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Pavement Design for Containerized Cargo Terminals

Presented by: Michael T. Crist, P.E. November 3, 2005

Agenda Introduction to The Port and its Operations Dynamic and Static Loads of Typical Port Equipment Basis for Pavement Design at Norfolk International Terminals South Construction Observations Lessons Learned

Introduction to The Port of Virginia


In the Year 2004, VPA Handled 1.81 Million TEUs of Containerized Cargo
9.7% Increase Over 2003

So Far, 2005 Cargo Tonnage is Up 11% Compared to 2004


VPA is Currently Ranked:
7th Largest Container Port in the U.S. 2nd Largest Container Port on the East Coast in Terms of General Tonnage

Location of VPA Terminals

Newport News Marine Terminal (NNMT)


Newport News, VA

Virginia Inland Port (VIP)


Front Royal, VA

Portsmouth Marine Terminal (PMT)


Portsmouth, VA

Norfolk International Terminals (NIT)


Norfolk, VA

Norfolk International Terminals


d vd lv B Bl n n o o t p pt m am H Ha

Railroad Railroad Ave Ave

USN USN FFS FFS

HRSD HRSD

Pier Pier 3 3 Pier Pier 2 2 Pier Pier 1 1

Terminal Blvd Blvd Terminal Gate Gate Complex Complex

On-Dock Operations
Container Vessel Arrives at the Marine Terminal

On-Dock Operations
Specialized Cranes Unload Containers from the Ship STRAD Picks Up Container from Wharf

Container Yard Operations


Containers are Stored in the Yard Until They Are Picked up By a Trucker or Loaded Onto a Train

Container Yard Operations


Straddle Carriers Remove the Container from Storage and Load it onto Trucks

Gate Operations
Loaded Trucks and Trains are Processed at the Gate and Depart for Their Final Destinations

Agenda Introduction to The Port and its Operations Dynamic and Static Loads of Typical Port Equipment Basis for Pavement Design at Norfolk International Terminals South Construction Observations Lessons Learned

Container Operations
Containers Are Moved Throughout the Terminal & Loaded Onto Trucks & Trains Using a Variety of Heavy Equipment

Side Pick Straddle Reach Yard Hustler Stacker Carrier Top Pick

Container Operations
Rubber-Tire Gantry Cranes (RTGs) are Used to Load Containers Onto Trucks & To Make Up Trains

Equipment Characteristics
Equipment Type Load Per Wheel (kips)

Yard Hustler

4.5

Reach Stacker

40.8

Side Pick

11.9

Equipment Characteristics
Equipment Type Load Per Wheel (kips)

Top Pick

60.3

Straddle Carrier

33.8

Rubber-Tire Gantry -8 Wheels

52.0

Static Loads

Container Stack 4-High Container >600 psf Uniform Contact Pressure

Static Loads

Corner Castings 4-High Container Stack >1,000 psi Contact Pressure

Static Loads

Dolly Wheels / Shoes >5,000 psi Contact Pressure

Agenda Introduction to The Port and its Operations Dynamic and Static Loads of Typical Port Equipment Basis for Pavement Design at Norfolk International Terminals South Construction Observations Lessons Learned

History of Pavement Problems


Rutting

History of Pavement Problems


NIT South - Settlement Problems

History of Pavement Problems


Raveling of Surface

Design Parameters
Extensive Subsurface Investigation to:
Determine Subgrade Characteristics (Strength and Drainage) Estimate Long-Term Settlement Issues

Improve Site Drainage 25-Year Life Terminal Traffic Determination:


Equipment Loading Repetitions

Static Loading Pavement Material Properties

Pavement Alternatives Considered

Asphaltic Concrete (AC) on Crushed Aggregate Base (CAB) Interlocking Concrete Paver Blocks (ICPB) on Cement Treated Base (CTB) Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) with 3-inch AC Wearing Surface

Interlocking Concrete Paver Blocks

Pavement Alternatives Considered


Focus on Straddle Carrier Grounded Loads
4 1
Paver Paver

AC AC

14

AC AC

12

PCC PCC

ABC ABC
Geotextile Material

6 4

ABC ABC
#78 #78 Stone Stone

16.5

CTB CTB

16.5

RCC RCC

8 CBR20 CBR20 AC

8 CBR20 CBR20 PCC

ABC ABC

6 4

ABC ABC
#78 #78 Stone Stone
Geotextile Material

12 CBR20 CBR20 Concrete Paver

8 CBR20 CBR20 RCC

RCC Specification
Flexural Strength of 450 psi @ 7-days Compressive Strength 2,500 psi @ 7-days In Place Field Density > 98% ASTM D 2922 In Place Compressive Strength Check Using 6-inch Diameter Cores No Layer Greater Than 9 Inches Thick No More Than 60 Minutes From Mixing to Compaction and No More Than 120 Minutes From Mixing to Compaction of Second Lift

RCC Compressive vs. Flexural Strength


1000 900 800 Design/Specification PCA Correlation

Flexural Strength (psi)

