and plans should be
focused on reaching the vision and mission. Processes like Competency Mapping process
should be developed and should be aligned with the organization’s strategies so as to
make sure the system is effective.
73

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference Books:

1. Competency Based HRM, by Ganesh Shermon, TATA McGraw Hill Publishing


Company.
2. Competency Mapping, by Spencer & Spencer
3. Performance management by TV rao and Udai Pareek

Website:

1. www.citehr.com
2. www.careertrainer.com
3. www.e-hresources.com
4. www.hbr.com
5. www.employment-studies.co.uk
6. www.managementissues.com
74

APPENDICES
INSTRUMENT QUESTIONNAIRES

NON-HR (Front-line Staff)

NAME: ________________________________________
DESIGNATION: _________________________________
AGE: ________
NO. OF YEARS IN COMPANY: ___________

INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING UP THE QUESTIONAIRE:


• Please tick the appropriate choice you feel is the best suited
• Please give reasons wherever required
• Please answer all the questions

2. My role is important in this organization; I feel central here

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

2. My training and expertise are not fully utilized in my present role

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

3. . In my role I am able to use my creativity and do something new

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

4. I have tremendous opportunities for professional growth in my role

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

5. I have little freedom in my job description


a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

6. Company focuses on performance improvements rather than


just evaluation of individuals.
a) Yes b) No

7. Is the performance appraisal system linked with the identification of


developmental needs?

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

8. Determining the training needs helps in encouraging the best talent.


75

a) Strongly disagree b) Slightly disagree c) Strongly agree d) Slightly agree

9. Are you satisfied with the assessment methods used by the company?

a) Yes b) No

10. Would you like to make some improvements in current performance


appraisal system?

a) Yes b) No
If yes, please specify them appropriately.

11. What are your career plans for next six months?

QUESTIONNAIRE-(HR Manager)

NAME: ________________________________________
AGE: ________
NO. OF YEARS IN COMPANY: ________

INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING UP THE QUESTIONAIRE:


• Please tick the appropriate choice you feel is the best suited
• Please give reasons wherever required
• Please answer all the questions

1. Do you think, competency mapping results in better employees performance?

a) Yes b) No

2. On what basis do you implement competency mapping?


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
___
76

3. What are the motivational forces in your opinion to actively involve the
employees in competency mapping?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
___

4. What are the methods used for Competency mapping?


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
___

5. What competencies are you looking for front line-staff?


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
__

6. How do you test these competencies?


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
__

7. How often is competency mapping conducted?


• Once in a year
• Twice in a year
• Others, please specify

8. What are the reasons for choosing this time span and what are the strategies
you use for it?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
__

9. How good is assessment centre as compared to outsourcing recruitment? Is


it cost effective?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_

10. If few short listed employees are not promoted what is done to maintain their
performance?
77

_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_

11. What do you plan for your employees in the near future?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
___

ARTICLE- 1
Competency Mapping: What Is It and How It Can Be Done by Individuals
by Steve Garrett

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This article has been provided by the Career Planning and Adult Development Network.
Consider

Overview
Over the past 10 years, human resource and organizational development professionals
have generated a lot of interest in the notion of competencies as a key element and
measure of human performance. Competencies are becoming a frequently-used and
written-about vehicle for organizational applications such as:
• Defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the
organization
• Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding
jobs and roles
• Mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization
• Assigning compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles
• Selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing
techniques
78

What has not been written about or explored as much over the past decade are the
answers to the following two questions:
1. How do competency-based human resource management methods of defining and
measuring human performance impact individual workers? What impact does an
organization’s use of competencies have on individual employees’ career management
planning and actions in the long-term?
2. How can career management professionals help prepare their individual clients to
identify and present their competency strengths in various work or job search situations?

The answers to these questions are the basis of this article. However, before I answer
these questions, I need to lay a foundation with some definitions.

How Is “Competency” Defined in the Context of This Article?


Many definitions of the term “competencies” have arisen over the past decade. The
definition that I most prefer is as follows:
Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important
results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are
combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes (more historically called “KSA’s”) that
are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers
in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives,
values or ways of thinking that impact an individual’s behavior. *Figure 1 illustrates this
definition.

Competencies in organizations tend to fall into two broad categories:


- Personal Functioning Competencies. These competencies include broad success factors
not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional
intelligence behaviors).
- Functional/Technical Competencies. These competencies include specific success
factors within a given work function or industry.
79

The emphasis of this article will be on how both types of competencies impact the ways
career professionals can advise their clients to use competencies in their personal career
management efforts. In this article, however, the predominant focus will be on
practitioners’ and clients’ work on personal functioning competencies, since they tend to
differentiate success over time more often than do workers’ functional/technical
competencies.

Three other definitions are needed:


• Competency Map. A competency map is a list of an individual’s competencies that
represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs, departments, organizations, or
industries that are part of the individual’s current career plan.
• Competency Mapping. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify
and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or
work role.
• Top Competencies. Top competencies are the vital few competencies (four to seven, on
average) that are the most important to an individual in their ongoing career management
process. “Importance to the individual” is an intuitive decision based on a combination of
three factors: past demonstrated excellence in using the competency, inner passion for
using the competency, and the current or likely future demand for the competency in the
individual’s current position or targeted career field.

