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Proper Citation and Attribution Avoiding Plagiarism

Lois S. Sadler and Janene Batten

Yale University School of Nursing 2007

Definition of Attribution

proper and complete citation of

original source of the work ideas words concepts data images

This applies to paraphrasing or summarizing the work of others as well as direct quotations.

Definition of Plagiarism

Plagiarism use of another person's work without acknowledgment with the intent to pass it off as your own

Always cite

print materials electronic sources web pages images from the web lectures ideas from student brainstorming session or class discussions conversations with professors

See Yale College Writing Center definition http://www.yale.edu/bass/writing/sources/plagiarism/what.html

Correct Attribution
Students must acknowledge the work of others when they are creating their own works.
Tip: Psychologists do not present substantial portions or elements of anothers work or data as their own, even if the other work or data source is cited occasionally (APA, 2001, p. 395).

How to Cite

1. 2.

Use quotation marks or indent Cite source, with page number

When in doubt


Citation Resources in detail!

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (5th ed.)

See pp.117-122 and 207-214 a required reference book for all YSN students on-line versions is helpful, but not complete and DOES NOT take the place of the hard copy

APA Style Guide to electronic references

Hard copy in Medical Library Reference collection Electronic version coming soon

Citation Resources in detail!

dedicated links APA link on the Nursing Library web site


APA Style .org -- especially for citing online

sources (http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html)

Yale's Information and Technology Services -detailed information about copyright (http://its.med.yale.edu/security/copyright.html)

Not APA Style??

If writing for a journal that requires a different style (other than APA)

principles are the same consult the specific guidelines for authors concerning the actual citation format

There are also databases should you need images: Image Resources (http://www.med.yale.edu/library/cai/images.html)

Before using any images please check copyright statements for each site. Google Images use only if you can cite the original image from the original webpage, or you have permission from copyright owner Other sources use only if you can cite the original image from the original webpage, or you have permission from copyright owner

Citing images found on the Internet

Academic Integrity Module

Hands-on Module

Consequences of Lack of Attribution or Inadequate Attribution -- #1


Policy #32 Personal Conduct Policy is signed by all students at entry into YSN


Policy #33 Disciplinary Procedures of the School of Nursing


In most cases, when lack of attribution is documented by the faculty, failure of the assignment occurs, followed by the procedure as outlined in Policy #33

Consequences of Lack of Attribution or Inadequate Attribution -- #2

Within the University

Graduate School refers all allegations to the Graduate School Committee on Regulations and Discipline. May result in dismissal from the University.

Academic Fraud at Yale Universitywww.yale.edu/grants/policies_reg/acadfraud.html

Consequences of Lack of Attribution or Inadequate Attribution -- #3

In the larger academic and clinical community

Professional careers are ended or severely damaged- Stephen Ambrose, Doris Kearns Goodwinothers

Resources and References

American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association. (2007). APA style guide to electronic references. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Yale College Writing Center -(http://www.yale.edu/bass/writing/sources/plagiarism/what.html) Yale College and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (http://www.yale.edu/graduateschool/academics/integrity.html) YSN Personal Conduct Policy Policy #32 http://intranet.nursing.yale.edu/Intranet/Policies/default.aspx?id=32 Policy # 33 http://intranet.nursing.yale.edu/Intranet/Policies/default.aspx?id=33