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Basic Phrases English Good day Good evening Good night (going to bed) Hello / Hi / Bye Goodbye Thank

you (very much) You're welcome Please How are you (!ormal) How are you (in!ormal) "'m (really) good# "'m ok# Bad / not bad $hat's your name (!) $hat's your name (in) %y name is& $here are you !rom (!) $here are you !rom (in) "'m !rom&# How old are you How old are you "'m ''' years old# Yes / (o )o you s*eak & (!) )o you s*eak & (in!) " (don't) s*eak& " (don't) know )o you understand (!) )o you understand (in!) " (don't) understand +an you hel* me (!) +an you hel* me (in!) ,! course# " would like& $here is / are & -.cuse me Pardon me French Bonjour Bonsoir Bonne nuit Salut Au revoir Merci (beaucoup) De rien S'il vous pla t Comment allez"vous # $a va# %e vais (tr&s) bien' Comme ci( comme )a' Mal + pas mal Comment vous appelez" vous # .u t'appelles comment # %e m'appelle/ D'o0 venez"vous # .u es d'o0 # %e suis de/ 2uel 3ge avez"vous # .u as 4uel 3ge # %'ai 555 ans' 7ui + ,on Parlez"vous / 8st"ce 4ue tu parles / %e (ne) parle (pas)/ %e (ne) sais (pas)' Comprenez"vous# 8st"ce 4ue tu comprends # %e (ne) comprends (pas)' Pouvez"vous m'aider # 8st"ce 4ue tu peu: m'aider # Bien s;r %e voudrais/ 70 est + sont/ # 8:cusez"moi Pardonnez"moi Italian Buongiorno Buona sera Buona notte Ciao Arrivederci Grazie (mille) Prego Per !avore Come sta# Come stai# Sto (abbastanza) bene' Cos* cos*' Male + ,on c'& male Come si c-iama# Come ti c-iami# Mi c-iamo/ Di dov'& 1ei# Di dove sei# Sono di/ 2uanti anni -a# 2uanti anni -ai# 6o 555 anni' Si + ,o Parla/ Parli/ (,on) parlo/ (,on) lo so' Capisce# Capisci# (,on) capisco' Pu9 aiutarmi# Puoi aiutarmi# Certamente <orrei/ Dov'& + Dove sono/ # Con permesso Mi scusi

"'m sorry /ee you tomorrow /ee you later / soon %ister / %isses / %iss Pleased to meet you# Pardon How do you say & $hat's the matter $hat's ha**ening There is / are& $hat is it 0ight "t doesn't matter# " have no idea# " don't care# "'m tired / sick# "'m hungry / thirsty# "'m cold / hot# "'m bored# " !orgot# " have to go# $elcome1 2et's go1 Good luck1 Have !un1 (in!) Bless you1 +heers1 Pay attention1 / Be care!ul1 )on't worry1 (in!) /hut u*1 (! / in!) +ongratulations1 Ha**y (ew Year Ha**y -aster %erry +hristmas Ha**y Birthday " love you# (singular) " miss you# (singular)

%e suis d=sol=(e)' A demain A tout > l'-eure + A bient?t Monsieur + Madame + Mademoiselle 8nc-ant=(e)' Comment # Comment dit"on / # 2u'est"ce 4u'il @ a # 2u'est"ce 4ui se passe # Al @ a/ 2u'est"ce 4ue c'est 4ue )a # ,'est"ce pas # $a ne !ait rien' %e n'ai aucune id=e $a m'est =gal'

Mi dispiace A domani A pi0 tardi + A presto Signore + Signora + Signorina Piacere' + Molto lieto' Come# Come se dice / # Cosa c'&# C-e succede# C'& + Ci sono/ C-e cosa &#

<ero# ,on importa ,on -o idea ,on m'importa Sono stanco(a) + %e suis !atigu=(e) + malade' malato(a) %'ai !aim + soi!' 6o !ame + sete' %'ai !roid + c-aud' 6o !reddo + caldo' %e m'ennuie' Mi annoio' %'ai oubli=' 6o dimenticato' %e dois @ aller' Devo andare' Bienvenue Benvenuti Allons"@ B AndiamoB Bonne c-ance B Buona !ortunaB Amuse"toi B DivertitiB A tes sou-aits B SaluteB A la v?tre B CincinB Caites attention B Cate attenzioneB ,e t'en !ais pas B ,on ti preoccupareB .aisez"vous B + .ais"toi B Sta zittoB + Stai zittoB C=licitations B CongratulazioniB Bonne Ann=e Buon Anno %o@euses P34ues Buona Pas4ua %o@eu: ,oDl Buon ,atale Bon Anniversaire Buon Compleanno %e t'aime .i amo + .i voglio bene .u me man4ues Mi manc-i

3d4ectives in both languages must agree in gender (masculine or !eminine) and number (singular and *lural) with the nouns they describe# 5or e.am*le# i! you are

a man6 you would use je suis fatigu in 5rench and sono stanco in "talian !or " am tired# "! you are a woman6 you would use je suis fatigue in 5rench and sono stanca in "talian# 7ocabulary words are generally given in the masculine !orm6 with the !eminine ending in *arentheses#("n 5rench6 you generally add 8e to !orm the !eminine9 while in "talian6 you change 8o to 8a)# "! there is only one !orm o! an ad4ective given6 then it is the same !or masculine and !eminine (such as malade in 5rench)# Pronunciation The ma4or di!!erence in *ronunciation between the two languages is that 5rench has several silent letters6 while every letter must be *ronounced in "talian# "n addition6 5rench contains !our distinctive nasal vowels that do not e.ist in "talian# <oEels 7owels in 5rench are somewhat com*le. (:;)# 7owels in "talian are much sim*ler (<)# 7owels that do not e.ist in -nglish are highlighted in blue# Crenc- <oEels FiG F@G Atalian <oEels FiG vita vedi English Pronunciation meet ee rounded wait ay rounded era bet eh rounded kane not ah longer uva sole boot coat

vie6 midi6 lit6 ri= rue6 4us6 tissu6 usine bl>6 ne=6 cahier6 FeG FeG *ied 4eu6 yeu.6 ?ueue6 FHG bleu FG lait6 aile6 balai6 reine FG s@ur6 @u!6 !leur6 FIG beurre chat6 ami6 *a*a6 FaG FaG salade bas6 Ane6 grAce6 F G chAteau lou*6 cou6 caillou6 FuG FuG outil eau6 dos6 escargot6 FoG FoG hBtel sol6 *omme6 cloche6 F G F G horloge !enCtre6 genou6 FJG cheval6 cerise

modo law rut

I'm using the International Phonetic Alphabet symbols for the vowels and a rough phonetic transcription for those who do not know the IPA 5rench has three !ront rounded vowels that do not e.ist in -nglish6 but you can learn to *ronounce them correctly because their unrounded counter*arts do e.ist in -nglish# To *ronounce DyE6 round your li*s when saying DiE9 to *ronounce DFE6 round your li*s when saying DeE9 and to *ronounce D@E6 round your li*s when saying DE#

