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SAVE FUEL with Trailer Aerodynamic Technology

Richard Wood SOLUS-Solutions and Technologies LLC

Fuel Efficiency Innovations - Delivering Results or Hype? August 16, 2007, 1:00 - 2:00pm NAFC 2007 Executive Education Forum Staying Profitable in a Cyclical Economy August 15 - 17 , 2007 Omni Interlocken Resort Denver, Colorado

OPPORTUNITY
Projected Improvement in MPG
(Tractor with Van Trailer)

Driver Aerodynamics Idle Reduction Tires Weight Lubes

??? 20% 10% 5% 2% 2%

AERODYNAMIC DRAG

Attached Flow CD < 0.05 CDpressure CDfriction Drag Fraction

Separated Flow CD > 0.50

Drag Fraction

DRAG POLAR
Force Trends Horsepower / Resistance
Rolling Resistance + Accessories Aerodynamic Drag (CD = 0.60)

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Speed, MPH

AERODYNAMIC DRAG

Aerodynamic Drag = CD x S x (1/2) U2


drag coefficient reference area dynamic pressure

Change Shape

Reduce Size

Reduce Speed

DRAG POLAR
10% Fuel Savings Horsepower / Resistance
Rolling Resistance + Accessories Aerodynamic Drag (CD = 0.60) Aerodynamic Drag (CD = 0.48)

Fuel Savings = 10%

Model Drive Cycle 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Speed, MPH

DRAG POLAR
Effect of Drive Cycle Horsepower / Resistance
Rolling Resistance + Accessories Aerodynamic Drag (CD = 0.60) Aerodynamic Drag (CD = 0.48)

Fuel Savings = 8.6%

10%

12%

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Speed, MPH

ENERGY AUDIT
Vehicle Energy Audit
(Non Engine Losses)

Aerodynamic Losses 52.5%

Drivetrain 5.6%

Rolling Resistance 32.5%

Auxiliary Loads 9.4%

ENERGY AUDIT
Aerodynamic Energy Audit Target Areas Drag Hot Spots

75% Trailer Drag


- 30% Trailer Front Face - 35% Trailer Base - 35% Undercarriage

25% Tractor Drag

Trailer Aerodynamics = +15% mpg

DRAG REDUCTION
Trailer Type

% Drag Reduction

DRAG REDUCTION
Potential Fuel Savings
FUEL SAVINGS TRAILER TYPE
Flat Bed Insulated Tank Reefer Low Boy Dry Van Nnon-Insulated Tank Doubles

SURFACE
Load= 20% ------------------------10% -------

GAP
2% 2% 3% 5% 5% 2% 8%

UNDER
4% 4% 5% 2% 5% 4% 6%

BASE
2% 3% 5% 6% 5% 3% 5%

TOTAL
8% 9% 13% 13% 15% 19% 19%

AERODYNAMIC DESIGN
Design Criteria 1. Simple and Low Cost 2. Quick ROI 3. Minimize Impact on Operations 4. Minimize Maintenance 5. Robust Performance Envelope 6. On-Road Repair

AERODYNAMIC DESIGN
Aerodynamic Design Approach Separated Flow Design
Excellent Drag Reduction Simple Shapes Broad Performance Envelope Robust Designs

Attached Flow Design


Excellent Drag Reduction Complex Shapes Narrow Performance Envelope Point Designs

Flow Blocking Design


Good Drag Reduction Simple Shapes Narrow Performance Envelope Device Drag Penalty

AERODYNAMIC SOLUTIONS
Aerodynamic Technology Options

Vortex Strakes Boattail Base Panels/Flaps

Skirt Fairing Mini-Skirt

Vortex Traps Shaping Close Gap

AERODYNAMIC SOLUTIONS
Trailer Front Face (Gap) Options
SEPARATED FLOW Silver Eagle ATTACHED FLOW Nose Cone

BLOCK FLOW Gap Closing + 5% mpg + 3% mpg

+ 2% mpg

AERODYNAMIC SOLUTIONS
Trailer Undercarriage Options
SEPARATED FLOW Silver Eagle ATTACHED FLOW Laydon Composites

BLOCK FLOW Airman Systems + 5% mpg + 5% mpg

+ 5% mpg

AERODYNAMIC SOLUTIONS
Trailer Base Options
SEPARATED FLOW Silver Eagle ATTACHED FLOW Aerovolution

Silver Eagle

Transtex Composites

+ 2% mpg

+ 4% mpg

+ 5% mpg

+ 5% mpg

AERODYNAMIC SOLUTIONS
Technology Options
COMPANY
AEROVOLUTION AIRTAB AIRMAN SYSTEMS FREIGHT WING LAYDON COMPOSITES NOSE CONE SILVER EAGLE MFG TRANSTEX COMPOSITES

DESIGN FLOW
Attach Separated Block Attach & Block Block Attach Separated Attach

FUEL SAVINGS GAP


---------------2% -----3% 4% ------

UNDER
----------5% 4% 5% -----5% ------

BASE
4% 3% --------------------5% 5%

TOTAL
4% 3% 5% 6% 5% 3% 14% 5%

AERODYNAMIC SOLUTIONS

Concept/Design: 10%

Demonstrated: 10%

Projected Potential: 15%

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Trailer Aerodynamic Technology (TAT)
Perform an aerodynamic and energy audit Match the device to vehicle aerodynamics Understand your operational environment

Sensitive to Design Flow Type Sensitive to Tractor and Trailer Design Affected by operations and environment

Increase fuel economy 10% to 15% Delivers savings at all speeds Can benefit all trailer types

CONTACT INFO

Richard M. Wood
SOLUS - Solutions and Technologies LLC 754 Suffolk Lane Virginia Beach, VA 23452 Web: www.solusinc.com Email: rick@solusinc.com Phone: 757-486-3570 Fax: 757-486-3570