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RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE RANS EQUATIONS

Maurizio Quadrio

DIA, Politecnico di Milano

2010

for k and r i j Eddy viscosity T HE RANS E QUATIONS Maurizio Quadrio DIA,

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

OUTLINE

1
1

RANS EQUATIONS

2
2

EQUATIONS FOR k AND r ij

3
3

EDDY VISCOSITY

Eddy viscosity

UTLINE 1 RANS EQUATIONS 2 E QUATIONS FOR k AND r i j 3 E DDY

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

REYNOLDSDECOMPOSITION

Let u(xxx, t) be definite and continuous in R d , d = 1, 2, 3. Let

u(xxx) exist in the time-mean sense:

u(xxx) = lim

T

1

T

0

T

u(xxx, t)dt

REYNOLDSDECOMPOSITION

u(xxx,t) = u(xxx)+u (xxx,t)

T → ∞ 1 T 0 T u ( xxx , t ) dt R EYNOLDS

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE FLUCTUATING FIELD

u (xxx, t) is the fluctuating part

u(xxx) is independent upon time

By definition u = u and u = 0

Coupling between mean and fluctuating field (closure problem: more unknowns than equations)

and u = 0 • Coupling between mean and fluctuating field ( closure problem : more

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

DERIVATION FOR CONTINUITY EQ.

NS + REYNOLDSS DECOMPOSITION + TIME AVERAGE

·uuu = 0

· uuu +u u u = 0

·uuu = ·u u u

·u u = 0

u

·uuu = 0

· uuu = 0 ∇ · uuu + u u u = 0 ∇ · uuu

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

MOMENTUM EQUATION

uuu ·u u = lim

u

T

0

T

uuu ·u u dt

u

=

uuu

· lim

T

0

T

u u dt

u

=

uuu · lim

T

0

T

u

u u dt

= uuu ·u u u

= 0

· lim T → ∞ 0 T ∇ u u dt u = uuu · ∇

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

THE FINAL FORM

Eddy viscosity

uuu · ∇ uuu = ∇ · uuu 2 = ∇ · uuu 2 = ∇ ·uuu = ·uuu 2 = ·uuu 2 = ·uuu 2

u u ·u = ·u 2 = ·u u u

u

u u

u u

2

STEADY (RANS)

·(uuu uuu)+· u u = ρ p +ν2 uuu

u

u u u

1

UNSTEADY (URANS)

t

+·(uuu uuu)+· u u = ρ p +ν2 uuu

uuu

u u

u u

1

Closure is required!

· u u = − ρ ∇ p + ν ∇ 2 uuu ∂ uuu u

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE REYNOLDSSTRESSES

ρu u

i

j

(apparent) Reynolds’ stresses

Momentum diffusion due to turbulent motions (analogy with viscous stresses)

j

u u

i

is a symmetric tensor

k =

2 u

u u j =

i

u

1

i

2

3

i

kδ ij +a ij

a ij only determines momentum trasport

tensor k = 2 u u u j = i u 1 i 2 3 i

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

URANS

DO THE UNSTEADY RANS MAKE SENSE?

Two separated time scales T 1 and T 2 T 1 must exist in the flow Reynolds’s decomposition can be redefined as:

uuu(xxx,t) =

1

T T/2 uuu(xxx,t +τ)dτ

T/2

T T 1

PROBLEMS

Turbulent flows do not admit scale separation

Scale T is not clearly defined

Mathematical problem

Operative problem

separation • Scale T is not clearly defined • Mathematical problem • Operative problem 9 /

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

PROBLEMS WITH RANS

1) EFFECTS OF TIME AVERAGING

Aim: to remove unessential information

But: details are sometimes important (e.g. combustion)

Mapping physics statistics not unique!

• But: details are sometimes important (e.g. combustion) • Mapping physics → statistics not unique! 10

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

PROBLEMS WITH RANS

2) REYNOLDSS DECOMPOSITION

Considering mean values only is limiting

Considering mean values only is simple

Advantages and disadvantages must be balanced

Existence of coherent structures emphasizes limitations

• Advantages and disadvantages must be balanced • Existence of coherent structures emphasizes limitations 11 /

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

PROBLEMS WITH RANS

3) SMALL-SCALE INTERACTIONS ARE MISSING

Modelling statistics (u u ) rather than physics (u , u ) hides small-scale interactions

i

j

i

j

Scalar dissipation: RANS can only predict mean fluxes

Combustion: RANS miss peak values

i j i j • Scalar dissipation: RANS can only predict mean fluxes • Combustion: RANS

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

PROBLEMS WITH RANS

4) RANS SOLUTIONS AND AVERAGED-NS SOLUTIONS

RANS SOLUTIONS ARE EQUAL TO (TIME-AVERAGED) EXPERIMENTAL DATA?

?

SSSuuu 0 = SSS(t)uuu 0

Do averaging- and solution-operators commute?

Theorem: if and only if model for u u is exact!

Difference between averaged solution and RANS solution

u u u u

is square root of u u error (modelling error)

u u u u

averaged solution and RANS solution u u u u is ∼ square root of u u

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

OUTLINE

1
1

RANS EQUATIONS

2
2

EQUATIONS FOR k AND r ij

3
3

EDDY VISCOSITY

Eddy viscosity

1 RANS EQUATIONS 2 E QUATIONS FOR k AND r i j 3 E DDY VISCOSITY

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

EQUATION FOR E

E MEAN-FLOW KINETIC ENERGY

Eddy viscosity

1 E ≡ u i u i 2 DE +∇·TTT = −P −ε Dt T
1
E ≡
u i u i
2
DE
+∇·TTT = −P −ε
Dt
T
i ≡ u j u u +u i p/ρ −2νu j s ij
i
j
∂u i
P ≡ −u u
i
j
∂x j
ε ≡ 2νs ij s ij
Dt T i ≡ u j u u +u i p/ρ −2νu j s ij i

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

EQUATION FOR k

k TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY

T

i

1 k ≡ u i i 2 u Dk +∇·TTT = P −ε Dt 1
1
k ≡
u
i
i
2 u
Dk
+∇·TTT = P −ε
Dt
1
u u +u p /ρ −2νu s
i
j
j
i
j
ij
2 u
∂u i
P ≡ −u u
i
j
∂x j
ε ≡ 2νs
ij s ij
Dt 1 u u +u p /ρ −2νu s i j j i j ij 2

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

EQUATION FOR r ij

r ij REYNOLDSSTRESS

Eddy viscosity

r ij ≡ −ρu u

i

j

Equation for r ij is obtained by:

subtracting eq. for u i from that for u i to get an eq. for u ;

multiplying eq. for u

time-averaging eq. for u u j .

i

i

j

by that for u

i

to obtain eq. for u u ;

i

j

t +u k x k u

for u u ; i j ∂ t + u k ∂ x k u ∂

i

j

u =

∂ u u u k +P ij +Π ij −ε ij +ν∇ 2 u u
u u u k +P ij +Π ij −ε ij +ν∇ 2 u u
i
j
i
j
∂x k

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

REYNOLDSSTRESSES EQUATION

Triple correlation (closure problem):

u u u

i

j

k

Production tensor:

u j

u i

P ij ≡ −u u

i

u u

k x k

j

k x k

Velocity-pressure gradient tensor:

1 ∂p ∂p Π ij ≡ − +u i j ρ u ∂x j ∂x
1
∂p
∂p
Π ij ≡ −
+u
i
j
ρ u ∂x j
∂x i
• Dissipation tensor:
i ∂u
∂u
j
ε ij ≡ ν
∂x k ∂x k

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY AND REYNOLDSSTRESSES

Trace of u u

i

j

eq. is 2 times the k eq.

P ii = 2P

∂ Π ii = − 2 u p i ρ ∂x i
Π ii = − 2
u p
i
ρ ∂x i

ε ii = 2ε˜ Difference between dissipation and pseudo-dissipation:

ε 2νs

ij s

ij

ε˜ ν

∂u i ∂u i ∂x k ∂x k
∂u
i ∂u
i
∂x k ∂x k

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

OUTLINE

1
1

RANS EQUATIONS

2
2

EQUATIONS FOR k AND r ij

3
3

EDDY VISCOSITY

Eddy viscosity

1 RANS EQUATIONS 2 E QUATIONS FOR k AND r i j 3 E DDY VISCOSITY

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

CLASSIFICATION OF TURBULENCE MODELS

MODELS BASED ON EDDY-VISCOSITY

r ij is given through an eddy-viscosity

more developed

less recent

MODELS FOR THE REYNOLDS-STRESS TENSOR

a model for r ij is given directly

less developed

more recent

- STRESS TENSOR • a model for r i j is given directly • less developed

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE GRADIENT-DIFFUSION HYPOTHESIS

AN EXAMPLE FOR THE PASSIVE SCALAR

·(uuu ϕ)+·u u ϕ = Γ2 ϕ

u

Scalar flux vector u u ϕ : direction and magnitude of the

u

(turbulent) transport of ϕ

Hypothesis: this vector is aligned to the mean scalar gradient

Turbulent diffusivity Γ t (xxx) (positive scalar quantity):

u u ϕ = Γ t (xxx)ϕ

u

Turbulent diffusivity Γ t ( xxx ) (positive scalar quantity): u u ϕ = − Γ

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE TURBULENT DIFFUSIVITY

Define the effective diffusivity Γ e (xxx):

Γ e (xxx) = Γ+Γ t (xxx)

The mean scalar equation is closed as:

· (uuu ϕ) = · e (xxx)ϕ)

Problem: Γ t (xxx) must be known

as: ∇ · ( uuu ϕ ) = ∇ · (Γ e ( xxx ) ∇

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE TURBULENT-VISCOSITY HYPOTHESIS

·(uuu uuu)+· u u

u u

u u = ρ p +ν2 uuu

1

Reynolds stresses tensor u u : effect of turbulent

u u u u

fluctuations on the mean motion

Hypothesis: this tensor is aligned to the mean rate-of-strain tensor

Eddy viscosity ν t (xxx) (positive scalar quantity):

2 a ij ≡ −ρu u + i j 3
2
a ij ≡ −ρu u +
i
j
3
∂u j ρkδ ij = ρν t (xxx) ∂u i + ∂x j ∂x i
∂u j
ρkδ ij = ρν t (xxx) ∂u i
+
∂x j
∂x i

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

THE EDDY VISCOSITY

Define the effective viscosity ν e (xxx):

ν e (xxx) = ν +ν t (xxx)

Eddy viscosity

The mean momentum equation is closed as:

·(uuu uuu) = p +·(ν e (xxx)uuu)

Problem: ν t (xxx) must be known.

( uuu uuu ) = − ∇ p + ∇ · ( ν e ( xxx

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

APPRAISAL OF THE BOUSINNESQS HYPOTHESIS

Intrinsic hypothesis: a i j depends upon mean velocity gradients only hypothesis: a ij depends upon mean velocity gradients only

Specific hypothesis: hypothesis:

a ij = 2ν t s ij

modelled after laminar flows

velocity gradients only Specific hypothesis: a i j = − 2 ν t s i j

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

1) THE INTRINSIC HYPOTHESIS

TURBULENCE DOES HAVE MEMORY!

Experiment: sudden axisymmetric contraction after a grid (Uberoi 1956, S λ k /ε = 2.1)

HAVE MEMORY ! Experiment: sudden axisymmetric contraction after a grid (Uberoi 1956, S λ k /
HAVE MEMORY ! Experiment: sudden axisymmetric contraction after a grid (Uberoi 1956, S λ k /

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

EVOLUTION OF ANISOTROPY

NORMALIZED ANISOTROPIES b ij = a ij /2k

N ORMALIZED ANISOTROPIES b i j = a i j / 2 k Open symbols: larger

Open symbols: larger strain S λ k /ε = 55

N ORMALIZED ANISOTROPIES b i j = a i j / 2 k Open symbols: larger

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

INTRINSIC HYPOTHESIS IS INCORRECT

Contraction: normalized anisotropies b ij = a ij /2k are not constant

For large strain b ij depend on the total amount of mean strain

Straight section: anisotropy is not zero and decreases on the turbulence timescale k /ε

of mean strain • Straight section: anisotropy is not zero and decreases on the turbulence timescale

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

THE MOLECULAR ANALOGY

VISCOUS FLUID

Kinetic theory of gases:

velocity scale: mean

molecular speed c

length scale: mean free path λ

kinematic viscosity

ν

1

2 cλ

TURBULENT FLOW

Empirical argument:

velocity scale: turbulence velocity scale u

length scale: turbulence length scale

turbulent viscosity ν t u

• length scale: turbulence length scale ∗ • turbulent viscosity ν t ≈ u ∗ ∗

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

EXAMPLE

SIMPLE SHEAR FLOW WITH S = u 1 /x 2 U/L

Eddy viscosity

VISCOUS FLUID

Fluid = ensemble of molecules

Molecular timescale

τ m = λ/c

Shear timescale τ S = S 1

 

