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Abondoned oil and gas wells a reconnaissance study of an unconventional geothermal resource

A. G. Reyes

GNS SCIENCE REPORT 2007/23 July 2007

Abandoned oil and gas wells a reconnaissance study of an unconventional geothermal resource
A. G. Reyes

GNS Science Report 2007/23 July 2007

GNS Science

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCE
Reyes A.G. 2007. Abandoned oil and gas wells a reconnaissance study of an unconventional geothermal resource, GNS Science Report 2007/23 41 p.

A. G. Reyes, GNS Science, 1 Fairway Drive, Avalon, PO Box 30368, Lower Hutt

Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited, 2007 ISSN 1177-2425 ISBN 978-0-478-09988-1

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT.............................................................................................................................................iii KEYWORDS ...........................................................................................................................................iii 1.0 INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................................1 1.1 1.2 2.0 3.0 Geothermal Resources in New Zealand ....................................................................... 1 Objectives of Study........................................................................................................ 2

ABANDONED OIL AND GAS WELLS IN OTHER COUNTRIES ..............................................4 ABANDONED OIL AND GAS WELLS IN NEW ZEALAND ......................................................4 3.1 3.2 3.3 Distribution and Dates of Completion............................................................................ 4 Well Depths and Estimated Bottom hole Temperatures ............................................... 7 Reasons for abandoning wells .................................................................................... 14

4.0

HARNESSING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FROM ABANDONED HYDROCARBON WELLS14 4.1 4.2 Geothermal Potential Projections................................................................................ 14 Sedimentary basins and other areas outside the Taupo Volcanic Zone..................... 16

5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

CURRENT GEOTHERMAL USE OF ABANDONED HYDROCARBON WELLS....................18 INITIAL STEPS FOR USE OF WELLS ....................................................................................20 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK ........................................................................23 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ...........................................................................................24 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...........................................................................................................25 REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................................25

FIGURES
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Temperature, depth and permeability ranges of conventional and unconventional sources of geothermal energy in New Zealand.................................................................2 Distribution of conventional and unconventional geothermal resources in New Zealand..............................................................................................................................3 Distribution of offshore and onshore abandoned wells in various hydrocarbon basins. ...5 Number of offshore and onshore abandoned wells in hydrocarbon basins and nonbasins of New Zealand. .....................................................................................................5 Map showing the distribution of abandoned oil and gas wells with date of drilling completion and the general location of sedimentary basins..............................................6 Drilled vertical depths of abandoned onshore hydrocarbon wells.....................................8 Estimated bottom hole temperatures in abandoned onshore hydrocarbon wells. ............9 Temperature ranges of abandoned oil and gas wells .....................................................13 Depth vs estimated bottom hole temperatures of offshore and onshore abandoned hydrocarbon wells and possible geothermal uses...........................................................14 Depth vs formation pressure in Taranaki wells ...............................................................17 Possible geothermal uses of abandoned hydrocarbon wells. .........................................15 Map showing areas where temperatures >120oC could be intersected at >3200m........17 Direct heat use of 29oC waters from well Bonithon-1, New Plymouth.............................18 A. Bonithon-1 in New Plymouth B. Kotuku borehole forming a pseudo-warm spring. ...18

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Figure 15

Distribution of abandoned onshore hydrocarbon wells in Taranaki showing (A) vertical depths and (B) estimated bottomhole temperatures with roads and population centres. ............................................................................................................................21 Abandoned hydrocarbon wells in Taranaki (squares) that may be converted for geothermal use.. ..............................................................................................................22

Figure 16

TABLES
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Number of wells within a range of temperatures .............................................................15 Potential energy from wells .............................................................................................16 Potential energy from drilling new wells in high heat flow regions ..................................22 Proposed wells for a 0.5 to 1 MWe pilot geothermal plant in Taranaki ...........................23 Main points of presentations during the Oil and Gas conference held in March 2006....29 Basic well data.................................................................................................................32

APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Notes on the Geothermal Energy Generation in Oil and Gas Settings Conference .......27 Appendix 2 Abandoned onshore hydrocarbon wells in New Zealand ................................................31

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ABSTRACT
There are 349 abandoned onshore oil and gas wells in New Zealand that can potentially be harnessed for geothermal energy for direct usage of heat, power production and development as pseudo hot spring systems for tourism. Well depths range from 17 to 5064m vertical. Estimated bottom hole temperatures range from ambient temperatures (about 12 to 18oC) to 172oC. Of these wells 65% are located in the North Island, the rest in South Island. Taranaki, the only oil and gas producing hydrocarbon basin in the country, has the largest number of abandoned oil and gas wells at 140 or about 40% of all onshore wells. The use of abandoned hydrocarbon wells for direct heat utilisation and power generation could add another 6.1 PJ to the geothermal energy potential of New Zealand. Of these 1.4 PJ is for use with ground source heat pumps from 123 wells with bottomhole temperatures of <30oC drilled to depths of 17m to 686m for space heating and heating of domestic water; 4.54 PJ for other direct heat uses from 206 wells with temperatures of 31-120oC; and 0.15 PJ from 20 wells with bottomhole temperatures of 120-172oC drilled to 3131-5064m. The total power that could be produced from the 20 high temperature wells, assuming a flow of about 4 L s-1 and a capacity factor of 10% is 4772 kWe (kilowatt electric) or an average of about 238 kWe per well. The requisite temperature may be present in abandoned hydrocarbon wells for a wide range of geothermal energy uses but there are many geoscientific, technical and non technical problems to be considered before oil and gas wells can be used for geothermal power generation or cogeneration of geothermal and hydrocarbon energy. However New Zealand has the available expertise in the geothermal and oil and gas industries and access to the requisite technology, making this scheme of converting old hydrocarbon wells for geothermal use viable. Taranaki has a large energy-intensive dairy industry that would benefit from the cogeneration of geothermal and oil and gas wells and the conversion of abandoned oil and gas wells for geothermal use. Possible sites for a 200 kWe binary cycle pilot plant have been selected, preferably using two wells, one for production and the other for reinjection of waste fluids.

KEYWORDS
Geothermal, oil and gas, hydrocarbon, direct heat, power, binary cycle.

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1.0

INTRODUCTION

With the technological advances in the last 20 years the definition of an economically viable geothermal resource has broadened to a resource that extracts heat from the rock or circulating aquifer waters at temperatures ranging from as low as 4oC (Lund and Freeston, 2001) to as high as sub-magmatic (400oC) and from about 15m to >3500m depths. At shallow depths and temperatures of 10-35oC heat can be harnessed from the ground or circulating water in boreholes or warm water in abandoned mines using ground source heat pumps (Lund et al, 2005). In Central and Northern Europe, for example, all heat energy stored below about 15m from the surface is considered geothermal energy (Rybach and Sanner, 2000). For some of the unconventional sources of geothermal energy, such as heat from sedimentary basins and hot dry rock (HDR), permeability or the volume of circulating fluids may be too low to economically extract heat. To increase the productivity and lifetime of these marginal geothermal sources for power generation, enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS) technology may be required where, essentially, low permeability hot rock at depth is artificially fractured and fluid is introduced into the newly-fractured rock where it is heated by conduction. The heated fluids are recirculated to the surface by pumps and the heat extracted by a heat exchanger (e.g. Smith, 1983; White, 1983). 1.1 GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NEW ZEALAND

There are conventional and non-conventional sources of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation in New Zealand (Figure 1) ranging in temperature from about 12 to 15oC at about 15m to as high as >330oC at >3,500m. Power can be generated by steam turbines or by binary cycle systems using the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) where the working organic fluid has a low boiling temperature such as isopentane, or the Kalina Cycle which uses ammonia/water. The newest system is called the NE (Natural Energy) Engine that operates on hot and cold water and uses liquid CO2 as a working fluid in the heat exchanger engine (www.fossil.energy.gov). Conventional sources include (1) high enthalpy hot spring systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Ngawha in Northland some of which are now harnessed for power production, (2) waste-water from high enthalpy power-generating systems such as Wairakei, Mokai, Ohaaki-Broadlands, Kawerau, Rotokawa and Ngawha and (3) hot spring systems outside the Taupo Volcanic Zone and Ngawha and including springs in the North Island, islands in the Bay of Plenty and Hauraki Gulf and in the South Island (Figure 2). Nonconventional sources of geothermal energy include: (1) most of the TVZ outside high enthalpy geothermal systems, where thermal gradients range from 40oC/km to >50oC/km but permeability low, (2) 12oC to 170oC waters in abandoned oil and gas (hydrocarbon) wells, (3) heated waters in abandoned flooded coal and mineral mines, (4) conductive heat from shallow depths (<250m) for ground source heat pump harnessing, (5) conductive heat at depth in high-heat flow (>70 mW/m2) sedimentary basins, metamorphic terrain and rapidly rising regions of the country such as the Raukumara Peninsula (Mazengarb and Speden, 2000) and the Southern Alps (Allis and Shi, 1995) and regions outside high heat flow regions. The location of some of the nonconventional heat sources available in New Zealand are shown in Figure 2.

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Figure 1. Temperature, depth and permeability ranges of conventional and unconventional sources of geothermal energy in New Zealand. The temperature and depth range of abandoned oil and gas wells in New Zealand are highlighted in red.

Geothermal energy in this country is associated with power generation in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and Ngawha where volcanism is recent. New Zealand has a total installed power generating capacity of 435 MWe provided by six geothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and one at Ngawha in Northland, where a binary plant produces 9 MWe (http://www.crownminerals.govt.nz). The installed capacity for direct usage of geothermal energy in the country is 448 MWt (White, 2006), 62% of which is produced from waste water and waste steam or dedicated wells in the power-generating Kawerau, Mokai, Ohaaki-Broadlands and Wairakei geothermal systems. About 170 MWt is used for bathing in more than 30 commercial swimming pools and in ad hoc holes dug for hot water at the edges of rivers or at tide level along the sea shore, space-heating, fruit irrigation, plant or fish cultivation, and health and beauty therapy. 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

This is reconnaissance study on the potential of extracting geothermal energy from abandoned oil and gas wells and regions outside the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Ngawha. Assumptions are broad and conservative, calculations are basic.

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Figure 2. Distribution of conventional and nonconventional geothermal resources in New Zealand including hot springs, abandoned oil and gas wells, abandoned flooded underground coal and mineral mines and stored heat in the rock. Conductive heat flow contours are from Allis et al, 1998.