The distinction between DaE and DE continues to disa**ear in modern 5rench6 so don't worry about trying to distinguish these two sounds# Pronouncing "talian vowels is rather easy# The only *roblems arise when distinguishing the two e's and o's# "! the vowel is stressed6 then it is always closed DeE and DoE# "! the vowel is not stressed6 it is always o*en DE and DE# This can change according to regional dialects in "taly6 o! course6 but this is the standard rule# ,asal <oEels( Semi"<oEels+Consonants( K Dip-t-ongs The !our nasal vowels are a distinctive !eature o! 5rench# There are also three semi8vowels# "n "talian6 there are two semi8vowels6 several di*hthongs and a !ew tri*hthongs# French nasal French semi! vowels vowels gant6 banc6 FaLG FEG oui6 2ouis dent *ain6 vin6 FLG F G lui6 suisse linge brun6 lundi6 oreille6 FILG FjG *ar!um %ireille rond6 ongle6 FoLG !ront Italian semi! vowels ?uando6 FEG uomo *iano6 ieri6 FjG *iove

The distinction between the two nasals D EG and D@GE is disa**earing in 5rench# "talian semi8vowels are written ua( ue( uo( ui !or DwE and ia( ie( io( iu !or D4E# "! another vowel *recedes u or i6 then it is a di*hthongH ai( ei( oi( au( eu# The combination iu I another vowel creates a tri*hthong# Consonants 5rench consonants e: M voEel e: M consonant c- (1atin origin) c- (GreeN origin) ti M voEel (e:cept =) eg= e.amen6 e.ercice eks sh k e.ce*tionnel6 e.*ression architecte6 archives orchestre6 arch>ologie eg!"ah!mawn# eg!"ehr! sees ek!sehp!see!oh!nel# ek! spreh!see!ohn ar!shee!tekt# ar!sheev

ohr!kehs!tr# ar!kay!oh!loh! "hee day!moh!krah!see# nah! see d>mocratie6 nation see!ohn amica6 amico6 amiche bacio6 celebre6 cinema gara6 gusto6 s*aghetti ah!mee!kah# ah!mee!koh# ah!mee!keh bah!cho# cheh!leh!breh# chee!neh!mah gah!rah# goo!stoh# spah! geh!tee

"talian consonant I vowel combinations c M a( o( u( k -e( -i c M ia( io( iu( ch e( i g M a( o( u( g -e( -i

g M ia( io( iu( Giotto6 gelato6 d4 e( i magico sc M a( o( u( scala6 scuola6 sk -e( -i scheda sc M ia( io( iu( sciar*a6 sciu*ato6 sh e( i scemo

djoh!toh# djeh!lah!toh# mah!djee!koh skah!lah# skoo!oh!la# skeh!dah shar!pah# shoo!pah!toh# sheh!moh

"n both languages6 s is generally *ronounced the same as in -nglish6 e.ce*t when it is between two vowels6 then it is *ronounced like z# 6 is always silent# )ouble consonants in "talian must be *ronounced individuallyH il nonno (eel nohn8 noh) is *ronounced di!!erently than il nono (eel noh8noh) 2iaison in 5rench !orces a *receding consonant to be *ronounced be!ore the !ollowing vowel o! the ne.t word# (ormally6 this consonant is silent6 but it must be *ronounced at the beginning o! the ne.t wordH trJs (treh) and heureu. (uh8ruh) become treh "uh!ruh when *ronounced together# / and . are *ronounced as =6 d as t and ! as v in liaisons# Stress "n general6 stress !alls on the last syllable in 5rench and the second8to8last syllable in "talian# "! stress !alls on the last syllable in "talian6 the vowel is written with an accent mark (la cittK)# However6 it is also *ossible !or the stress in "talian to !all on the third8to8last syllable (3merica6 tele!ono) and even the !ourth8to8last syllable (tele!onano) in third *erson *lural verb con4ugations# 3l*habet English 3 B + ) 5 G H " L M 2 % ( , P N 0 / French aba@ sa@ da@ ue!! z-a@ a-see s-ee Naell emm enn opa@ NeE air ess Italian abee c-ee dee ee!!"ez-ee a-N"Naee ee loon"gaNa-p"pae-l"ee-m"ee-n"eopee Noo e-r"ree-s"se-

T O 7 $ P Y Q

ta@ eE va@ doo"bla-"va@ eeNs ee"greN zed

teoo voo do-p"p@a- voo eeNs ee gre-"Nadze-"ta-

(umbers English =ero one two three !our !ive si. seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen !ourteen !i!teen si.teen French z=ro un deu: trois 4uatre cin4 si: sept -uit neu! di: onze douze treize 4uatorze 4uinze seize Italian zero uno due tre 4uattro cin4ue sei sette otto nove dieci undici dodici tredici !irst second third !ourth !i!th si.th seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twel!th thirteenth premier (&re) primo (a) deu:i&me troisi&me 4uatri&me cin4ui&me si:i&me septi&me -uiti&me neuvi&me di:i&me onzi&me douzi&me treizi&me 4uatorzi&me 4uinzi&me seizi&me secondo (a) terzo (a) 4uarto (a) 4uinto (a) sesto (a) settimo (a) ottavo (a) nono (a) decimo (a) undicesimo (a) dodicesimo (a) tredicesimo (a) 4uattordicesimo (a) 4uindicesimo (a) sedicesimo (a) diciassettesimo (a) diciannovesimo (a) ventesimo (a) ventunesimo (a) ventiduesimo (a) English French Italian

