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BrazeTec GmbH Postfach 13 01 D-63403 Hanau Rodenbacher Chaussee 4 D-63457 Hanau-Wolfgang

022/02-2001 Englisch

Tel: +49 (0) 61 81-59-03 Fax:+49 (0) 61 81-59-55 50 Email: info@BrazeTec.de Internet: www.BrazeTec.com

The Principles of Brazing

BRAZING

CONTENT

If you read this leaflet through carefully, you will have the basic knowledge that will enable you to learn the skill of brazing through practical application.

And well help you to do it Fred Flame, Chris Melt and Dr. Bob Braze

Content
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How do I find out about brazing?

Table of Contents

What is brazing? What is the difference between soldering and brazing? What materials can be brazed? What is the melting point, melting range and working temperature? What is the difference between V-joint brazing and gap brazing? V-joint brazing Gap brazing What tools do you need for professional brazing? What are the steps to professional brazing? How much strain can a solid brazed joint take? Which brazing procedures should be used? BrazeTec Brazing Alloys

BRAZING

SOFT

SOLDER

AND

BRAZING

ALLOY

What is brazing?

Brazing is a thermal, material binding, jointing process for metallic materials. For generations, professional soldering and brazing has made it possible for every fitter to achieve a secure and guaranteed joint. Brazing permanently joins two or more workpieces together using brazing alloy and flux with heat. The parent metals are moistened by the brazing alloy that has been liquefied by heat using the correct working method. The brazing alloy spreads out and joins the two pieces together.

16 What is the difference between 15 soldering and brazing? 14 13


1100 1000

In soldering, the melting temperature of the solder is below 450C. In brazing, it is above.

Liquidus temperature in C

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 120

Brazing over 450C

Soldering below 450C

Fred Flame says Brazed joints are secure, durable, and have been well tried for generations.

7 6 5 4 What materials can be brazed? 3 2 1 0

All technical metal commodities such as copper and copper alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, steels and ferrous products, heavy and light metals can be brazed.

C
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TEMPERATURE

What is the melting point, melting range and working temperature?

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Melting point: Only pure metals and eutectic alloys have a defined melting point. The material becomes liquid above the melting point below the melting point it remains solid.
Liquidus temperature Liquid brazing alloy

Melting range: Brazing alloys usually have a melting range often also called the melting interval. This melting range is limited at the bottom by the lower melting point the solidus temperature and at the top by the upper melting point the liquidus temperature. After reaching the solidus temperature, the brazing alloy changes from a solid to a liquid state within the melting range and is completely liquid when it reaches the liquidus temperature. Working Temperature: The working temperature is the lowest surface temperature on the parent metals to be joined at which the brazing alloy moistens. This means that the brazing alloy as well as both of the materials to be joined in the brazing process must at least reach this temperature. The working temperature is always higher than the solidus temperature. It can lie below or above the liquidus temperature or fall with it.

Solidus temperature

Solid brazing alloy

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GAP

BRAZING

V-JOINT

BRAZING

What is the difference between V-joint brazing and gap brazing?

V-Joint Brazing

If the surfaces of the parts to be joined to one another have a distance apart of less than 0.5 mm, this is a gap brazing. If it is more than that or if the brazing joint is V or X-shaped, this is V-joint brazing.

V-joint Brazing joints is brazing with a wide brazing gap. It is used when it is necessary for reasons relating to construction, or due to an economic and technical processing consideration e.g. higher preparation costs to produce a brazing joint that fits exactly. The working technique of V-joint brazing is similar to gas welding or left hand welding. The joint is filled with solder in drops. Galvanised steel pipes are brazed using the V-joint brazing procedure, to prevent damage of the zinc layer.

V-JOINT BRAZING

GAP BRAZING

GAP

BRAZING

Gap Brazing

The main part of all brazed joins is produced using the gap brazing procedure. The optimum gap width for a gap brazing is between 0.05 mm and 0.2mm. The brazing gap should be as narrow as possible and parallel walled for gap brazing, so that the brazing alloy can be absorbed into the brazing gap through capillary action. This narrow brazing gap must be provided for when designing parts.

Overlap joint The overlap joint is recommended if thin-walled parts are to be brazed. The overlapping length should generally be 3 to 6 times the wall thickness of the thinner workpiece dependent on the parent metal.

Capillary brazing

Diagonal joint/Stepped joint A diagonal and stepped joint is more costly than the butt and overlap joint. These gap forms should only be used if the form or function of the workpiece suggest this. T-joint

Diagonal joint

Butt joint

Stepped joint

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TOOL

What do you need for professional brazing?

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3. Sources of heat Many brazings are carried out using a flame. However there are other possibilities such as:
N Flame heated automatic brazing machines N Induction brazing systems N Electric or gas heated furnaces N Electric resistance brazing systems

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1. A suitable workplace e.g. a brazing table with a fire resistant base and a work room with adequate ventilation.

2. Clamping devices Clamping devices are required to lock in place and hold the workpieces. There are many ways of fixing the workpiece yourself, aside from fixing using jigs as shown in our example. The latter are particularly used in series and mass manufacture, when brazing machines and automatic brazing machines are used. Fixing yourself saves the considerable cost of clamping jigs.

The diagram below shows correct brazing with a flame using the example of brazing with a burner as a representative method for all types of heating. It is advisable to select the burner and fuel gas so that the workpiece is heated up to working temperature in a short space of time (max. 3 minutes). The individual parts to be joined together are then brought up to working temperature evenly along the whole gap length. Gentle heating is achieved by setting a soft, reducing flame.