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2.0

ABANDONED OIL AND GAS WELLS IN OTHER COUNTRIES

The idea of using abandoned oil and gas (hydrocarbon) wells and drilling wells in sedimentary basins to produce geothermal energy is not new. Low enthalpy geothermal resources in sedimentary basins in France have been tapped by wells for district heating since 1969. At present there are 41 plants in the Paris basin including 15 in the Aquitane basin and five in other regions producing hot water for a total of 200,000 households and supplanting about 170,000 TOE (Laplaige et al, 2000). Albania, Poland, Germany, Switzerland, USA, France and Australia are exploring the possibility of recovering heat from hydrocarbon wells (e.g., Bodvarrsson and Reistad, 1983; White, 1983; Barbacki, 2000; Schellshmidt et al, 2000; Lund et al, 2005). In the USA abandoned hydrocarbon wells, in regions of high heat flow (>75 mW/m2) and sufficient water flow such as Texas and Oklahoma, are estimated to have a power generating potential at the gigawatt level (Appendix 2). Using the existing wells minimises the initial costs of geothermal power production. The main capital funding input is fitting existing wells with heat exchangers and small power plants (McKenna et al, 2005). In March 2006, the Southern Methodist University in Texas held the first conference on the potential of harnessing geothermal power from abandoned hydrocarbon wells (Appendix 1).

3.0

ABANDONED OIL AND GAS WELLS IN NEW ZEALAND

Although the number of abandoned hydrocarbon wells in New Zealand is <1% that of the USA several factors indicate that abandoned oil and gas wells can be harnessed for geothermal energy, including (1) bottomhole temperatures >50oC in more than 150 wells drilled to depths >625m, (2) the presence of nonsaline or saline waters in most of the abandoned wells that may be discharged using artesian pressures inherent in the wells or through downhole pumps, (3) over pressuring in some wells in Taranaki (King and Thrasher, 1996), the East Coast (Field et al) and Northland (Isaac et al) indicate that some wells are artesian and will flow without the need for well stimulation or hydrofracturing, (4) mud losses during drilling indicate permeability in several wells e.g., Kiakia-1/1A in the East Coast, and (4) large areas of high heat flow cover parts of the Northland, Taranaki, Wanganui and East Coast basins in the North Island and parts of the West Coast basin of the South Island (Figures 2 and 3) where the surface conductive heat flow of >70 mW/m2 indicate thermal gradients of >33oC/km. 3.1 DISTRIBUTION AND DATES OF COMPLETION

There are about 450 onshore and offshore abandoned hydrocarbon wells in New Zealand (Figure 3). Of these wells, 349 are onshore with the offshore wells drilled mostly in waters <150m deep. Thirty-six of the onshore wells were drilled out of basins and the rest are located in eight of the 18 hydrocarbon basins in the country (Figures 3 and 4). Of the onshore wells, 65% are located in the North Island and the rest in the South Island. The highest number of abandoned hydrocarbon wells, at 140, are found in Taranaki, the only basin producing oil and gas in the country.

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Figure 3. Distribution of offshore and onshore abandoned wells in various hydrocarbon basins (data from http://www.crownminerals.govt.nz).

Figure 4. Number of offshore and onshore abandoned wells in New Zealand.

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Figure 5. Map showing the distribution of abandoned oil and gas wells with date of drilling completion and the general location of sedimentary basins (data from http://www.crownminerals.govt.nz). Active fault lines are shown as grey lines (data from www.gns.cri.nz). Red line defines the boundaries of the Taupo Volcanic Zone.

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The onshore wells were drilled from 1866 to 2005 with the two late-19th century ones located in Taranaki (Figure 5). The completion dates of 93 wells are unknown. Of those with known dates, 19 wells drilled from 1903-1944 are located in Taranaki, 16 in the East Coast of North Island, two in the Wanganui basin, 15 in the West Coast of South Island and one in Canterbury. These were drilled to depths of 19 to 3331m. Thirty-four wells were drilled before 1970, 33 before 1980, 68 before 1990, 41 from 1990-1999 and 27 after 2000. The date of completion nearly a century ago does not preclude development. For example, Bonithon-1, a well used today for the Taranaki baths in New Plymouth was drilled in 1908. However, Bonithon-2 sited nearby and drilled nearly at the same time could not be located. Well diameters below the production casing shoe range from about 2.5 to 12. A liner is sometimes installed and sometimes perforated. However, the liner is retrieved prior to abandoning the wells. Hence the age of the boreholes may, however, affect the degree of cave-ins in wells without liners. 3.2 WELL DEPTHS AND ESTIMATED BOTTOM HOLE TEMPERATURES

Abandoned wells have total vertical depths ranging from 17m to 5064m (Figure 6). Twelve of the 13 wells drilled deeper than 4000m are located in Taranaki e.g., Inglewood-1 (5061m) and Cardiff-1 (5064m). The one well deeper than 4000m outside Taranaki is located in the East Coast i.e., Rere-1 (4351m; Figure 2). Down hole temperatures, after the well had stabilised after drilling, are often not measured in hydrocarbon wells although temperatures during or just a few hours after drilling have been measured in some wells. Since stable downhole temperatures are not available for most wells, bottom hole temperatures are roughly estimated using published surface conductive heat flow data (Funnell et al, 1996; King and Thrasher, 1996; Funnell and Allis, 1997; Field et al, 1997; Allis et al, 1998, Cook et al, 1999) and converted to thermal gradient, in oC/km, using a factor of 2.1 (Funnell, pers. comm., 2003) and an average surface temperature of 15oC. In two wells, Kowai-1 and Hohonu-1, the bottom temperatures measured a few hours after drilling are higher by 8oC and 3oC, respectively than calculated bottomhole temperatures, i.e., 60oC vs 52oC for Hohonu-1 and 52oC vs 49oC for Kowai-1. Thus calculated bottomhole temperatures are most likely minimum values. Homogenisation temperatures in the latest aqueous fluid inclusions in quartz in abandoned and active hydrocarbon wells in Taranaki are often about +10oC of the estimated bottomhole temperatures (Reyes unpublished data, Reyes, 1998). The estimated bottomhole temperatures in the onshore abandoned hydrocarbon wells range from ambient to as high as 172oC at 4451m in well New Plymouth-2 in Taranaki (Figures 7 and 8; Table 1). About 34% of all the onshore wells (120) have bottom hole temperatures of <30oC suitable for harnessing with ground source heat pumps (Figure 8). Temperatures of 30-100oC were intersected in 57% (199) of the onshore wells and another 18 wells (5%) have estimated bottomhole temperatures of 100-120oC, suitable for other direct uses of heat. Except for four wells, all wells with bottomhole temperatures of 120172oC are located in Taranaki (Figure 7). The four wells outside Taranaki are: Waimamaku-2 in Northland (124oC), Rere-1 in the East Coast (147oC), Bounty-1 (131oC) and Kokiri-1 (122oC) in the West Coast, South Island (Figures 2 and 7).

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Figure 6. Drilled vertical depths of abandoned onshore hydrocarbon wells. Grey lines are active faults (www.gns.cri.nz) and the red line defines the boundaries of the Taupo Volcanic Zone.

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Figure 7. Estimated bottom hole temperatures in abandoned onshore hydrocarbon wells. Grey lines are active faults (www.gns.cri.nz) and the red line defines the boundaries of the Taupo Volcanic Zone.

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Figure 8. Temperatures ranges of onshore and offshore abandoned oil and gas wells.

In contrast to onshore wells about 92% of abandoned offshore wells (97 wells) have bottomhole temperatures >50oC (Figure 8) because these are all drilled deeper than 700m. One offshore well, Clipper-1 in the Great South basin, has a calculated bottomhole temperature of nearly 185oC at 4742m. A plot of total depth versus estimated bottom hole temperatures (Figure 9) show three onshore wells with thermal gradients higher than most wells: Rotokautuku-1 in the East Cape, Bounty-1 in the West Coast and New Plymouth-2 in Taranaki (Figures 2 and 9). Rotokautuku-1 is located in a region of active landmass uplift in the Raukumara Peninsula where the surface heat flow is high at 170 mW/m2 believed to be caused by the advection of rising hot fluids from depth (Field et al, 1997). The thermal gradient in Rotokautuku is about 80oC/km. Well Bounty-1 in the West Coast is 3131m deep, drilled in an isolated region with a heat flow of 80 mW/m2 heat flux (Figure 3) where the landmass is rapidly rising (Allis and Shi, 1995). Well New Plymouth-2 is drilled to 4451m in a region of 70 mW/m2 heat flux and is located near the Pliocene to Quaternary Sugar Loaf Islands and Paritutu volcanic centres which may still possess vestigial heat at depth. The thermal gradient is about 40oC/km in wells Bounty-1 and New Plymouth-2. The three offshore wells with the highest thermal gradients at 40-50oC/km are wells Takapu-1 and Clipper-1 in the Great South basin and well Cook-1 in offshore Taranaki.

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Figure 9. Depth versus estimated bottom hole temperatures of all offshore and onshore abandoned hydrocarbon wells and possible uses of geothermal fluids.

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Table 1. Number of wells within a range of calculated bottomhole temperatures and corresponding depth ranges, in North island and South Island onshore basins and nonbasins. BHT= bottomhole temperature.

Region

Number of wells <30oC 30-50oC 50-80oC 80-100oC 100-120oC >120oC 44-3357 48-5064 295-3495 55-4351 45-1684 122-3749 661-1696 61-3131 73-2135 13 3 3 68 2 1 43 1 1 19 1 27 4 16 1 36 1 3 16 1 1 16 1 2 20

BHT(oC) range Depth range (m)

Northland Taranaki Wanganui East Coast Other areas

10 140 15 62 27

17-127 17-172 22 90 16-150 16 66

West Coast Canterbury Southland Other areas Total

70 8 8 9 349

16-134 29 - 70 17-106 17 - 81

North Island 5 3 22 23 3 7 21 20 17 9 South Island 43 9 1 4 4 7 1 123 76

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Table 2. Potential energy in kW from oil and gas wells assuming flow of 4L s . The conversion factor (CF) used for calculating kWt (kilowatt-thermal) is 0.7 for wells with bottomhole temperatures <120oC to be harnessed for direct heat uses. For power generation using a binary system a conversion factor of 0.1 is used. Conversion factors of 0.7 and 0.1 refer to the conversion efficiency from one form of energy to another and are geothermal industry standards e.g., Lund and Freeston, 2001. The factor 0.1 is used because power generation using steam is very inefficient and only about 10% is converted to electrical energy.