700 600 500 400 PCA Correlation 300 200 Lab Data 100

20 00

10 00

30 00

35 00

15 00

25 00

50 00

40 00

45 00

55 00

Compressive Strength (psi)

60 00

Norfolk International Terminals


d vd lv B Bl n n o o t p pt m am H Ha

23 Acres

Terminal Blvd Blvd Terminal Gate Gate Complex Complex

26 Acres 75 Acres

Railroad Railroad Ave Ave

USN USN FFS FFS

HRSD HRSD

Pier Pier 3 3

15 Acres
Pier Pier 2 2 Pier Pier 1 1

NIT South - Phase II, Stage 1

Costs from Previous Projects at NIT


Project RCC
South Wharf (2001 2003) North Pavement (2002 2004) South Backlands (2003 2005) 2 8 25 $75 $61 $42

Size (Acres)

$/SY

PCC
North Transfer Zone (2002) North Pavement (2002 2004) South Backlands (2003 2005) 3 40 7 $64 $44 $54

Agenda Introduction to The Port and its Operations Dynamic and Static Loads of Typical Port Equipment Basis for Pavement Design at Norfolk International Terminals South Construction Observations Lessons Learned

RCC Batch Plant

Placing 2nd Lift of RCC

Placing 2nd Lift of RCC

Compacting RCC

RCC Edge

AC Overlay

Quality Control

Preparing Sample of RCC Using Vibratory Hammer (ASTM C 1435)

Quality Control

Coring Samples for Thickness and Compressive Strength Testing

Quality Control

Typical 6-inch Diameter Core

Quality Control

Density Testing with Nuclear Methods (ASTM D 2922)

Quality Control

Test Area

Compressive Strength
NIT South Backlands Top and Bottom Cores Combined
50 45 40 35

Specified Strength

Frequency

30 25 20 15 10 5 0
20 0 40 0 60 0 80 0 22 00 24 00 26 00 28 00 14 00 16 00 18 00 20 00 30 00 32 00 34 00 36 00 38 00 40 00 42 00 44 00 10 00 12 00 46 00

Compressive Strength (psi)

Compressive Strength
NIT South Backlands Top and Bottom Cores Separate
Top

50 45 40 35

Specified Strength
Bottom

Frequency

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Approx 25% Increase From Top to Bottom Cores

40 0 60 0 80 0 10 00 12 00 14 00 16 00 18 00 20 00 22 00 24 00 26 00 28 00 30 00 32 00 34 00 36 00 38 00 40 00 42 00 44 00 46 00

20 0

Compressive Strength (psi)

Compressive Strength
NIT South Backlands Top and Bottom Cores Combined
Schnabel Data Specified Strength 2500 psi

5000 4500 4000

90% Specified Strength 80% of Specified Strength

Strength (psi)

3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500


30 0 50 0 10 0 20 0 40 0 70 0 60 0 80 0

Compressive Strength
NIT South Wharf Top and Bottom Cores Combined
Specified Strength

30

25

Frequency

20

15 10

20 0 40 0 60 0 80 0 10 00 12 00 14 00 16 00 18 00 20 00 22 00 24 00 26 00 28 00 30 00 32 00 34 00 36 00 38 00 40 00 42 00 44 00 46 00

Compressive Strength (psi)

Compressive Strength
NIT South Wharf Top and Bottom Cores Combined
Schnabel Data Specified Strength 1600 psi 90% Specified Strength 80% of Specified Strength

Compressive Strength (psi)

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

15 0

10 0

20 0

25 0

30 0

35 0

40 0

45 0

50

Core Thickness
NIT South Backlands Total Core Length
60

Specified Core Thickness


50

Tolerance = 0.25 in. Frequency


40

30 20

10

15

17

5 18

5 12

5 13

5 11

5 14

16

19

10

5 20

21

15 .

13 .

16 .

17 .

11 .

12 .

10 .

14 .

18 .

19 .

Core Thickness (inches)

20 .

21 .

22

Production Rates
PCC Pavement Section
NIT North Pavement 40 AC 136 Days of Pouring Concrete Approx = 300 Working Days 7.5 Days / Acre

RCC Pavement NIT South Backlands Stage 1


26 AC 58 Working Days 2.2 Days / Acre

Agenda Introduction to The Port and its Operations Dynamic and Static Loads of Typical Port Equipment Basis for Pavement Design at Norfolk International Terminals South Construction Observations Lessons Learned

Lessons Learned
Pre-qualify RCC Contractors Time to Place is Critical (On-Site Batch Plant) Proper Equipment is Essential Wearing Surface Increases Rideability and Provides a Sacrificial Surface to Mill and Replace Consider Expansion of RCC on Adjacent Structures Develop a Proper QC/QA Plan

RCC Test Area


Attempt to Place with Box Spreader

RCC Test Area


Attempt to Correct Grades

Watch the Details

Thank You

Michael T. Crist, P.E.


Moffatt Moffatt & & Nichol Nichol 440 440 World World Trade Trade Center Center Norfolk Norfolk Virginia Virginia 757-628-8222 757-628-8222