Although the definition above for “competency mapping” refers to individual employees,
organizations also “map” competencies, but from a different perspective. Organizations
describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four strategies:

1. Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for


organization success)
2. Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets
3. Position-Specific Competency Sets
4. Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e.
Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader)
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This article will not go into depth about the differences among the four mapping
strategies. Instead, the focus here will be on ways that individuals need to present or
demonstrate the use of the various kinds of competencies when interacting with
organizations.

Research is ongoing about the nature of competencies that are important for success
across many organizations. There are a number of sources that describe some very
common personal functioning competencies found to be important for employees at all
levels across organizations. One good quote in this area is from Michael Zwell (2000,
pgs. 53-55), the author of Creating A Culture of Competence when he says, “From the
body of competency research to date, a basic set of 6 competencies would differentiate
the top quartile of performers from the rest in most positions in an organization:
Initiative, Influence, Results Orientation, Teamwork, Service Orientation, and, Concern
for Quality.”

ARTICLE-2
Competency mapping
Posted online: Monday , January 24, 2005 at 0000 hrs IST
Competency-based HR is considered the best HR. In India however competency
development and mapping still remains an unexplored process in most organizations
despite the growing level of awareness. After all, Level 3 of PCMM is focused on the
competency framework in an organization.

Is the underlying principle of competency mapping just about finding the right people for
the right job? The issue is much more complex than it appears, and most HR departments
have been struggling to formulate the right framework for their organization.
Competency mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for a particular
position in an organization, and then using it for job-evaluation, recruitment, training and
development, performance management, succession planning, etc. “The competency
framework serves as the bedrock for all HR applications. As a result of competency
81

mapping, all the HR processes like talent induction, management development, appraisals
and training yield much better results,” states well-known HR expert Ullhas Pagey.

. “Unless managements and HR heads have holistic expectations from their HR


departments, the competency movement is unlikely to succeed as it requires lot of time,
dedication and money,” he adds, pointing out that before an organization embarks on this
journey it has to be very clear about the business goals, capability-building imperatives
and core competencies of the organization. The competency mapping process needs to be
strongly integrated with these aspects.

Experts agree that the competency mapping process does not fit the one-size-fits all
formula. It has to be specific to the user organisation. “My suggestion is to develop
models that draw from but are not defined by existing research, using behavioural
interview methods so that the organisation creates a model that reflects its own strategy,
its own market, its own customers, and the competencies that bring success in that
specific context (including national culture). Start with small, discrete groups or teams,
ideally in two directions-a ‘horizontal slice’ across the business that takes in a multi-
functional or multi-site group, more or less at the same organisational level, and a
‘vertical slice’ taking in one whole department or team from top to bottom....

Management Development Program on


Competency Mapping December 11-13, 2006
FSM Campus, New Delhi
Backdrop
Competence, especially human competence, is the most critical element for success in
business. The questions ‘how do you predict management success and advancement?’
and ‘what criteria do you use to measure these two phenomena?’ are of fundamental
importance both to managers and the management. It is well known that worker
competence and a supportive organizational structure are necessary for any business to
realize its strategic goals as also to adapt to constant change. Competency mapping has
thus become a reality. Despite endless talk about the need to develop “workplace
82

competencies” and “mapping” them, most human resources professionals are still
struggling to do this in a meaningful and systematic way. This is possible by matching
the right people to the right jobs thus making for a happier and more productive
workforce.

Objectives
To provide a definitive roadmap to understanding, designing and implementing
competency models in organizations.
Contents

Key Phases:
The conceptual foundations of competencies and how they work both in people and in
organizations.
How competency frameworks can be designed, developed and implemented.
The role of competencies in an organization as a vital tool for recruitment, selection and
retention.
How to develop customized competency models based on the management philosophy,
customer needs, and existing processes of the organization.
Potential Mapping through Assessment Centre.
83

RESPONSE SHEETS
Response sheet number: (1)

Thesis Topic: “Competency Mapping of Front-Line Staff - A Study in Relation to the


Retail Sector.”

Date: 30th March 08

 Details of the student ( Name ,Batch ,Alumni Id ,Phone No and Email Id )


Name: - Kanika Vashishta
Batch: - Spring Summer 2006-2008
Alumni ID Number -DS68-H046
Phone No: - 9810538080
Email: - kanika301085@gmail.com

 Thesis synopsis ( Attach thesis synopsis [ if response sheets are emailed] with
every response sheet )

 Date when the guide was consulted:14th March 08

 Progress of the work :

Literature Review
So what does `Competency Mapping' really mean? Competency Mapping is a process of
identifying key competencies for a company or institution and the jobs and functions
within it.
Technical or functional competencies: knowledge, attitudes and skills associated with the
technology or functional expertise required to perform the role
84

Managerial: knowledge, attitudes and skills required to plan, organize, mobilize and
utilize various resources
Human: knowledge, attitudes and skills required to motivate, utilize and develop human
resources
Conceptual: the abilities needed to visualize the invisible, think at abstract levels and use
the thinking to plan future business

 Comments from internal/external guide:

_______________________________________________________________________
_

_______________________________________________________________________
_

Signature of the external guide: Signature of the internal guide:

Signature of the Student: Kanika Vashishta

Note: -Whenever a student emails his/her response sheet, he/she has to send all the previous response
sheets too. Response sheets should be emailed to thesis.ss68@iipm.edu or can be submitted in person
at Gurgaon campus. Signature of guide not mandatory through email.

