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RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE RANS EQUATIONS

DIA, Politecnico di Milano

2010

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

OUTLINE

 1 RANS EQUATIONS 2 EQUATIONS FOR k AND r ij 3 EDDY VISCOSITY

Eddy viscosity

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

REYNOLDSDECOMPOSITION

Let u(xxx, t) be deﬁnite and continuous in R d , d = 1, 2, 3. Let

u(xxx) exist in the time-mean sense:

u(xxx) = lim

T

1

T

0

T

u(xxx, t)dt

REYNOLDSDECOMPOSITION

u(xxx,t) = u(xxx)+u (xxx,t)

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE FLUCTUATING FIELD

u (xxx, t) is the ﬂuctuating part

u(xxx) is independent upon time

By deﬁnition u = u and u = 0

Coupling between mean and ﬂuctuating ﬁeld (closure problem: more unknowns than equations)

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

DERIVATION FOR CONTINUITY EQ.

NS + REYNOLDSS DECOMPOSITION + TIME AVERAGE

·uuu = 0

· uuu +u u u = 0

·uuu = ·u u u

·u u = 0

u

·uuu = 0

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

MOMENTUM EQUATION

uuu ·u u = lim

u

T

0

T

uuu ·u u dt

u

=

uuu

· lim

T

0

T

u u dt

u

=

uuu · lim

T

0

T

u

u u dt

= uuu ·u u u

= 0

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

THE FINAL FORM

Eddy viscosity

uuu ·uuu = ·uuu 2 = ·uuu 2 = ·uuu 2

u u ·u = ·u 2 = ·u u u

u

u u

u u

2

·(uuu uuu)+· u u = ρ p +ν2 uuu

u

u u u

1

t

+·(uuu uuu)+· u u = ρ p +ν2 uuu

uuu

u u

u u

1

Closure is required!

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE REYNOLDSSTRESSES

ρu u

i

j

(apparent) Reynolds’ stresses

Momentum diffusion due to turbulent motions (analogy with viscous stresses)

j

u u

i

is a symmetric tensor

k =

2 u

u u j =

i

u

1

i

2

3

i

kδ ij +a ij

a ij only determines momentum trasport

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

URANS

DO THE UNSTEADY RANS MAKE SENSE?

Two separated time scales T 1 and T 2 T 1 must exist in the ﬂow Reynolds’s decomposition can be redeﬁned as:

uuu(xxx,t) =

1

T T/2 uuu(xxx,t +τ)dτ

T/2

T T 1

PROBLEMS

Turbulent ﬂows do not admit scale separation

Scale T is not clearly deﬁned

Mathematical problem

Operative problem

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

PROBLEMS WITH RANS

1) EFFECTS OF TIME AVERAGING

Aim: to remove unessential information

But: details are sometimes important (e.g. combustion)

Mapping physics statistics not unique!

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

PROBLEMS WITH RANS

2) REYNOLDSS DECOMPOSITION

Considering mean values only is limiting

Considering mean values only is simple

Existence of coherent structures emphasizes limitations

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

PROBLEMS WITH RANS

3) SMALL-SCALE INTERACTIONS ARE MISSING

Modelling statistics (u u ) rather than physics (u , u ) hides small-scale interactions

i

j

i

j

Scalar dissipation: RANS can only predict mean ﬂuxes

Combustion: RANS miss peak values

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

PROBLEMS WITH RANS

4) RANS SOLUTIONS AND AVERAGED-NS SOLUTIONS

RANS SOLUTIONS ARE EQUAL TO (TIME-AVERAGED) EXPERIMENTAL DATA?

?

SSSuuu 0 = SSS(t)uuu 0

Do averaging- and solution-operators commute?

Theorem: if and only if model for u u is exact!