4uattordici !ourteenth 4uindici sedici !i!teenth si.teenth

seventeen di:"sept eighteen nineteen twenty di:"-uit di:"neu! vingt

diciassette seventeenth di:"septi&me diciotto eighteenth

di:"-uiti&me diciottesimo (a) di:" neuvi&me vingti&me vingt et uni&me vingt"

diciannove nineteenth venti twentieth twenty8!irst twenty8

twenty8one vingt et un ventuno twenty8two vingt"deu: ventidue

second twenty8 three thirty !orty !i!ty si.ty seventy eighty ninety hundred hundred one two hundred thousand million vingt"trois ventitre trente 4uarante trenta 4uaranta twenty8third twenty8 !ourth twenty8!i!th

deu:i&me vingt" troisi&me vingt" 4uatri&me vingt" cin4ui&me une moiti= un tiers un 4uart ventitreesimo (a) venti4uattresimo (a) venticin4uesimo (a) un mezzo un terzo un 4uarto

cin4uante cin4uanta soi:ante soi:ante" di: 4uatre" vingts 4uatre" vingt"di: cent cent un deu: cents mille sessanta settanta ottanta novanta cento centuno duecento mille once twice three times une !ois deu: !ois trois !ois una volta due volte tre volte one8hal! one8third one8!ourth

un million un milione

$hen writing numbers6 switch the use o! commas and *eriods# 5or e.am*le6 R#ST in -nglish would be written as R6ST in 5rench and "talian# "n 5rench6 cent has a *lural !ormH cents6 but mille is invariable (there is no *lural !orm)9 while in "talian6 cento is invariable and mille has a *lural !ormH mila# 5rench tele*hone numbers are ten digits6 beginning with =ero6 and the country code is UU (BelgiumH U;6 /wit=erlandH R:6 +anadaH :)# "talian tele*hone numbers are between V and :: digits6 most beginning with =ero6 and the country code is UW# 3rticles X )emonstratives De!inite and Ande!inite Articles Indefinite $efinite French Italian Article %a# French Article %the& an& masculine masculine le il un singular singular begins with begins with l' l' un vowel vowel begins with begins with lo s ' cons s ' cons masculine les i masculine des

Italian un un uno dei

*lural plural of l' and lo !eminine la singular begins with l' vowel !eminine les *lural

gli

*lural plural( di ' gli !eminine une singular begins with une vowel !eminine des *lural

degli

la l' le

una un' delle

3rticles are slightly more com*licated in "talian# The rows in italics only concern "talian and not 5rench# "! a masculine "talian noun begins with s M consonant( z( gn( ps( :( or i M voEel6 you must use lo as the de!inite article (instead o! il)# However6 la is still used !or all feminine "talian nouns that begin with those same letters# ,nly il changes to i in the *lural6 while l' and lo change to gli# 5eminine articles are more sim*leH la and l' change to le in the *lural# The *lural inde!inite article can be e.*ressed as some in -nglish6 but it is not always used# Demonstrative Adjectives this ) these that ) those French Italian French ' noun ' noun masculine masculine ce 4uesto ce singular singular begins with begins with cet 4uest' cet vowel vowel begins with begins with 4uesto s ' cons s ' cons masculine masculine ces 4uesti ces *lural *lural plural of l' plural( di ' 4uesti and lo gli !eminine cette singular begins with cette vowel !eminine ces *lural !eminine cette singular begins with 4uest' cette vowel !eminine 4ueste ces *lural 4uesta Italian 4uel 4uell' 4uello 4uei 4uegli

4uella 4uell' 4uelle

"n 5rench6 ce( cet( and cette can be translated as this or that6 while ces can be translated as these or those# "! you would like to be *recise6 you can add "ci to the end o! the noun to s*eci!y this/these (!or what is close to you)6 and "l> to the end o! the noun to s*eci!y that/those (!or what is !urther away !rom you)# 5or e.am*le6 cette c-aise"ci means this chair while cette c-aise"l> means that chair# "n "talian6 two distinct !orms e.ist to distinguish between what is close and what is !ar awayH 4uest" !or close6 and 4uel" !or !ar away#

"n "talian6 demonstrative ad4ectives (which *recede nouns) and demonstrative *ronouns (which take the *lace o! nouns) have very similar !orms# "n 5rench6 the demonstrative *ronouns have di!!erent !orms# You can add "ci and "l> to the 5rench demonstrative *ronouns to s*eci!y what is close (this/these) and what is !ar away (that/those)H celui"ci means this one6 while celui"l> means that one# Demonstrative Pronouns this ) these that ) those French Italian French Italian ' verb ' verb masculine masculine celui 4uesto celui 4uello singular singular masculine masculine ceu: 4uesti ceu: 4uelli *lural *lural !eminine singular !eminine *lural !eminine singular !eminine celles 4ueste *lural celle 4uesta celle 4uella

celles 4uelle

(ounsH Gender X (umber There are two genders o! nouns in both languages6 masculine and !eminine6 and two numbers6 singular and *lural# 3d4ectives agree in gender and number with nouns6 so you must learn the gender with each noun in order to !orm grammatically correct *hrases# Osually the last letter o! the noun will tell you which gender it is# Gender "n 5rench6 masculine singular nouns generally end with a consonant6 8 age or 8ment# 5eminine singular nouns generally end with 8ure6 8sion6 8tion6 8ence6 8ance6 8t>6 and 8ette# "n "talian6 masculine singular nouns generally end with 8o or 8ore# 5eminine singular nouns generally end with 8a or 8=ione# (ouns ending with 8e and 8ista can be either gender6 so you must learn those individually# 3 !ew masculine nouns end with 8aH il *roblema6 il tema6 il teorema6 il *oeta6 il cinema6 il *rogramma9 and a !ew !eminine nouns end with 8oH la mano6 la radio6 la !oto6 la moto# "n most cases6 the gender o! a noun is the same in 5rench and "talian# But there are some cases in which the genders are reversed# (5or e.am*le6 names o! cities and letters o! the al*habet are masculine in 5rench6 but !eminine in "talian#) Masculine in Crenc- + Ceminine Ceminine in Crenc- + in Atalian Masculine in Atalian English French Italian English French Italian a!!air6 air l'air l'aria l'a!!aire l'a!!are case art l'art l'arte tooth la dent il dente calm le calme la calma oil l'huile l'olio number/digit le chi!!re la ci!ra limit la limite il limite cou*le le cou*le la co**ia sea la mer il mare /unday le la method la il

