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Premature ventricular contraction (PVC)

Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) is caused by an ectopic cardiac pacemaker located in the ventricle. PVCs are characterized by premature and bizarrely shaped QRS complexes usually wider than 120 msec on with the width of the ECG. These complexes are not preceded by a P wave, and the T wave is usually large, and its direction is opposite the major deflection of the QRS. The clinical significance of PVCs depends on their frequency, complexity, and hemodynamic response.

Pathophysiology
Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) reflect activation of the ventricles from a site below the atrioventricular node (AVN). Suggested mechanisms for PVCs are reentry, triggered activity, and enhanced automaticity. Reentry occurs when an area of 1-way block in the Purkinje fibers and a second area of slow conduction are present. This condition is frequently seen in patients with underlying heart disease that creates areas of differential conduction and recovery due to myocardial scarring or ischemia. During ventricular activation, the area of slow conduction activates the blocked part of the system after the rest of the ventricle has recovered, resulting in an extra beat. Reentry can produce single ectopic beats, or it can trigger paroxysmal tachycardia. Triggered beats are considered to be due to after-depolarizations triggered by the preceding action potential. These are often seen in patients with ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity and reperfusion therapy after myocardial infarction (MI). Enhanced automaticity suggests an ectopic focus of pacemaker cells in the ventricle that has a subthreshold potential for firing. The basic rhythm of the heart raises these cells to threshold, which precipitates an ectopic beat. This process is the underlying mechanism for arrhythmias due to excess catecholamines and some electrolyte deficiencies, particularly hyperkalemia. Ventricular ectopy associated with a structurally normal heart most commonly occurs from the right ventricular outflow tract beneath the pulmonic valve. The mechanism is thought to be enhanced automaticity versus triggered activity. These arrhythmias are often induced by exercise, isoproterenol (in the EP lab), the recovery phase of exercise, or hormonal changes in female patients (pregnancy, menses, menopause). The characteristic ECG pattern for these arrhythmias is a large, tall R wave in the inferior leads with a left bundle-branch block pattern in V 1 . If the source is the left ventricular outflow tract, there is a right bundle-branch block pattern in V 1 . Beta-blocker therapy is first-line therapy if symptomatic. Factors that increase the risk of PVCs include male sex, advanced age, African American race, hypertension and underlying ischemic heart disease, a bundle-branch block on 12-lead ECG, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia.