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A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of M.Sc. in Mechanical-Power engineering.

Prepared By: Nasreldeen Sulaiman Ahmed Supervised By: Dr. Ali Mohamed Ali Seory Co-Supervised By: Eng. Mahgoub Hashim

December-2012

): ( ( 109)

(Say

(O Muhammad to mankind):if the sea were ink for (writing) the words of my lord, surely, the sea would be exhausted before the words of my lord would be finished, even if we brought (another sea) like it for its aid)

DEDICATION

I dedicate this research to,, My parents,, Who strived to get me where Im now.. My siblings spirits,, May ALLAH accept them at the top of Paradise.. My wife,, Who was inspiring me all the time.. My lecturers in SUST,, Who were helping me via their advices and knowledge.. & To all students of SUST.

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ACKNOWELDGEMENT

Praise is to Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful for His endless blessings throughout my life. My deepest heart gratitude is to everyone who helped in finalizing this thesis and special thanks to my supervisor Dr.Ali Mohamed Ali Seory from University of Khartoum-Faculty of Engineering for his continuous support and to my Co-supervisor Mr. Mahgoub Hashim from White Nile (5B) Petroleum Operating Company-Senior Process and Mechanical Engineer who has vented from his precious time and his vast education to participate in this research. Finally, I would like to thank my beloved friend Ms. Mihrab Mutwakil (Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP) - Trainee) for her kind assistance.

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ABSTRACT

This thesis aims to assist evacuating Block 5A crude through designing of a new 185 km Pipeline from WHCC to Fula. The selected pipelines grade is API 5L X65 (with minimum specific yield strength (MSYS) of 65,000 psi (4,485 barg)) for ANSI class 600. The maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of 99.28 barg (1440 psi) is used in which shall be termed to be equivalent to the design pressure (DP) for all selected outside pipelines diameters which are ranged from 8 inches to 22 inches and later the range has been shorten to be from 10 inches to 16 inches due to flow velocities restrictions. The design is conducted into step by step approach, driven by process hydraulic study which is started by determination of pipe wall thickness based on the desired throughput and given maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) for the selected pipes grade and nominal outside pipes diameters range considering the corrosion allowance of 0.063 inches and then calculating of the inside pipes diameters which are led to determination of flow velocities and Reynolds numbers and then finding the friction factors. Furthermore the calculation of the total pressure required to transport liquid through a pipeline taking into account the elevation profile of the pipeline and required delivery pressure at the terminus. For a given pipeline system, the hydraulic horsepower, brake horsepower, and engine horsepower calculations were illustrated. For normal operation with 40 KBOPD maximum, the hydraulic test has dictated that the pumping stations are required in the initial and final points of the pipeline. There are no heaters or any other necessary chemical is envisaged to assist flow of the liquid.

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The buffer facilities are needed at the final station in Fula (Terminal Station) to receive the flow from the upstream station in order to prepare the crude oil as per Fula Pipeline requirement and to accommodate at least volume for three (3) consecutive days in case of emergency. Subsequently the capital investment were made and analyzed to establish the pipelines grade and the most effective cost of the line pipe. As a result of hydraulic and cost analysis, its concluded that NPS 16 with wall thickness of 0.309 meets the technical acceptance criteria and has the lowest capital investment. The selected pipe size has maximum operating pressure (MOP) of 58.64 barg in order to match ANSI class 600 rating and during operations; operating pressure shall not exceed MOP. The maximum test pressure of 25% to 50% extra than MOP shall be acceptable as this pressure is not considered to be continues. Finally, the thermal hydraulic for the selected pipe size was conducted and pointed out that unlike isothermal hydraulics, thermal hydraulics is a complex phenomenon that requires computer methods to correctly solve equations for temperature variation and pressure drop. A hydraulic test via Pipesim software was carried out considering a total throughput of 40 KBOPD and according to the crude quality. Several sets of viscosities were checked against the pressure drop and accordingly determined the pipe size and wall thickness. The purpose and role of using Pipesim software is to subdivide the pipeline into small segments and compute the heat balance and pressure drop, to develop the pressure and temperature profile for the entire pipeline.

5A 185 ) (WHCC ) (Fula . )API 5L X65 65 ( 65000 psi . ANSI Class 600 99.28 8 22 10 16 . 0.063 . . 40,000 ) (Heaters . ) (Terminal Station . . NPS 16 0.309 . 58.64 ANSI Class 600 . %25 %50 .

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vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: GENERAL ............................................................................. 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 1 1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES & METHODOLGY ..................................... 2 1.3 RESEARCH LAYOUT .............................................................................. 2 1.4 BASIS & ASSUMPTIONS ........................................................................ 5 1.4.1 CODES AND STANDARDS ................................................................. 5 1.4.2 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY......................................................................... 5 1.4.3 DESIGN DESCRIPTION ....................................................................... 5 1.4.4 DESIGN REQUIREMENT AND OBJECTIVES .................................. 8 1.4.5 ROUTING OF THE PIPELINE FROM HEGLIG TO FULA................ 8 1.4.5.1 PRINCIPLE FOR ROUTE SELECTION ............................................ 8 1.4.5.2 DETERMINATION OF PIPELINE ROUTE ...................................... 8 1.4.5.3 METEOROLOGICAL CHARACTER ................................................ 9 1.4.5.4 PIPELINE DISTANCES AND ELEVATION ................................. 11 CHAPTER 2: SPECIFICATIONS OF PIPING MATERIAL ................ 13 2.1 SCOPE ...................................................................................................... 14 2.2 CODES, REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS ................................... 14 2.3 PIPING CLASSES ................................................................................... 15 2.3.1 GENERATION OF NUMBER ............................................................. 15 2.3.2 INDEX FOR PIPING CLASS RATING & SERVICE ....................... 16 2.3.3 GENERAL NOTES............................................................................... 16 2.4 CLASS 61410 X-ANSI CLASS 600 ....................................................... 17

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CHAPTER 3: PIPELINE HYDRAULIC STUDY .................................... 18 3.1 PIPE ANALYSIS ..................................................................................... 18 3.1.1 ALLOWABLE OPERATING PRESSURE & HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE .......................................................................................... 18 3.1.2 BARLOWS EQUATION FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE .................. 20 3.1.3 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE SIZING ................................................. 24 3.1.4 SUMMARY........................................................................................... 25 3.2 PRESSURE DROP DUE TO FRICTION................................................ 26 3.2.1 PRESSURE ........................................................................................... 26 3.2.2 VELOCITY ........................................................................................... 30 3.2.2.1 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE VELOSITY OF FLOW CALCULATIONS.......................................................................................... 31 3.2.3 REYNOLDS NUMBER ....................................................................... 32 3.2.4 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE REYNOLDS NUMBER CALCULATIONS.......................................................................................... 34 3.2.5 FOLW REGIMES ................................................................................. 36 3.2.6 FRICTION FACTOR ............................................................................ 37 3.2.6.1 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE FRICTION FACTOR CALCULATIONS.......................................................................................... 42 3.2.7 PRESSURE DROP DUE TO FRICTION............................................. 44 3.2.6.1 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE PRESSURE DROP DUE TO FRICTION CALCULATIONS ...................................................................... 47 3.2.8 SUMMARY........................................................................................... 48 CHAPTER 4: REQUIRED PRESSURE AND HORSEPOWER ............ 49 4.1 REQUIRED TOTAL PRESSURE ........................................................... 49

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4.2 HYDRAULIC PRESSURE GRADIENT ................................................ 51 4.3 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE REQUIRED TOTAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS.......................................................................................... 53 4.4 REQUIRED HORSEPOWER .................................................................. 55 4.4.1 HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER ........................................................... 55 4.4.2 BRAKE HORSEPOWER ..................................................................... 56 4.4.3 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE REQUIRED POWER CALCULATIONS.......................................................................................... 58 4.5 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE PUMP STATIONS LAYOUT AND PRESSURE CONTROL ....................................................................... 61 4.5.1 SUCTION PRESSURE AND DISCHARGE PRESSURE .................. 61 4.5.2 WATER HAMMER PHENOMENA CAUSE AND PREVENTION ............................................................................................... 63 4.6 ASSOCIATED SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 67 4.6.1 BUFFER FACILITIES FOR WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE PROJECT..... .................................................................................................. 67 4.6.2 STORAGE TANK SYSTEM ................................................................ 68 4.6.3 PUMPS AND PIPING SYSTEM.......................................................... 68 4.6.4 HEATING AND CONTROL SYSTEM ............................................... 68 4.6.5 INSTRUMENTATIONS ....................................................................... 69 4.7 SUMMARY.............................................................................................. 69 CHAPTER 5: PIPRLINE ECONOMICS .................................................. 70 5.1 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ........................................................................ 70 5.2 CAPITAL COSTS .................................................................................... 71 5.2.1 PIPELINE COSTS ................................................................................ 71

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5.2.2 PUMP STATION .................................................................................. 72 5.2.3 TANKS AND MANIFOLD PIPING .................................................... 73 5.2.4 VALVES AND FITTINGS ................................................................... 73 5.2.5 METER STATIONS ............................................................................. 74 5.2.6 SCADA & TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM ............................... 74 5.2.7 ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT .................. 74 5.2.8 ENVIRONMENTAL & PERMITTING ............................................... 75 5.2.9 RIGHT-OF-WAY ACQUISITIONS .................................................... 75 5.2.10 OTHER PROJECT COSTS ................................................................ 76 5.3 OPERATING COSTS .............................................................................. 76 5.4 FEASIBILITY STUDIES & ECONOMIC SIZE OF WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE PROJECT ......................................................................... 77 5.5 SUMMARY.............................................................................................. 82 CHAPTER 6: THERMAL HYDRAULICS............................................... 83 6.1 TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT FLOW ................................................ 83 6.2 FORMULAS FOR THERMAL HYDRAULICS .................................... 88 6.2.1 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY............................................................. 88 6.2.2 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT................................. 89 6.2.2.1 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE HEAT TRANSFER RATE ............... 90 6.2.3 HEAT BALANCE................................................................................. 90 6.2.4 LOGARITHMIC MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (LMTD)........... ............................................................................................... 91 6.2.5 HEAT ENTERING AND LEAVING PIPE SEGMENT...................... 92 6.2.6 HEAT TRANSFER: BURIED PIPELINE............................................ 93

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6.2.7 HEAT TRANSFER: ABOVE GROUND PIPELINE .......................... 95 6.2.8 FRICTIONAL HEATING..................................................................... 96 6.2.9 PIPE SEGMENT OUTLET TEMPERATURE .................................... 96 6.2.10 LIQUID HEATING DUE TO PUMP INEFFICIENCY .................... 97 6.2.11 WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE HEAT BALANCE EQUATION ....... 98 6.3 SUMMARY........................................................................................... 101 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................... 103 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................... 103 RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................. 104 REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 105 APPENDIX A .............................................................................................. 106 TABLES AND CHARTS ............................................................................ 106

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1.1: ROUTE MAP ........................................................................... 9 FIGURE 1.2: THE PROPOSED AND EXISTING PIPELINES ................. 10 FIGURE 1.3 : PIPELINE ELEVATION ...................................................... 13 FIGURE 3.1: HOOP STRESS & AXIAL STRESS IN A PIPE .................. 20 FIGURE 3.2 : PRESSURE IN A LIQUID .................................................... 27 FIGURE 3.3 : BAROMETER FOR PRESSURE MEASUREMENT ........ 29 FIGURE 3.4 : VELOCITY VARIATION IN A PIPE FOR LAMINAR FLOW (LEFT) AND TURBULENT FLOW (RIGHT). ............ 30 FIGURE 3.5 : MOODY DIAGRAMS FOR FRICTION FACTOR ............. 41

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FIGURE 4.1: HYDRAULIC GRADIENTS ................................................. 52 FIGURE 4.2 : HYDRAULIC PRESSURE GRADIENTS ........................... 52 FIGURE 4.3 : TYPICAL PUMP STATION LAYOUT ............................... 62 FIGURE 4.4 : SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF WATER HAMMER SHOCK WAVE........................................................................... 64 FIGURE 4.5 : EXAMPLES OF WATER HAMMER DAMAGE ............... 65 FIGURE 4.6 : EXAMPLE OF WATER HAMMER ARRESTOR .............. 66 FIGURE 4.7 : RUBBER / ELASTOMER FLEXIBLE CONNECTORS.............................................................................................. 67 FIGURE 5.1 : WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE COST ANALYSIS DIAGRAM. ............................................................................................ 81 FIGURE 6.1 : TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE DROP ........................ 86 FIGURE 6.2 : THERMAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENT.. .......... 86 FIGURE 6.3 : THERMAL HYDRAULICS PRESSURE GRADIENT. ................................................................................................... 87 FIGURE 6.4 : TELESCOPING PIPE WALL THICKNESSES ................... 87 FIGURE 6.5 : WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE ................................... 87 FIGURE A.1 : RESEARCH METHODOLOY FLOW CHART ............... 107 FIGURE A.3 : THERMAL HYDRAULICS PRESSURE PROFILE ........ 108 FIGURE A.4 : THERMAL HYDRAULICS TEMPERATURE PROFILE..... ................................................................................................. 109

LIST OF TABLES

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TABLE 1.2 : STOCK TANK BULK CRUDE PROPERTIES ....................... 7 TABLE 1.3 : MILEAGE & ELEVATION.................................................... 11 TABLE 2.1 : WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE PIPING CLASSIFICATION LIST .............................................................................. 16 TABLE 2.2 : WHCC TO FULA PIPELINE PIPING CLASSIFICATIONS...................................................................................... 17 TABLE 3.1 : DIAMETER & THICKNESS DETERMINATION ............... 25 TABLE 3.2 : VELOCITY CALCULATION ................................................ 32 TABLE 3.3 : REYNOLDS NUMBER DETERMINATION........................ 36 TABLE 3.4 : FRICTION FACTOR CALCULATION INPUTS ................. 42 TABLE 3.5 : FRICTION FACTOR CALCULATION OUTPUTS ............. 44 TABLE 3.6 : PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION .................................... 47 TABLE 4.1 : ELEVATION PRESSURE CALCULATIONS ...................... 54 TABLE 4.2 : REQUIRED TOTAL PRESSURE @ WHCC CALCULATIONS.......................................................................................... 55 TABLE 4.3 : REQUIRED POWER @ WHCC CALCULATION ............... 61 TABLE 5.1 : CAPITAL COSTS FOR VARIOUS PIPE SIZES .................. 78 TABLE 5.2 : TOTAL OPERATING COSTS FOR VARIOUS PIPE SIZES.............................................................................................. 80 TABLE 5.3 : TOTAL PRESSURE VALUES FOR VARIOUS PIPE SIZES.............................................................................................. 81 TABLE A.2: ANSI PRESSURE RATINGS ............................................... 107 TABLE A.5 : THERMAL HYDRAULICS PRIMARY OUTPUTS ........................................................................................ 110 TABLE A.5 : THERMAL HYDRAULICS AUXILIARY OUTPUTS ........................................................................................ 114

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CHAPTER 1 GENERAL

1.1 Introduction

White Nile Petroleum Operating Company, shortly known as WNPOC is the operator of Oil Concession Area in Block 5A in the south of Sudan. WNPOC exports its crude via 24 pipeline from its Central Processing Facilities (CPF) located at Thar Jath to Heglig of about 172 km and joins the existing Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) 28, 1505 km pipeline for further onward transportation to Marine Terminal at Port Sudan in the red sea coast. WNPOC crude is considered heavy crude with API ranging from 18 to 21 with high viscosity and a bit high TAN No when compared to GNPOCs crude properties which is considered as light crude of 34 API and low viscosity. Blending of WNPOC crude with GNPOCs one created deterioration in overall GNPOCs crude blend (internationally known as Nile Blend) which impacted the crude price and negatively affected the operation of the online refineries as Khartoum Refinery and Obeid Refinery, which both are light crude refineries. Thus, the WNPOC has been restricted into export volume of 10 % of daily GNPOCs production. This research (study) serves to design a new pipeline from Heglig to Fula of about 185 km; the aim is to alleviate WNPOCs crude restriction by tie in its crude to existing Fula to KRC pipeline. The latter pipeline belongs to Petro Energy, the operator of Block 6 in western Sudan. The pipeline utilizes to transport the heavy crude from Block 6 fields to KRC for further processing into crude oil products. The design is conducted into step by step approach, driven by process hydraulic study, pipe size determination, and economic analysis with support from other discipline and necessary calculations (Further details are shown in Figure A.1 Research Methodology Flowchart in appendix A).

This research has been segmented into chapters covering all the areas that consider essential in designing a pipeline. However, great emphases were being made on the hydraulic and cost estimate as key parameters in determining the most effective pipe size and pipeline grade.