U

τ τ S m λ c S = λ

L c

= KnM 1

T URBULENT FLOW
T URBULENT FLOW

TURBULENT FLOW

T URBULENT FLOW
• Turbulent flow = ensemble of eddies
• Turbulent flow = ensemble of eddies
• Turbulent flow = ensemble of eddies

Turbulent flow = ensemble of eddies

• Turbulent timescale τ t = k / ε
• Turbulent timescale τ t = k / ε

Turbulent timescale τ t = k/ε

• Turbulent timescale τ t = k / ε
• Shear timescale τ S = S − 1
• Shear timescale τ S = S − 1
• Shear timescale τ S = S − 1

Shear timescale τ S = S 1

τ

τ

t

S

S k

ε

= O(1)

Turbulent timescale τ t = k / ε • Shear timescale τ S = S −
• Shear timescale τ S = S − 1 τ τ t S ∼ S k

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

IS THE INTRINSIC HYPOTHESIS WORTH SOMETHING?

TURBULENT VISCOSITY IS OFTEN USEFUL

In simple shear flow the mean velocity gradients change slowly:

Local mean velocity gradients characterize the history of mean distortion

Reynolds’ stress balance is dominated by local processes

When P/ε 1 the turbulent-viscosity hypothesis is correct

balance is dominated by local processes • When P / ε ≈ 1 the turbulent-viscosity hypothesis

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

2) THE SPECIFIC HYPOTHESIS

TURBULENCE IS NOT A NEWTONIAN FLUID

INCONSISTENT!

a ij = 2ν t s ij

In turbulent shear flows s ii = 0 but normal Reynolds stresses are not!

a ij is not aligned with s ij

NOT INVARIANT a ij = −2ν t s ij Tensorial relation is not general
NOT INVARIANT
a ij = −2ν t s ij
Tensorial relation is not general

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

SPECIFIC HYPOTHESIS

INVARIANT BUT NOT OBJECTIVE

a ij = ν t,ijkl s kl

Not rotation-invariant

OBJECTIVE RELATION

 

1

δ ij +ν

2

3

a ij = ν

t

t

s ij +ν

t

s ik s kj

Unable to reproduce simple experimental situations A costitutive eq. for turbulence does not need to be objective (Coriolis, etc)

simple experimental situations A costitutive eq. for turbulence does not need to be objective (Coriolis, etc)

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

SPECIFIC HYPOTHESIS: WHY A LINEAR LAW?

NEWTONIAN FLUID

Straining small compared to molecular scales:

S λ/c 1

Small departure from equilibrium

Linear dependence of stress tensor on velocity gradient tensor

TURBULENT FLOW

Straining large compared to turbulence scales:

S k/ε > 1

Large departure from equilibrium

More general dependency of Reynolds’ stresses on velocity gradient tensor

departure from equilibrium • More general dependency of Reynolds’ stresses on velocity gradient tensor 35 /

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

BEYOND A LINEAR LAW

Non-linear laws: e.g. memory effect

a ij = A

2

3

ρkδ ij

0

M(τ) u i (t τ)+ u j (t τ) dτ

x j

x i

k δ i j ∞ 0 M ( τ ) ∂ u i ( t −

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

LIMITATIONS OF EDDY VISCOSITY CONCEPT

Eddy viscosity not fully adequate for:

Flows with abrupt change of shear rate

Flows over curved surfaces

Flows in ducts with secondary motions and/or separations

Rotating or stratified flows

Three-dimensional flows

Many others

motions and/or separations • Rotating or stratified flows • Three-dimensional flows • Many others 37 /

RANS equations

Equations for k and r ij

Eddy viscosity

RELIABILITY OF RANS RESULTS

FREITAS, SELETED BENCHMARKS FROM COMMERCIAL CFD CODES, J.FLUIDS ENG. 1995

R ELIABILITY OF RANS RESULTS F REITAS , S ELETED BENCHMARKS FROM COMMERCIAL CFD CODES ,