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To know different kinds of environmental factors which affect organisms and be able to identify the differences between biotic and abiotic factors.

Be able to list and discuss different environmental factors. Be able to explain the differences between biotic and abiotic factors.

Environment the sum total of all the factors that affect an organism. These can be either:
Abiotic factors physical and chemical factors, such as temperature, light intensity, pH of soil, concentration of gases in air and water. Biotic factors related to the effect a living organism has on another living organism. Such as competitors, predators, parasites,etc. See page 200 Table 7.1

Living organisms require or are influenced by the level of certain abiotic factors such as water, oxygen and temperature. If the organism is in an environment that is out of its tolerance then it experiences physiological stress, its function begins to be impaired which, if continued leads to death. See Fig. 7.1 on page 201

Discuss questions 2, 3, 5, 6, 9

Complete worksheet - Habitat

LEARNING INTENTION: To understand what an ecosystem is and how and why we monitor them SUCCESS CRITERIA: Complete a worksheet about ecosystems. Know the definition of an ecosystem. Be able to discuss factors that may affect ecosystems.

An ecosystem is the system formed by the community (biotic factors) interacting with each other and the physical surroundings (abiotic factors). Ecosystem = habitat + community of living things


Ecosystems are monitored in order to determine their viability and sustainability. Environmental factors are studied individually and collectively as they all interact. Information gained from these studies is used to make vital decisions for the future. Important factors that are studied include: Salinity Rainfall Light Temperature fluctuations Dissolved oxygen pH (See pages 206 and 207)

http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/facilities/mult imedia/uploads/alberta/Ecosystem.swf

Complete worksheets: Components of an Ecosystem Selected Australian Ecosystems

LEARNING INTENTION To understand how plants respond and adapt to their environment.

LESSON 3 & 4

SUCCESS CRITERIA Be able to recognise different plant tropisms and explain the stimulus behind them.


Plants lack a nervous system and depend entirely on hormonal systems to maintain homeostasis. The main stimuli are light, water, day length, gravity and nutrient concentration.

Plant responses are called tropisms. Positive tropisms are when the plant moves towards the stimulus, negative tropisms are when the plant moves in the opposite direction to the stimulus. In all cases the stimulus in unidirectional (comes from one direction).
TROPISM TYPE Phototropism Thigmotropism Hydrotropism Geotropism Photoperiodism STIMULUS Light Touch Water Gravity Length of uninterrupted darkness

Discuss questions 10, 11, 13, 16 and 17

While watching the PowerPoint below answer the worksheet adaptation by plants.

AUXINS Auxins are a group of hormones produced in the growing tips (roots and shoots) of plants. They are responsible for: 1) Positive phototropism in shoots

Auxin causes the roots to curve downwards. - upwards growth and inhibits lateral growth. (If the apex of the plant is removed, lateral growth will increase.)

Gibberellins are produced in seeds and growing leaves. They are responsible for: Seed germination Plant growth

ABSCISIC ACID Abscisic acid is produced in mature leaves. It is responsible for: 1) Bud and seed dormancy 2) Abscission (dropping) of leaves and ripe fruits 3) Closing stomata in dry conditions

CYTOKININS Cytokinins are produced in shoots, roots and fruits. They increase the rate of cellular respiration. ETHYLENE Ethylene is a gas that is produced by ripening fruit and it stimulates the rate of ripening to increase. It can also be used commercially for this purpose.


Question 16 The lyrics of the popular song One Bad Apple performed by the Jackson 5 include the line: One bad (over-ripe) apple dont spoil the whole bunch . . .. In fact, this statement is questionable because an over-ripe apple A. secretes giberillin that diffuses into neighbouring cells causing them to shrivel and die. B. produces abscisic acid that penetrates the skin of neighbouring apples causing rapid decay. C. produces ethylene gas that diffuses into neighbouring apples causing them to ripen more quickly. D. produces indoleacetic acid that passes into neighbouring apples and stops cells from reproducing.

Photoperiodism is the response of plants to periods of light and dark. The relative length of day and night is called the photoperiod, with the length of darkness being the critical factor. See Fig. 7.24 on page 223

LEARNING INTENTION To understand how plants obtain water and how it travels throughout the plant.


SUCCESS CRITERIA Able to explain the meaning of transpiration. Able to list factors that affect the rate of transpiration.


Water enters via the roots and departs through the leaves. It is absorbed into roots by osmosis and transported in xylem vessels. Water travels upwards by capillary action. Water vapour exits a plant through stomata in the epidermis of leaves (transpiration)

Factors affecting the rate of transpiration Humidity - increasing humidity decreases transpiration Temperature - increasing temperature increases transpiration, until water loss is too high and the stomata close Wind - increasing wind action increases water evaporation rate, increasing transpiration Surface area - increasing surface area increases rate of transpiration

Features that minimise water loss in terrestrial plants Thickened cuticles on leaves - a thicker waxy layer limits the amount of water that can leave the plant. Sunken stomata (effectively creating shade) Reduced number of stomata Hairs on leaves (also creating shade) Leaves hang so that minimal surface exposed to sun

LEARNING INTENTION To know some of the adaptations of plants living in arid conditions. SUCCESS CRITERIA Able to state at least 2 adaptations of plants living in arid conditions. Able to state at least 2 adaptations of plants to fire, which are commonly seen in Australian plants.



ADAPTATIONS TO ARID CONDITIONS Some plants in Australia are adapted to arid conditions. These are called Xerophytes. They have a reduced surface area like thin leaves, a thicker cuticle making the leaves rigid, protected stomata in pits or under hairs. Some are more like cactuses with water storage capabilities.


Halophytes cope by having a higher salt level in cells, an ability to excrete salt from glands or leaves, and can drop salt-laden leaves.

Saltbush - Salt secreted through salt glands

Complete worksheet: Mangrove Adaptations

Watch clip on why mangroves are important:

ADAPTATIONS TO FIRE Bush fires are quite common in Australia so plants need to adapt to these conditions. There are several adaptations that Australian plants have developed. Epicormic buds These are buds that are dormant underneath the bark. They start to shoot after fires.

Lignotubers are starchy swellings of the root. This provides the plant with nutrients until the plant has produced enough leaves to be able to photosynthesize efficiently.

Seeds requiring fire Some plants such as the Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) produce seeds that will not germinate until they have been acted upon by fire. Thick bark Some trees such as the messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua) have thick bark which enables them to survive fire

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RWi1FIeN3j8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4QySmV1mqw

Discuss questions: 18, 20, 21, 22, 24 and 25

Watch clip on Thigmotropism