-1

Region/ Basin 30-50oC 1,800 15,600 5,100 13,000 6,200 41,700 6,200 3,000 800 10,000 51,700 13,900 2,100 3,300 19,300 75,100 South Island 2,900 1,400 4,300 63,700 1,900 1,800 3,700 34,200 4,320 4,320 47,720 27,790 9,240 4,550 3,290 39,550 188,440 1,100 31,000 4,400 18,200 1,100 55,800 28,600 1,900 30,500 2,100 38,800 2,500 43,400 3,360 95,900 8,610 31,780 9,240 148,890 50-80oC 100-120oC >120oC <120oC >120oC 210 3,880 0.0 250 0 4,340 432 0.0 0.0 0.0 432 4,772

Estimated Energy in kW

kWt CF=0.7

kWe CF=0.1

<30oC

Northland Taranaki Wanganui East Coast Non-basin Subtotal

1,900 8,400 1,300 7,800 5,900 25,300

80-100oC North Island 53,400 1,500 4,500 59,400

West Coast Canterbury Southland Non-basin Subtotal Total

14,800 500 1,400 2,500 19,200 44,500

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3.3

REASONS FOR ABANDONING WELLS

Most wells were abandoned because of low or total lack of hydrocarbon shows. The reservoirs are, instead, often saturated with fresh or saline waters and are a boon to geothermal exploitation. Others were abandoned because of drilling problems e.g., swelling clays and oil and sand bursts. Abandoned wells are plugged. In most cases liners are not installed or are pulled out upon abandonment. Hence cave-ins may occur in some older wells. Permeability is apparently present in most of the wells as indicated by the discharge of water from some wells; however the water level in the wells is unknown. In Taranaki, there is a widespread zone of over pressuring with respect to the hydrostatic gradient at >3000m (King and Thrasher, 1996) indicating that these wells may be artesian (Figure 10) and hence will flow without the need for downhole heat pumps.

Figure 10. Depth versus formation pressure derived from measured values or mud weights in several Taranaki wells showing over pressuring with respect to hydrostatic pressure at about >3km depths (Figure 6.12 of King and Thrasher, 1996)

4.0
4.1

HARNESSING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FROM ABANDONED HYDROCARBON WELLS


GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL PROJECTIONS

As shown in Figures 9 and 11 geothermal energy from abandoned oil and gas wells can be harnessed for direct heat using ground source heat pumps at temperatures of about <30oC for space heating and heating water for domestic use. Wells with bottomhole temperatures from 30o to 120oC can be harnessed for other direct heat uses, and wells with waters >120oC and sufficient water flow can potentially be used for power generation. There are 123 onshore wells with bottomhole temperatures <30oC (Table 1) that can potentially yield a total of 31,150 kWt (44,500 x 0.7=31,500) as shown in Table 2. On the other hand, if a 6 kW capacity closed loop ground source heat pump system is installed in each well, then a total of 738 kWt can be produced.

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Figure 11. Possible geothermal uses of abandoned hydrocarbon wells. Grey lines are active faults (www.gns.cri.nz) and the red line defines the boundaries of the Taupo Volcanic Zone.

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Assuming a flow of 4 L s-1, the 206 wells with bottomhole temperatures of 30 to 120oC can potentially produce 166,754 kWt of energy (238,220 x 0.7 = 166,754) for various direct heat uses. For the 20 wells with temperatures of 120-172oC, the hot fluids can be used to generate power using a down hole heat pump (to enhance the flow rate and keep the resource under pressure to prevent formation of a vapour phase (Hance, 2005) and a binary cycle system. A down hole pump can be used up to about 200oC (Hance, 2005) which is well above the highest temperatures in the abandoned wells. The total power that could be produced from these wells, assuming a flow of about 4 L s-1 and a capacity factor of 10% is 4,772 kWe (kilowatt electric) or an average of about 238 kWe per well. The use of abandoned hydrocarbon wells for direct heat utilisation and power generation could add another 6.1 PJ to the geothermal energy potential of New Zealand. Of these 1.4 PJ is for use with ground source heat pumps from 123 wells with bottomhole temperatures of <30oC drilled to depths of 17m to 686m; 4.54 PJ for other direct heat uses from 206 wells with temperatures of 31-120oC; and 0.15 PJ from 20 wells at temperatures of 120-172oC drilled to 3131-5064m. 4.2 SEDIMENTARY BASINS AND OTHER AREAS OUTSIDE THE TAUPO VOLCANIC ZONE

The region with surface conductive heat flow of >70 mW/m2 (>33oC/km), outside the Taupo Volcanic Zone, Ngawha and land administered by the Department of Conservation, covers an area of about 31,520km2 or about 12% of the New Zealand landmass (Figure 12). In these regions, a temperature of 120oC will be intersected at about 2,600m in Northland and the Coromandel and at least 3,200m in the rest of the North Island and in South Island (Figures 2 and 12; Table 3). Drilling new wells in these areas is dependent on accessibility (access factor) dictated by topography (e.g., slip-prone rugged Alpine slopes are problematic), land usage (e.g., national parks, private property, Maori-owned may not be accessible for drilling) and geology (e.g. proximity to faults may contribute to permeability at depth and are therefore attractive for drilling; areas best drilled for coal, hydrocarbons or precious metals may not be immediately accessible for deep drilling; regions with swelling clays or highly silicified rocks may cause drilling problems). The success rate of 0.40, used in Table 3, is the lowest success rate in exploration geothermal drilling in New Zealand, based on the percentage of geothermal wells that would successfully produce 1 MWe per five wells drilled (Barr et al, 1984). Assuming that the areas to be drilled, at 2 wells/100 km2, have enough permeability where heated water circulates, the temperature of extraction is 100oC, and the drilled wells will have a flow of at least 4 L s-1 then another 21,100 kWe can be potentially produced or 0.67 PJ of geothermal energy generated (Table 3). However, before drilling new deep wells in high heat flow regions outside the Taupo Volcanic Zone and Ngawha, geothermal energy from existing abandoned hydrocarbon wells should be explored first.

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Figure 12. Map showing areas where temperatures >120oC could be intersected at >3200m. Blue areas are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Conservation and cannot be drilled.

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5.0

CURRENT GEOTHERMAL USE OF ABANDONED HYDROCARBON WELLS

In Taranaki, warm bicarbonate water (27oC) from the 910m deep Bonithon-1, an abandoned hydrocarbon well drilled in 1908, is heated to 33-38oC by gas and fed into the therapy and private pools of a commercial spa enterprise. The bore water is also bottled and sold as therapeutic mineral water (Figure 13). In Kotuku, West Coast, a leaking hydrocarbon well discharged 21oC (ambient temperature=13oC) effervescent bicarbonate waters at 3 kg s-1 for years and formed a pseudo warm spring pool that could be used as a tourist attraction (Figure 14). However in early 2006 the well ceased to flow due probably to sealing by carbonate deposition and the lowered water level caused by drought in the region. A warm spring in Lake Omapere, Northland was also originally a well. These examples show that it is possible to harness abandoned hydrocarbon wells for direct utilisation of heat or turn them into pseudo hot springs for tourism. Despite the projections of extracting gigawatts of geothermal power from abandoned hydrocarbon wells in the Gulf regions of the USA, only one hydrocarbon well is producing 1.5 MWe of geothermal power, located in a geopressured sedimentary basin in Pleasant Bayou, Louisiana (Campbell and Hattar, 1990; Griggs, 2005). The well is 5030m deep, and intersected a leaky fault, a fault that leaks due to pressure differentials in the reservoir. Wellhead pressure is 20.7 MPa. Fluids contain 87% CH4. The hybrid cycle power plant is equipped with a pressure reduction turbine, with the gas providing 690 kW, the binary cycle turbine 535 kW and a parasitic load of 270 kW. Problems with corrosive saline solutions were solved by using 16 gauge steel; scaling problems from 130,000 mg/kg TDS waters by using inhibitors, and carbon fouling by regularly shutting and opening the plant (www.smu.edu/geothermal/Oil&Gas/Oil&Gas_SMUmeeting_summary; Appendix 1).

Figure 13. Direct heat use of 29oC waters from well Bonithon-1, New Plymouth

Figure 14. Kotuku borehole forming a pseudo-warm spring (21oC) in 2003. Flow is 3 kg/s (photo by A.G.Reyes).

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Table 3. Drilling new wells in regions with heat flow >70 mW/m where the geothermal gradient is >33 C/km. Two wells are proposed for each 100 km area. One is for production, the other for reinjection. CF= conversion factor

Region

Thermal gradient (oC/km) Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Success kW Flow (kg/s) kWe (0.1 CF) TJ

Area in km2

Temperature at depth

Temperature of extraction (oC)

2 wells/100 km2

No. of wells for power generation 31 75 126,035 52,727 5,273 12,604

PJ

North Island South Island 120oC 100 419 4 376 0.4

33

7,865

3,200m 120oC 100 419 4 157 0.4

166 398

0.17 0.40

33

18,800

Coromandel Northland TOTAL

40 40

1,610 3,245 31,520

2,600m 120oC o 120 C 100 100 419 419 4 4 32 65 0.4 0.4 6 13 125

10,793 21,754

1,079 2,175 21,131

34 69 667

0.03 0.07 0.67

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In New Zealand temperature may be present but there are many technical and non technical problems to be considered when converting oil and gas wells for geothermal extraction e.g., 1. Marginal permeability and fluid flow in a number of oil and gas wells may require hydrofracturing and/or well stimulation, 2. The state of the casing and grouting jobs of wells drilled before 1980, which comprise about 45% of the onshore wells, may not be satisfactory and the wells not usable, 3. Wells are filled and plugged when abandoned and will require drilling out the fills and cement before use, 4. Some wells may be difficult to locate because all surface traces are covered (Funnell, pers comm. 2007), 5. Oil fouling of geothermal turbines is possible when producing some wells for geothermal power, 6. Liner tubings may need to be converted to slotted liners (or the tubings perforated), 7. Liners have either been pulled out or not installed at all and rock may have caved-in in some wells, 8. Casing corrosion, whether internally or externally induced, is probable, 9. Access to the wells owned by oil companies, Maori tribes, other private owners or the New Zealand government, 10. Acceptance and support of the government to the idea of converting hydrocarbon wells for geothermal use. In Taranaki cogeneration and colocation of geothermal and hydrocarbon energy sources may affect reinjection strategies because water reinjection may hasten water flooding in structurally or stratigraphically-connected hydrocarbon-bearing zones in nearby producing gas and condensate wells. Other factors that should be considered include finding methods of stimulating water flow in abandoned oil and gas wells, determining the type of binary cycle system to be used (Rankine, Kalina or NE Engine) and the feasibility of using hybrid power plant systems to cogenerate power from geothermal fluids and methane from the same well, and later, investigating EGS (Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems) technology to exploit deep oil and gas wells.