In chapter 1, the thesis has addressed the overall concept of the pipeline (design philosophy, design description) and the sequence of steps that to be carried out for realizing a proper design procedure. It is also been considered the battery limit of the design which is indicated giving a wide picture on which to study, what to study and how to study. It has also been considered the basis and assumptions, the specs and standards to be utilized during engineering calculations and those were selecting of line pipe materials and grade is depending upon. In addition, the essential input data were presented. In chapter 2, the codes, regulations, standards and piping classes which used in determining the specifications for piping material has been presented. Chapter 3 includes two paragraphs as follows: The first paragraph of this chapter discussed how pipe wall thickness calculation depends on allowable internal pressure, pipe size and material in a pipeline. And showed that for pipe under internal pressure the hoop stress in the pipe material will be the controlling factor. The importance of design factor in selecting nominal pipe wall thickness was illustrated using an example. Based on Barlows equation, the internal design pressure calculation as recommended by ASME standard B31.4 and US Code of Federal Regulation, Part 195 of the DOT was illustrated. The need for pipelines hydrostatic testing for safe operation was discussed. The second paragraph has defined pressure and how it is measured in both a static and dynamic context. The velocity and Reynolds number calculations for pipe flow were introduced and the use of the Reynolds number in classifying liquid flow as laminar, critical, and turbulent were explained. Existing methods of calculating the pressure drop due to friction in a pipeline using the Darcy-Weisbach equation were discussed and illustrated for WHCC to Fula Pipeline Project. The importance of the Moody 2

diagram was explained. Also, the trial-and-error solutions of friction factor from the Colebrook-White equation were covered. In Chapter 4, the pressure drop concept developed in Chapter 3 to calculate the total pressure which is required to transport liquid through a pipeline taking into account the elevation profile of the pipeline and the required delivery pressure at the terminus was discussed. For a given pipeline system, the hydraulic horsepower, brake horsepower were determined, and engine horsepower calculation was illustrated. Then the various pressures on both side of pump and how pressure control is implemented by using a control valve downstream of the pump were analyzed. And also water hammer phenomena cause and prevention were explained. More over the associated systems which included buffer facilities, storage tank system, pumps, piping system, heating and control system and instrumentations were discussed and illustrated. In Chapter 5, the major cost components of a pipeline system consisting of pipe pump station, etc were reviewed, and methods of estimating the capital costs of these items has been illustrated. The annual costs such as electrical energy, operation and maintenance were also identified and calculated for a typical pipeline. Using the capital cost and operating cost, the annual cost of service was calculated based on specified project life; interest cost. thus the transportation tariff that could be charged for shipments through the pipelines was determined. Also a methodology for determining the optimal pipe size for a particular application using present value (PV) was explained. Considering four different pipe sizes, the best option based on a comparison of PV of the four different cases was determined. In Chapter 6, the thermal hydraulics was discussed by taking into account the temperature variation of a liquid as it flows through the pipeline. This is in contrast to isothermal hydraulics, where there is no significant temperature variation in the liquid. The temperature-dependent flow was identified and Formulas for Thermal Hydraulics were presented. Moreover the hydraulic and simulation results were discussed. Thus the pressure and temperature profiles were analyzed. Finally, in the conclusion and recommendations, the finding from the rigorous hydraulic and cost analysis were presented and recapped as a conclusion which followed by some recommendations. 3

1.4.1 Codes and Standards In the Research and throughout basic design of this project, the Codes and Standard adopted are [4]: 1: API 5L Specification for Line Pipe Pipeline Transportation System for Liquid Hydrocarbons and other Liquids. ANSI Pressure Rating

2: ASME B31.4

3: ANSI 600

1.4.2 Design Philosophy The philosophies in conducting this Research are as follows: The pipeline design shall meet the operational requirements and fit for purpose concept. The design shall be consistent with International Codes, Standards and with the existing facilities. The pipeline shall comply with the specified design parameters and design specifications. The design shall allow optimum and economical operations of the facilities at all conditions. Considering the remote location of the pipeline, wherever possible, the facilities shall be designed skid-mounted considering the transportation, installation and optimum Cost. 1.4.3 Design Description: This design work intends to provide techno-commercial calculations and evaluation for a new pipeline from Heglig to Fula of 185 km length. The pipeline shall start immediately downstream WNPOC storage facilities at Heglig and end upstream PS#1 at Fula. Design of the pipeline will consider all technical and commercial requirements that lead to effectively determine the best and optimum size along with proper number of pumping and heating stations as and when necessary.

Following table illustrates the basis and inputs that used for the design calculations of the Pipeline [4]. Table 1.1: General Design Data: Descriptions Design Flow rate Details 40000 BOPD Remarks

[4]

Battery Limited Conditions Maximum (MAOP) Minimum Delivery Pressure [4] Maximum Delivery Pressure [4] Maximum Discharge Pressure [4] Minimum Delivery Temperature [4] Maximum Outlet Temperature Corrosion Allowance (C.A) Thermal Conditions Pipe Thermal Conductivity [12] 54

(W/m.K)

[4]

Allowable

Operating

bar

(1440

0.12 (W/m.K)

Soil Thermal Conductivity Sub Soil Temperature Pipe Roughness Pipe burial depth

[4] [4] [4]

[4]

Note: On the basis of the practical operation, safety and maintenance level of crude oil pipeline in Sudan, and in conjunction with the environment and climate condition, the system design pressure is ANSI 600 system; refer to Table A.2 ANSI Pressure rating in Appendix A [4]. 5

1.4.4

In general, the study requirement and objectives of this research are: 1. To perform hydraulic / thermal study and determine pipeline sizes and pumping requirement for new pipeline from WHCC to Fula under various options. 2. To develop cost estimates (CAPEX and OPEX) for all options 3. The results of these studies will recommend the best technical and commercial option to be considered in the next design stage. 1.4.5 Routing of the pipeline from Heglig to Fula

1.4.5.1 Principle for Route Selection The determination of the pipeline route is based on the terrain along the pipeline, geomorphology, environment, transportation and other specific Criteria which are as follows [4]: The pipeline route shall comply with the guidelines, policies and laws on capital construction of Sudan national and local governments. The local humanistic customs and environmental factors should be considered for the routing selection. The route shall be kept as straight as possible, so as to shorten the pipeline length and saving pipeline project investment. The selected route should take into account the security during the pipeline construction and operation to avoid potential threat. The pipeline route shall be kept away from bad engineering geological conditions area, and try to reduce the crossovers with natural and artificial barriers. 1.4.5.2 Determination of pipeline route Because there is no on-land pipeline route survey has been conducted yet, the pipeline route for the 185 km is indicated using a satellite image (refer Figure 1.1 Route Map) via Google earth. The route as identified will stretch from Heglig to Fula covering 185 km length. As been shown in the image and according to actual practice when designed current 7

GNPOC, PDOC and WNPOC 172 km pipeline (refer Figure 1.2 the proposed and the existing pipelines), the terrain of the land is classified as flat, with dense vegetation and seasonal water streams. There are also some small rivers, vehicles and trucks road crossing somewhere along the route. For current pipeline route, the terrain is flat and the soil is dry during dry season and wet during wet season with potentiality of being swampy if rainy season extended for long than normal and water falls in a dense volume than expected. There are no major big hills and mountains crossing the route with few numbers of villages scattered along the route.

Figure 1.2 the proposed and the existing pipelines 1.4.5.3 Meteorological Character This area belongs to tropic and varies from desert climate, from the middle of March to middle of July is the summer season, the day temperature can reach 48C (118F) at day time and drops to 25C (77F) at night. Mid July to mid October is the rainy season. From mid October to next mid March the temperature drops to 20C( 68F) at the day time and can go down to 9C( 49F) at night. Annual average precipitation is 318mm that is characterized by rainstorms of short periods. Wind power is at level 4~5 generally with its direction from the north towards the east. Maximum gale (in 50-year interval) is 37.5m/s..Maximum average monthly wind speed is 4.0m/s and 3.5m/s annually which accompanied by sand storm. 1.4.5.4 Pipeline Distances and Elevation The following table indicates each distance and its corresponding elevation profile throughout pipeline length as well as Figure (1.3) [4]. 9

Table 1.3 Distances and Elevation No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Chain age (km) 0 1.871 2.456 3.392 3.86 5.497 6.082 6.901 7.72 8.655 9.708 10.527 11.579 11.93 14.035 14.854 16.14 16.842 18.011 19.298 20.467 22.572 23.391 25.145 27.25 27.951 28.185 Elevation (m) 396.6 402.0 405.5 402.7 404.4 403.1 403.2 404.0 402.9 405.1 403.7 408.4 406.2 408.3 406.7 409.2 407.5 403.1 408.8 410.1 405.6 406.7 409.6 409.0 410.7 405.6 409.6 10 No. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Chain age (km) 28.419 29.822 31.108 33.447 35.201 37.656 37.89 38.124 38.475 39.176 40.345 40.813 41.164 41.982 42.567 42.918 43.386 44.555 45.958 46.191 47.477 47.945 49.582 49.816 50.517 53.44 54.258 Elevation(m) 407.9 411.1 409.9 411.3 409.2 413.5 410.3 412.0 409.1 411.4 411.4 415.1 412.0 414.0 411.9 415.0 412.8 414.0 414.0 412.8 415.4 412.7 414.5 413.4 417.7 415.2 416.7

No. 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

Chain age (km) 56.713 57.531 59.285 60.687 61.389 61.856 62.908 63.259 63.96 65.129 67.818 69.103 71.909 72.142 75.532 76.584 76.818 79.155 79.623 80.791 82.077 83.012 84.765 86.635 88.857 89.442 90.143 91.896

Elevation (m) 416.4 418.8 413.9 414.4 418.3 416.3 419.2 416.8 419.8 420.9 424.4 423.2 429.1 427.5 452.5 447.5 451.0 440.7 442.9 441.4 446.0 444.7 441.1 447.9 489.1 467.4 474.9 465.8 11

No. 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109

Chain age (km) 96.103 98.44 100.31 101.128 102.062 104.633 106.386 106.736 108.138 110.125 113.396 117.485 118.42 120.523 121.808 124.495 125.429 125.78 128.467 129.752 131.504 132.906 135.242 135.592 136.06 137.344 138.162 139.096

Elevation(m) 493.6 490.9 495.8 499.0 498.2 484.0 494.0 491.0 496.9 482.9 492.2 458.4 468.9 453.5 457.3 455.6 459.2 457.5 475.8 470.5 479.8 488.4 500.8 498.5 501.0 505.5 504.8 506.4

No. 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124

Chain age (km) 139.914 140.264 142.133 142.717 143.301 145.053 146.922 149.141 149.842 150.192 150.426 151.594 152.878 153.579 153.813 F i g u r e 1 . 2 G

Elevation (m) 503.6 505.0 500.3 501.3 507.4 507.7 500.0 514.2 512.9 510.3 512.6 499.1 509.8 507.5 505.0

No. 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139

Chain age (km) 155.915 156.499 156.732 158.834 163.506 169.344 173.431 174.599 177.051 179.386 180.32 180.553 181.604 181.955 185

Elevation(m) 513.5 509.4 511.5 526.4 482.6 518.9 540.1 535.1 550.5 533.6 539.4 537.6 536.1 533.5 551.7

2.1 Scope

This specification governs the selection and limitations of pipe and piping system components in WHCC to Fula Pipeline Project Export Pipeline Project in The Republic of Sudan [6]. All piping material will be subjected to serve climatic conditions, including solar temperature for outdoor equipment. This requirement shall be taken into consideration during the design [6]. Material group used is material group 1.1 of ASME B 16.34 to allow for elevated normal temperature of up to 100 C to be used without affecting the pressure rating of the different ANSI class rating. All components should be specified to withstand this continuous duty [6]. 2.2 Codes, Regulations and Standards Applicable reference standards for design and quality levels of the supply shall be the latest edition, which are the following [6]: API 5L ASME B 31.4 Specification for Line Pipe. Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohols. ASME 16.34 ANSI Valves-Flanged, Threaded and Butt Welding End. Pressure Rating.

13

2.3.1 Generation of Number The piping class number shall consist of six (6) digits and capital letters representing the ANSI series as follows[6]:

A Where: - A =

Rating Code

- B =

Material Family

- C =

Corrosion Allowance

1=1.6 mm 3=3.0 mm

Example: Given 61410X as the piping class number for WHCC to Fula pipeline, required to explain the given number in ANSI series. Solution: reference to the above paragraph 2.3.1 generation of number, the given number will be represented in ANSI series as follows:

6 Where:

B=1 = Carbon Steel (for material family). C=1 = 3 mm (for corrosion allowance).

2.3.2 Index for Piping Class Rating and Service The selected Piping Classes for WHCC to Fula Pipeline Project Export Pipeline Project are described in the following piping classification list [6]:

Table 2.1 WHCC to Fula Pipeline Piping Classification List PIPING ANSI CLASS RATING MATERIAL C.A CODE Mm ASME SERVICE

Sweet Hydrocarbon and Associated 61410X 600# Carbon Steel 1.6 B 31.4 Produced Water, Flare, Pressure Relief, Closed rain, Gas And Vent, Hot Oil, Diesel Oil, Fuel Oil, Raw Water, Fire Water, Utility Water, and Nitrogen. Where C.A = Corrosion Allowance, mm.

2.3.3 General Notes The corrosion allowance specified for classes have been considered in the calculation of the wall thickness [6].

15

2.4

CLASS BASIC MATERIAL: STEEL CARBON 61410X DESIGN CODE: ASME B 31.4

DESIGN TEMPERATURE: 100 C PRIMARY FLANGE RATING: ANSI600 # RF CORROSION ALLOWANCE: 1.6 mm DESIGN PRESSURE: 99.28 barg (Max.) which is equivalent to ANSI600# RF corresponding pressure of 1440 psi (Max.)

SERVICE : Sweet Hydrocarbons, Produced Water, Glycol, Methanol Propane Refrigerant, Fuel Gas Air, process Drain & Relief System

SIZE ITEM FROMTO RATING AND/OR SCHED

Carbon Steel

END CONNECTION

DIMENSION STANDARD

MATERIAL

REMARKS

PIPE

8 22

BE-ASME 31.4

20

API 5L

API 5L X65

SEAMLESS/ERW

16

CHAPTER 3

3.1 Pipe Analysis

In this paragraph, the attention is mainly focused on the strength capabilities of a pipeline. The different materials used to construct pipelines and how to calculate the wall thickness and pipe internal diameter depending on maximum allowable operating pressure, pipe size and pipe materials yield strength by using Barlows equation were discussed. The amount of nominal pipe wall thickness with consideration of corrosion allowance of a particular size of pipes can withstand based on the design maximum allowable pressure was determined [1]. Next, the hydrostatic test pressure that the pipeline will be subjected to be established, such that the previously calculated internal pressure can be safely tolerated [1]. 3.1.1 Allowable Operating Pressure and Hydrostatic Test Pressure To transport a liquid through a pipeline, the liquid must be under sufficient pressure so that the pressure loss due to friction and the pressure required for any elevation changes can be accommodated. The longer the pipeline and the higher the flow rate, the higher the friction drop will be, requiring a corresponding increase in liquid pressure at the beginning of the pipeline [1]. In gravity flow systems, flow occurs due to elevation difference without any additional pump pressure. Thus, a pipeline from a storage tank on a hill to a delivery terminus below may not need any pump pressure at the tank. However, the pipeline still needs to be designed to withstand pressure generated due to the static elevation difference [1]. The allowable operating pressure in a pipeline is defined as the maximum safe continuous pressure that the pipeline can be operated at. At this internal pressure the pipe material is stressed to some safe value below the yield strength of the pipe 17

material. The stress in the pipe material consists of circumferential (or hoop) stress and longitudinal (or axial) stress [1]. This is shown in Figure 3.1 It can be proven that the axial stress is one-half the value of the hoop stress. The hoop stress therefore controls the amount of internal pressure the pipeline can withstand. For pipelines transporting liquids, the hoop stress may be allowed to reach 72% of the pipe yield strength [1]. In our case pipe material has 65,000 psi (4,485 bar) yield strength, the safe internal operating pressure cannot exceed a value that result in a hoop stress of 0.7265,000=46,800 psi (3,229 bar). To ensure that the pipeline can be safely operated at a particular maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) we must test the pipeline using water, at a higher pressure [1]. The hydrostatic test pressure is a pressure higher than the allowable operating pressure. It is the pressure at which the pipeline is tested for a specified period of time, such as 4 hr (for aboveground piping) or 8 hr (for buried pipeline) as required by the pipeline design code or by the appropriate city or government regulations. In the United States, Department of Transportation (DOT) Code Part 195 applies. Generally, for liquid pipelines the hydrostatic test pressure is 25% higher than the MAOP. Thus, our MAOP is 46,800 psi (3,229 bar), the pipeline will be hydrostatically tested at 58,500 psi (4,036 bar) [1]. Calculation of internal design pressure in a pipeline is based on Barlows equation for internal pressure in thin-walled cylindrical pipes, as discussed next [1].