dimanche domenica summer !orehead guide s*ring sand evening l'>t> le !ront le guide l'estate la !ronte la guida minute *anic *eriod

le la *lanet *rintem*s *rimavera le sable le soir la sabbia second la sera attem*t

m>thode la minute la *ani?ue la *>riode la *lanJte la seconde la tentative

metodo il minuto il *anico il *eriodo il *ianeta il secondo il tentativo

,umber "n 5rench6 singular nouns generally add 8s (unless the noun already ends in 8s6 8=6 or 8.6 then they change nothing !or the *lural)6 though nouns ending in 8au6 8eau6 and 8eu add 8. instead (or change 8al/8ail to 8au.) to !orm the *lural# (-.ce*tionsH !estival( carnaval( bal( pneu( bleu( landau( d=tail( c-andail all add 8s) There are also seven nouns ending in 8ou that add 8. instead o! 8sH bijou( caillou( c-ou( genou( pou( joujou( -ibou 5rench "rregular PluralsH l'Iil " les @eu: (eye8eyes)9 le ciel " les cieu: (sky8skies)9 le jeune -omme " les jeunes gens (young man8young men)9 and three nouns are masculine in the singular6 but !eminine in the *luralH amour( d=lice( orgue "n "talian6 singular nouns that end with 8o or 8e6 whether masculine or !eminine6 change to 8i in the *lural# 5eminine nouns change 8a to 8e in the *lural# %onosyllabic nouns6 nouns that end with an accented letter6 with a consonant6 and with 8i do not change in the *lural# (ouns ending in 8ca6 8go6 8ca6 and 8ga add an 8h be!ore the *lural ending (as a rule o! *ronunciation)# (ouns that end with 8io can either change to 8ii in the *lural (i! the i o! 8io is stressed)6 or to 8i (i! the i o! 8io is not stressed)# "talian "rregular PluralsH l'uomo " gli uomini (man8men)9 il dio " gli dei (god8gods)9 il bue " i buoi (bee!)9 il centinaio " le centinaia (century8centuries)9 il dito " le dita (!inger8!ingers)9 il riso " le risa (laughter)9 l'uovo " le uova (egg8eggs)9 l'ala " le ali (wing8wings)9 l'arma " le armi (wea*on8wea*ons)9 la mano " le mani (hand8hands) Personal Pronouns Direct 7bject Pronouns English French Italian English French Italian " je io me me mi you (s6 you (s6 tu tu te ti in!) in!) you (s6 you (s6 vous 1ei vous 1a !) !) Subject Pronouns Andirect 7bject Pronouns English French Italian me me mi you (s6 te ti in!) you (s6 vous 1e !) Disjunctive Pronouns English French Italian me moi me you (s6 toi te in!) you (s6 vous 1ei !)

he / she il + elle one / we we you (*l6 in!/!) they (m/!em) on nous vous ils + elles

lui + lei si noi voi loro

him / her

le + la lo + la

him / her

lui

gli + le

him / her

lui +elle

lui + lei

us nous you (*l6 vous in!) them les

ci vi li

us nous you (*l6 vous in!) them leur

ci vi loro

us nous you (*l6 vous in!) eu: + them elles

noi voi loro

s Y singular6 *l Y *lural6 in! Y in!ormal6 ! Y !ormal6 m Y masculine6 !em Y !eminine There is more than one you in both languages6 de*ending on how many *eo*le you are s*eaking to and how in!ormal or !ormal you are being# "n 5rench6 tu is singular and in!ormal (when s*eaking to one *erson6 such as a !amily member)9 while vous is *lural6 whether in!ormal or !ormal (when s*eaking to more than one *erson) 3() singular and !ormal (when s*eaking to one *erson6 whom you do not know well or to whom you'd like to show res*ect)# "n "talian6 tu is in!ormal and singular6 while 1ei is !ormal and singular and voi is *lural6 whether in!ormal or !ormal# Mee* in mind that 1ei takes a third *erson singular !orm when con4ugating verbs (same as !or he/she 8 lui/lei)# 7n and si are used as an abstract sub4ect meaning one6 they6 you6 we6 *eo*le in general6 etc# There are several translations o! this into -nglish where the sub4ect doesn't re!er to any *erson already mentionedH *hey say it's going to rain today# How are you su**osed to do this $hat should one do with Z:T million "n addition6 the 5rench on is very commonly used to mean we instead o! nous in everyday conversation# "t always take a third *erson singular !orm when con4ugating verbs6 even though it re!ers to more than one *erson# "n both languages6 i! you want to use it to re!er to a noun6 you must know the gender# 5or e.am*le6 il in 5rench can mean -e or it6 de*ending on what noun the *ronoun re!ers to# Al est petit( le gar)on +e is small# the boy Al est petit( le lit' It is small# the bed (otice that they can also be translated in two ways in 5rench (ils and elles)6 de*ending on the gender o! the noun# 7erbsH Be6 Have6 )o Present *ense suis sono es sei & Otre + essere 8 est to be sommes siamo Otes siete sont sono avoir + avere 8 ai to have as a avons -o -ai -a abbiamo Past *ense =tais ero =tais eri =tait era =tions eravamo =tiez eravate =taient erano avais avais avait avions avevo avevi aveva avevamo Future *ense serai sar9 seras sarai sera sar> serons saremo serez sarete seront saranno aurai auras aura aurons avr9 avrai avr> avremo

avez ont !ais !ais !ait !aisons !aites !ont

avete -anno !accio !ai !a !acciamo !ate !anno

aviez avaient !aisais !aisais !aisait !aisions !aisiez !aisaient

avevate avevano !acevo !acevi !aceva !acevamo !acevate !acevano

aurez avrete auront avranno !erai !eras !era !erons !erez !eront !ar9 !arai !ar> !aremo !arete !aranno