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TOOL

4. Flux Flux is a solvent for metal oxides. It removes oxide skins from the welding surfaces and keeps them free from oxide during the brazing process. Solders moisten, spread and bind only on pure metallic surfaces. Flux is selected according to the parent metals and the working temperature of the solder to be used. Each flux has an effective temperature range. The working temperature of the solder to be used must lie in the effective temperature range of the flux.

5.

5. Brazing Alloy The following points must be taken into consideration when selecting the correct brazing alloy for a particular brazing task:
N The properties of the materials to brazed

(e.g. temperature sensitivity)


N The requirements for the part to be brazed

when in use (e.g. working temperature, operating pressure) N The brazing procedure that is to be used (e.g. manual brazing, machine brazing)

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STEPS

1.

What are the steps to professional brazing?

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3. Fixing the workpieces The pieces to be joined must be fixed in the correct position until the brazing alloy sets. A narrow brazing gap of between 0.05 mm and 0.2 mm is to be set if possible.

1. Cleaning Oxide layers and foreign matter such as rust and scale must be removed from the brazing joint either mechanically or chemically before brazing. Thick layers of grease or oil can be wiped off or removed with solvents (e.g. acetone) for sensitive workpieces. Polished workshop pieces do not require any cleaning. Any oxide remaining on the workpiece after precleaning will be dissolved by the flux.

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2. Applying flux The flux paste is applied to the cold workpiece using a brush. Most fluxes are slightly corrosive and skin contact, particularly with wounds, should be avoided.

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4. Heating the brazing joint evenly The brazing gap must be heated evenly all over to working temperature so that the brazing alloy can fill the gap. The brazing alloy selected should reach working temperature in max. 3 minutes. Overheating damages the brazing alloy and the workpiece.

STEPS

7. 5. 6.
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5. Placing the brazing alloy on the brazing gap The brazing alloy can be placed on the brazing gap when the flux has melted to an even glass flow and the working temperature has been reached. The brazing alloy fills the narrow brazing gap and rises upwards against gravitational force.

7. Removing flux residue Flux remains are to be removed after brazing to prevent corrosion. As far as possible, remove flux remains with water or mechanically e. g. with a brush.

6. Allowing the workpiece to cool down When the brazing alloy has filled the brazing gap, the workpiece must be left to cool until the brazing alloy has solidified. The workpiece can then be removed from the clamp and then insofar as the material permits rinsed in water.

Fred Flame says

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Brazings that have been carried out correctly look smooth and clean and do not require any touching up.

STABILITY

How much strain can a solid brazed joint take?

Brazed joints are more solid than you think. The following examples demonstrate this:

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2. Tensile test A steel joint made of St37 brazed with BrazeTec 4404 in a butt joint is tested for load carrying ability with a pulling device. The base material tears after the test piece is loaded with 410 MPa. The three brazing areas, however, remain untouched.

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1. Burst test In a copper pipe fitting with five brazing joints, the stability of each individual brazing joint is higher than that of the parent metals. When burst using a pump, the pipe wall of the test item bursts at 280 bar. The brazing joints themselves withstand the pressure and remain tight. 3. Twisting test The stability under load and distortion of a steel joint made from St37 and brazed with BrazeTec 4404 becomes clear by turning the test piece around its own axis. A torque of 90 Nm is achieved by turning it twice. The brazed joint withstands this load and distortion. Dr. Bob Braze says Brazed joints are tight, durable and permanent.

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BRAZING

PROCEDURE

WWW.BRAZETEC.COM

Which brazing procedures should be used?

Brazing is the optimum jointing technique, proven for decades.


If you have any questions, please pay us a visit

Which brazing procedure is used depends on economic considerations, the sensitivity to heat of the components, the mechanical load in the brazed joint and the working temperature of the workpieces.

www.BrazeTec.com We would be happy to solve your brazing problems.

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BRAZETEC

BRAZING

ALLOYS

What are the most commonly used low melting brazing alloys and what are they used for?

The following table gives an overview of brazing alloys that can be used universally and are therefore the most popular. This is a small excerpt from our product range. Our field sales representatives or their colleagues at the Brazing Center are happy to answer any questions you may have in respect of special forms of delivery.

The details of our products and machines as well as plants and processes are based on comprehensive research work and application technical experience. We publish these results for which we take no liability beyond the respective individual contract, verbally and in writing, according to the best of our knowledge. However, we reserve the right to make technical alterations during product development. In addition, our application technology service is available for further advice, as well as working together with you to solve fabrication and application technical problems on request. This does however not release the user from checking our details and recommendations before making use of them. This applies to export deliveries in particular even in respect of safeguarding third parties in respect of applications and procedures that have not explicitly been given by us. In case of damage our liability is limited to compensation of the same amount as the damage, as provided for in our General Terms and Conditions of Sales and Delivery.

BrazeTec brazing alloy for brazing of Any steels Copper- / Copper alloys, Nickel- / Nickel alloys Stainless steels Copper to Copper

BrazeTec brazing alloy 5600 4576 4076 3476 3076 4404 6009 Silfos 15 Silfos 5 Silfos 2 Silfos 94

Working temperature in C 650 670 690 710 740 730 720 700 710 740 760

BrazeTec fluxes h

Tensile strength of brazed joint (MPa) St37 350 350 350 360 360 400 400

special h

without

250

BrazeTec brazing alloy for brazing of Tungsten carbide to steel

BrazeTec brazing alloy 4900 49/Cu

Working temperature in C 690 690

BrazeTec fluxes special h

Shearing strength of the brazed joint (MPa) 250300 150300

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