18

Figure 3.1 Hoop stress and axial stress in a pipe 3.1.2 Barlows Equation for Internal Pressure Barlows equation can be derived easily as follows: Consider one-half of a unit length of pipe as shown in Figure 3.1. Due to internal pressure P, the Bursting force on onehalf the pipe is: PD1 Where the pressure P acts on a projected area D1. This bursting force is exactly balanced by the hoop stress Sh acting along both edges of the pipe. Therefore, Sh t12=PD1 Solving for Sh we get Sh =PD/2t (3.1)

Equation (3.2) for axial stress Sa is derived as follows. The axial stress Sa acts on an area of cross-section of pipe represented by Dt. This is balanced by the internal 19

pressure P acting on the internal cross-sectional area of pipe D^2/4. Equating the two we get Sa Dt=PD2/4 Solving for Sa, we get Sa =PD/4t (3.2)

The hoop stress or circumferential stress, Sh, in a thin-walled cylindrical pipe due to an internal pressure is calculated using the equation (3.1) [1] Sh =PD/2t Where: Sh =Hoop stress, psi P=Internal pressure, psi D=Pipe outside diameter, in. t=Pipe wall thickness, in. Similarly, the axial (or longitudinal) stress from equation (3.2), Sa, is Sa =PD/4t The above equations form the basis of Barlows equation used to determine the allowable internal design pressure in a pipeline. As can be seen from Equations (3.1) and (3.2), the hoop stress is twice the longitudinal stress. The internal design pressure will therefore be based on the hoop stress (Equation 3.1) [1]. In calculating the internal design pressure in liquid pipelines, Barlows equation slightly has been modified as per equation (3.3). The internal design pressure in a pipe is calculated in English units as follows: P = (2t* S*E*F) / D Where P=Internal pipe design pressure, psig D=Nominal pipe outside diameter, in. 20 (3.3)

t=Nominal pipe wall thickness, in. S=Specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) of pipe material, psig. E=Seam joint factor, 1.0 for seamless and submerged arc welded (SAW) pipes. F=Design factor, usually equals 0.72 for liquid pipelines, except that a design factor of 0.60 is used for pipe, including risers, on a platform located off shore or on a platform in inland navigable waters. and a design factor of 0.54 is used for pipe that has been subjected to cold expansion to meet the SMYS and subsequently heated, other than by welding or stress-relieving as a part of the welding, to a temperature higher than 900F (482C) for any period of time or to over 600F (316C) for more than 1 hr [1]. The above form of Barlows equation may be found in Part 195 of DOT Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 and ASME standard B31.4 for liquid pipelines. In SI units, Barlows equation can be written as: P = (2t*S*E*F)/D Where: P=Pipe internal design pressure, kPa D=Nominal pipe outside diameter, mm t=Minimum pipe wall thickness, mm S=Specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) of pipe material, kPa E and F are defined under Equation (3.3) In summary, Barlows equation for internal pressure is based on calculation of the hoop stress (circumferential) in the pipe material. The hoop stress is the controlling stress within stressed pipe material, being twice the axial stress (Figure 3.1). The strength of pipe material designated as specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) in Equations (3.3) and (3.4) depends on pipe material and grade. In the United States, steel pipeline material used in the oil and gas industry is manufactured in accordance with American Petroleum Institute (API) standards 5L and 5LX. For example, grades 5LX-42, 5LX-52, 5LX-60, 5LX-65, 5LX-70, and 5LX-80 are used commonly in pipeline applications [1]. (3.4)

21

The numbers after 5LX above indicate the SMYS values in thousands of psi. Thus, 5LX-65 pipe has minimum yield strength of 65,000 psi (4,485 bar). The lowest grade of pipe material used is 5L Grade B, which has an SMYS of 35,000 psi (2,415 bar). In addition, seamless steel pipe designated as ASTM A106 and Grade B pipe are also used for liquid pipeline systems. These have an SMYS value of 35,000 psi (2,415 bar) [1]. It is obvious from Barlows equation (3.3) that, for a given pipe diameter, pipe material, and seam joint factor, the allowable internal pressure P is directly proportional to the pipe wall thickness [1]. Note that Barlows equation was used to calculate the allowable internal pressure based upon the pipe material being stressed to 72% of SMYS. In some situations more stringent city or government regulations may require that the pipe be operated at a lower pressure. Thus, instead of using a 72% factor in Equation (3.3) may be required to use a more conservative factor (lower number) in place of F=0.72. As an example, in certain areas of Los Angeles, liquid pipelines are only allowed to operate at a 66% factor instead of the 72% factor [1]. As mentioned before, in order to operate a pipeline at certain internal pressure, it must be hydrostatically tested at 25% higher pressure. Since the internal pressure is based on the pipe material being stressed to 72% of SMYS, the hydrostatic test pressure will cause the hoop stress to reach 1.25(72) =90% of SMYS [1]. Generally, the hydrostatic test pressure is specified as a range of pressures, such as 90% SMYS to 95% SMYS. This is called the hydro test pressure envelope. Therefore, the hydro test pressure range is 1.25(X) =X1 psig lower limit (90% SMYS) (95/90) X1 = X2 psig higher limit (95% SMYS) Where: X= the internal pressure, psig. X1= the hydrostatic test pressure at lower limit, psig. X2= the hydrostatic test pressure at higher limit, psig.

22

To summarize, a pipeline with an MAOP of X psig needs to be hydro tested at a pressure range of X1 psig to X2 psig. According to the design code, the test pressure will be held for a minimum 4 hr for aboveground pipelines and 8 hr for buried pipelines [1]. In calculating the allowable internal pressure in older pipelines, consideration must be given to wall thickness reduction due to corrosion over the life of the pipeline. A pipeline that was installed 25 years ago with 0.250 in. wall thickness may have reduced in wall thickness to 0.200 in. or less due to corrosion. Therefore, the allowable internal pressure will have to be reduced in the ratio of the wall thickness, compared with the original design pressure [1]. 3.1.3 WHCC to Fula Pipeline Pipe Sizing Reference to Chapter 2 Paragraph 2.4 CLASS 61410X-ANSI CLASS 600 and the above equation (3.3), the design thickness and internal diameters calculated as follows: Sh =PD/2t Or, Sh =MSYS*0.72 Given: 1. Pipe Grade is X-65 which means MSYS = 65,000 psi (4,485 bar) 2. Pipe outside Diameter (D) range from 8 inch to 22 inch. 3. Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) = 1440 psi (99.28 bar). 4. Corrosion Allowance (C.A) = 1.6 mm. Solution: From equation (3.3) and D=8 inch; First step calculate minimum pipe wall thickness: t= (P*D)/ (2* Sh) = (1440*8)/ (2*(65000*0.72)) t= 0.123 inch (3.12 mm) which is pipe wall thickness. Second step calculate the nominal pipe wall thickness as below [2]: (3.1)

23

Nominal pipe wall thickness (Nt) = minimum pipe wall thickness + Corrosion Allowance [2] Nt = t+C.A (3.5) = 0.123+ (1.6/25.4)=0.1859 inch Third step calculate nominal internal diameter for the pipe (d): d=D-Nt d=8-0.1859=7.814 inch Finally the hydro test pressure range is 1.25(1440) =1800 psi (124 bar) lower limit (90% SMYS) (95/90) 1800=1900 psi (131 bar) higher limit (95% SMYS) Similarly, for the 10 in, 12 in 14 in, 16 in, 18 in, 20 in and 22 in. systems, the result was tabulated as shown in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 Diameter & Thickness Determination

3.1.4 Summary In the above paragraph the calculation of pipe wall thickness was discussed depending on the allowable internal pressure, pipe size and material in a pipeline. For pipe under internal pressure the hoop stress in the pipe material will be the controlling factor was 24

shown. The importance of design factor in selecting nominal pipe wall thickness was illustrated using an example. Based on Barlows equation, the internal design pressure calculation as recommended by ASME standard B31.4 and US Code of Federal Regulation, Part 195 of the DOT was illustrated. The need for hydrostatic testing pipelines for safe operation was discussed [1].

3.2

The concept of pressure in a liquid and how it is measured will be introduced and the followings will be calculated/determined for WHCC to Fula Pipeline Project: The liquid flow velocity in a pipe, types of flow, and the importance of the Reynolds number will be discussed. For different flow regimes, such as laminar, critical, or turbulent, method will be discussed as to how to calculate the pressure drop due to friction. A popular formula such as the Colebrook-White equation will be presented[1]. 3.2.1 Pressure Hydrostatics is the study of hydraulics that deals with liquid pressures and forces resulting from the weight of the liquid at rest. Although this chapter is mainly concerned with pipeline hydraulic study, some issues related to liquids at rest will be addressed in order to discuss some fundamental issues pertaining to liquids at rest and in motion. The force per unit area at a certain point within a liquid is called the pressure, p. This pressure at a certain depth, h, below the free surface of the liquid consists of equal pressures in all directions. This is known as Pascals law. Consider an imaginary flat surface within the liquid located at a depth, h, below the liquid surface as shown in Figure 3.2. The pressure on this surface must act normal to the surface at all points along the surface because liquids at rest cannot transmit shear. The variation of pressure with the depth of the liquid is calculated by considering forces acting on a thin vertical cylinder of height h and a cross-sectional area a as shown in Figure 3.2 [1]. Since the liquid is at rest, the cylindrical volume is in equilibrium due to the forces acting upon it. By the principles of statics, the algebraic sum of all forces acting on 25

this cylinder in the vertical and horizontal directions must equal zero. The vertical forces on the cylinder consists of the weight of the cylinder and the forces due to liquid pressure P1 at the top and P2 at the bottom, as shown in Figure 3.2. Since the specific weight of the liquid, , does not change with pressure, we can write the following equation for the summation of forces in the vertical direction: P2a=ha+P1a Where the term ha represents the weight of the cylindrical element. Simplifying the above we get P2=h+P1 (3.6)

If we now imagine that the cylinder is extended to the liquid surface, P1 becomes the pressure at the liquid surface (atmospheric pressure Pa) and h becomes h, the depth of the point in the liquid where the pressure is P2 [1].

Figure 3.2 Pressure in a liquid. Replacing P2 with P, the pressure in the liquid at depth h, Equation (3.2.1) becomes: P= h+Pa (3.7)

26

From Equation (3.7) the pressure in a liquid at a depth h increases with the depth has been concluded. If the term Pa (atmospheric pressure) is neglected, the gauge pressure (based on zero atmospheric pressure) at a depth h is simply h can be stated. Therefore, the gauge pressure is P= h (3.8)

In Equation (3.9) the term h represents the pressure head corresponding to the pressure P. It represents the depth in feet of liquid of specific weight required to produce the pressure P. Values of absolute pressure (P+Pa) are always positive whereas the gauge pressure P may be positive or negative depending on whether the pressure is greater or less than the atmospheric pressure. Negative gauge pressure means that a partial vacuum exists in the liquid. From the above discussion it is clear that the absolute pressure within a liquid consists of the head pressure due to the depth of liquid and the atmospheric pressure at the liquid surface. The atmospheric pressure at a geographic location varies with the elevation above sea level. Because the density of the atmospheric air varies with the altitude, a straight-line relationship does not exist between the altitude and the atmospheric pressure (unlike the linear relationship between liquid pressure and depth). For most purposes, can be assumed that the atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately 14.7 psi in English units, or approximately 101 kPa in SI units. The instrument used to measure the atmospheric pressure at a given location is called a barometer. A typical barometer is shown in Figure 3.3 in such an instrument the tube is filled with a heavy liquid (usually mercury) then quickly inverted and positioned in a container full of the liquid as shown in Figure 3.3 If the tube is sufficiently long, the level of liquid will fall slightly to cause a vapor space at the top of the tube just above the liquid surface. Equilibrium will be reached when the liquid vaporizes in the vapor space and creates a pressure Pv because the density of mercury is high (approximately 13 times that of water) and its vapor pressure is low, it is an ideal liquid for a 27

barometer. If a liquid such as water were used, a rather long tube would be needed to measure the atmospheric pressure, as will be seen shortly [1].

Figure 3.3 Barometer for pressure measurements. From Figure 3.3 the atmospheric pressure Pa exerted at the surface of the liquid is equal to the sum of the vapor pressure Pv and the pressure generated by the column of the barometric liquid of height Hb. Pa = Pv + Hb Where: Pa =Atmospheric pressure. Pv =Vapor pressure of barometric liquid. =Specific weight of barometric liquid. Hb =Barometric reading. In Equation (3.10), if pressures are in psi and liquid specific weight is in lb/ft3, the pressures must be multiplied by 144 to obtain the barometric reading in feet of liquid. Equation (3.10) is valid for barometers with any liquid. Since the vapor pressure of mercury is negligible, Equation (3.10) can be rewritten for a mercury barometer as follows: Pa = Hb (3.11) (3.10)

28

Let us compare the use of water and mercury as barometric liquids to measure the atmospheric pressure. 3.2.2 Velocity Velocity of flow in a pipeline is the average velocity based on the pipe diameter and liquid flow rate. It may be calculated as follows: Velocity = Flow rate/Area of flow Depending on the type of flow (laminar, turbulent, etc.), the liquid velocity in a pipeline at a particular pipe cross-section will vary along the pipe radius. The liquid molecules at the pipe wall are at rest and therefore have zero velocity. As the centerline of the pipe will be approached, the liquid molecules are increasingly free and therefore have increasing velocity. The variations in velocity for laminar flow and turbulent flow are as shown in Figure 3.4 in laminar flow (also known as viscous or streamline flow), the variation in velocity at a pipe cross-section is parabolic. In turbulent flow there is an approximate trapezoidal shape to the velocity profile [1]. If the units of flow rate are bbl/day and pipe inside diameter is in inches the following equation for average velocity may be used: V=0.0119(bbl/day)/d^2 Where: V=Velocity, ft/s d=Pipe internal diameter, in. Other forms of the equation for velocity in different units are as follows: V=0.4085(gal/min)/d^2 V=0.2859(bbl/hr)/d^2 (3.13) (3.14) (3.12)

Figure 3.4 Velocity variation in a pipe for laminar flow (left) and turbulent flow (right).