Difference between averaged solution and RANS solution

u u u u

is square root of u u error (modelling error)

u u u u

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

OUTLINE

 1 RANS EQUATIONS 2 EQUATIONS FOR k AND r ij 3 EDDY VISCOSITY

Eddy viscosity

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

EQUATION FOR E

E MEAN-FLOW KINETIC ENERGY

Eddy viscosity

1
E ≡
u i u i
2
DE
+∇·TTT = −P −ε
Dt
T
i ≡ u j u u +u i p/ρ −2νu j s ij
i
j
∂u i
P ≡ −u u
i
j
∂x j
ε ≡ 2νs ij s ij

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

EQUATION FOR k

k TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY

T

i

1
k ≡
u
i
i
2 u
Dk
+∇·TTT = P −ε
Dt
1
u u +u p /ρ −2νu s
i
j
j
i
j
ij
2 u
∂u i
P ≡ −u u
i
j
∂x j
ε ≡ 2νs
ij s ij

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

EQUATION FOR r ij

r ij REYNOLDSSTRESS

Eddy viscosity

r ij ≡ −ρu u

i

j

Equation for r ij is obtained by:

subtracting eq. for u i from that for u i to get an eq. for u ;

multiplying eq. for u

time-averaging eq. for u u j .

i

i

j

by that for u

i

to obtain eq. for u u ;

i

j

t +u k x k u

i

j

u =

u u u k +P ij +Π ij −ε ij +ν∇ 2 u u
i
j
i
j
∂x k

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

REYNOLDSSTRESSES EQUATION

Triple correlation (closure problem):

u u u

i

j

k

Production tensor:

u j

u i

P ij ≡ −u u

i

u u

k x k

j

k x k

1
∂p
∂p
Π ij ≡ −
+u
i
j
ρ u ∂x j
∂x i
• Dissipation tensor:
i ∂u
∂u
j
ε ij ≡ ν
∂x k ∂x k

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY AND REYNOLDSSTRESSES

Trace of u u

i

j

eq. is 2 times the k eq.

P ii = 2P

Π ii = − 2
u p
i
ρ ∂x i

ε ii = 2ε˜ Difference between dissipation and pseudo-dissipation:

ε 2νs

ij s

ij

ε˜ ν

∂u
i ∂u
i
∂x k ∂x k

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

OUTLINE

 1 RANS EQUATIONS 2 EQUATIONS FOR k AND r ij 3 EDDY VISCOSITY

Eddy viscosity

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

CLASSIFICATION OF TURBULENCE MODELS

MODELS BASED ON EDDY-VISCOSITY

r ij is given through an eddy-viscosity

more developed

less recent

MODELS FOR THE REYNOLDS-STRESS TENSOR

a model for r ij is given directly

less developed

more recent

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

AN EXAMPLE FOR THE PASSIVE SCALAR

·(uuu ϕ)+·u u ϕ = Γ2 ϕ

u

Scalar ﬂux vector u u ϕ : direction and magnitude of the

u

(turbulent) transport of ϕ

Hypothesis: this vector is aligned to the mean scalar gradient

Turbulent diffusivity Γ t (xxx) (positive scalar quantity):

u u ϕ = Γ t (xxx)ϕ

u

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE TURBULENT DIFFUSIVITY

Deﬁne the effective diffusivity Γ e (xxx):

Γ e (xxx) = Γ+Γ t (xxx)

The mean scalar equation is closed as:

· (uuu ϕ) = · e (xxx)ϕ)

Problem: Γ t (xxx) must be known

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE TURBULENT-VISCOSITY HYPOTHESIS

·(uuu uuu)+· u u

u u

u u = ρ p +ν2 uuu

1

Reynolds stresses tensor u u : effect of turbulent

u u u u

ﬂuctuations on the mean motion

Hypothesis: this tensor is aligned to the mean rate-of-strain tensor

Eddy viscosity ν t (xxx) (positive scalar quantity):

2
a ij ≡ −ρu u +
i
j
3
∂u j
ρkδ ij = ρν t (xxx) ∂u i
+
∂x j
∂x i

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

THE EDDY VISCOSITY

Deﬁne the effective viscosity ν e (xxx):

ν e (xxx) = ν +ν t (xxx)

Eddy viscosity

The mean momentum equation is closed as:

·(uuu uuu) = p +·(ν e (xxx)uuu)

Problem: ν t (xxx) must be known.