!aire + !are 8 to do6 make

Past tense here refers to the imperfect# not preterite "n 5rench6 the sub4ect *ronoun must always be used be!ore the verb con4ugations# $hen the verb begins with a vowel6 je becomes j' and is connected to the verb (4'ai)# "n in!ormal s*eech6 the same ha**ens with tu6 it becomes t' and is connected to the !ollowing verb (t'as)# "n "talian6 you do not have to use the sub4ect *ronouns6 unless you want to em*hasi=e the sub4ect or to avoid ambiguity# There are several common and idiomatic e.*ressions with the verbs avoir and avere6 which translate to be in -nglishH to be hungry to be thirsty to be warm to be cold to be right to be wrong to be slee*y to be a!raid (o!) to be [ years old to need to want6 !eel like avoir !aim avoir soi! avoir c-aud avoir !roid avoir raison avoir tort avoir sommeil avoir peur (de) avoir P ans avoir besoin de avoir envie de avere !ame avere sete avere caldo avere !reddo avere ragione avere torto avere sonno avere paura (di) avere P anni avere bisogno di avere voglia di

There is another verb in "talian that means to be6 stare# But this verb is only used in e.*ressions relating to health and !eelings and when e.*ressing the *rogressive !orm (be I gerund in -nglish)# Present *ense sto stai sta stiamo state stanno Past *ense stavo stavi stava stavamo stavate starano Italian Future *ense star9 starai star> staremo starete staranno Italian

stare 8 to be

"nterrogatives / +on4unctions / 3dverbs English French English French

who whose what where where !rom why when how how much which that

4ui de 4ui 4u'est"ce 4ue + 4uoi o0 d'o0 pour4uoi 4uand comment combien 4uel(le) 4ue

c-i di c-i c-e cosa dove di dove perc-= 4uando come 4uanto 4uale c-e

because and or but i! not very also while since although

parce 4ue et ou mais si pas tr&s aussi pendant depuis bien 4ue

perc-= e o ma se non molto anc-e mentre da benc-=

)ays / %onths / /easons English %onday Tuesday Thursday 5riday /aturday /unday s*ring summer autumn winter French lundi mardi jeudi vendredi samedi dimanc-e le printemps l'=t= (m) l'-iver (m) Italian lunedQ martedQ mercoledQ giovedQ venerdQ sabato domenica English Lanuary 5ebruary %arch 3*ril %ay Lune Luly 3ugust l'estate (!) l'inverno ,ctober French janvier !=vrier mars avril mai juin juillet ao;t octobre Italian gennaio !ebbraio marzo aprile maggio giugno luglio agosto ottobre

$ednesday mercredi

la primavera /e*tember septembre settembre (ovember novembre novembre )ecember d=cembre dicembre

l'automne (m) l'autunno

The days o! the week and months o! the year are all masculine in both languages (e.ce*t domenica in "talian)# "! you want to e.*ress an action that ha**ens habitually on a certain day6 use the de!inite article be!ore the dayH le lundi + il lunedQ (on %ondays)# In a season or a month is translated as en in 5rench (e.ce*t !or in spring6 which is au printemps) and in in "talian# $hen writing the date6 use the de!inite article (le or il) *lus the number and then the monthH le R mai + il R maggio# 5or the !irst day o! a month6 you must use premier or primo instead o! the number# Time / $eather / )irections 2uelle $hat time -eure est" is it il # C-e ora &# + C-e ore sono# $hat's the weather like 2uel temps C-e tempo !ait"il # !a#

3t what time :HTT ;HTT UH:T :WHST

A 4uelle -eure # Al est une -eure Al est deu: -eures Al est trois -eures di: Al est vingt -eures moins di:

A c-e ora# S l'una Sono le due Sono le tre e dieci Sono le venti meno dieci

"t's nice "t's beauti!ul "t's hot "t's cold "t's sunny

Al !ait bon Al !ait beau Al !ait c-aud Al !ait !roid Al !ait du soleil Al !ait du vent

Ca tempo buono Ca bel tempo Ca caldo Ca !reddo C'& il sole

:VH:S

Al est di:" Sono le diciotto -uit -eures "t's windy e un cuarto et 4uart Al est -uit -eures moins le 4uart Sono le otto "t's cool meno un 4uarto

.ira vento

<HRS

Al !ait !rais

Ca !resco

:SHUT noon midnight e.actly in the morning in the a!ternoon in the evening English a!ternoon century dawn day daybreak

Al est 4uinze Sono le -eures et 4uindici e demie mezzo midi minuit pr=cise du matin de l'apr&s" midi du soir mezzogiorno mezzanotte in punto di mattina del pomeriggio di sera

"t's bad "t's !oggy "t's cloudy "t's stormy "t's raining "t's snowing

Al !ait mauvais Al !ait du brouillard Al !ait nuageu: Al !ait orageu: Al pleut Al neige

Ca brutto tempo C'& la nebbia S nuvoloso Al tempo & burrascoso Piove ,evica Ca un !reddo gelido Italian il levar del sole il tramonto il tempo oggi domani

"t's !ree=ing Al g&le

French l'apr&s"midi (m) le si&cle l'aube le jour le point du

Italian il pomeriggio il secolo l'alba il giorno la spuntar del

English sunrise sunset time today tomorrow

French le lever du soleil le couc-er du soleil le temps aujourd'-ui demain

dusk evening !ortnight holiday hour hal! hour ?uarter hour hour and hal! lea* year midnight minute month morning night noon season second

jour la tomb=e de la nuit le soir la 4uinzaine la !Ote l'-eure (!) une demi" -eure un 4uart d'-eure une -eure et demi l'ann=e bisse:tile la minuit la minute le mois la matin la nuit le midi la saison la seconde

giorno il !ar della notte week la sera la 4uindicina la !esta l'ora una mezz'ora year yesterday last6 *revious ne.t north la semaine l'an (m) -ier dernier (&re) proc-ain(e) nord sud est ouest nord"est nord"ouest sud"est sud"ouest > gauc-e > droite tout droit la settimana l'anno ieri ultimo prossimo nord sud est ovest nord"est nord"ovest sud"est sud"ovest a sinistra a destra sempre diritto

un 4uarto d'ora south un'ora e mezzo east l'anno bisestile west la mezzanotte il minuto il mese la mattina northeast northwest southeast southwest to/on the la notte le!t to/on the il mezzogiorno right la stagione il secondo straight