Response sheet number: (2)

Thesis Topic: “Competency Mapping of Front-Line Staff - A Study in Relation to the


Retail Sector.”

Date: 3rd April 2008

 Details of the student ( Name ,Batch ,Alumni Id ,Phone No and Email Id )


Name: - Kanika Vashishta
Batch: - Spring Summer 2006-2008
Alumni ID Number -DS68-H046
Phone No: - 9810538080
85

Email: - kanika301085@gmail.com

 Thesis synopsis ( Attach thesis synopsis [ if response sheets are emailed] with
every response sheet )

 Date when the guide was consulted:25thMarch 08

 Progress of the work :

Research Methodology:

a. Research type: Qualitative exploratory research and quantitative conclusive research


b. Research method:
• In depth interviews- done for customer associates and area
sales manager.
• Focus group method
• Structured Questionnaires

Thesis ss68 to me
Apr 4
Kindly make changes in the Questionnaire for Non Hr. Do more reading on the
competency mapping for better understanding the concept.

Regards

Vijay Boddu

Response sheet number: (3)

Thesis Topic: “Competency Mapping of Front-Line Staff - A Study in Relation to the


Retail Sector.”

Date: 8th April 2008

 Details of the student ( Name ,Batch ,Alumni Id ,Phone No and Email Id )


Name: - Kanika Vashishta
86

Batch: - Spring Summer 2006-2008


Alumni ID Number -DS68-H046
Phone No: - 9810538080
Email: - kanika301085@gmail.com

 Thesis synopsis ( Attach thesis synopsis [ if response sheets are emailed] with
every response sheet )

 Date when the guide was consulted:3rd April 08

 Progress of the work :

The format of questionnaire is enclosed along with response sheet. Two questionnaires
are prepared. One for the front-line staff (including customer associates &ASM) and
other for Hr manager to collect the adequate data. In regard to our conversation I have
made some changes in the questionnaire for front- line staff
I would be covering the following retail outlets….

Thesis ss68 to me
Apr 9

Questionnaire format is comprehensive. Show me the research findings in the next


response sheet.

Regards

Vijay Boddu

Response sheet number: (4)

Thesis Topic: “Competency Mapping of Front-Line Staff - A Study in Relation to the


Retail Sector.”

Date: 15th April 2008

 Details of the student ( Name ,Batch ,Alumni Id ,Phone No and Email Id )


87

Name: - Kanika Vashishta


Batch: - Spring Summer 2006-2008
Alumni ID Number -DS68-H046
Phone No: - 9810538080
Email: - kanika301085@gmail.com

 Thesis synopsis ( Attach thesis synopsis [ if response sheets are emailed] with
every response sheet )

 Date when the guide was consulted:8thApril 08

 Progress of the work :

Research finding

Response sheet number: (5)

Thesis Topic: “Competency Mapping of Front-Line Staff - A Study in Relation to the


Retail Sector.”

Date: 25th April 2008

 Details of the student ( Name ,Batch ,Alumni Id ,Phone No and Email Id )


Name: - Kanika Vashishta
Batch: - Spring Summer 2006-2008
Alumni ID Number -DS68-H046
Phone No: - 9810538080
Email: - kanika301085@gmail.com

 Thesis synopsis ( Attach thesis synopsis [ if response sheets are emailed] with
every response sheet )

 Date when the guide was consulted:17thApril 08

 Progress of the work :

Conclusion and Implications


88

Dictionary definitions often fall short in describing a concept. But the leading companies
might describe a Competency as “a cluster of related knowledge, attitudes, skills and other
personal characteristics that …
• Affects a major part of one’s job
• Correlates with performance on the job
• Can be measured against well-accepted standards
• Can be improved via training and development”

Response sheet number: (6)

Thesis Topic: “Competency Mapping of Front-Line Staff - A Study in Relation to the


Retail Sector.”

Date: 12th May 2008

 Details of the student ( Name ,Batch ,Alumni Id ,Phone No and Email Id )


Name: - Kanika Vashishta
Batch: - Spring Summer 2006-2008
Alumni ID Number -DS68-H046
Phone No: - 9810538080
Email: - kanika301085@gmail.com

 Thesis synopsis ( Attach thesis synopsis [ if response sheets are emailed] with
every response sheet )

 Date when the guide was consulted:30thApril 08

 Progress of the work :

Recommendations
• Increasing business literacy of the workforce to help employees better
understands how competency mapping contributes to the organization’s success.
• Actively involving a broad-base of employees in the development of competency
mapping actions and initiatives for driving strategy execution..
89

Thesis ss68 to me
14th may

Go ahead .U seems to be moving in the right direction.

Alpi