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

APPRAISAL OF THE BOUSINNESQS HYPOTHESIS

Intrinsic hypothesis: a ij depends upon mean velocity gradients only

Speciﬁc hypothesis:

a ij = 2ν t s ij

modelled after laminar ﬂows

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

1) THE INTRINSIC HYPOTHESIS

TURBULENCE DOES HAVE MEMORY!

Experiment: sudden axisymmetric contraction after a grid (Uberoi 1956, S λ k /ε = 2.1)

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

EVOLUTION OF ANISOTROPY

NORMALIZED ANISOTROPIES b ij = a ij /2k

Open symbols: larger strain S λ k /ε = 55

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

INTRINSIC HYPOTHESIS IS INCORRECT

Contraction: normalized anisotropies b ij = a ij /2k are not constant

For large strain b ij depend on the total amount of mean strain

Straight section: anisotropy is not zero and decreases on the turbulence timescale k /ε

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE MOLECULAR ANALOGY

 VISCOUS FLUID Kinetic theory of gases: • velocity scale: mean molecular speed c • length scale: mean free path λ • kinematic viscosity ν 1 ≈ 2 cλ

TURBULENT FLOW

Empirical argument:

velocity scale: turbulence velocity scale u

length scale: turbulence length scale

turbulent viscosity ν t u

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

EXAMPLE

SIMPLE SHEAR FLOW WITH S = u 1 /x 2 U/L

Eddy viscosity

VISCOUS FLUID

Fluid = ensemble of molecules

Molecular timescale

τ m = λ/c

Shear timescale τ S = S 1

 U τ τ S m ∼ λ c S = λ L c = KnM 1

TURBULENT FLOW

Turbulent ﬂow = ensemble of eddies

Turbulent timescale τ t = k/ε

Shear timescale τ S = S 1

τ

τ

t

S

S k

ε

= O(1)

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

IS THE INTRINSIC HYPOTHESIS WORTH SOMETHING?

TURBULENT VISCOSITY IS OFTEN USEFUL

In simple shear ﬂow the mean velocity gradients change slowly:

Local mean velocity gradients characterize the history of mean distortion

Reynolds’ stress balance is dominated by local processes

When P/ε 1 the turbulent-viscosity hypothesis is correct

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

2) THE SPECIFIC HYPOTHESIS

TURBULENCE IS NOT A NEWTONIAN FLUID

INCONSISTENT!

a ij = 2ν t s ij

In turbulent shear ﬂows s ii = 0 but normal Reynolds stresses are not!

a ij is not aligned with s ij

NOT INVARIANT
a ij = −2ν t s ij
Tensorial relation is not general

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

SPECIFIC HYPOTHESIS

INVARIANT BUT NOT OBJECTIVE

a ij = ν t,ijkl s kl

Not rotation-invariant

 OBJECTIVE RELATION 1 δ ij +ν 2 3 a ij = ν t t s ij +ν t s ik s kj Unable to reproduce simple experimental situations A costitutive eq. for turbulence does not need to be objective (Coriolis, etc)

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

SPECIFIC HYPOTHESIS: WHY A LINEAR LAW?

NEWTONIAN FLUID

Straining small compared to molecular scales:

S λ/c 1

Small departure from equilibrium

Linear dependence of stress tensor on velocity gradient tensor

TURBULENT FLOW

Straining large compared to turbulence scales:

S k/ε > 1

Large departure from equilibrium

More general dependency of Reynolds’ stresses on velocity gradient tensor

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

BEYOND A LINEAR LAW

Non-linear laws: e.g. memory effect

a ij = A

2

3

ρkδ ij

0

M(τ) u i (t τ)+ u j (t τ) dτ

x j

x i

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

LIMITATIONS OF EDDY VISCOSITY CONCEPT

Eddy viscosity not fully adequate for:

Flows with abrupt change of shear rate

Flows over curved surfaces

Flows in ducts with secondary motions and/or separations

Rotating or stratiﬁed ﬂows

Three-dimensional ﬂows

Many others

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

RELIABILITY OF RANS RESULTS

FREITAS, SELETED BENCHMARKS FROM COMMERCIAL CFD CODES, J.FLUIDS ENG. 1995