29

Where: V=Velocity, ft/s d=Pipe internal diameter, in. In SI units, the velocity is calculated as follows: V=353.6777(m3/hr)/d^2 Where: V=Velocity, m/s d=Pipe internal diameter, mm 3.2.2.1 WHCC to Fula Pipeline Velocity of Flow Calculations Given: 1. Flow rate 40,000 bbl/day. 2. Pipe outside Diameter (D) range from 8 inches to 22 inches. 3. Pipe internal Diameter (d) range from 7.814 inches to 21.599 inches. Solution: From equation (3.12) and d=7.814 inch; First step calculate the velocity of flow in ft/s: V=0.0119(40,000)/ (7.814) ^2=7.796 ft/s This represents the average velocity at a particular cross-section of pipe. The velocity at the centerline will be higher than this, depending on whether the flow is turbulent or laminar. Second step calculate the velocity of flow in m/s: Since, V (m/s) =0.3048*V (ft/s) Then V=7.796 ft/s=2.376 m/s Third step calculate the flow rate in m^3/hr: From equation (3.15) and d=7.814 inch=198.4756 mm (1 inch=25.4 mm) And V=2.376 m/s. Q = (2.376*(198.4756) ^2)/ 353.6777=264.656 m^3/hr 30 (3.15)

Similarly, for the 10 in, 12 in 14 in, 16 in, 18 in, 20 in and 22 in. systems, the result will be gotten as shown in Table 3.2. Table 3.2 Velocity Calculation

3.2.3 Reynolds Number Flow in a liquid pipeline may be smooth, laminar flow (also known as viscous or streamline flow). In this type of flow the liquid flows in layers or laminations without causing eddies or turbulence. If the pipe was transparent and a dye was injected into the flowing stream, it would flow smoothly in a straight line confirming smooth or laminar flow. As the liquid flow rate is increased, the velocity increases and the flow will change from laminar flow to turbulent flow with eddies and disturbances [1]. This can be seen clearly when a dye is injected into the flowing stream. An important dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number is used in classifying the type of flow in pipelines. The Reynolds number of flow, Re, is calculated as follows [1]: Re=Vd/ Where: V=Average velocity, ft/s d=Pipe internal diameter, ft =Liquid density, lb /ft3 =Absolute viscosity, lb/ft.s 31 (3.16)

Re=Reynolds number, dimensionless An equivalent parameters for equation (3.16) in SI units are: V=Average velocity, m/s d=Pipe internal diameter, m =Liquid density, kg /m3 =Absolute viscosity, kg /m.s Re=Reynolds number, dimensionless Since the kinematic viscosity =/ the Reynolds number can be also expressed as: Re=Vd/ Where: =Kinematic viscosity, ft^2/s In SI units is =Kinematic viscosity, m^2/s Care should be taken to ensure that proper units are used in Equations (3.16) and (3.17) such that Re is dimensionless. Flow through pipes is classified into three main flow regimes: 1. Laminar flow: Re<2000 2. Critical flow: Re>2000 and Re<4000 3. Turbulent flow: Re>4000 Depending upon the Reynolds number, flow through pipes will fall in one of the above three flow regimes. Let us first examine the concepts of Reynolds number. Sometimes Re value of 2100 is used as the limit of laminar flow. Using the customary units of the pipeline industry, the Reynolds number can be calculated using the following formula: Re=92.24 Q/ (D) Where: Q=Flow rate, bbl/day 32 (3.18) (3.17)

D=Internal diameter, in. =Kinematic viscosity, cSt Equation (3.18) is simply a modified form of Equation (3.17) after performing conversions to commonly used pipeline units. Re is still a dimensionless value. Another version of the Reynolds number in English units is as follows [1]: Re=3160 Q/ (d) Where: Q=Flow rate, gal/min d=Internal diameter, in. =Kinematic viscosity, cSt An equivalent equation for Reynolds number in SI units is: Re=353,678 Q/ (d) Where: Q=Flow rate, m^3/h d=Internal diameter, mm =Kinematic viscosity, cSt As indicated earlier, if the Reynolds number is less than 2000, the flow is considered laminar. This means that the various layers of liquid flow without turbulence in the form of laminations [1]. As the flow rate and velocity increase, the flow regime changes. With changes in flow regime, the energy lost due to pipe friction increases. At laminar flow, there is less frictional energy lost compared with turbulent flow [1]. 3.2.4 WHCC to Fula Pipeline Reynolds Number Calculations (3.20) (3.19)

In a pipeline, the inertial force is related to the fluids velocity, which is a function of the force applied to it by the pumps. The viscous force is a product of the inherent viscosity of the fluid as well as the frictional drag created by interaction of the fluid with the interior surface of the pipeline. A low value for a Reynolds number (< 2000) 33

suggests that the fluid will be moved evenly, so-called laminar flow. Higher Reynolds numbers indicate that forces applied to a fluid are much greater than the forces resisting its movement; consequently its movement will be violent and turbulent [3]. The Reynolds number representing the transition zone between laminar and turbulent flows is called the critical Reynolds number (Recrit), which is typically assigned a value of 2320. The Reynolds number depends on the force applied by pumps, the materials viscosity at operating temperature, and the physical size and cross-sectional shape of the pipe through which the material is moving. Most pipeline designers select these components to establish operating conditions near Recrit while still delivering the desired throughput [3]. Given: 1. Kinematic Viscosity of crude oil @ 80 C (m2/s) =0.000112. 2. Pipe outside Diameter (D) range from 8 inches to 22 inches. 3. Pipe internal Diameter (d) range from 7.814 inches (0.198 m) to 21.599 inches (0.549 m). 4. Flow velocity (V) range from 2.376 m/s to 0.311 m/s. Solution: From equation (3.17) at d=7.814 inch=0.198 m and V=2.376 m/s First step calculate Reynolds Number: Re= (2.376*0.198)/0.000112=4203.37 (turbulent flow) Similarly, for the 10 in, 12 in 14 in, 16 in, 18 in, 20 in and 22 in. systems, the result was tabulated as shown in Table 3.3.

34

Second step determine the maximum and minimum velocities of flow: As illustrated above most pipeline designers select these components to establish operating conditions near Recrit while still delivering the desired throughput. Therefore any velocity correspondent to Reynolds number greater than 4000 is not further recommended as well as Reynolds Number less than 2000. Hence our design will focus only on those nominal outsides diameters ;( 10, 12, 14 and 16) and their correspondent Reynolds Numbers ;( 3357, 2794, 2393 and 2093). To summarize that in WHCC to Fula Pipeline Design the maximum flow velocity is 1.516 m/s (4.973 ft/s) and the minimum flow velocity is 0.589 m/s (1.933 ft/s) 3.2.5 Flow Regimes

In summary, the three flow regimes may be distinguished as follows: Laminar: Reynolds number<2000 Critical: Reynolds number>2000 and Reynolds number<4000 Turbulent: Reynolds number>4000 As liquid flows through a pipeline, energy is lost due to friction between the pipe surface and the liquid and due to the interaction between liquid molecules. This energy 35

lost is at the expense of liquid pressure. (See Equation (3.21), Bernoullis equation, Hence we refer to the frictional energy lost as the pressure drop due to friction [1]. (ZA+PA) / +VA^2/2g+HP = (ZB+PB) / +VB^2/2g+HL Where: HP=pump head added to the liquid at point A The pressure drop due to friction in a pipeline depends on the flow rate, pipe diameter, pipe roughness, liquid specific gravity, and viscosity. In addition, the frictional pressure drop depends on the Reynolds number (and hence the flow regime). Our objective would be to calculate the pressure drop given these pipe and liquid properties and the flow regime [1]. The pressure drop due to friction in a given length of pipe, expressed in feet of liquid head (h), can be calculated using the Darcy-Weisbach equation as follows [1]: h=f (L/Dh) (V2/2g) Where: f=Darcy friction factor, dimensionless, usually a number between 0.008 and 0.10 L=Pipe length, ft Dh=Pipe internal diameter, ft 3.2.6 Friction Factor (3.22) (3.21)

For laminar flow, with Reynolds number Re<2000, the Darcy friction factor f is calculated from the simple relationship [1] f=64/Re (3.23)

It can be seen from Equation (3.23) that for laminar flow the friction factor depends only on the Reynolds number and is independent of the internal condition of the pipe. Thus, regardless of whether the pipe is smooth or rough, the friction factor for laminar flow is a number that varies inversely with the Reynolds number [1].

36

It might appear that, since f for laminar flow decreases with Reynolds number, then from the Darcy-Weisbach equation the pressure drop will decrease with an increase in flow rate. This is not true. Since pressure drop is proportional to the square of the velocity V (Equation 3.22), the influence of V is greater than that of f. Therefore, pressure drop will increase with flow rate in the laminar region [1]. For turbulent flow, when the Reynolds number Re>4000, the friction factor f depends not only on R but also on the internal roughness of the pipe. As the pipe roughness increases, so does the friction factor [1]. Therefore, smooth pipes have a smaller friction factor compared with rough pipes. More correctly, friction factor depends on the relative roughness (/Dh) rather than the absolute pipe roughness . various correlations exist for calculating the friction factor f [1]. Based on experiments conducted by scientists and engineers over the last 60 years or more. A good all-purpose equation for the friction factor f in the turbulent region (i.e., where Re>4000) is the Colebrook-White equation:

. (3.24) Where: f=Darcy friction factor, dimensionless Dh=D=Pipe internal diameter, in. =Absolute pipe roughness, in. Re=Reynolds number of flow, dimensionless In SI units, the above equation for f remains the same as long as the absolute roughness e and the pipe diameter Dh are both expressed in mm, cm or m. in addition to that all other terms in the equation are dimensionless. It can be seen from Equation (3.24) that the calculation of f is not easy, since it appears on both sides of the equation. A trial-and-error approach needs to be used. We assume a starting value of f (say, 0.02) and substitute it in the right-hand side of Equation (3.24). This will yield a second approximation for f, which can then be used 37

to re-calculate a better value of f, by successive iteration. Generally, three to four iterations will yield a satisfactory result for f, correct to within 0.001. During the last two or three decades several formulas for friction factor for turbulent flow have been put forth by various researchers [1]. All these equations attempt to simplify calculation of the friction factor compared with the Colebrook-White equation discussed above. Two such equations that are explicit equations in f, afford easy solution of friction factor compared with the implicit equation (3.24) that requires trial-and-error solution. These are called the Churchill equation [1]. In the critical zone, where the Reynolds number is between 2000 and 4000, there is no generally accepted formula for determining the friction factor. This is because the flow is unstable in this region and therefore the friction factor is indeterminate. Most users calculate the value of f based upon turbulent flow. To make matters more complicated, the turbulent flow region (Re>4000) actually consists of three separate regions: Turbulent flow in smooth pipes Turbulent flow in fully rough pipes Transition flow between smooth and rough pipes For turbulent flow in smooth pipes, pipe roughness has a negligible effect on the friction factor. Therefore, the friction factor in this region depends only on the Reynolds number as follows:

... (3.25) For turbulent flow in fully rough pipes, the friction factor f appears to be less dependent on the Reynolds number as the latter increases in magnitude. It depends only on the pipe roughness and diameter. It can be calculated from the following equation:

38

(3.26) For the transition region between turbulent flow in smooth pipes and turbulent flow in fully rough pipes, the friction factor f is calculated using the Colebrook-White equation given previously:

............. (3.27) As mentioned before, in SI units the above equation for f remains the same, provided e and Dh are both in mm. The friction factor equations discussed above can also be plotted on a Moody diagram as shown in Figure 3.5 Relative roughness is defined as /Dh, and is simply the result of dividing the absolute pipe roughness by the pipe internal diameter. The relative roughness term is a dimensionless parameter. The Moody diagram represents the complete friction factor map for laminar and all turbulent regions of pipe flows. It is used commonly in estimating the friction factor in pipe flow. If the Moody diagram is not available, we must use trial-and-error solution of Equation (3.27) to calculate the friction factor. To use the Moody diagram for determining the friction factor f, first the Reynolds number Re for the flow will be calculated. Next, the location on the horizontal axis of Reynolds number for the value of Re will be found and a vertical line that intersects with the appropriate relative roughness (/Dh) curve will be drawn. From this point of intersection on the (/Dh) curve, then the value of the friction factor f on the vertical axis on the left will be red [1].

39

Figure 3.5 Moody Diagram for friction factor. Before leaving the discussion of the friction factor, an additional term must be mentioned: the Fanning friction factor. Some publications use this friction factor instead of the Darcy friction factor. The Fanning friction factor is defined as follows [1]: ff = fd/4 Where: ff = Fanning friction factor fd = Darcy friction factor Unless otherwise specified, the Darcy friction factor throughout this research will be used. (3.28)

40

3.2.6.1 WHCC to Fula Pipeline Friction Factor Calculations For given table below find the friction factors: Table 3.4 Friction Factor Calculation Inputs

Solution: First step enter Moody chart by Re and K/d: At Re=3357.249 and K/d=0.00018, found F= (not available). Second step if the Moody diagram is not available, trial-and-error solution of Equation (3.27) must be used to calculate the friction factor. the following website (Colebrook Equation Calculator) was used for calculating the friction factor f: http://www.ajdesigner.com/php_colebrook/colebrook_equation.php Colebrook Equations Formulas Calculator [10] Fluid Mechanics - Turbulent Pipe Flow Solving for friction factor.

Notes: 1) Calculation uses an iterative process to solve for friction factor. 2) Calculator iterates until the error is within 1.0e-10 percent.

41

0.045 millimeter

248.4923

millimeter

3357.24892

Calculate

Solution [10]: Colebrook Equations Formulas Calculator [8] Fluid Mechanics - Turbulent Pipe Flow Solving for friction factor.

Notes: 1) Calculation uses a iterative process to solve for friction factor. 2) Calculator iterates until the error is within 1.0e-10 percent. Inputs [10]: absolute roughness () diameter (Dh) Reynolds number (Re)

0.045 millimeter

248.4923

millimeter

3357.24892

Calculate

42

Conversions [8]: absolute roughness () = 0.045 diameter (Dh) = 248.4923 millimeter = 4.5E-5 millimeter = 0.2484923 = 3357.24892 meter meter

Darcy friction factor (f) = 0.042223521188973 Other Units: Darcy friction factor (f) = 0.042223521188973 Similarly, for the 12 in, 14 in and 16 in. systems, the result was tabulated as shown in Table 3.5. Table 3.5 Friction Factor Calculation Outputs

3.2.7 Pressure Drop due to Friction In the previous section, the Darcy-Weisbach equation was introduced as follows [1]: h=f (L/Dh) (V^2/2g) (3.29)

Where the pressure drop h is expressed in feet of liquid head and the other symbols are defined below: f=Darcy friction factor, dimensionless L=Pipe length, ft Dh=Pipe internal diameter, ft 43

V=Average liquid velocity, ft/s g=Acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s2 in English units A more practical equation, using customary pipeline units, is given below for calculating the pressure drop in pipelines. Pressure drop due to friction per unit length of pipe, in English units, is Pm=0.0605fQ^2(Sg/ Dh ^5) And in terms of transmission factor F Pm=0.2421(Q/F) ^2(Sg/Dh^5) Where: Pm=Pressure drop due to friction, lb/in.2 per mile (psi/mile) of pipe length Q=Liquid flow rate, bbl/day f=Darcy friction factor, dimensionless F=Transmission factor, dimensionless Sg=Liquid specific gravity Dh=Pipe internal diameter, in. The transmission factor F is directly proportional to the volume that can be transmitted through the pipeline and therefore has an inverse relationship with the friction factor f. The transmission factor F is calculated from the following equation: F=2/f (3.32) (3.31) (3.30)

Since the friction factor f ranges from 0.008 to 0.10 it can be seen from Equation (3.31) that the transmission factor F ranges from 6 to 22 approximately. The Colebrook-White equation (3.21) can be rewritten in terms of the transmission factor F as follows: F=-4 Log10 [(/3.7Dh) +1.255(F/Re)] for turbulent flow Re>400 (3.33)

Similar to the calculation of the friction factor f using Equation (3.24), the calculation of transmission factor F from Equation (3.32) will also be a trial-anderror approach. A starting value of F (say 10.0) will be assumed and substituted in 44

the right-hand side of Equation (3.33). This will yield a second approximation for F, which can then be used to recalculate a better value, by successive iteration. Generally, three or four iterations will yield a satisfactory result for F. In SI units, the Darcy equation (in pipeline units) for the pressure drop in terms of the friction factor is represented as follows: Pkm=6.247510^10fQ^2(Sg/Dh^5) (3.34)

And the corresponding equation in terms of transmission factor F is written as follows: Pkm=24.9910^10(Q/F) ^2(Sg/Dh^5) Where: Pkm=Pressure drop due to friction, kPa/km Q=Liquid flow rate, m3/hr f=Darcy friction factor, dimensionless F=Transmission factor, dimensionless Sg=Liquid specific gravity Dh=Pipe internal diameter, mm In SI units, the transmission factor F is calculated using Equation (3.33) as follows: F=-4Log10 [(/3.7Dh) +1.255(F/Re)] for turbulent flow Re>4000 Where: Dh =Pipe internal diameter, mm =Absolute pipe roughness, mm Re=Reynolds number of flow, dimensionless (3.36) (3.35)

45

3.2.7.1

WHCC to Fula Pipeline Pressure Drop Due to Friction Calculations Given: 1. Specific Gravity @ 60/60 F= 0.9281. 2. Pipe internal Diameter (Dh) range from 9.78 inches (248.49 mm) to 15.69 inches (398.55 mm). 3. Friction Factor (f) range from 0.042 to 0.049. 4. Flow Rate (Q) 264.66 m3/hr. Solution: From equation (3.35) at Dh =9.78 inch=248.49 mm and f=0.042 First step calculate Pressure drop due to friction (kPa/km): Pkm=6.247510^10fQ^2(Sg/ Dh ^5) (3.35)

Pkm=6.245*10^10*0.042*(264.66)^2*( 0.9281/(248.49)^5) = 181.33 KPa/Km =1.8133 bar/Km (1 bar=100 Kpa) Second step calculate Pressure due to friction (bar): Pressure due to friction= Pressure drop due to friction x Pipeline length = 1.8133*185=335.47 bar. Similarly, for the 11.75 in 13.72 in and 15.69 in. systems, the result was tabulated as shown in Table 3.6. Table 3.6 Pressure Drop Calculation

46

3.2.8 Summary This chapter has defined pressure and how it is measured in both a static and dynamic context. The velocity and Reynolds number calculations for pipe flow were introduced and the use of the Reynolds number in classifying liquid flow as laminar, critical, and turbulent were explained. Existing methods of calculating the pressure drop due to friction in a pipeline using the Darcy-Weisbach equation were discussed and illustrated for WHCC to Fula Pipeline Project. The importance of the Moody diagram was explained. Also, the trial-and-error solutions of friction factor from the ColebrookWhite equation were covered.

47

In previous chapters the calculation of friction factors and pressure loss due to friction in a pipeline using various equations such as Colebrook-White were discussed. And also the internal pressure allowable in a pipe and how to determine pipe wall thickness required for a specific internal pressure and pipe material were analyzed, according to design code. In this chapter, how much pressure will be required at the beginning of a pipeline to safely transport a given throughput to the pipeline terminus will be analyzed, taking into account the pipeline elevation profile and the pipeline terminus pressure required, in addition to friction losses. And also the pumping horsepower required will be calculated and in many cases also how many pump stations are needed to transport the specified volume of liquid will be determined.

4.1

The total pressure PT required at the beginning of a pipeline to transport a given flow rate from point A to point B will depend on [1] Pipe diameter, wall thickness, and roughness. Pipe length. Pipeline elevation changes from A to B. Liquid specific gravity and viscosity. Flow rate.

If the pipe diameter will be increased, meanwhile all other items above to be kept constant, the frictional pressure drop will be decreased and hence the total pressure PT will be also decreased. Increasing of pipe wall thickness or pipe roughness will cause the increase of frictional pressure drop and thus the value of PT will increase [1]. On the other hand, if only the pipe length is increased, the pressure drop for the entire length of the pipeline will increase and so will the total pressure PT [1].

48

How does the pipeline elevation profile affect PT? If the pipeline were laid in a flat terrain, with no appreciable elevation difference between the beginning of the pipeline A and the terminus B, the total pressure PT will not be affected. But if the elevation difference between A and B were substantial, and B was at a higher elevation than A, PT will be higher than that for the pipeline in flat terrain. [1] The higher the liquid specific gravity and viscosity, the higher will be the pressure drop due to friction and hence the larger the value of PT. Finally, increasing the flow rate will result in a higher frictional pressure drop and therefore a higher value for PT. In general, the total pressure required can be divided into three main components as follows: Friction head. Elevation head. Delivery pressure at terminus.

As an example, consider a pipeline from point A to point B operating at 4000 bbl/hr flow rate. If the total pressure drop due to friction in the pipeline is 800 psi, the elevation difference from point A to point B is 500 ft (uphill flow), and the minimum delivery pressure required at the terminus B is 50 psi, the pressure required at A can be stated as the sum of the three components as follows: Total pressure at A=800 psi+500 ft+50 psi If the liquid specific gravity is 0.85, then using consistent units of psi the above equation reduces to Total Pressure=800+ (500) (0.85/2.31)+50=1033.98 psi Of course, this assumes that there are no controlling peaks or high elevation points between point A and point B. If an intermediate point C located halfway between A and B had an elevation of 1500 ft, compared with an elevation of 100 ft at point A and 600 ft at point B, then the elevation of point C becomes a controlling factor. In this case, the calculation of total pressure required at A is a bit more complicated [1]. 49

4.2

Generally, due to friction losses the liquid pressure in a pipeline decreases continuously from the pipe inlet to the pipe delivery terminus. If there is no elevation difference between the two ends of the pipeline and the pipe elevation profile is essentially flat, the inlet pressure at the beginning of the pipeline will decrease continuously by the friction loss at a particular flow rate [1]. When there are elevation differences along the pipeline, the decrease in pipeline pressure along the pipeline will be due to the combined effect of pressure drop due to friction and the algebraic sum of pipeline elevations. Thus with a starting pressure of 1000 psi at the beginning of the pipeline, and assuming 15 psi/mile pressure drop due to friction in a flat pipeline (no elevation difference) with constant diameter, the pressure at a distance of 20 miles from the beginning of the pipeline would drop to 1000-1520=700 psi If the pipeline is 60 miles long, the pressure drop due to friction in the entire line will be 1560=900 psi [1] The pressure at the end of the pipeline will be 1000-900=100 psi Thus, the liquid pressure in the pipeline has uniformly dropped from 1000 psi at the beginning of the pipeline to 100 psi at the end of the 60 mile length. This pressure profile is referred to as the hydraulic pressure gradient in the pipeline. The hydraulic pressure gradient is a graphical representation of the variation in pressure along the pipeline. It is shown along with the pipeline elevation profile. Since elevation is plotted in feet, it is convenient to represent the pipeline pressures also in feet of liquid head. This is shown in Figures 4.14.2 [1].

50

51

In the example discussed in Section 4.1, the pressure required at the beginning of the pipeline was calculated which was 1034 psi for pumping crude oil at a flow rate of 4000 bbl/hr. This pressure requires one pump station at the origin of the pipeline (point A) [1]. The total pressure Pt required at A can be written as follows. Pt = Pfriction + Pelevation +Pdel Where: Pt=Total pressure required at A Pfriction=Total frictional pressure drop between A and B Pelevation=Elevation head between A and B Pdel=Required delivery pressure at B (4.1)

First step: from chapter 3, table (3.5) gets the calculated total frictional pressure for the all selected pipe sizes. Second step: calculate the pressure due to elevation difference for all selected pipe sizes as follows: Pelevation = Crude oil density*Gravity acceleration*elevation difference (4.2) Where: Elevation difference is the elevation difference between WHCC to Fula as shown in Figure 1.2 (Pipeline Elevation) in chapter one. Since there are no controlling peaks or high elevation points between Heglig and Fula, Then, Elevation difference= 551.7 396.6 = 155.1 m. Third step: record the pressure required at Fula (Block 6) as Terminus which is 8 bar which is same for all selected pipe sizes. 52

Final step: calculate total pressure required at Heglig (WHCC) by using equation (4.1) as below: Pt = Pfriction +Pelevation +Pdel (4.1)

For example, take the first selected nominal pipe size which is 10 inch with 335.47 bar total frictional pressure drop, 927.6 kg/m3 Crude Oil Density @ 15C (as per attached crude oil assay), 155.1 m as Elevation difference and 8 bar required pressure at Terminus (Fula). Calculate total pressure required at Heglig (WHCC). (as known gravity acceleration (g)=9.81 m/s^2 in SI unit) Solution: Pelevation = Crude oil density*Gravity acceleration*elevation difference = 927.6*9.81*155.1= 14.11 bar The above calculated elevation head pressure should be same for all selected pipe sizes as tabulated below: Table 4.1 Elevation Pressure Calculation

Now, calculate total pressure required at Heglig (WHCC) by using equation (4.1) as follows: Pt=Pfriction +Pelevation +Pdel = 335.47 + 14.11 + 8= 357.58 bar. 53 (4.1)

Similarly, for the 12 in, 14 in and 16 in. systems, the result was tabulated as shown in Table (4.2) below: Table 4.2 Required Total Pressures @ WHCC Calculation

So far the required pressure to transport a given amount of liquid through a pipeline system has been examined. Depending on the flow rate and MAOP of the pipeline, one or more pump stations might be needed to safely transport the specified throughput. The pressure required at each pump station will generally be provided by centrifugal or positive displacement pumps [1]. In this section the horsepower required to pump a given volume of liquid through the pipeline regardless of the type of pumping equipment used will be calculated. [1] 4.4.1 Hydraulic Horsepower Required power is defined as energy or work performed per unit time. In English units, energy is measured in foot pounds (ft-lb) and power is expressed in horsepower (HP). One HP is defined as 33,000 ft-lb/min or 550 ft-lb/s. In SI units, energy is measured in joules and power is measured in joules/second (watts). The larger unit kilowatt (kW) is more commonly used. One HP is equal to 0.746 kW. To illustrate the concept of work, energy, and power required, imagine a situation that requires 150,000 gal of water to be raised 500 ft to supply the needs of a small community. If this requirement is on a 24 hr basis, the work done in lifting 150,000 gal of water by 500 ft can be stated as 54

(150,000/7.48)62.34500=625,066,845 ft-lb Where the specific weight of water is assumed to be 62.34 lb/ft3 and 1ft3=7.48 gal. Thus 6.25108 ft-lb of energy over a 24 hr period needs to be expanded to accomplish this task. Since 1 HP equals 33,000 ft-lb/min, the power required in this case is HP= [(lb/min)*(ft head)]/33,000 HP= (6.25*10^8) / (24*60*33,000) = 13.2 This is also known as the hydraulic horsepower (HHP), since pumping efficiency has not been considered. As a liquid flows through a pipeline, pressure loss occurs due to friction. The pressure needed at the beginning of the pipeline to account for friction and any elevation changes is then used to calculate the amount of energy required to transport the liquid. Factoring in the time element, the power required will be gotten to transport the liquid [1]. 4.4.2 Brake Horsepower The brake horsepower takes into account the pump efficiency. If pump efficiency is given then the brake horsepower (BHP) can be calculated as follow: Brake horsepower=Hydraulic horsepower/Pump efficiency (4.4) If an electric motor is used to drive the above pump, the actual motor horsepower required would be calculated as Motor HP = BHP/Motor efficiency ranging from 95% to 98%. Using 98% for motor efficiency. The formula for BHP required in terms of customary pipeline units is as follows: BHP=QP/ (2449E) Where: Q=Flow rate, bbl/hr P=Differential pressure, psi E=Efficiency, expressed as a decimal value less than 1.0 55 (4.6) (4.5) Generally induction motors used for driving pumps have fairly high efficiencies, (4.3)

Two additional formulas for BHP, expressed in terms of flow rate in gal/min and pressure in psi or ft of liquid, are as follows: BHP= (GPM) (H) (Spgr)/ (3960E) And BHP= (GPM) P/ (1714E) Where: GPM=Flow rate, gal/min H=Differential head, ft P=Differential pressure, psi E=Efficiency, expressed as a decimal value less than 1.0 Spgr=Liquid specific gravity, dimensionless In SI units, power in kW can be calculated as follows: Power (kW) = [(Q) (H) (Spgr)] / [367.46(E)] Where Q=Flow rate, m3/hr H=Differential head, m Spgr=Liquid specific gravity E=Efficiency, expressed as a decimal value less than 1.0 And Power (kW) = [(Q) (P)] / [3600(E)] Where P=Pressure, kPa Q=Flow rate, m3/hr E=Efficiency, expressed as a decimal value less than 1.0 (4.10) (4.9) (4.8) (4.7)

56

4.4.3 WHCC to Fula Pipeline Required Power Calculations First step: from above table (4.2) get the calculated total pressure required at Heglig (WHCC) for the all selected pipe sizes. Second step: calculate the pressure which should be developed by the selected pump as follows: Pdeveloped =Pt Ps Where: Pdeveloped = Pump developed pressure by the selected pump, bar. Pt = Total pressure required at Heglig (WHCC), bar. Ps= Pump suction pressure at Heglig (WHCC Tanks), which is 8.8 bar for all selected pipe sizes. Third step: get and record the flow rate in m3/hr which is 264.66 as required. This flow rate should be at same value for all selected pipe sizes. Fourth step: assume 80% pump efficiency. Fifth step: calculate pump rated pressure in kW by using equation (4.10). Sixth step: assume design safety margin of 10%, and calculate the nominal pump power in kW as below: Nominal pump power (kW) = Rated pump power (kW)* (1+design safety margin) % (4.12) (4.11)

Seventh step: consider the drive system for the selected pump is crude oil engine, then assume gear box efficiency is 1% and API margin is 10%.therefore, the transmission efficiency is calculated as follow: Transmission efficiency = [1 - (gear box efficiency + API margin efficiency)] (4.13)

Eighth step: use the above transmission and calculate the crude engine power in kW as follow: Rated crude oil engine power (kW) =Nominal pump power (kW) / Transmission efficiency (4.14) 57

Ninth step: assume design safety margin of 10%, and calculate the nominal crude oil engine power as below: Nominal crude oil engine power (kW) = crude oil engine power (kW) *(1+design safety margin) % (4.15)

Final step: calculate the nominal crude oil engine in MW as follow: Nominal crude oil engine in (MW) = Nominal crude oil engine in (kW) /1000 (4.16) For example, take the first selected nominal pipe size which is 10 inch with 357.58 bar total pressure required at Heglig (WHCC) , 264.66 m3/hr required flow rate, 80% pump efficiency, and 8.8 bar pump suction pressure at Heglig (WHCC Tanks). Assume 10% design safety margin for pump nominal power, gear box efficiency is 1%, API margin is 10% for transmission efficiency, 10% design safety margin for crude oil nominal power and calculate power required at Heglig (WHCC). Solution: From equation (4.11), calculate Pump developed pressure by the selected pump as follows: Pdeveloped =Pt Ps Then, Pdeveloped = 357.58 8.8 = 348.78 bar. Therefore, pump rated pressure in kW will be calculated by using equation (4.10) as below: Power (kW) = [(Q) (P)] / [3600(E)] = [(264.66) (348.78*100)] / [3600(0.80)] = 3205 kW. Now, calculate the nominal pump power in kW by using equation (4.12) as below: Nominal pump power (kW) = (3205)*(1+0.1) = (3205)*(1.1) = 3526 kW. 58

Next step calculate Transmission efficiency by using equation (4.13) as follow: Transmission efficiency = [1-(gear box efficiency +API margin efficiency)] = [1-(0.01+0.1)] = [1-0.11] =0.89 or 89% Hence, calculate the rated crude oil engine power in (kW) as per equation (4.14) below: Rated crude oil engine power (kW) =Nominal pump power (kW) / Transmission efficiency = 3526 / 0.89= 3961 kW. Finally, by using equations (4.15) and (4.16) calculate the Nominal crude oil engine power (kW) and crude oil engine power (MW) consequently as below: Nominal crude oil engine power (kW) = Rated crude oil engine power (kW) *(1+design safety margin) % = 3961*1.1= 4357.50 kW And Nominal crude oil engine in (MW) = Nominal crude oil engine in (kW) /1000 = 4357.50 / 1000= 4.35750 MW Similarly, for the 12 in, 14 in and 16 in. systems, the result was tabulated as shown in Table (4.3)

59

4.5 WHCC to Fula pipeline pump stations layout and pressure control

In this paragraph, some of the significant items in a pump station that pertain to pumps and pipeline hydraulics will be illustrated. The various pressures on both the suction and discharge side of the pump will be analyzed and how pressure control is implemented using a control valve downstream of the pumps. In addition to that water hammer phenomena cause and prevention will be discussed [1].

A typical piping layout within a pump station is as shown in Figure 4.3. The pipeline enters the station boundary at point A, where the station block valve MOV-101 is located. The pipeline leaves the station boundary on the discharge side of the pump station at point B, where the station block valve MOV-102 is located. [1] 60

Station bypass valves designated as MOV-103 and MOV-104 are used for bypassing the pump station in the event of pump station maintenance or other reasons when the pump station must be isolated from the pipeline [1]. Along the main pipeline there is located a check valve, CKV-101, that prevents reverse flow through the pipeline. This typical station layout shows one pump configured. On the suction side of the pump station the pressure is designated as Ps while the discharge pressure on the pipeline side is designated as Pd. With constantspeed motor-driven pumps, there is always a control valve on the discharge side of the pump station, shown as CV-101 in Figure 7.1. This control valve controls the pressure to the required value Pd by creating a pressure drop across it between the pump discharge pressure Pc and the station discharge pressure Pd. Since the pump is driven by an engine, the control valve is not needed as the pump may be slowed down or speeded up as required to generate the exact pressure Pd. In such a situation, the case pressure will be equal to the station discharge pressure Pd [1]. In addition to the above valves, there is a check valve, CKV-102; located immediately after the pump discharge that prevents reverse flow through the pump [1].

Liquid for all practical purposes is not compressible (it is actually very slightly compressible), and any energy that is applied to it is instantly transmitted. This energy becomes dynamic in nature when a force such as quick closing valve or a pump applies velocity to the fluid [8]. Surge or water hammer, as it is commonly known is the result of a sudden change in liquid velocity [8]. Water hammer usually occurs when a transfer system is quickly started, stopped or is forced to make a rapid change in direction. Any of these events can lead to catastrophic system component failure [8]. Several factors can contribute to water hammer such as: Improperly sized piping in relation to water flow velocity. Starting and stopping of pumps. The recombination of water after water column separation. Rapid exhaustion of all air from the system. High water pressure with no pressure-reducing valve. Straight runs that are too long without bends. Poor strapping of piping system to structure. No dampening system in place to reduce or absorb shockwaves.

The primary cause of water hammer in process applications is the quick closing valve, whether manual or automatic. A valve closing in 1.5 s. or less depending on valve size and system conditions causes an abrupt stoppage of flow. The pressure spike (acoustic wave) created at rapid valve closure can be high as five times the system working pressure [8]. Unrestricted, this pressure spike or wave will rapidly accelerate to the speed of sound in liquid, which can exceed 4000 ft/s (about 1440 m/s). Shock waves propagate through the system (as shown in Figure 4.4), which can create a considerable damage, as shown in Figure 4.5.

62

Friction, and losses on reflection, causes the pulsating waves to attenuate, and eventually disappear when the energy has been turned to heat or mechanical radiation

[8].

There are also consequences from the variations in momentum of the water, which result in forces on the pipes. If the pipe is straight, these forces are longitudinal, but there will be side wise forces if the pipe is bent [8].

63

64

Water hammer effects may be reduced by the incorporation of pressure relief valves or check valve (preferably ones that will not slam shut) refer to the above Paragraph 4.3 Suction pressure and Discharge pressure [8]. Other methods include arrestors as shown in the example below, Figure 4.6.

Figure 4.6 Example of water hammer Arrestor Rubber / Elastomer flexible connectors can also be used to provide efficient but economic ways to counter expansion and contraction against start up surge forces created by pumps, as shown in Figure 4.7. 65

These devices also accommodate pressure loads, relieve movement stress, reduce noise, isolate vibration, and compensate for misalignment after plants go on stream [8].

4.6 Associated systems 4.6.1 Buffer Facilities for WHCC to Fula Pipeline Project

Buffer facilities are required at both end of the pipeline, initial and final station, to ensure the continuity of the crude supply and to accommodate at least production of three consecutive days in case any shut down occur to the pipeline system [4]. In the case of the design of current pipeline, the storage system at Heglig is deemed adequate and shall be used to inject the crude into the new pipeline. However, facilities of buffering system shall be installed at the final station in Fula to receive the flow of the upstream pipeline from Heglig. The buffer system shall consist of: 66

Storage tank system Pumps & piping systems Heating and control systems Instrumentations

Storage tank shall be sized appropriately to host volume of crude oil production sufficient to supply for at least a 3 consecutive days. In addition the design capacity shall take into account the necessary margin that shall be allocated for the safety level as per applicable design practice [4]. In the view of current design calculation, the capacity of the storage system is anticipated at 150 KBO (Thousand Barrel of Oil), detailed as follows: Total volume of the 3 consecutive days = 3 x 40 = 120 KBO Allocated safety level volume is taken at 25% of total volume i.e. 0.25 x 120 = 30 KBO Total required volume = 120 + 30 = 150 KBO A detailed and proper design calculation must be considered in order to secure proper material selection, wall thickness calculations, tanks dimension calculations, etc...

Both are sole parts of the buffer system. The functions of both are to either feeds in or discharge capacities of storage tanks [4]. In designing pumps and piping, an accurate location for the buffer facilities must be considered in order to minimize size of pumps and diameter of the piping used to transfer the crude from the tank to the injection point [4].

Tanks must be equipped with heating coils and control system to ensure adequate requirement in terms of heat level (temperature) and flow rate are achieved prior directing the flow to the tie in point [4]. Required tow heating stations (2 Bamboo heaters, 20 kbpd capacity for both stations) one station in the initial point at WHCC to rise up the temperature from 46 oC (current 67

WHCCs tank temperature) to 80 oC (required design temperature at WHCC) and another heating station in the terminus point at Fula to rise up the temperature from 38

o

Fula) [4].

4.6.5 Instrumentations

Instrumentations are necessary to measure the condition of the bulk fluid inside the tank and the condition of the weather outside and to advise the required control actions [4].

4.7 Summary

In this chapter the pressure drop concept developed in Chapter 3 was extended to calculate the total pressure required to transport liquid through a pipeline taking into account the elevation profile of the pipeline and required delivery pressure at the terminus. For a given pipeline system, the hydraulic horsepower, brake horsepower, and engine horsepower calculations were illustrated in addition to that the pump station layout and pressure control were introduced, and finally the associated systems; (storage tank, pump and piping, heating / control and instrumentations) were discussed.

68

In this chapter the cost of a pipeline and the various components that contribute to the economics of pipelines will be discussed. These include the major components of the initial capital costs and the recurring annual costs. And also how the transportation charge is established based on throughput rates, project life, interest rate, and financing scenarios will be examined.

In any pipeline investment project an economic analysis of the pipeline system must be performed to ensure that the right equipment and materials has been used at the right cost to perform the necessary service and provide a profitable income for the venture. The previous chapters helped determine the pipe size, pipe material, pumping equipment, etc., necessary to transport a given volume of a product. In this chapter the cost implications and how to decide on the economic pipe size and pumping equipment required will be analyzed to provide the optimum rate of return on investment [1]. The major capital components of a pipeline system consist of the pipe, pump stations, storage tanks, valves, fittings, and meter stations. Once this capital is expended, and the pipeline has been installed and the pump station and other facilities built, annual operating and maintenance costs for these facilities will be incurred. Annual costs will also include general and administrative (G&A) costs including payroll costs, rental and lease costs, and other recurring costs necessary for the safe and efficient operation of the pipeline system. The revenue for this operation will be in the form of pipeline tariffs collected from companies that ship products through this pipeline. The capital necessary for building this pipeline system may be partly owner equity and partly borrowed money. There will be investment hurdles and rate of return (ROR) requirements imposed by equity owners and financial institutions that lend the capital

69

for the project. Regulatory requirements will also dictate the maximum revenue that may be collected and the ROR that may be realized, as transportation services. An economic analysis must be performed for the project taking into account all these factors and a reasonable project life of 20 to 25 years, or more in some cases [1].

5.2

Capital Costs

Pipeline. Pump stations. Tanks and manifold piping. Valves, fittings, etc. Meter stations. SCADA and telecommunication. Engineering and construction management. Environmental and permitting. Right-of-way acquisition cost. Other project costs such as allowance for funds used during construction (AFUDC) and contingency.

The capital cost of a pipeline project consists of the following major components [1]:

5.2.1 Pipeline Costs The capital cost of a pipeline consists of material and labor for installation. To estimate the material cost we will use the following method [1]: Pipe material cost=10.68(D-t) t2.64Lcost per ton PMC=28.1952 L (D-t) t (Cpt) Where: PMC= Pipe material cost, $ L= Pipe length, miles D= Pipe outside diameter, in. t= Pipe wall thickness, in. Cpt =Pipe cost, $/ton 70 or (5.1)

In SI units, Equation (5.1) can be written as PMC=0.02463 L (D-t) t (Cpt) Where: PMC= Pipe material cost, $ L= Pipe length, km D= Pipe outside diameter, mm t= Pipe wall thickness, mm Cpt =Pipe cost, $/ metric ton Since the pipe will be coated, wrapped, and delivered to the site, the material cost will be increased by some factor to account for these items or add the actual cost of these items to the pipe material cost [1]. Pipe installation cost or labor cost is generally stated in $/km or $/mile of pipe. It may also be stated based on an inch-diameter-mile of pipe. Construction contractors will estimate the labor cost of installing a given pipeline based on a detailed analysis of the terrain, construction conditions, difficulty of access, and other factors. Historical data is available for estimating labor costs of various-size pipelines. In this section Approximate methods will be used; these should be verified with contractors taking into account current labor rates, geographic and terrain issues. A good approach is to express the labor cost in terms of $/inch diameter per mile of pipe [1]. In addition to labor costs for installing straight pipe, there may be other construction costs such as road crossings, railroad crossings, river crossings, etc. These are generally estimated as a lump sum for each item and added to the total pipe installation costs [1]. 5.2.2 Pump Station To estimate the pump station cost a detailed analysis would consist of preparing a material take-off from the pump station drawings and getting vendor quotes on major equipment such as pumps, drivers, switchgear, valves, instrumentation, etc., and estimating the station labor costs [1]. 71 (5.2)

An approximate cost for pump stations can be estimated using a value for cost in dollars per installed horsepower. This is an all-inclusive number considering all facilities associated with the pump station. For example, an installed cost of $1500 per HP can be used and that a pump station can be estimated to5000 HP, and then the cost will be as follows: $15005000=$7.5 million. In the above an all-inclusive number of $1500 per installed HP was used. This figure takes into account all material and equipment cost and construction labor. Such values of installed cost per HP can be obtained from historical data on recently constructed pump stations. Larger HP pump stations will have smaller $/HP costs while smaller pump stations with less HP will have a higher $/HP cost, reflecting economies of scale [1]. 5.2.3 Tanks and Manifold Piping Tanks and manifold piping can be estimated fairly accurately by detailed material take-offs from construction drawings and from vendor quotes [1]. Generally, tank vendors quote installed tank costs in $/bbl. Thus if a 50,000 bbl tank has been considered, it can be estimated at 50,000$10/bbl=$500,000 Based on an installed cost of $10/bbl, of course the total tank age cost would be increased by a factor of 1020% to account for other ancillary piping and equipment. As with installed HP costs, the unit cost for tanks decreases with tank size. For example, a 300,000 bbl tank may be based on $6/bbl or $8/bbl compared with the $10/bbl cost for the smaller, 50,000 bbl tank [1]. 5.2.4 Valves and Fittings Valves and fittings may also be estimated as a percentage of the total pipe cost. However, if there are several mainline block valve locations that can be estimated as a lump sum cost, the total cost of valves and fittings can be 72

estimated as follows [1]: A typical 16 in. mainline block valve installation may cost $100,000 per site including material and labor costs. If there are 10 such installations spaced 10 miles apart on a pipeline, the cost of valves and fittings would be estimated to be $1.0 million [1]. 5.2.5 Meter Stations Meter stations may be estimated as a lump sum fixed price for a complete site. For example, a 10 in. meter station with meter, valves, and piping instrumentation may be priced at $250,000 per site including material and labor cost. If there are two such meter stations on the pipeline, the total meter costs would be estimated at $500,000 [1]. 5.2.6 SCADA and Telecommunication System This category covers costs associated with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), telephone, microwave, etc. SCADA system costs include the facilities for remote monitoring, operation, and control of the pipeline from a central control center. Depending upon the length of the pipeline, number of pump stations, valve stations, etc., the cost of these facilities may range from $2 million to $5 million or more. An estimate based on the total project cost may range from 2% to 5% [1]. 5.2.7 Engineering and Construction Management Engineering and construction management consist of preliminary and detailed engineering design costs and personnel costs associated with management and inspection of the construction effort for pipelines, pump stations, and other facilities. This category usually ranges from 15% to 20% of total pipeline project costs [1].

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5.2.8 Environmental and Permitting In the past, environmental and permitting costs used to be a small percentage of the total pipeline system costs. In recent times, due to stricter environmental and regulatory requirements, this category now includes items such as an environmental impacts report, environmental studies pertaining to the flora and fauna, fish and game, endangered species, sensitive areas such as Native American burial sites, and allowance for habitat mitigation. The latter cost includes the acquisition of new acreage to compensate for areas disturbed by the pipeline route. This new acreage will then be allocated for parks, wildlife preserves, etc. Permitting costs would include pipeline construction permits such as road crossings, railroad crossings, river and stream crossings, and permitting for antipollution devices for pump stations and tank farms. Environmental and permitting costs may be as high as 10% to 15% of the total project costs [1]. 5.2.9 Right-of-Way Acquisitions Right of way (ROW) must be acquired for building a pipeline along private lands, farms, public roads, and railroads. In addition to initial acquisition costs there may be annual lease costs that the pipeline company will have to pay railroads, agencies, and private parties for pipeline easement and maintenance. The annual ROW costs would be considered an expense and would be included in the operating costs of the pipeline. For example, the ROW acquisitions costs for a pipeline project may be $20 million, which would be included in the total capital costs of the pipeline project. In addition, annual lease payments for ROW acquired may be a total of $500,000 a year, which would be included with other operating costs such as pipeline operation and maintenance, general and administrative costs, etc [1]. Historically, ROW costs have been in the range of 6% to 8% of total project costs for pipelines [1]. 74

5.2.10 Other Project Costs Other project costs would include allowance for funds used during construction (AFUDC), legal and regulatory costs, and contingency costs [1]. Contingency costs cover unforeseen circumstances and design changes including pipeline rerouting to bypass sensitive areas, pump stations and facilities modifications not originally anticipated at the start of the project. AFUDC and contingency costs will range between 15% and 20% of the total project cost [1].

The annual operating cost of a pipeline consists mainly of the followings [1]: Pump station energy cost (electricity or natural gas). Pump station equipment maintenance costs (equipment overhaul, repairs, etc.). Pipeline maintenance cost including line rider, aerial patrol, pipe replacements, relocations, etc. SCADA and telecommunication costs. Valve and meter station maintenance. Tank farm operation and maintenance. Utility costs: water, natural gas, etc. Ongoing environmental and permitting costs. Right-of-way lease costs. Rentals and lease costs. General and administrative costs including payroll.

In the above list, pump station costs include electrical energy and equipment maintenance costs, which can be substantial. Consider two pump stations of 5000 HP, each operating 24 hr a day, 350 days a year with 2 weeks shut down for maintenance. This can result in annual operation and maintenance costs of $6 million to $7 million based on electricity costs of 8 to 10 cents/kWh. 75

In addition to the power cost other components of operations and maintenance costs include annual maintenance and overhead, which can range from $0.50 million to $1.0 million depending on the equipment involved [1].

5.4

Pipeline Project

In many instances the technical and economic feasibility of building a new pipeline system will be investigated to provide transportation services for liquids from a storage facility to a refinery or from a refinery to a tank farm. Other types of studies may include technical and economic feasibility studies for expanding the capacity of an existing pipeline system to handle additional throughput volumes due to increased market demand or refinery expansion [1]. WHCC to Fula pipeline project, where a brand new pipeline system needs to be designed from scratch, involve analysis of the best pipeline route, optimum pipe size, and pumping equipment required to transport a given volume of liquid. In this section we will learn how an economic pipe size is determined for a pipeline system, based on an analysis of capital and operating costs by using WNPOC or local standards. WHCC to Fula Pipeline is a project in which a 185 km pipeline is to be built to transport 40,000 bbl/day of heavy crude oil from a WHCC to a Fula (block6). The question is: What pipe diameter and pump stations are optimal for handling this volume? The hydraulic study results showed that the selected pipe diameter range and the required design parameters as shown in the previous chapter4, Table 4.3 Power Required @ WHCC Calculation. To calculate the capital cost of facilities, $20 per inch per meter for line pipe (pipe cost will be used as per WNPOC Standard (USD/inch/meter)-EPCC) delivered to the construction site. Including all items mentioned for the capital cost above. The installed cost for pump stations will be assumed to be $49088.36/ kW (Pump Cost as per WNPOC Standard (USD/kW)-EPCC) and 1 MUSD/MW for Pump Crude Engine. To account for other cost items discussed earlier in this chapter, 25% will be added to the subtotal of pipeline and pump station cost. The estimated capital costs for 76

the three pipe sizes are summarized in Table 5.2. Based on total capital costs alone, it can be seen that the 16 in. system is the best. However, the operating costs will be taken into consideration as well, before making a decision on the optimum pipe size. Table 5.1 Capital Costs for Various Pipe Sizes

Next, the operating cost for each scenario will be calculated, using Crude Engine energy costs for pumping. As discussed in an earlier section of this chapter, many other items enter into the calculation of annual operating costs, such as operation and maintenance, general and administrative costs, etc. For simplicity, the crude engine cost of the pump stations will be increased by a factor to account for all other operating costs.

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Using the MW calculated at each pump station for the four cases and 115 USD/MWh for crude engine cost, the annual operating cost for 24 hr operation per day, 350 days per year the annual costs were calculated as below: (4.3624350115)/10^6=$4.21 million/yr for 10 in. (1.9424350115)/10^6=$1.87 million/yr for 12 in. (1.0224350115)/10^6=$0.99 million/yr for 14 in. (0.6224350115)/10^6=$0.60 million/yr for 16 in. Strictly speaking, the above costs will have to be increased to account for the demand charge for starting and stopping crude engine. The utility company may charge based on the kW rating of the motor. This will range from $0.004 to $0.006 per MW/month. Using an average demand charge of $0.005/MW/ month, the following demand charges for the pump station in a 12month period has been gotten: 4.210.00512=$0.00000026 million for 10 in. 1.870.00512=$0.00000012 million for 12 in. 0.990.00512=$0.00000006 million for 14 in. 0.600.00512=$0.00000004 million for 16 in. Adding the demand charges to the previously calculated electric power cost, the total annual electricity costs has been gotten as $4.20934159 million/yr for 10 in. $1.87013557 million/yr for 12 in. $0.98695430 million/yr for 14 in. $0.60146218 million/yr for 16 in. Increasing above numbers by a 50% factor to account for other operating costs such as operation and maintenance, general and administrative, etc., the following for total annual costs for each scenario has been gotten: $6.31 million/yr for 10 in. $2.81 million/yr for 12 in. $1.48 million/yr for 14 in. $0.90 million/yr for 16 in. The estimated operating costs for the four pipe sizes are summarized in Table 5.3.

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Next, a project life of 20 years and interest rate of 8% will be used to perform a discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis, to obtain the present value of these annual operating costs. Then the total capital cost calculated earlier and listed in Table 6.1 will be added to the present values of the annual operating costs. The present value (PV) will then be obtained for each of the three scenarios as follows: Discounted Cash Flow Analysis=DCF for n years project life time at i (%) interest rate will be calculated as below: PV = Total Capital Cost (CAPEX) + Present Value Cost (P) P = A [(1+i) ^n-1]/ [i*(1+i) ^n] Where: A is Annual Value. i is interest rate. n is number of years. Hence, PV of 10 in. system=$268.03 million + present value of $6.31 million/yr at 8% for 25 years or PV10=268.03+67.40=$335.43 million Similarly, for the 12 in, 14 in and 16 in. systems, as follows: PV12=154.03+29.95=$183.98 million PV14=116.75+15.80=$132.55 million PV16=105.69+9.63=$115.32 million 79

The estimated present values (PV) costs for the four pipe sizes are summarized in Table 5.4. Table 5.3 Total Present Values for Various Pipe Sizes

Thus, based on the net present value of investment, the 16 in. pipeline system with one 504 kW pump station can be concluded as the preferred choice as shown in Diagram 5.1.

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In the preceding calculations several assumptions were made for simplicity. Major cost components were considered, such as pipeline and pump station costs, and added a percentage of the subtotal to account for other costs. Also, in calculating the PV of the annual costs constant numbers were used for each year. A more rigorous approach would require the annual costs be inflated by some percentage every year to account for inflation and cost of living adjustments. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) could be used in this regard. As far as capital costs go, more accurate results can be gotten if we perform a more detailed analysis of the cost of valves, meters, and tanks instead of using a flat percentage of the pipeline and pump station costs. The objective in this chapter was to introduce the reader to the importance of economic analysis and to outline a simple approach to selecting the economical pipe size. In addition, the earlier section on cost of services and tariff calculations provided an insight into how transportation companies finance a project and collect revenues for their services.

5.5

Summary

The major cost components of a pipeline system consisting of pipe pump station, etc. has been reviewed, and methods of estimating the capital costs of these items have been illustrated. The annual costs such as electrical energy, operation and maintenance, etc., were also identified and calculated for a typical pipeline. Using the capital cost and operating cost, the annual cost of service was calculated based on specified project life; interest cost, etc. thus the transportation tariff that could be charged for shipments through the pipelines was determined. Also a methodology for determining the optimal pipe size for a particular application using present value (PV) was explained. Considering four different pipe sizes, the best option based on a comparison of PV of the four different cases was determined.

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Thermal hydraulics takes into account the temperature variation of a liquid as it flows through the pipeline. This is in contrast to isothermal hydraulics, where there is no significant temperature variation in the liquid. In previous chapters we have calculated Reynolds number depending on the force applied by pumps, the materials viscosity at operating temperature, and the physical size and cross-sectional shape of the pipe through which the material is moving. The calculations were made only for steady state liquid flow in WHCC to Fula pipeline [1]. In WHCC to Fula pipeline design where heavy crude oil and other liquids of high viscosity have to be pumped, the liquid is heated to 80C (176F) prior to being pumped through the pipeline. In this chapter it will be explored that how calculations for the selected pipe size are performed in thermal hydraulics [1]. 6.1 Temperature-Dependent Flow In the preceding chapters it has been concentrated on steady-state liquid flow in pipelines without paying much attention to temperature variations along the pipeline. It has been assumed that the liquid entered the pipeline inlet at some temperature such as 80 C (176F). The liquid properties such as specific gravity and viscosity at the inlet temperature were used to calculate the Reynolds number and friction factor and finally the pressure drop due to friction [1]. Similarly, it has been also used the specific gravity at inlet temperature to calculate the elevation head based on the pipeline topography. In all cases the liquid properties were considered at some constant flowing temperature. These calculations are therefore based on isothermal (constant-temperature) flow [1]. The above may be valid in most cases in which the liquid transported, such as water, gasoline, diesel, or light crude oil, is at ambient temperature [1]. As the liquid flows through the pipeline, heat may be transferred to or from the liquid from the surrounding soil (buried pipeline) or the ambient air (above-ground pipeline). Significant changes in liquid temperatures due to heat transfer with the surroundings will affect liquid properties such as specific gravity and viscosity. This in turn will 82

affect pressure drop calculations. So far this heat transfer effect was ignored, assuming minimal temperature variations along the pipeline. However, there are instances when the liquid has to be heated to a much higher temperature than ambient conditions to reduce the viscosity and make it flow easily [1]. Pumping a higher-viscosity liquid that is heated will also require less pump horsepower. For WHCC to Fula Pipeline, a high-viscosity crude oil (112.2 mm2/s at 80C (176F)) which is heated to 80C (176F) before it is pumped into the pipeline. This hightemperature liquid loses heat to the surrounding soil as it flows through the pipeline by conduction of heat from the interior of the pipe to the soil through the pipe wall. The soil temperature may be 20C (68F) to 9C (49F) during the rainy season and 48C (118F) to 25C (77F) during the summer season. Therefore, a considerable temperature difference exists between the hot liquid in the pipe and the surrounding soil [4]. The temperature difference of about 69C (156F) in rainy season and 55C (131F) during summer season will cause significant heat transfer between the crude oil and surrounding soil. This will result in a temperature drop of the liquid and variation in liquid specific gravity and viscosity as it flows through the pipeline. Therefore, in such instances it will be wrong assuming a constant flowing temperature to calculate pressure drop as we do in isothermal flow. Such a heated liquid pipeline may be bare or insulated. In this chapter the effect of temperature variation and friction loss along the pipeline will be studied, known as thermal hydraulics [1]. Consider the selected 16 in. buried pipeline transporting 40,000 bbl/day of a heavy crude oil that enters the pipeline at an inlet temperature of 80C (176F). Assume that the liquid temperature has dropped to 70C (158F) at a location 15 kilometers from the pipeline inlet. Suppose the crude oil properties at 80C (176F) inlet conditions and at 70C (158F) at kilometer post 15 are as follows:

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Using the 80C (176F) inlet temperature we calculate the frictional pressure drop at inlet conditions to be 0.19742 bar/km. At the temperature conditions at kilometer post 15, using the given liquid properties we find that the frictional pressure drop has increased to 0.28145 bar/km. Thus, in a 15 km section of pipe the pressure drop due to friction varies from 0.19742 to 0.20133 bar/km as shown in Figure 6.1. An average value of the pressure drop per kilometer could be used to calculate the total frictional pressure drop in the first 15 km of the pipe. However, this will be a very rough estimate. A better approach would be to subdivide the 15 km section of the pipeline into smaller segments 5 km long and to compute the pressure drop per kilometer for each segment. Then the individual pressure drops for each 5 km segment will be added to get the total frictional pressure drop in the 15 km length of pipeline. Of course, this assumes that the temperature of the liquid at 5 km increments up to kilometer post 15. The liquid properties and pressure drop due to friction can then be calculated at the boundaries of each 5 km segment and the temperature gradient plotted as illustrated in Figure 6.2. [1] How the temperature variation along the pipeline will be obtained so the liquid properties at each temperature will be calculated and then calculate the pressure drop due to friction? This represents the most complicated aspect of thermal hydraulic analysis. Several approaches have been put forth for calculating the temperature variation in a pipeline transporting heated liquid. The soil temperatures along the pipeline, thermal conductivity of pipe material, pipe insulation, thermal conductivity of soil, and pipe burial depth will be considered. In this chapter a simplified approach to calculate the temperature profile in a buried pipeline will be presented. The method and formulas used were developed originally for WHCC to Fula Pipeline System. These have been found to be quite accurate over the range of temperatures and pressures encountered in heated liquid pipelines today [1]. The hydraulic gradient showing the pressure profile in a heated liquid pipeline is illustrated in Figure 6.3. Note the curved shape of the gradient, compared with the straight-line gradient in isothermal flow (such as Figures 6.4 or 6.5) [1]. An example will illustrate the use of these formulas. More accurate methods include using a computer software program that will subdivide the pipeline into small segments and compute the heat balance and pressure drop 84

calculations, to develop the pressure and temperature profile for the entire pipeline. One such commercially available program is PIPESIM developed by Schlumberger (www.slb.com/pipesim). For a sample pressure and temperature profiles from a liquid pipeline thermal hydraulics analysis using PIPESIM software, refer to Figures A.3 & A.4 in Appendix A.

6.2 Formulas for Thermal Hydraulics 6.2.1 Thermal Conductivity Thermal conductivity is the property used in heat conduction through a solid. In English units it is measured in Btu/hr/ft/F. In SI units thermal conductivity is expressed in W/m/K [1]. For heat transfer through a solid of area A and thickness dx, with a temperature difference dT, the formula in English units is [1]: H=K(A)(dT/dx) where H=Heat flux perpendicular to the surface area, Btu/hr K=Thermal conductivity of solid, Btu/hr/ft/F A=Area of heat flux, ft2 dx=Thickness of solid, ft dT=Temperature difference across the solid, F The term dT/dx represents the temperature gradient in F/ft. Equation (6.1) is also known as the Fourier heat conduction formula. It can be seen from Equation (6.1) that the thermal conductivity of a material is numerically equal to the amount of heat transferred across a unit area of the solid material with unit thickness, when the temperature difference between the two faces of the solid is maintained at 1 degree. The thermal conductivity for steel pipe and soil for WHCC to Fula Pipeline are as follows: K for steel pipe=31.2 Btu/hr/ft/F K for soil=0.75113 to 1.00535 Btu/hr/ft/F K for insulation =0.06933 Btu/hr/ft/F Sometimes heated liquid pipelines are insulated on the outside with an insulating material. In SI units, Equation (6.1) becomes [1] H=K(A)(dT/dx) where H=Heat flux, W K=Thermal conductivity of solid, W/m/K 87 (6.2) (6.1)

A=Area of heat flux, m2 dx=Thickness of solid, m dT=Temperature difference across the solid, K In SI units, the thermal conductivity for steel pipe, soil and insulation for WHCC to Fula Pipeline are as follows [4]: K for steel pipe=54 W/m/K K for soil=1.3 to 1.74 W/m/K K for insulation=0.12 W/m/K 6.2.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient The overall heat transfer coefficient is also used in heat flux calculations. Equation (6.1) for heat flux can be written in terms of overall heat transfer coefficient as follows [1]: H=U(A)(dT) where U=Overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr/ft2/F Other symbols in Equation (6.3) are the same as in Equation (6.1). In SI units, Equation (6.3) becomes H=U(A)(dT) where U=Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/ m2/K Other symbols in Equation (6.4) are the same as in Equation (6.2). The value of U may range from 0.3 to 0.6 Btu/hr/ft2/F in English units and 1.7 to 3.4 W/ m2/K in SI units. When analyzing heat transfer between the liquid in a buried pipeline and the outside soil, we consider flow of heat through the pipe wall and pipe insulation (if any) to the soil. If U represents the overall heat transfer coefficient, we can write from Equation (6.3) H=U(A)(TL-TS) where A=Area of pipe under consideration, ft2 TL=Liquid temperature, F TS=Soil temperature, F U=Overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr/ ft2/F 88 (6.5) (6.4) (6.3)

Since we are dealing with temperature variation along the pipeline length, we must consider a small section of pipeline at a time when applying above Equation (6.5) for heat transfer [1]. 6.2.2.1 WHCC to Fula Pipeline Heat Transfer Rate Given a 606, 955.4 ft (185 km) length of 16 in (0.406 4 m). pipe carrying a heated liquid at 176F (80C). If the outside soil temperature is 80.6F (27C) and the overall heat transfer coefficient U=0.5 Btu/hr/ ft2/F (2.8 W/ m2/K) Then we can calculate the heat transfer using Equation (6.5) as follows: H=0.5 A (176-80.6) Where A is the area through which heat flux occurs: A= (16/12) 606, 955.4 =2542408.8 ft2 Therefore H=0.52542408.8 95.4=121,272,899.8 Btu/hr In SI units, H=2.8 A (80-27) Where A is the area through which heat flux occurs: A=0.406 4 185,000 =236,197.5 m2 Therefore H=2.8236,197.5 53=35, 051709 Watt 6.2.3 Heat Balance The pipeline is subdivided and for each segment the heat content balance is computed as follows [1]: Hin H +Hw =Hout Where Hin=Heat content entering line segment, Btu/hr H=Heat transferred from line segment to surrounding medium (soil or air), Btu/hr Hw =Heat content from frictional work, Btu/hr Hout =Heat content leaving line segment, Btu/hr In the above we have included the effect of frictional heating in the term Hw. With viscous liquids the effect of friction is to create additional heat which would raise the (6.6)

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liquid temperature. Therefore in thermal hydraulic analysis frictional heating is included to improve the calculation accuracy [1]. In SI units, Equation (6.6) will be the same, with each term expressed in watts instead of Btu/hr. The heat balance Equation (6.6) forms the basis for computing the outlet temperature of the liquid in a segment, starting with its inlet temperature and taking into account the heat loss (or gain) with the surroundings and frictional heating. In the following sections we will formulate the method of calculating each term in Equation (6.6). 6.2.4 Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) In heat transfer calculations, due to varying temperatures it is customary to use a slightly different concept of temperature difference called the logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD). The LMTD between the liquid in the pipeline and the surrounding medium is calculated as follows [1]: Consider a pipeline segment of length x with liquid temperatures T1 at the upstream end and T2 at the downstream end of the segment. If Ts represents the average soil temperature (or ambient air temperature for an above-ground pipeline) surrounding this pipe segment, the logarithmic mean temperature of the pipe (Tm) segment is calculated as follows [1]:

(6.7) where Tm=Logarithmic mean temperature of pipe segment, F T1=Temperature of liquid entering pipe segment, F T2=Temperature of liquid leaving pipe segment, F TS=Sink temperature (soil or surrounding medium), F In SI units, Equation (6.7) will be the same, with all temperatures expressed in C instead of F. For WHCC to Fula Pipeline, if the average soil temperature is 80.6F and the temperatures of the pipe segments upstream and downstream are 176F and 158F, respectively, the logarithmic mean Temperature of the pipe segment is: 90

Tm = 80.6 + In SI units, Tm = 27 +

(176-80.6) (158-80.6) =80.6+ 86.09=166.7F Loge [(176-80.6)/ (158-80.6)] (80-27) (70-27) =27+ 47.83=74.83C Loge [(80-27)/ (70-27)]

We have thus calculated the logarithmic mean temperature of the pipe segment to be 166.7F (74.83C). If we had used a simple arithmetic average we would get the following for the mean temperature of the pipe segment: Arithmetic mean temperature=(176+158)/2=167F This is not too far off the logarithmic mean temperature Tm calculated above. It can be seen that the logarithmic mean temperature approach gives a slightly more accurate representation of the average liquid temperature in the pipe segment. Note that the use of natural logarithm in Equation (6.7) signifies an exponential decay of the liquid temperature in the pipeline segment. In this example, the LMTD for the pipe segment is LMTD=166.7-80.6=86.1F And in SI units, LMTD=74.83-27=47.83C If we assume an overall heat transfer coefficient U=0.5 Btu/hr/ft2/F (2.8 W/ m2/K), we can estimate the heat flux from this pipe segment to the surrounding soil using Equation (6.4) as follows: Heat flux=0.5186.1=43.05 Btu/hr per ft2 of pipe area In SI units, Heat flux=2.81 (47.83+273) =898.32 Watt per m2 of pipe area 6.2.5 Heat Entering and Leaving Pipe Segment The heat content of the liquid entering and leaving a pipe segment is calculated using the mass flow rate of the liquid, its specific heat and the temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the segment. The heat content of the liquid entering the pipe segment is calculated from [1] 91

Hin=w(Cpi)(T1) Hout=w(Cpo)(T2) where Hin=Heat content of liquid entering pipe segment, Btu/hr Hout=Heat content of liquid leaving pipe segment, Btu/hr Cpi=Specific heat of liquid at inlet, Btu/lb/F Cpo=Specific heat of liquid at outlet, Btu/lb/F w=Liquid flow rate, lb/hr T1=Temperature of liquid entering pipe segment, F T2=Temperature of liquid leaving pipe segment, F

(6.8) (6.9)

The heat content of the liquid leaving the pipe segment is calculated from [1]

The specific heat Cp of most liquids ranges between 0.4 and 0.5 Btu/lb/F (0.84 and 2.09 kJ/kg/K) and increases with liquid temperature. For petroleum fluids Cp can be calculated if the specific gravity or API gravity and temperatures are known. In SI units Equations (6.8) and (6.9) become Hin=w(Cpi)(T1) Hout=w(Cpo)(T2) where Hin=Heat content of liquid entering pipe segment, J/s (W) Hout=Heat content of liquid leaving pipe segment, J/s (W) Cpi=Specific heat of liquid at inlet, kJ/kg/k Cpo=Specific heat of liquid at outlet, kJ/kg/k w=Liquid flow rate, kg/s T1=Temperature of liquid entering pipe segment, k T2=Temperature of liquid leaving pipe segment, k 6.2.6 Heat Transfer: Buried Pipeline Consider a buried pipeline, with insulation, that transports a heated liquid. If the pipeline is divided into segments of length L we can calculate the heat transfer between the liquid and the surrounding medium using the following equations [1]: In English units 92 (6.10) (6.11)

Hb=6.28(L)(Tm-Ts)/(Parm1+Parm2) Parm1=(1/Kins)Loge(Ri/Rp) Parm2=(1/Ks)Loge[2S/D+((2S/D)2-1) ] where Hb=Heat transfer, Btu/hr Tm=Log mean temperature of pipe segment, F TS=Ambient soil temperature, F L=Pipe segment length, ft Ri=Pipe insulation outer radius, ft Rp=Pipe wall outer radius, ft Kins=Thermal conductivity of insulation, Btu/hr/ft/F Ks=Thermal conductivity of soil, Btu/hr/ft/F S=Depth of cover (pipe burial depth) to pipe centerline, ft D=Pipe outside diameter, ft

1/2

Parm1 and Parm2 are intermediate values that depend on parameters indicated. In SI units, Equations (6.12), (6.13), and (6.14) become [1] Hb=6.28(L)(Tm-Ts)/(Parm1+Parm2) Parm1=(1/Kins)Loge(Ri/Rp) Parm2=(1/Ks)Loge[2S/D+((2S/D)2-1)1/2] where Hb=Heat transfer, W Tm=Log mean temperature of pipe segment, k Ts=Ambient soil temperature, k L=Pipe segment length, m Ri=Pipe insulation outer radius, mm Rp=Pipe wall outer radius, mm Kins=Thermal conductivity of insulation, W/m/k Ks=Thermal conductivity of soil, W/m/k S=Depth of cover (pipe burial depth) to pipe centerline, mm D=Pipe outside diameter, mm (6.15) (6.16) (6.17)

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6.2.7 Heat Transfer: Above-Ground Pipeline An above-ground insulated pipeline can also be used to transport a heated liquid. If the pipeline is divided into segments of length L, we can calculate the heat transfer between the liquid and the ambient air using the following equations [1]. In English units Ha=6.28(L)(Tm-Ta)/(Parm1+Parm3) Parm3=1.25/[Ri(4.8+0.008(Tm-Ta))] Parml=(1/Kins)Loge(Ri/Rp) where Ha=Heat transfer, Btu/hr Tm=Log mean temperature of pipe segment, F Ta=Ambient air temperature, F L=Pipe segment length, ft Ri=Pipe insulation outer radius, ft Rp=Pipe wall outer radius, ft Kins=Thermal conductivity of insulation, Btu/hr/ft/F In SI units, Equations (6.18), (6.19), and (6.20) become [1] Ha=6.28(L) (Tm-Ta)/(Parm1+Parm3) Parm3=1.25/[Ri(4.8+0.008(Tm-Ta))] Parm1=(1/Kins)Loge(Ri/Rp) where Ha=Heat transfer, W Tm=Log mean temperature of pipe segment, K Ta=Ambient air temperature, K L=Pipe segment length, m Ri=Pipe insulation outer radius, mm Rp=Pipe wall outer radius, mm Kins=Thermal conductivity of insulation, W/m/K (6.21) (6.22) (6.23) (6.18) (6.19) (6.20)

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6.2.8 Frictional Heating The frictional pressure drop causes heating of the liquid. The heat gained by the liquid due to friction is calculated using the following equations [1]: Hw=2545 (HHP) HHP=(1.766410-4)(Q)(Sg)(hf)(Lm) where Hw=Frictional heat gained, Btu/hr HHP=Hydraulic horsepower required for pipe friction Q=Liquid flow rate, bbl/hr Sg=Liquid specific gravity hf=Frictional head loss, ft/mile Lm=Pipe segment length, miles In SI units, Equations (6.24) and (6.25) become [1] Hw=1000 (Power) Power=(0.00272)(Q)(Sg)(hf)(Lm) where Hw=Frictional heat gained, W Power=Power required for pipe friction, kW Q=Liquid flow rate, m3/hr Sg=Liquid specific gravity hf=Frictional head loss, m/km Lm=Pipe segment length, km 6.2.9 Pipe Segment Outlet Temperature Using the formulas developed in the preceding sections and referring to the heat balance Equation (6.6), we can now calculate the temperature of the liquid at the outlet of the pipe segment as follows: For buried pipe [1]: T2=(1/wCp)[2545 (HHP)-Hb+(wCp)T1] For above-ground pipe [1]: T2=(1/wCp)[2545(HHP)-Ha+(wCp)T1] 95 (6.29) (6.28) (6.26) (6.27) (6.24) (6.25)

where Hb=Heat transfer for buried pipe, Btu/hr from Equation (6.12) Ha=Heat transfer for above-ground pipe, Btu/hr from Equation (6.18) Cp=Average specific heat of liquid in pipe segment For simplicity, we have used the average specific heat above for the pipe segment based on Cpi and Cpo discussed earlier in Equations (6.8) and (6.9). In SI units, Equations (6.28) and (6.29) can be expressed as For buried pipe [1]: T2=(1/wCp) [1000(Power)-Hb+(wCp)T1] For above-ground pipe [1]: T2=(1/wCp) [1000(Power)-Ha+(wCp)T1] where Hb=Heat transfer for buried pipe, W Ha=Heat transfer for above-ground pipe, W Power=Frictional power defined in Equation (6.27), kW 6.2.10 Liquid Heating due to Pump Inefficiency Since a centrifugal pump is not 100% efficient, the difference between the hydraulic horsepower and the brake horsepower represents power lost. Most of this power lost is converted to heating the liquid being pumped. The temperature rise of the liquid due to pump inefficiency may be calculated from the following equation [1]: T=(H/778 CP)(1/E-1) where T=Temperature rise, F H=Pump head, ft CP=Specific heat of liquid, Btu/lb/F E=Pump efficiency, as a decimal value less than 1.0 When considering thermal hydraulics, the above temperature rise as the liquid moves through a pump station should be included in the temperature profile calculation [1]. For example, if the liquid temperature has dropped to 173F at the suction side of a (6.32) (6.31) (6.30)

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pump station at WHCC and the temperature rise due to pump inefficiency causes a 3F rise, the liquid temperature at the pump discharge will be 176F. 6.2.11 WHCC to Fula Pipeline Heat Balance Equation A 16 in. (0.4064 m), 0.309 in. (0.008 m) wall thickness, 185 km long buried pipeline transports 40,000 bbl/day of heavy crude oil that enters the pipeline at 176F (80C). The crude oil has a specific gravity and viscosity as follows:

Given a pipe burial depth of 2 m (78.740 in.) to the top of pipe and 0.0028 m (0.110 in). insulation thickness with a thermal conductivity (K value) of 0.06933 Btu/hr/ ft/F (0.12 W/m/K). Also given a uniform soil temperature of 27C (80.6F) with a K value of 1.00535 Btu/hr/ft/F (1.74 W/m/K). Using the heat balance equation calculate the outlet Temperature of the crude oil at the end of the first mile segment. Assume an average specific heat of 0.45 for the crude oil. Solution First calculate the heat transfer for buried pipe using Equations (6.15) Through (6.17): Parm1= (1/0.12) Loge (206/203.2)=0.11405 Parm2= (1/1.74) Loge [22203.2/406.4+ ((22203.2/406.4) 2-1) 1/2] =1.76695 Hb=6.28(1000) (Tm-27)/ (0.11405+1.76695) or Hb=3338.65(Tm-27) Watt (6.33) The log mean temperature Tm of this 1 Kilometer pipe segment has to be approximated first, since it depends on the inlet temperature, soil temperature, and the unknown liquid temperature at the outlet of the 1 Kilometer segment. As a first approximation, assume the outlet temperature at the end of the 1 Kilometer segment to be T2=75C. Calculate Tm using Equation (6.7): Tm = 27 + (80-27) (75-27) Loge [(80-27)/ (75-27)] 97 (6.34)

Or Tm =77.46C (171.43F) Therefore, Hb from Equation (9.33) above becomes Hb=3338.65(77.46-27) =168468.28Watt =168.468 kW The frictional heating component Hw will be calculated using Equations (9.24) and (9.25). The frictional head drop hf depends on the specific gravity and viscosity at the calculated mean temperature Tm. Using the below viscosity-temperature respectively as below: Firstly, the specific gravity was calculated as follows: ST=S60-a(T-60) where ST=Specific gravity at temperature T S60=Specific gravity at 60F T=Temperature, F a=A constant that depends on the liquid Given the specific gravity of WHCC to Fula Pipeline crude oil at 60F is 0.9649 and the specific gravity at 176F is 0.9281. What is the specific gravity at 171.43F? Solution Using Equation (6.35), we can write 0.9281=0.9649-a (176-60) Solving for a, we get a=0.00001877 We can now calculate the specific gravity at 50F using Equation (9.35) as S171.43=0.9649-0.00001877 (171.43-60) =0.9439 Secondly, the viscosity was calculated as follows: viscosity at 171.43F(77.46C) was calculated by interpolation between 176F(80C) and 158F(70C) from the above given crude oil specific gravity and viscosity and founded 126.03 cSt (126.03 mm2/s). Now, calculate Reynolds number using the below equations from chapter 3 98 (6.35) relationship, we calculate the specific gravity and viscosity at 171.43F(77.46C) to be 0.9439 and 126.03 cSt (126.03 mm2/s),

Re=92.24 Q/ (D) Where: Q=Flow rate, bbl/day D=Internal diameter, in. =Kinematic viscosity, cSt An equivalent equation for Reynolds number in SI units is: Re=353,678 Q/ (d) Where: Q=Flow rate, m3/h d=Internal diameter, mm =Kinematic viscosity, cSt

(3.18)

(3.20)

The Reynolds number will be calculated from the equation (3.18) as follows: Re=92.24 *(40,000)/ (126.03*15.691) = 1865.75 Using the equation (3.23) from chapter 3, the friction factor is as follows: f=64/Re (3.23)

f= 64/1865.75=0.034 Frictional head drop hf will be calculated from the Darcy-Weisbach equation (3.22) as follows: hf=0.034(185000/0.398 551)(V2/2*9.81) The velocity V is calculated using Equation (3.15) as follows V=353.6777 (264.656)/( 398.551 4)2=0.6 m/s Therefore, the frictional pressure drop is hf=0.034(185000/0.398 551)((0.6)2/2*9.81)=279.32 m From Equations (6.26) & (6.27) the frictional horsepower (W) is Hw=1000 (Power) Power=(0.00272)(Q)(Sg)(hf)(Lm) Power= (0.00272) 264.6560.9439 (279.32/185)1.0=1.02590 kW Therefore frictional heating from Equation (6.26) is Hw=1000 (1.02590) =1025.9 Watt Then, 99 (6.26) (6.27)

The mass flow rate (w)=*Q=(0.9439*1000) (264.656*3600)=899.31106 kg/s From Equation (9.30) the liquid temperature at the outlet of the 1 kilometer segment is T2=(1/wCp) [1000(Power)-Hb+(wCp)T1] T2=79.99 C (175.9F) This value of T2 is used as a second approximation in Equation (6.34) to calculate a new value of Tm and subsequently the next approximation for T2. Calculations are repeated until successive values of T2 are within close agreement. This is left as an exercise for the reader. It can be seen from the foregoing that manual calculation of temperatures and pressures along a heated oil pipeline is definitely a laborious process, but that can be eased using programmable calculators and personal computers. Thermal hydraulics is very complex and calculations require utilization of some type of computer program to generate quick results. Such a program can subdivide the pipeline into short segments and calculate the temperatures, liquid properties, and pressure drops as we have seen in the examples in this chapter. Several software packages are commercially available to perform thermal hydraulics. One such package is PIPESIM developed by Schlumberger. (www.slb.com/pipesim). For a sample output reports from a liquid pipeline thermal hydraulics analysis using PIPESIM software, refer to Tables A.5 & A.6 in Appendix A. 6.3 Summary We have explored the thermal effects of pipeline hydraulics in this chapter. To transport viscous liquids, they have to be heated to a temperature sometimes much higher than the ambient conditions. This temperature differential between the pumped liquid and the surrounding soil (buried pipeline) or ambient air (above-ground ipeline) causes heat transfer to occur, resulting in temperature variation of the liquid along the pipeline [1]. Unlike isothermal flow, where the liquid temperature is uniform throughout the pipeline, heated pipeline hydraulics requires subdividing the pipeline into short segments and calculating pressure drops based on liquid properties at the average temperature of each segment. We illustrated this using an example that showed how 100 (6.30) T2= (1/899.31106 0.45) [1000(1.02590) - 168468.28 + (899.31106 0.45)80]

the temperature varies along the pipeline. The concept of LMTD was introduced for determining a more accurate average segment temperature. Also, a method to compute the heat transfer between the liquid and the surrounding medium was shown taking into account thermal conductivities of pipe, soil, and insulation. The heating of liquid due to friction was also quantified, as was the liquid heating associated with pump inefficiency [1]. It was pointed out that unlike isothermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulics is a complex phenomenon that requires computer methods to correctly solve equations for temperature variation and pressure drop [1].

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Considering the finding from the rigorous hydraulic and cost analysis, the conclusions are as the followings: 1. The selected pipe size is NPS 16" with wall thickness of 7.9 mm based on line pipe grade of API 5l X65 with specification break of ANSI 600#, refer to Table 3.1 in Chapter 3. 2. The design internal pressure is 99.28 bar (1440 psi) refer to Table A.2 in Appendix A. 3. The required pump station is one pump station (internal combustion engine driven) with the following specifications: 504 kW pump rated power, 80% pump efficiency, 1 Mw engine rated power and 89% transmission efficiency to safely transport the specified throughput from WHCC to Fula station refer to Figure A.3 in Appendix A.. 4. The operation temperature of the pipeline system is 75C. Therefore, 3 Layer Poly Propylene coating is selected considering the sustained temperature to 38C, refer to Figure A.4 and Table A.54 in Appendix A. 5. For the selected size, the heating system is required at the initial station to heat up from 46C to 80C at WHCC and terminus station to heat up from 38C to 75C and no heating stations required between two points refer to Figure A.4 in Appendix A. 6. The net present value of investment, the 16 in. pipeline system with one 504 kW pump station can be concluded as USD 115 millions refer to Table 5.3 and Figure 5.1 in Chapter 5.

102

Recommendations:

WHCC to Fula pipeline pipesims model to be linked with a HYSYS process simulator for an integrated sand face to process facility analysis. Further studies and analysis to be conducted for water hammer Phenomena effect in or along WHCC to Fula pipeline by using one of the numerical method for example Method of Characteristics (MOC).

103

REFERENCES

1. E.Shashi Menon, 2004, Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics, SYSTEK Technologies, Inc., Lake Havasu City, U.S.A. 2. R.J. (Ray) Smith, 1999, Comparison Of API And CSA Offshore Pipeline Stress And Strain Design Criteria, Alaskan Arctic Pipeline Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska 3. Argonne National Laboratory: Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operation of Interstate Liquid Petroleum Pipelines, U.S. 4. China Petroleum LONGWAY Consultant Co. Ltd, 2009, Screening Study Report for WNPOC Crude Evacuation to Block 6. 5. Caleb Brett Fujairah, 2008, Crude Assay Report on Crude Oil sample marked: "WNPOC - Metering skid - Khartoum, Sudan" 6. Thar Jath Development Project, Specification for Piping Material, Contract No: WNPOC/FDD/2004/0040

7. R. Collier and Kathleen M. Posteraro, 2000, Piping Handbook Part B, Seventh Edition.

8. GLOMACS, Practical pump technology, Module1 of practical pump and valve technology, 19, Dec 2010, By Dr. Walid Jouri, Senior Consultant 9. The PIPESIM Pipeline and Facilities Modeling Simulator (Schlumberger software version 2000) Web Sites:

10. http://www.ajdesigner.com/php_colebrook/colebrook_equation.php , 20, Feb, 2011.

11. http://www.farm.net/~mason/materials/thermal_conductivity.html , 16, Mar, 2011. 12. http://www.segerfrojd.com/ppvsmetal.htm , 28, Mar, 2011. 13. http://www.intertek.com , 12, April, 2011. 14. http://www.ajdesigner.com/php , 5, May, 2011. 15. http://www.reports@adonis.osti.gov , 26, May, 2011. 16. http://www.dekker.com , 10, June, 2011.

17. http://www.slb.com/pipesim , 6, July, 2011.

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A.1 Research Methodology Flow Chart A.2 ANSI Pressure Ratings A.3 Thermal Hydraulics Pressure Profile A.4 Thermal Hydraulics Temperature Profile A.5 Thermal Hydraulics Primary Output A.6 Thermal Hydraulics Auxiliary Output

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Figure A.1 Research Methodology Flow Chart Table A.2 ANSI Pressure Ratings

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