6.0

INITIAL STEPS FOR USE OF WELLS

A pilot plant could be set up in Taranaki to demonstrate the viability of this hydrocarbon-togeothermal energy scheme. Taranaki has the most number of abandoned hydrocarbon wells with some of the highest estimated bottom hole temperatures and artesian pressures below 3000m (Figures 15A and B). It is the centre of oil, gas and petrochemical production in the country. It is one of the most energy-hungry regions of the country that could benefit from cogeneration and colocation of hydrocarbon and geothermal energy sources to support its dairying, horticultural and food processing industries. Low temperature wells could be harnessed to provide heat for space heating of dairy farm buildings, milk pasteurisation, greenhouses, swimming pools and spas. Higher temperature wells (16 wells) can be used for power generation.

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The 16 high temperature wells selected for possible geothermal power generation (Figure 15) have estimated bottom hole temperatures 120oC to 172oC, drilled to >3100m and are mostly artesian. However four of these (with yellow crosses) were drilled prior to 1980 and the state of the casing, liners and grouting jobs is uncertain and need to be examined. All 16 wells have been plugged with cement upon abandonment. For a binary cycle pilot plant with a capacity of about 200 kW five wells were selected based on their bottomhole temperatures, proximity to a population centre or an industrial complex such as Fonterra and proximity to another abandoned well that can be possibly used as a reinjection well. These wells include Tipoka-1, Te Kiri-1, Toko-1, New Plymouth-2 or Inglewood-1 (Table 4), listed according to priority, and shown in Figure 16. A downhole pump may be needed in some wells to increase or sustain fluid flow. Electricity generated from Tipoka-1 or Te Kiri-1 can be used by nearby dairy farms or Fonterra while other wells such as from Toko-1, New Plymouth-2 and Inglewood-1 may supplement electricity from the grid for Stratford, New Plymouth and Inglewood, respectively. Other wells with bottomhole temperatures >120oC near Stratford are Wharehuia-1, Piakau-1 and Waihapa-1. Another well that could be harnessed in Inglewood is Tauteka-1. Cardiff-1, a well with a bottomhole temperature of 153oC may be reactivated as a source of hydrocarbons and hence not included in the list. More geoscientific studies need to be done on these wells before any power harnessing could be done. The effect of drawing out large volumes of hot water on nearby activelyproducing hydrocarbon wells is not known.

Figure 15. Distribution of abandoned onshore hydrocarbon wells in Taranaki showing (A) vertical depths and (B) estimated bottomhole temperatures with roads and population centres. Haloed wells may be used for geothermal power production.

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Figure 16. Abandoned hydrocarbon wells in Taranaki (squares) that may be converted for geothermal use. All o plotted abandoned hydrocarbon wells have estimated bottom hole temperatures (BHT) >120 C and depths from 3131 5064m.

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Table 4. Proposed wells for 200 kWe pilot geothermal plant in Taranaki. Refer to Appendix 3 for well details. BHT= bottom hole temperature. Well Priority Estimated kWe
o

Comments Tipoka-1 fluids (BHT= 142 C at 4360m) can be reinjected in Tipoka-2, o 1.1 km away, which has BHT= 88 C at 2504m. Power can be used by nearby dairy farms.
o Well (154 C at 4710m) near dairy farms associated with Fonterra. There may be a need to drill a nearby reinjection well

Tipoka-1

240

Te Kiri-1

260

Toko-1

250

Fluids from Toko-1 with BHT=150oC at 4900m can be reinjected into o Toko-2 with BHT = 103 C at 3200m, 1.2km away. There is a seal between the Mangahewa Fm in Toko-1 and the shallower Tikorangi Fm in Toko-2. Power can be used for Stratford. Other wells near Stratford that can be used for power generation are: Wharehuia-1 o (114 C at 3595m) with fluids reinjected into Piakau-1 1.0km away or Waihapa-1 (144oC at 4942m) using Waihapa-2, 1.8km away, as a reinjection well Highest BHT of all onshore wells at 172oC; located in middle of New Plymouth. Fluids can be reinjected in numerous adjacent abandoned wells. This was drilled before 1980 and the state of the casings and grouts is unknown. BHT= 164 C at 5061m. This was drilled before 1980. There may be a need to drill a nearby reinjection well. The nearest abandoned well that could be used for reinjection is Ngatoro-1 about 2.1km away. Power can be used by Inglewood. Another well near Inglewood is o Manganui-1 (131 C at 3753m) with Tauteka-1, 830m away, as a reinjection well
o

New Plymouth2

290

Inglewood-1

275

7.0

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

This is merely a reconnaissance study whose main goal is to present an idea and the basic data of wells that could be used for geothermal energy purposes. Before any wells could be used the following studies should be done: 1. Review all literature on wells regarding water reservoirs, fault and stratigraphic permeability, stratigraphic connectivity among abandoned and actively-producing wells, downhole pressure and temperature measurements and geology. 2. Determine the state of the casing/tubings, liners and cementing jobs of selected wells. 3. Determine the corrosion state of the well pipes. 4. Measure downhole temperatures of selected wells. 5. Determine flow rates of well discharges and methods of stimulating water flow. 6. Find out if hydrofracturing is necessary or possible to enhance permeability. 7. Find out the maximum working temperatures of down hole pumps. 8. Determine fluid discharge chemistry to find out if a hybrid plants can be used to tap both gas and geothermal fluids, predict fouling problems to the plant, determine ways of disposing well fluids (use a reinjection well or dispose fluids into the waterways?). 9. Determine fluid pathways and temperatures using petrological and geochemical methods.
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10. Determine how geothermal production will affect the hydrocarbon reservoirs. 11. Study the economic viability of converting extant hydrocarbon wells for geothermal direct heat use or for power production.

8.0

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The 349 abandoned onshore oil and gas wells in New Zealand have total vertical depths of 17 to 5064m and estimated bottom hole temperatures ranging from ambient temperatures (about 12 to 18oC) to 172oC. Of these wells 65% are located in the North Island, the rest in South Island. Taranaki, the only oil and gas producing hydrocarbon basin in the country, has the largest number of abandoned oil and gas wells at 140 or about 40% of all onshore wells and also contains 16 of the 20 wells with bottomhole temperatures >120oC. Thus the use of abandoned hydrocarbon wells for direct heat utilisation and power generation could add another 6.1 PJ to the geothermal energy potential of New Zealand. Of these 1.4 PJ is for use with ground source heat pumps from 123 wells with bottomhole temperatures of <30oC drilled to depths of 17m to 686m for space heating and heating of domestic water; 4.54 PJ for other direct heat uses from 206 wells with temperatures of 31120oC; and 0.15 PJ from 20 wells with bottomhole temperatures of 120-172oC drilled to 3131-5064m. The total power that could be produced from the 20 high temperature wells, assuming a flow of about 4 L s-1 and a capacity factor of 10% is 4,772 kWe (kilowatt electric) or an average of about 238 kWe per well. Taranaki has a large energy-intensive dairy industry that would benefit from the cogeneration of geothermal and oil and gas wells and the conversion of abandoned oil and gas wells for geothermal use. Possible sites for a 200 kWe binary cycle pilot plant have been selected using wells with bottomhole temperatures >120oC and include, with decreasing priority, Tipoka-1, Te Kiri-1, Toko-1, New Plymouth-2 or Inglewood-1. The selected wells are either near dairy farms or an industrial complex like Fonterra or within a population centre such as Stratford, new Plymouth and Inglewood. Three of the sites are within a 1.8 km radius from another abandoned well, but with lower temperatures, that can be used for reinjection. Well Inglewood-1, however, is 2.1 km from the nearest abandoned well and a reinjection may need to be drilled nearer the well and there is no nearby well for Te Kiri-1. New wells in high heat flow regions of the country, outside the Taupo Volcanic Zone, Ngawha and Department of Conservation land, may provide another 0.67 PJ of energy assuming production of energy from waters extracted at 100oC and a flow of about 4 L s-1. However, these will only be drilled once the viability of geothermal power outside the Taupo Volcanic Zone and Ngawha have been proven by harnessing geothermal energy from abandoned hydrocarbon wells. The requisite temperature may be present in abandoned hydrocarbon wells for a wide range of geothermal energy uses but there are many geoscientific, technical and non technical problems to be considered before oil and gas wells can be used for geothermal power generation or cogeneration of geothermal and hydrocarbon energy. However New Zealand has the available expertise in the geothermal and oil and gas industries and access to the requisite technology, making this scheme of converting old hydrocarbon wells for geothermal use viable.

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Converting at least a pair of abandoned hydrocarbon wells (one for production the other for reinjection) in Taranaki for use in a 200 kWe pilot plant may prove the viability of this scheme.

9.0

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Thank you to D. Darby and E. Mroczek for reviewing the report whose comments and suggestions have contributed to the improvement of the report. Discussions with D. Darby, E Mroczek, and J. Callan and speakers of the conference on Geothermal Energy Generation in Oil and Gas Settings Conference held in the Southern Methodist University, Texas in 13-14 March 2006 have helped in writing this report. Thank you to K. Hunt for her expert word processing.

10.0

REFERENCES

Allis R G and Shi Y (1995) New insights to temperature and pressure beneath the central southern Alps, New Zealand. NZ J Geol Geophysics, 38, 585-592. Allis R G, Funnell R and Zhan X (1998) From basins to mountains and back again: NZ basin evolution since 10 Ma. Proceedings 9th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Taupo New Zealand, 3-7. Barbacki A (2000) The use of abandoned oil and gas wells in Poland for recovering geothermal heat. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2000, Kyushu Japan, 3361-3365. Barr H, Grant M A and Mclachlan R (1984) Proving and development of geothermal fields, DSIR Report 116, Wellington New Zealand. Barry J M, Duff S W and MacFarlan D A B (1994) Coal resources of New Zealand. Coal report series CR3132, NZ Ministry of Commerce, 73 p. Bodvarrsson G and Reistad G M (1983) Forced geoheat recovery for moderate temperature uses. J Volcanol and Geoth Res, 15, 247-267. Campbell R G and Hattar M M (1990) Operation of a geopressured hybrid power system at Pleasant Bayou. Proceedings Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 1990, IECEC-90 25th Intersociety, 91-101. Cook R A, Sutherland, R, Zhu H and others (1999) Cretaceous-Cenozoic geology and petroleum systems of the Great South basin, New Zealand. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Monograph 20, Lower Hutt New Zealand, 188 p. Dunstall M (2005) 2000-2005 New Zealand country update. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005, Turkey. Field B D, Uruski C I and others (1997) Cretaceous-Cenozoic geology and petroleum systems of the East Coast region, New Zealand. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Monograph 19, Lower Hutt New Zealand, 301 p. Funnell R and Allis R G (1997) Hydrocarbon maturation potential of offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. Proceedings New Zealand Petroleum Conference, 22-30. Funnell R, Chapman D, Allis R and Armstrong P (1996) Thermal state of the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. JGR, V 101 (B11), 25197-25215. Griggs J (2005) A reevaluation of geopressured-geothermal aquifers as an energy source. Proceedings 30th workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering, Stanford University, California. Hance C N (2005) Factors affecting costs of geothermal power development. Geothermal Energy Association for the US Department of Energy, 61 p.
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Isaac M J, Herzer R H, Brook F J and Hayward B W (1994) Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary basins of Northland, New Zealand, Inst. of Geol and Nuclear Sciences Monograph 8, 203 p. King P R and Thrasher G P (1996) Cretaceous-Cenozoic geology and petroleum systems of the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Monograph 13, Lower Hutt New Zealand, 243 p. Klein C W, Lovekin J W and Sanyal S K (2004) New geothermal site identification and qualification. GeothermEx Inc. report. Laplaige P, Jaudin F, Desplan A and Demange J (2000) the French geothermal experience review and perspectives. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2000, Kyushu Japan, 283-294. Lund, J, Freeston D H and Boyd T L (2005) World-wide direct uses of geothermal energy 2005. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005, Turkey. Mazengarb C and Speden I G (2000) Geology of the Raukumara area. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences 1:250,000 Geological Map 6. Mckenna J, Blackwell D, Moyes C and Patterson D P (2005) Geothermal electric power supply possible from Gulf Coast, midcontinent oil field waters. Oil and Gas Journal, 34-39. Rybach L and Sanner B (2000) Ground source heat pump systems, the European experience. GHC Bull, 16-26. Reyes A G (2001) Mineral alteration in a low-enthalpy hydrocarbon well, Taranaki, New Zealand. Proceedings 23rd New Zealand Geothermal Workshop. Schellschmidt R, Clauser C, and Sanner B (2000) Geothermal energy use in Germany at the turn of the millenium. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2000, Kyushu Japan, 427-432. Smith M (1983) A history of hot dry rock geothermal energy systems. J Volcanol and Geoth Res, 15, 1-20. White A A L (1983) Sedimentary formations as sources of geothermal heat. J Volcanol and Geoth Res, 15, 269-284. Websites http://www.crownminerals.govt.nz www.fossil.energy.gov

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APPENDIX 1 NOTES ON THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY GENERATION IN OIL AND GAS SETTINGS CONFERENCE

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APPENDIX 1 NOTES ON THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY GENERATION IN OIL AND GAS SETTINGS CONFERENCE
The conference was held in March 2006 at the Southern Methodist University (SMU) in Texas, organised by D. Blackwell. The main point of the conference is the enormous potential of oil and gas settings in providing geothermal power. What oil and gas operators view as the death of a fossil fuel system is viewed as the source of another energy by the geothermal industry that also has the blessings of the environmentally conscious population. Talks were about 75% technical, 25% laws and regulations affecting geothermal and oil and gas systems in the USA (main points of talks are in Table 4). The most interesting talks and posters were centred on the heat flow map of the USA that SMU had published at the AAPG. The map making was led by David Blackwell of SMU. One of the main offshoots of this map is the reestimation of the geothermal potential of the USA using oil and gas wells and EGS technology (EGS= Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems). The total conservative geothermal potential of the USA is 43,617,976 MWe. At present geothermal provides 8900 MWe of power to 24 countries world-wide. The oil and gas operators view water flooding as the end of the field whereas geothermal operators see this phenomenon as the start of a new source of energy. Some of the problems in harnessing geothermal energy from oil and gas wells are not technical but include the lack of communication between people in the oil and gas and geothermal industries and the lack of overt support from the federal government. During the meeting the discussion panel decided to write a one-page white paper report on Geothermal Energy Generation in Oil and gas Settings, to be submitted to the government and oil and gas operators. Interestingly, the convenors sent nearly 15,000 invitations to oil and gas operators and technical people, government officials and the media to attend this conference (which is the first in the world and quite important for the future energy outlook of the USA, at least) but there were only 90 attendees, <10 are oil and gas operators, one government representative, and mostly geothermal people.

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Table 5. Main points of presentations during the Oil and Gas conference held in March 2006. Topic Dept. of Energy Geothermal Focus US 2006 Enhanced Geothermal System Resource Evaluation Texas Renewable Program and Demonstration Sites Comparison between geothermal and oil & gas drilling Modular binary power generators Geothermal resources in sedimentary basins Total recoverable energy from oil & gas wells at >80oC including overpressured systems: 43,617,976 MWe @20% recovery, using ORC and conventional steam turbines (lots of very conservative assumptions in calculations) Texas is the 5th largest energy user in the world and most of the energy sources are from fossil fuels. Major differences: temperature, production pressures, rock formation characteristics, production rates and types of discharge fluids; tubings used in oil & gas, slotted liners in geothermal Binary and flash steam turbines, modular (mainly an advertising spiel- presentation on ORMAT data most people in the geothermal industry already know). Turbine efficiency is now 88%. Discussed what factors SMU considered in making heat flow map of USA (AAPG publication) e.g., used several correction factors to estimate BHTs at various depths. Scenarios for development of sedimentary basins: co-production of fluids, geopressured fluids, sedimentary EGS (enhanced geothermal systems) Anomalously high temperatures in this region partly due to blanketing effect of shales and heat advection in regional groundwater flow system. 74oC waters from well used to provide electricity for resort using ORC system of United Technologies where Carrier air conditioners are reengineered as reverse chillers (smallest module is 200kw). Used thermal waters are cascaded for use in greenhouse, space heating and an ice house (Kalina cycle) Main problems in oil & gas wells that would be used as geothermal wells would be carbonate scaling and corrosion due to hyper saline fluids Modelled several scenarios on how heat can be extracted from oil & gas wells: best case is a vertical well dual doublet with a circulation rate of 6.31 kg/s. Inlet T (T of o o water being fed into well)= 27 C, fed water heated to 203 C. There is a need to balance circulation rate and temperatures for optimum energy efficiency- best model is use of horizontal wells but modelling study still ongoing. Geothermal production from mature watered-out oil & gas fields and from fields with on-going water-flooding Use of zoned seal foam cement extolled because of its high strength, high viscosity and excellent displacement properties, resulting to better cementing jobs- the key to long lives of wells DOEs geothermal budget for 2007: $0.00 yet they plan to have 40,000 MWe from geothermal by 2040 at <US$0.05/kwh (=NZ$0.08/kwh; in NZ electricity cost: NZ$0.063/kwh). At present USA produces 2600 MWe from geothermal Main Points of Talk

Speaker

Company/Agency

Ray LaSala

US DOE Geothermal Technologies

Susan Petty

Black Mountain Technology

Dub Taylor

State Energy Conservation Office (SECO)- Texas Renewable Program

Louis Capuano

ThermaSource, Inc

Paul Thomsen

ORMAT

David Blackwell

Southern Methodist University

Will Gosnold Geothermal electrical application in Alaska

University of North Dakota, Dept of Geol & Geol. Engg

Northern Great Plains geothermal resources

Berni Karl

Chena Hot Springs Resort

Dick Benoit Heat extraction from sedimentary formations

Sustainable Solutions

Scaling and corrosion abatement

Mike Shook

Chevron-Texaco

Prentice Creel

Halliburton

Well integrity to extend a wells life

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Speaker Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) for the Gulf Coast States Contributors to the cost of geothermal power production Geothermal potential in military facilities Texas geothermal energy: a focus on Permian basin and Trans-Pecos regions Most interesting poster is a new system for harnessing energy using the movement of a magnet in a tube, by either a temperature or pressure gradient- still in development stage (Larry Shultz of Encore Clean Energy) Results of the demonstration power plant on the Pleasant Bayou geopressured resource Regulations in the USA Regulations in the USA 1REC= 1MWh of energy

Company/Agency

Topic

Main Points of Talk

Tim Smith

Element Markets LP

Greg Mines

Idaho National laboratory

Jason McKenna

Engineer research and Development Center US Army Corps of Engineers

Water/oil ratio cut (water-flooding) = 95%. Thinking of using flooded oil & gas systems in Iraq to increase countrys energy source base

Richard Erdlac

University of Texas Permian Basin CEED

7 posters presented

Richard Campbell

TIC- The Industrial Company

Joel Renner Constraints and best use practices: the importance of Texas geothermal electrical energy production Tea Pot Dome Case Study, Wyoming Geothermal power generation potential- Poplar Dome, MT

Idaho National Laboratory

Pleasant Bayou, TX geopressured geothermal reservoir

Well has WHP= 20.7 MPa. Fluids have 87% CH4. A hybrid cycle power plant is used, equipped with a pressure reduction turbine. Gas= 690 kW, binary cycle turbine = 535 kW and parasitic load = 270 kW. Heat exchanger uses the Rankine cycle. Hybrid system has a higher efficiency than 2 plants operating 2 different fluids. Problems from corrosive brine solved by using 16 gauge steel; scaling from 130,000 TDS waters by using inhibitors; carbon fouling by closing then opening plant regularly Geopressured systems: P range = 59.3-91.0MPa, T range = 110-180oC. In Pleasant Bayou, TX well is 5030m deep, has salt domes and has intersected a leaky fault(leakage in fault due to pressure differentials in reservoir) Main thesis of talk is to entice oil & gas operators and the Texas government to use oil & gas wells that are considered useless by the oil & gas industry for geothermal production. He emphasised that water in an oil & gas well is not a liability but an asset. Encourages use of pinnate drilling system, often used in coal bed CH4 extraction, to be adapted to oil & gas cum geothermal wells. Tap Cambrian sandstone and Pre-Cambrian basement for geothermal at T = 120125oC In Poplar Dome, present oil & gas wells need to be deepened to 3-4 km where T is as high as 135oC in fault zone. 3 scenarios for exploring geothermal energy in oil & gas systems: (1) use wells of opportunity (existing wells), (2) enhanced recovery, (3) EGS technology. Some of the problems: there is a need to get rid of most of the oil as this would foul up heat exchangers (use dispersants), may need electric submersible pumps, well stimulation, perforate oil & gas well tubings. In all her scenarios, Petty could only go down to $US0.0688/kwh which is 30% higher than the goal of US$0.05/kwh set by DOE
30

Richard Erdlac

UT Permian Basin CEED

Mark Millican

Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center

Susan Petty

Black Mountain Technology

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APPENDIX 2 ABANDONED ONSHORE HYDROCARBON WELLS IN NEW ZEALAND

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Table 6. Basic well data for onshore abandoned hydrocarbon wells in New Zealand. BHT= bottom hole temperature calculated from heat flow data, MWt = megawatt thermal, MWe = megawatt electrical, MWh = megawatt-hour (8766 hours/year), TJ = terajoules, PJ= petajoules. In the calculations, the BHT is the same as the extraction temperature. Well Name NORTH ISLAND EAST COAST Awatere-1 Back Ormond Road-1 Back Ormond Road-2 Gisborne-1 Gisborne-2 Hukarere-1 Kauhauroa-2 Kauhauroa-5 Kereru-1 Kiakia-1/1A Koranga-1 Mangaone-1 Mason Ridge-1 Minerva Borehole Morere-1 Ongaonga-1 Opoho-1 Opoutama-1 Peep-O-Day Rakaiatai-1 Rere-1 Rotokautuku-1 Rotokautuku-1 (Southern Cross) Rotokautuku-2 Rotokautuku-4 Rotokautuku-5 Ruakituri-1 Speedy-1 Speedy-1 Takapau-1 Tane-1 (Mangaone) Taradale-1 Tautane-1 Te Hoe-1 Te Horo-1 Te Karaka-1 Te Puia-1 Toi Flat-1 Totangi-1 Totangi-1A Totangi-1B Totangi-2 Totangi-2A Tuhara-1B Waewaepa-1 Waiapu-1 Waiapu-2 Waihihere-1 Waingaromia Bore Waingaromia-2 Waipatiki-1 Waipatiki-2 Waitangi Hill-1 Waitangi Station-1 Waitangi-1 Waitangi-1 (Gisborne Oil) Waitangi-1 (Taranaki Oilfields) Waitangi-2 Waitaria-1B Waitaria-2 Westcott-1 Whakatu-1 NORTHLAND Access Road Dargaville-1 Dargaville-2 Kaiaka-1 Kioreroa-1 Date Completed Total Depth (m) BHT (oC) MW MWt (CF=0.7) MWe (CF=0.1) MWh TJ PJ

2/06/1998 1/12/1992 21/12/1992 27/10/1928 23/03/1930 24/11/2001 8/11/1998 16/06/1999 30/11/1996 21/08/1998 18/04/1978 20/04/1961 23/06/1971 20/11/1941 2/05/1971 20/12/1998 17/08/1967 13/01/1914 19/06/1969 4/04/1986 13/03/1972

2136.0 301.1 300.1 927.0 1192.0 3213.2 2131.0 1751.0 1939.0 2225.0 273.0 1550.0 1880.0 283.0 2037.0 1573.0 2320.0 3658.5 917.0 685.7 4351.0 625.1 145.0 172.0 114.0 560.0 2745.0 876.0 876.0 1059.0 917.0 1660.7 1328.9 627.0 1829.3 152.0 2042.7 55.0 103.0 64.0 1737.0 154.0 156.0 2169.3 124.0 774.0 994.0 421.0 403.0 502.1 1097.0 966.0 64.0 2135.0 512.7 450.0 513.0 662.0 1150.0 2548.1 67.0 1455.0 476.0 248.0 445.0 625.0 148.0

69.9 24.0 24.0 40.6 46.8 94.6 69.8 60.0 56.6 72.2 20.9 56.3 58.0 23.8 69.3 48.7 76.9 112.6 34.7 29.7 149.7 65.6 21.2 22.4 19.9 33.7 85.6 33.8 33.8 37.7 34.7 57.7 43.5 32.3 76.0 19.7 80.2 16.2 18.1 17.0 68.8 19.7 19.8 70.8 17.7 40.8 44.8 27.6 27.1 30.1 38.5 35.7 17.0 79.1 30.6 28.9 30.9 35.2 49.0 90.2 16.4 46.2 33.1 23.3 29.8 35.8 21.0

1.2 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.8 1.6 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.4 0.9 1.0 0.4 1.2 0.8 1.3 1.9 0.6 0.5 2.5 1.1 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.6 1.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.7 0.5 1.3 0.3 1.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.2 0.3 0.3 1.2 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.3 1.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.5 0.3 0.8 0.0 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.4

0.8 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 1.1 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2

7192 2479 2479 4222 4835 9769 7192 6161 5743 7388 2160 5743 5964 2479 7093 5032 7903 11634 3608 3093 2216 6774 2160 2258 2062 3510 8836 3510 3510 3903 3608 5964 4516 3289 7805 2062 8223 1645 1865 1743 7093 2062 2062 7290 1865 4222 4614 2872 2774 3093 4001 3706 1743 8124 3191 2994 3191 3608 5032 9253 1645 4737 3387 2381 3093 3706 2160

25.9 8.9 8.9 15.2 17.4 35.2 25.9 22.2 20.7 26.6 7.8 20.7 21.5 8.9 25.5 18.1 28.5 41.9 13.0 11.1 8.0 24.4 7.8 8.1 7.4 12.6 31.8 12.6 12.6 14.0 13.0 21.5 16.3 11.8 28.1 7.4 29.6 5.9 6.7 6.3 25.5 7.4 7.4 26.2 6.7 15.2 16.6 10.3 10.0 11.1 14.4 13.3 6.3 29.2 11.5 10.8 11.5 13.0 18.1 33.3 5.9 17.1 12.2 8.6 11.1 13.3 7.8

0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

1/01/1962 20/07/2000 23/05/1971 13/01/1914 1/01/1969 29/07/2001 30/07/1990 23/05/1972 5/08/1972 1/01/1991 24/11/1939 1903 24/11/1939 1903 1903 24/06/2002 1/01/1991

27/05/2002 1921 1912 9/07/1972 3/04/1931 1909 1930 1931 27/08/1997 14/03/2001 1/01/1991 7/02/2000 1963? 1963? 1963? 11/11/1957

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32

Well Name NORTH ISLAND NORTHLAND Kioreroa-2 Kioreroa-3 Northland-1 Waimamaku-1 Waimamaku-2 NOT IN BASIN Ardmore-1 Great Barrier-1 Great Barrier-2 Horotiu Bore-1 Horotiu Bore-2 Horotiu Bore-3 Horotiu Bore-4 Horotiu-2 Horotiu-5 Kaiaua-1 Karaka-1 Mangatawa-1 Puketaha-1 Rangitaike-1 Rangitaike-1A Rangitaike-2 River Road-1 T.E. Weily-1 Te Rapa-1 Waikato-1 Waikato-2 Waikato-3 Waikato-4 Waikato-5 Waiotapu-1 Waiotapu-2 Waipai-1 TARANAKI Ahuroa-1 Ahuroa-1A Ahuroa-2 Bell Block-1 Bell Block-2 Beta Blenheim-2 Bonithon-1 Bonithon-2 Burgess-1 Cape Egmont-1 Cape Farewell-1 Cardiff-1 Carrington Road-1 Carrington Road-2 Clematis-1 Crusader-1 Crusader-1A Cutters Bridge-1 Devon-1 Devon-2 Dobson-1 Dobson-2 Durham-1 Hu Road-1/1A Huinga-1, 1A, 1B Huiroa Bore Inglewood-1 Kaimiro-12 Kaimiro-14, 14A Kaipikari-1 Kapuni-15 Kiore-1 Koporongo-1 Makara-1 Makara-1B Maketawa-1 Makino-1, 1AA Makuri-1, 1A

Date Completed

Total Depth (m)

BHT o ( C)

MW

MWt (CF=0.7)

MWe (CF=0.1)

MWh

TJ

PJ

19/11/1972 16/02/1972 NORTH

2/02/1955

24/10/1963

6/12/1963 17/10/1966 10/02/1964 8/07/1971 18/07/1971 10/10/1972 29/11/1972 19/10/1972

109.0 54.0 625.9 1273.0 3356.7 ISLAND 137.0 226.0 92.0 137.0 137.0 195.0 229.0 198.0 198.0 108.0 614.0 669.0 475.0 61.0 479.0 194.0 789.0 1057.3 1684.0 1036.0 1026.2 320.1 598.5 1013.1 61.0 113.0 45.0 3326.0 3153.0 2465.0 1131.0 853.0 208.0 640.0 916.0 764.0 3264.0 2435.0 2817.0 5064.0 1042.0 112.0 1800.0 2441.0 2060.0 48.0 2868.0 1883.0 682.0 611.0 2303.0 3350.0 4373.0 1500.0 5061.0 835.0 1843.0 1854.0 4770.0 536.6 590.9 2940.0 2467.0 1135.4 4100.0 2500.0

19.4 17.1 38.8 63.5 126.9 19.6 24.7 18.9 19.2 19.2 20.9 22.0 21.0 21.0 18.1 35.5 40.5 29.5 17.3 33.2 22.4 39.0 47.7 66.3 46.6 46.3 24.8 33.2 45.9 17.9 20.4 16.0 106.9 102.1 83.1 54.9 45.1 21.9 37.6 47.3 41.9 108.3 84.6 108.9 152.5 49.7 18.7 70.7 96.4 83.7 16.8 116.1 77.8 37.7 35.4 80.8 105.9 133.7 56.4 164.4 40.8 76.4 70.6 135.4 30.3 31.6 103.2 89.0 47.4 116.5 86.4

0.0 0.3 0.3 0.7 1.1 2.1 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.8 1.1 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.8 1.7 1.4 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.7 1.8 1.4 1.8 2.6 0.8 0.3 1.2 1.6 1.4 0.3 1.9 1.3 0.6 0.6 1.4 1.8 2.3 0.9 2.8 0.7 1.3 1.2 2.3 0.5 0.5 1.7 1.5 0.8 1.9 1.4

0.2 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.5 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.8 0.6 0.2 0.8 1.1 1.0 0.2 1.4 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.9 1.2 0.7 0.3 0.5 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.4 1.2 1.0 0.6 1.4 1.0

1964 1743 4001 6480 1872 1964 2577 1964 1964 1964 2160 2258 2160 2160 1865 3706 4222 3093 1743 3387 2258 4001 4934 6774 4835 4835 2577 3387 4737 1865 2062 1645 11021 10481 8517 5645 4614 2258 3903 4835 4320 11217 8738 11217 2262 5130 1964 7290 9867 8640 1743 11953 8002 3903 3608 8321 10898 1974 5743 2430 4222 7805 7290 1992 3093 3289 10603 9155 4835 11953 8836

7.1 6.3 14.4 23.3 6.7 7.1 9.3 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.8 8.1 7.8 7.8 6.7 13.3 15.2 11.1 6.3 12.2 8.1 14.4 17.8 24.4 17.4 17.4 9.3 12.2 17.1 6.7 7.4 5.9 39.7 37.7 30.7 20.3 16.6 8.1 14.0 17.4 15.6 40.4 31.5 40.4 8.1 18.5 7.1 26.2 35.5 31.1 6.3 43.0 28.8 14.0 13.0 30.0 39.2 7.1 20.7 8.7 15.2 28.1 26.2 7.2 11.1 11.8 38.2 33.0 17.4 43.0 31.8

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.03

26/09/1986 11/10/1986 10/12/1986 1/01/1913 8/02/1912

1908 1908 28/09/1989 17/11/1986 22/03/1986 21/08/1992

0.3

24/12/1999 11/08/2000 19/09/2000 1/03/1943 16/07/1943

18/08/1989 13/06/1991 12/06/2002 20/06/1963 18/01/1996 14/02/1996 10/10/1994 15/01/1992 19/11/1964 16/06/1971 7/11/1984 27/12/1984 30/10/2000 17/02/2002 18/08/1984

0.2

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33

Well Name NORTH ISLAND TARANAKI Mangamahoe-1 Manganui-1 Manganui-2 Mangorei-1 McKee-13 McKee-2B McKee-2C McKee-3 McKee-6 McKee-7 Midhurst-1 Moa Bore Mokoia-1 Moturoa Bore Moturoa-3 New Plymouth-1 New Plymouth-2 Ngatoro-1 Norfolk Road Bore Oakura-1 Okoke Bore Omata Bore-1 Omata Bore-2 Omata-1 Onaero-1 Oru-1 Paritutu-1 Patea East-1 Patea-1 Piakau-1 Pohokura South-1 Pouri-2 Prospect Valley-1 Prospect Valley-2 Pukearuhe-1 Pukemai-1 Pukemai-1A Pukemai-2 Pukemai-3 Ratapiko-1 Rotary Bore Rotokare-1 Salisbury-1 Samuel Syndicate-1 Samuel Syndicate-2 Samuel Syndicate-3 Samuel Syndicate-5 Samuel Syndicate-6 Samuel Syndicate-7 Samuel Syndicate-8 Samuel Syndicate-9 Spotswood-1 Standish-1 Stent-1 Taranaki Petroleum-1 (1866) Taranaki Petroleum-2 (1866) Taranaki Petroleum-4 Tarata-1 Tariki North-1 Tariki North-1A Tariki-1 Tariki-2 Tariki-2A Tariki-4, 4C Tauteka-1 Te Kiri-1 Tikorangi-1 Tipoka-1, 1A Tipoka-2 Toetoe-1 Toetoe-2 Toetoe-2A, 2C

Date Completed

Total Depth (m)

BHT o ( C)

MW

MWt (CF=0.7)

MWe (CF=0.1)

MWh

TJ

PJ

29/10/1993 30/06/1982 31/05/1984 28/01/1995 8/07/2000 15/06/2000 13/11/1981 6/05/1987 9/06/1987 14/02/1942 31/05/1989 31/05/1933 15/04/1975 4/10/1965 27/03/1984 13/11/1998 11/07/1927 1930? 1930? 1930? 14/12/1980 12/11/2005 24/09/1993 11/08/2003 30/07/2003 17/11/1986 31/03/2001 2/01/1997 29/09/1928 5/09/1986 10/07/1983 24/07/1983 20/11/1983 6/03/1991 21/01/2001 23/02/1989 23/03/1996

12/04/1993 5/09/2004 1866 1866 7/05/1926 25/06/1987 24/06/1987 11/04/1986 4/02/1987 10/03/1987 1995 25/02/1983 2/06/1986 21/10/1986 15/11/1993 11/09/1984 26/11/1984 29/09/1987

802.0 3975.0 3753.0 2229.0 2278.0 2237.0 2316.0 2400.0 2227.0 2178.0 3330.8 140.0 3750.0 1329.0 658.0 655.0 4451.6 4126.0 762.0 3220.0 61.0 152.0 323.0 960.0 3590.0 1700.0 2400.0 1082.5 1613.0 2905.0 3780.0 2233.0 272.0 430.0 3138.0 2293.0 2432.0 2631.0 2098.0 1597.0 853.0 3232.7 2050.0 283.0 335.0 468.0 626.0 92.0 457.0 625.0 322.0 925.0 1845.0 2710.0 94.0 97.0 511.0 1527.0 2431.0 3209.0 3191.0 3020.0 2564.5 2777.0 2309.0 4710.0 221.0 4359.0 2504.0 2310.0 2276.0 1829.0

41.7 138.0 131.2 89.3 80.1 78.9 81.2 83.6 78.6 77.2 105.4 18.5 97.1 59.3 38.2 38.1 171.9 146.6 36.8 100.9 16.8 20.1 25.8 47.0 124.4 61.1 95.0 39.2 51.1 95.2 132.0 80.9 22.9 27.5 107.6 83.8 88.0 93.9 77.9 62.1 45.1 102.7 73.6 24.4 26.2 30.6 35.9 18.1 30.2 35.8 25.7 45.8 66.0 93.7 18.1 18.2 33.0 60.8 81.0 102.1 101.6 97.0 84.6 90.4 86.5 154.1 22.4 141.6 87.7 84.3 83.3 69.9

0.7 2.3 2.2 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.8 0.3 1.6 1.0 0.6 0.6 2.9 2.5 0.6 1.7 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.8 2.1 1.0 1.6 0.7 0.9 1.6 2.2 1.6 0.4 0.5 1.8 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.1 0.8 1.7 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.8 1.1 1.6 0.3 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 2.6 0.4 2.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.2

0.5 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.2 0.2 1.1 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 1.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.7 1.1 0.5 0.6 1.1 0.2 1.1 0.3 0.3 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 1.2 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.3 0.3 0.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8

4222 2037 1932 9155 8223 8124 8321 8640 8124 7903 10800 1865 9965 6063 3903 3903 2553 2170 3804 10382 1743 2062 2675 4835 1827 6259 9769 4001 5253 9769 1946 9793 2258 2774 11119 8640 9032 9671 8026 6480 4614 10603 7609 2479 2675 3191 3706 1865 3093 3706 2675 4737 6774 9671 1865 1865 3387 6259 8321 10382 10382 9965 8738 9253 8836 2276 2258 2097 9057 8640 8517 7192

15.2 7.3 7.0 33.0 29.6 29.2 30.0 31.1 29.2 28.5 38.9 6.7 35.9 21.8 14.0 14.0 9.2 7.8 13.7 37.4 6.3 7.4 9.6 17.4 6.6 22.5 35.2 14.4 18.9 35.2 7.0 35.3 8.1 10.0 40.0 31.1 32.5 34.8 28.9 23.3 16.6 38.2 27.4 8.9 9.6 11.5 13.3 6.7 11.1 13.3 9.6 17.1 24.4 34.8 6.7 6.7 12.2 22.5 30.0 37.4 37.4 35.9 31.5 33.3 31.8 8.2 8.1 7.5 32.6 31.1 30.7 25.9

0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

GNS Science Report 2007/23

34

Well Name NORTH ISLAND TARANAKI Toetoe-3 Toetoe-4A, B, C Toetoe-5 Toetoe-6A Toetoe-7 Toetoe-8 Toetoe-9 Toko-1 Toko-2 Totara-1 Tuhua-1 Re-entry Tuhua-2, 2A Tuhua-3A, B, C Tuhua-5A Tuhua-8 Tuihu-1, 1A Tupapakurua-1 Uruti-1 Uruti-2 Victoria Vogeltown Bore Waihapa-1, 1A Waihapa-3 Waihapa-6 Whanga Road Bore Wharehuia-1 Windsor-2 Windsor-3 Wingrove-1 WANGANUI Ararimu-1 Kaitieke-1 Manutahi-1 Ohaupo-1 Ohura-1 Parikino-1 Puniwhakau-1 Santoft-1 Stantiall-1 Tatu-1 Waikaka-1 Whakamaro-1 Whangaehu-1 Whitianga-1 Young-1 SOUTH ISLAND CANTERBURY Arcadia-1 Chertsey Bore Ealing-1 J.D. George-1 Kowai-1 Leeston-1 Oamaru-1 Oamaru-2 WEST COAST A1 Ahaura-2 Arahura-1 Aratika-2 Aratika-3 Arnold River-1 B1 B2 B4 Bore 251 Bore 252 Bounty-1 Card Creek-1 Corehole-10 Corehole-11 Corehole-8 Corehole-9

Date Completed

Total Depth (m)

BHT o ( C)

MW

MWt (CF=0.7)

MWe (CF=0.1)

MWh

TJ

PJ

23/02/1985 8/05/1997 27/12/1988 31/10/1999 27/07/1989 15/10/1992 3/09/1992 31/08/1979 30/04/1994 14/06/1987 1994 24/09/1983 31/08/1988 6/02/1991 30/08/1994 25/09/2003 1/06/1971 7/10/1943 10/01/1944 1909 7/07/1985 27/11/1988 18/11/1989 15/02/1985 20/09/2000 8/10/2000

2618.0 2326.0 2536.0 1817.0 2315.0 1986.0 2027.0 4900.0 3202.0 3965.0 2564.0 2529.0 2125.0 2509.0 2471.0 4845.0 1150.0 356.0 1553.0 157.0 422.0 4942.0 2706.0 3245.0 195.0 3595.0 1469.4 1555.6 1600.0 1057.6 394.0 1391.0 1207.0 635.0 2316.5 2146.0 312.0 2096.0 860.0 978.7 916.0 3495.0 295.0 1035.0

93.5 87.0 93.5 69.5 84.5 74.6 75.8 150.3 103.4 132.1 88.3 87.3 78.8 86.7 85.6 153.4 47.3 25.5 60.9 20.2 29.1 144.4 85.9 100.0 20.4 114.3 64.0 63.1 59.2 50.3 28.7 46.1 57.0 36.2 70.2 75.3 21.7 59.9 43.7 47.6 45.5 89.9 24.1 37.2

1.6 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.3 2.5 1.7 2.2 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.4 2.6 0.8 0.4 1.0 0.3 0.5 2.4 1.4 1.7 0.3 1.9 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.8 1.0 0.6 1.2 1.3 0.4 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.5 0.4 0.6

1.1 1.0 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.3 1.2 0.2 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.2 1.0 1.2 0.2 1.3 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.5 1.1 0.3 0.4

9671 8934 9671 7192 8738 7707 7805 2216 10603 1946 9032 8934 8124 8934 8836 2276 4835 2675 6259 2062 2994 2125 8836 10284 2062 11732 6578 6480 6063 5130 2994 4737 5866 3706 7192 7683 2258 6161 4516 4934 4737 9253 2479 3804

34.8 32.2 34.8 25.9 31.5 27.7 28.1 8.0 38.2 7.0 32.5 32.2 29.2 32.2 31.8 8.2 17.4 9.6 22.5 7.4 10.8 7.6 31.8 37.0 7.4 42.2 23.7 23.3 21.8 18.5 10.8 17.1 21.1 13.3 25.9 27.7 8.1 22.2 16.3 17.8 17.1 33.3 8.9 13.7

0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01

26/03/1970 4/02/1966 19/05/1984 1/01/1983 1/01/1964 17/08/1964 25/01/1965 13/03/1964 5/11/1942 28/10/1964 12/03/1970 28/04/1969 20/02/1996 19/01/1964 4/11/1942

24/11/2000 16/09/1921 5/11/2000 5/10/1969 23/03/1978 26/08/1969 1954 1961 1908? 11/02/1978 30/05/1964 14/12/1977 19/01/1978 18/01/1985

1479.0 661.0 1696.0 1649.9 1410.0 1158.5 908.0 665.0 122.0 1069.0 1736.0 1149.0 1729.0 710.0 22.0 34.0 24.0 123.0 459.0 3131.0 1342.0 445.0 423.0 100.0 215.2

20.9 17.6 18.9 24.8 20.7 18.6 21.3 22.9 19.4 50.6 72.9 55.5 76.8 40.0 15.8 16.2 15.9 18.5 28.1 134.3 53.3 30.7 27.1 17.9 22.7

0.9 0.5 0.8 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.3 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 2.3 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.4

0.6 0.3 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3

5547 2994 4934 7192 5351 4124 4614 4541 1964 5253 7511 5743 7903 4124 1645 1645 1645 1865 2872 1974 5449 3191 2774 1865 2381

20.0 10.8 17.8 25.9 19.3 14.8 16.6 16.3 7.1 18.9 27.0 20.7 28.5 14.8 5.9 5.9 5.9 6.7 10.3 7.1 19.6 11.5 10.0 6.7 8.6

0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

29/10/1970 15/02/1986 1/01/1943 1/01/1942 7/10/1942 1/01/1942

GNS Science Report 2007/23

35

Well Name SOUTH ISLAND WEST COAST Glenn Creek-1 Harihari-1 Hohonu-1 Kaimata Bore Kawhaka-1 Kokatahi-1 Kokiri-1 Kumara-2 Kumara-2A Limestone Test Bore Matiri-1 Mawhera-1 Murchison-1 Niagara-2 No1 Kotuku Consolidated No1 Kotuku Oilfields No1 Kotuku Petroleum No1 Lake Brunner No1 Maoriland No2 Kotuku Oilfields No2 Kotuku Petroleum No2 Lake Brunner No2 Maoriland No3 Bore No3 Kotuku Oilfields No3 Kotuku Petroleum No3 Lake Brunner No3 Maoriland No4 Lake Brunner No4 Maoriland No5 Lake Brunner No5 Maoriland No6 Lake Brunner No7 Lake Brunner No8 Lake Brunner No9 Lake Brunner Notown-1 Paddy Gully-1 Petroleum Creek-1 Petroleum Creek-2 Petroleum Creek-5 RSE-1 RSE-2 Ruby Bay-1 SFL-1 SFL-2 Shaft Taipo Creek-1 Tapawera-1 Taramakau-1 Waiho-1 Westgas-1 Westgas-3 WEST SOUTHLAND SOLANDER Alton Happy Valley-1 Happy Valley-1A Happy Valley-1C Merryvale-1 Papatotara-1 Tuatapere-1 Upukerora-1 NOT IN BASIN Centre Bush-1 J.T. Benny-1 J.W. Laughton-1 Kauana-1 Pukerau-1 Pukerau-2 Pukerau-3 Waikaia-1 Waikaia-2 TOTAL ENERGY

Date Completed

Total Depth (m)

BHT o ( C)

MW

MWt (CF=0.7)

MWe (CF=0.1)

MWh

TJ

PJ

29/09/1985 8/03/1971 28/06/1986 4/01/1918 6/06/1943 28/10/1987 16/07/1980 19/07/1985 10/09/1985 29/12/1985 18/02/1985 5/06/1986

14/07/1936

22/07/1936

28/07/1936 15/08/1936 26/08/1936

30/09/1944 13/11/1985 15/11/1985 20/11/1985 22/04/2004 3/05/2004 1966 10/12/1942 18/03/1943 31/01/1985 7/05/1988 14/02/1964 16/07/1972 1/02/1996 3/10/1997

739.0 2527.4 1039.0 407.0 852.0 1914.0 3233.0 1756.0 1697.0 148.0 1467.0 697.0 1245.0 952.0 51.0 290.0 293.0 32.0 44.0 247.0 187.0 229.0 19.0 147.0 183.0 375.0 147.0 40.0 32.0 40.0 133.0 41.0 98.0 38.0 137.0 265.0 2116.0 294.0 64.0 59.0 17.3 263.1 179.3 281.0 1663.0 908.0 25.0 679.0 1180.0 2129.0 3749.4 346.6 310.6

41.0 81.2 51.6 29.3 43.4 69.7 122.8 65.2 63.5 20.3 70.9 39.9 62.4 48.5 16.8 25.4 25.5 16.1 16.6 23.8 21.7 23.2 15.7 19.2 21.5 28.4 20.3 16.4 16.1 16.4 19.8 16.5 18.5 16.4 19.9 24.5 90.6 25.5 17.3 17.1 15.6 24.3 21.3 23.0 62.5 40.9 15.9 39.3 48.7 75.8 113.2 26.6 25.4

0.7 1.4 0.9 0.5 0.7 1.2 2.1 1.1 1.1 0.3 1.2 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 1.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 1.1 0.7 0.3 0.7 0.8 1.3 1.9 0.5 0.4

0.5 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 1.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.3 0.3

4222 8321 5228 2994 4418 7192 1813 6676 6578 2062 7290 4124 6357 5032 1743 2577 2577 1645 1645 2479 2258 2356 1645 1964 2258 2872 2062 1645 1645 1645 2062 1645 1865 1645 2062 2577 9352 2675 1743 1743 1645 2479 2160 2356 6480 4222 1645 4001 5032 7805 11634 2774 2577

15.2 30.0 18.8 10.8 15.9 25.9 6.5 24.0 23.7 7.4 26.2 14.8 22.9 18.1 6.3 9.3 9.3 5.9 5.9 8.9 8.1 8.5 5.9 7.1 8.1 10.3 7.4 5.9 5.9 5.9 7.4 5.9 6.7 5.9 7.4 9.3 33.7 9.6 6.3 6.3 5.9 8.9 7.8 8.5 23.3 15.2 5.9 14.4 18.1 28.1 41.9 10.0 9.3

0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.01

12/01/1988 6/02/1988 28/02/1987

15/12/1987 SOUTH 6/01/1965 5/04/1965 15/03/1970 13/05/1972 17/04/1971 1/01/1974 1/01/1975

61.0 1623.0 1600.0 3131.4 239.0 261.0 306.0 2009.0 ISLAND 498.0 1013.0 2135.0 179.0 73.0 118.0 165.0 197.0 121.0

16.9 62.1 61.5 106.0 21.8 22.5 23.9 72.4 29.2 46.4 81.1 20.5 17.4 18.9 20.5 20.6 18.5

0.3 1.0 1.0 1.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 1.2 0.5 0.8 1.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 317.5

0.2 0.7 0.7 1.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 190.6

1743 6357 6357 10898 2258 2258 2479 7388 2994 4737 8321 2160 1743 1964 2160 2160 1964 1696547

6.3 22.9 22.9 39.2 8.1 8.1 8.9 26.6 10.8 17.1 30.0 7.8 6.3 7.1 7.8 7.8 7.1 6108

0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 6.1

4.8

GNS Science Report 2007/23

36

Principal Location
1 Fairway Drive Avalon PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand T +64-4-570 1444

Other Locations
Dunedin Research Centre 764 Cumberland Street Private Bag 1930 Dunedin New Zealand T +64-3-477 4050 F +64-3-477 5232 Wairakei Research Centre 114 Karetoto Road Wairakei Private Bag 2000, Taupo New Zealand T +64-7-374 8211 F +64-7-374 8199 National Isotope Centre 30 Gracefield Road PO Box 31312 Lower Hutt New Zealand T +64-4-570 1444 F +64-4-570 4657

www.gns.cri.nz

F +64-4-570 4600