+olors X /ha*es English French red *ink rouge rose Italian rosso rosa arancione giallo verde azzurro viola marrone English s?uare circle triangle rectangle oval bo. s*here cube French le carr= le cercle le triangle Italian il 4uadrato il cerc-io il triangolo

orange orange yellow green blue *ur*le brown jaune vert bleu lila + violet brun + marron

le il rectangle rettangolo l'ovale la bo te l'ovale la scatola

la sp-&re la s!era le cube il cubo

black white gray silver gold

noir

nero

*yramid cone cylinder heart star diamond crescent

la la p@ramide piramide le c?ne le c@lindre le cIur l'=toile le diamant il cono il cilindro il cuore la stella il diamante

blanc(-e) bianco gris argent or grigio argento oro

le la croissant mezzaluna

5amily !amily mother mom !ather dad *arents daughter son children sister brother wi!e husband grandmother grand!ather la !amille la m&re maman le p&re papa les parents la !ille le !ils les en!ants la sIur le !r&re la !emme + l'=pouse le mari + l'=pou: la grand" m&re le grand" la !amiglia la madre mamma il padre pap> i genitori la !iglia il !iglio i !igli ste*son ste*sister ste*brother hal!8sister hal!8brother mother8in8 law !ather8in8law daughter8in8 law son8in8law le beau"!ils il !igliastro la belle" sIur le beau" !r&re la demi" sIur le demi" !r&re la belle" m&re le beau" p&re la sorellastra il !ratellastro la sorellastra il !ratellastro la suocera il suocero

la belle"!ille la nuora le gendre la belle" sIur le beau" !r&re il genero la cognata il cognato

la sorella sister8in8law il !ratello la sposa lo sposo la nonna il nonno brother8in8 law godmother god!ather girl boy

la marraine la madrina le parrain la jeune !ille le gar)on il padrino la ragazza il ragazzo

p&re grand*arents les grands" parents le petit"!ils les petits" en!ants la cousine le cousin la tante l'oncle la ni&ce le neveu la belle"m&re le beau"p&re la belle"!ille i nonni baby woman man adult le b=b= la !emme l'-omme l'adulte il bambino la donna l'uomo l'adulto

granddaughter la petite"!ille la nipote grandson grandchildren cousin (!) cousin (m) aunt uncle niece ne*hew ste*mother ste*!ather ste*daughter il nipote i nipoti

la cugina relatives il cugino la zia lo zio la nipote il nipote la matrigna il patrigno la !igliastra twins birth death marriage divorce single married divorced

les parents i parenti les jumeau: la naissance la mort le mariage le divorce c=libataire mari=(e) divorc=(e) i gemelli la nascita la morte il matrimonio il divorzio celibe+nubile sposato (a) divorziato (a)

Possessive 3d4ectives X Pronouns Possessive Adjectives French Italian French Italian French Italian masculine singular masculine plural feminine singular mon il mio mes i miei ma la mia ton il tuo tes i tuoi ta la tua son il suo ses i suoi sa la sua notre il nostro nos i nostri notre la nostra votre il vostro vos i vostri votre la vostra leur il loro leurs i loro leur la loro French Italian feminine plural mes le mie tes le tue ses le sue nos le nostre vos le vostre leurs le loro

adjective ' noun my your (s) his / her our your (*l) their

"n "talian6 you must always use the de!inite article be!ore the *ossessive ad4ective6 e.ce*t with singular !amily members that are not modi!ied by an ad4ective# However6 loro is invariable and always *receded by the de!inite article# "n both languages6 you generally use the de!inite article instead o! a *ossessive ad4ective when re!erring to *arts o! the body (because it is obvious who they belong to)# "n "talian6 *ossessive ad4ectives (which *recede nouns) and *ossessive *ronouns (which take the *lace o! nouns) have the same !orm# However6 in 5rench6 there are di!!erent words !or the *ossessive *ronouns# Possessive Pronouns

verb ' pronoun mine yours (s) his / hers ours yours (*l) theirs

French Italian masculine singular le mien il mio le tien il tuo le sien il suo le n?tre il nostro le v?tre il vostro le leur il loro

French Italian masculine plural les miens i miei les tiens i tuoi les siens i suoi les n?tres i nostri les v?tres i vostri les leurs i loro

French Italian feminine singular la mienne la mia la tienne la tua la sienne la sua la n?tre la nostra la v?tre la vostra la leur la loro

French Italian feminine plural les miennes le mie les tiennes le tue les siennes le sue les n?tres le nostre les v?tres le vostre les leurs le loro

0emember that the !orms !or her)hers in "talian can also be ca*itali=ed and use !or the singular !ormal your)yoursH il Suo + i Suoi + la Sua + le Sue' 3d4ectivesH Gender X (umber 3d4ectives are *laced after the noun they describe in 5rench and "talian6 though there are a !ew common ad4ectives that are *laced be!ore the noun (ad4ectives o! beauty6 age6 goodness and si=e)# They also must agree in gender and number with the noun# %ost o! the rules !or changing gender and number in both languages are the same !or ad4ectives as they are !or nouns# Gender "n 5rench6 add 8e to the masculine ad4ective to !orm the !eminine# "! the masculine ad4ective already ends in 8e6 then add nothing (the masculine and !eminine !orms are the same)# There are several other rules !or !orming !eminine ad4ectives in 5renchH 8. changes to 8se6 8il6 8el6 and 8eil change to 8ille6 8elle6 and 8eille6 8et changes to 8Jte6 8en and 8on change to 8enne and 8onne6 8er changes to 8Jre6 8! changes to 8ve6 8c changes to 8che6 8g changes to 8gue6 8eur changes to 8euse i! ad4ective is derived !rom verb6 8eur changes to 8rice i! ad4ective is not same as verb6 8eur changes to 8eure with ad4ectives o! com*arison# Three common ad4ectives are irregular6 and generally *recede the nounH beau 8 belle (beauti!ul)9 nouveau 8 nouvelle (new)9 vieu. 8 vieille (old)# These three ad4ectives also have an alernate !orm that is used be!ore masculine ad4ectives that begin with a vowelH bel6 nouvel6 vieil# "n "talian6 masculine ad4ectives change 8o to 8a !or the !eminine# 3d4ectives that end in 8e can be masculine or !eminine# ,umber "n 5rench6 add 8s to a singular ad4ective to !orm the *lural6 unless it already ends in 8s6 8.6 or 8= (ad4ectives ending in these letters are the same in the singular and *lural)# "n "talian6 singular masculine ad4ectives change 8o to 8i and singular !eminine ad4ectives change 8a to 8e to !orm the *lural# 3d4ectives ending in 8e (regardless o! gender) change to 8i !or the *lural# /ame as !or nouns6 ad4ectives ending in 8ca6 8go6 8ca6 and 8ga add an 8h be!ore the *lural ending# 3d4ectives that end with 8io can either change to 8ii in the *lural (i! the i o! 8io is stressed)6 or to 8i (i! the i o! 8io is not stressed)# "n both languages6 when an ad4ective describes more than one noun o! di!!erent genders6 the ad4ective will be masculine *lural# Mes amis et mes amies sont tous italiens' + A miei amici e le mie amic-e sono tutti italiani # ,y male friends and

my female friends are all Italian However6 in "talian6 the ad4ective can also agree with the noun that is closest to it# nice mean great / large small long short (length) tall short (height) new young old !irst ne.t last same di!!erent good bad beauti!ul gentil + gentille m=c-ant+e grand+e petit+e long+ue court+e grand+e petit+e nouveau + nouvelle jeune vieu: + vieille premier + premi&re proc-ain+e dernier + derni&re mOme di!!=rent+e bon + bonne mauvais+e beau + belle gentile mesc-ino+a grande piccolo+a lungo+a corto+a alto+a basso+a nuovo+a giovane vecc-io+a primo+a prossimo+a ultimo+a stesso+a di!!erente buono+a cattivo+a bello+a ugly o*en closed wide narrow hot cold dirty clean ?uiet loud thin big / !at em*ty !ull slow !ast ha**y sad laid+e ouvert+e !erm=+e large =troit+e c-aud+e !roid+e sale propre tran4uille bru@ant+e maigre gros + grosse vide plein+e lent+e vide content+e triste brutto+a aperto+a c-iuso+a largo+a stretto+a caldo+a !reddo+a sporco+a pulito+a zitto+a rumoroso+a magro+a grasso+a vuoto+a pieno+a lento+a veloce !elice triste

0emember !or ad4ectives6 you add 8e to !orm the !eminine in 5rench9 while in "talian6 you change 8o to 8a# 7erbsH +ome6 Go Present *ense viens vengo viens vieni vient viene venons veniamo venez venite viennent vengono vais vas va allons allez vont vado vai va andiamo andate vanno Past *ense venais venivo venais venivi venait veniva venions venivamo veniez venivate venaient venivano allais allais allait allions alliez allaient andavo andavi andava andavamo andavate andavono Future *ense viendrai verr9 viendras verrai viendra verr> viendrons verremo viendrez verrete viendront verranno irai iras ira irons irez iront andr9 andrai andr> andremo andrete andranno

venir + venire 8 to come

aller + andare 8 to go

Aller and andare can both be used to indicate the !uture6 as does go in -nglishH to be going to I in!initive# "n 5rench6 aller is !ollowed directly by the in!initive6 but in "talian6 the *re*osition a is *laced between andare and the in!initive#

%e vais partir' + <ado a partire' I'm going to leave 3sking Nuestions Tes + ,o 2uestions The easiest way to !orm yes/no ?uestions in both languages is to add n'est"ce pas to the end o! 5rench statements and non & vero to the end o! "talian statements# These *hrases are similar to the tags that -nglish adds to the end o! ?uestions6 and there!ore there are several translations into -nglish# .u es une =tudiante( n'est"ce pas # + Sei una studentessa( non & vero# You're a student6 aren't you You can also change the word order to !orm yes/no ?uestions# "n 5rench6 you invert the sub4ect and verb and write them together with a hy*en# "! the verb ends in a vowel6 you must add 8t8 between the verb and sub4ect !or ease o! *ronunciation# 3nd i! there is a sub4ect other than the sub4ect *ronoun6 you leave the sub4ect at the beginning and invert the sub4ect *ronoun and verb# "n "talian6 you sim*ly add a ?uestion mark to the end o! the sentence and raise the intonation o! your voice# ,r i! there is a sub4ect6 you can move it to the end o! the sentence# Parlez"vous allemand # + Parlate tedesco# )o you s*eak German 1e gar)on a"t"il !aim # + 6a !ame( il ragazzo# "s the boy hungry 3nother way to !orm yes/no ?uestions in 5rench involves adding est"ce 4ue be!ore the statementH 8st"ce 4ue vous parlez allemand # You can also sim*ly add a ?uestion mark and raise the intonation o! your voice to !orm ?uestions in 5rench6 but this is in!ormal and not advised in writingH <ous parlez allemand # Anterrogative 2uestions 5or ?uestions that begin with wh8 words or *hrases in -nglish6 you use ?uestion word I inversion o! sub4ect and verb in 5rench and sim*ly the ?uestion word I verb in "talian# You can also use ?uestion word I est8ce ?ue I sub4ect I verb in 5rench i! you do not want to use inversion# 3 third6 and in!ormal6 way o! !orming wh8 ?uestions in 5rench is to use the ?uestion word I sub4ect I verb (no est8ce ?ue and no inversion)# 2uelle -eure est"il # + C-e ore sono# $hat time is it (egatives "n 5rench6 ne and pas are *laced around the verb to make the *hrase negative# ("n everyday s*oken 5rench6 ne is o!ten dro**ed6 but it must always be written)# "n "talian6 non is *laced be!ore the verb# "l n'est pas triste# / ,on J triste# +e is not sad Tu n'es pas *arti / ,on J *artito -ou haven't left. Le ne 4oue pas au !oot# / ,on gioco a calcio# I don't play soccer ,ther negatives use two words in both languages# (e or non is *laced be!ore the verb6 and the other word is *laced a!ter# Onlike -nglish6 it is *ossible to use two negative words in a sentence# never ne'''jamais no longer6 no more ne'''plus nothing ne'''rien non'''mai non'''pi0 non'''niente

nobody neither###nor $ork X /chool English actor actress author baker bookseller French l'acteur l'actrice l'=crivain Italian l'attore l'attrice l'autore

ne'''personne non'''nessuno ne'''ni'''ni non'''n&'''n& English lawyer mechanic musician nurse o*tician *ainter *harmacist French l'avocat Italian l'avvocato il le m=canicien meccanico il+ la le musicien musicista l'in!irmi&re l'in!ermiera l'opticien l'ottico le peintre il pittore il c-imico il !otogra!o la guardia il portalettere il prete

le boulanger le libraire le businessman commer)ant butcher le bouc-er clerk cook customer dentist le vendeur le cuisinier le client

il !ornaio il libraio il commerciante il macellaio il commesso il cuoco il cliente

le c-imiste le *hotogra*her p-otograp-e l'agent de *oliceman police *ostman le !acteur

le dentiste il dentista *riest le cur= le m=decin + il medico + doctor *ublisher l'=diteur l'editore docteur dottore em*loyee l'emplo@= l'impiegato shoemaker le cordonnier il calzolaio engineer l'ing=nieur l'ingegnere singer le c-anteur il cantante !isherman le pOc-eur il pescatore soldier le soldat il soldato gardener le jardinier il giardiniere student l'=tudiant lo studente hairdresser le coi!!eur il parrucc-iere surgeon le c-irurgien il c-irurgo 4eweler le bijoutier il gioielliere teacher l'instituteur il maestro le le il 4ournalist il giornalista ty*ist journaliste dact@lograp-e dattilogra!o 4udge le juge il giudice workman l'ouvrier l'operaio English French Italian English French Italian le accounting la ragioneria history l'-istoire (!) la storia comptabilit= la architecture l'arc-itecture l'arc-itettura law le droit giurisprudenza art l'art l'arte (!) linguistics le linguisti4ue la linguistica astronomy l'astronomie l'astronomia literature la litt=rature le lettere les biology la biologie la biologia mathematics la matematica mat-=mati4ues les il business medicine la m=decine la medicina commerces commercio

chemistry com*uter science earth science economics

la c-imie

la c-imica

music

la musi4ue la p-ilosop-ie l'=ducation p-@si4ue la p-@si4ue la science politi4ue

la musica la !iloso!ia l'educazione !isica la !isica le scienze politic-e

l'in!ormati4ue l'in!ormatica *hiloso*hy la science de la scienza la terra della terra l'=conomie l'economia

*hysical education *hysics *olitical engineering l'ing=nieur l'ingegneria science !oreign les langues la lingua *sychology languages =trang&res straniera geogra*hy la g=ograp-ie la geogra!ia science geometry la g=om=trie la geometria sociology

la p@sc-ologie la psicologia la science la sociologie la scienza la sociologia

"n the 5rench school system6 foreign languages is re!erred to as les langues vivantes (living languages)# +ountries X (ationalities English 3!rica 3!rican 3lbania 3lbanian 3merica 3merican French Italian l'A!ri4ue (!) l'A!rica a!ricain+e a!ricano+a l'Albanie l'Albania albanais+e albanese l'Am=ri4ue (!) l'America am=ricain+e americano+a l'Argentine 3rgentina l'Argentina (!) 3rgentine argentin+e argentino+a 3sia l'Asie (!) l'Asia 3sian asiati4ue asiatico+a 3ustralia l'Australie (!) l'Australia 3ustralian australien+ne australiano+a 3ustria l'Autric-e (!) l'Austria 3ustrian autric-ien+ne austriano+a Belgium la Belgi4ue il Belgio Belgian belge belga Bosnia la Bosnie la Bosnia Bosnian bosnia4ue bosniaco+a Bra=il le Br=sil il Brasile Bra=ilian br=silien+ne brasiliano+a Bulgaria la Bulgarie la Bulgaria bulgaro+a il Canada English "ndonesia "ndonesian "reland "rishman "srael "sraeli "taly "talian La*an La*anese 2atvia 2atvian 2ithuania 2ithuanian 2u.embourg 2u.embourger %alta %altese (etherlands )utch French l'Andon=sie (!) indon=sien+ne l'Arlande (!) irlandais+e l'AsraDl isra=lien l'Atalie (!) Italian l'Andonesia indonesiano+a l'Arlanda irlandese l'Asraele israeliano+a l'Atalia italiano+a il Giappone giapponese la 1ettonia lettone la 1ituania lituano+a il 1ussemburgo lussemburg-ese Malta (!) maltese i Paesi Bassi olandese la ,uova Uelanda neozelandese la ,orvegia

Bulgarian bulgare +anada le Canada

italien+ne le %apon japonais+e la 1ettonie letton+ne la 1ituanie lituanien+ne le 1u:embourg lu:embourgeois+e Malte (!) maltais+e Pa@s Bas n=erlandais+e la ,ouvelle" (ew Qealand U=lande (ew n=o"z=landais+e Qealander (orway la ,orv&ge

+anadian +hina +hinese +roatia +roatian +=ech 0e*ublic +=ech )enmark )anish -gy*t -gy*tian -ngland -nglish -stonia -stonian -uro*e -uro*ean 5inland 5innish 5rance 5rench Germany German Great Britain British Greece Greek Hungary Hungarian "celand "celandic "ndia "ndian

canadien+ne la C-ine c-inois+e la Croatie croate la V=publi4ue .c-&4ue tc-&4ue le DanemarN danois+e l'8g@pte (!) =g@ptien+e l'Angleterre (!) anglais+e l'8stonie estonien+ne l'8urope (!) europ=en+ne la Cinlande !innois+e la Crance !ran)ais+e l'Allemagne (!) allemand+e la Grande" Bretagne brittani4ue la Gr&ce grec+grec4ue la 6ongrie -ongrois+e l'Aslande islandais+e l'Ande indien+ne

canadese la Cina cinese la Croazia croato+a la Vepubblica Ceca ceco+a la Danimarca danese l'8gitto egiziano+a l'Ang-ilterra inglese l'8stonia estone l'8uropa europeo+a la Cinlandia !inlandese la Crancia !rancese

(orwegian %acedonia %acedonian Poland Polish Portugal Portuguese 0omania 0omanian 0ussia 0ussian /cotland /cottish /erbia /erbian /lovakia /lovak /lovenia /lovene /*ain /*anish

norv=gien+ne la Mac=doine mac=donien+ne la Pologne polonais+e le Portugal portugais+e la Voumanie roumain+e la Vussie russe l'8cosse =cossais+e la Serbie serbe la Slova4uie slova4ue la Slov=nie slov&ne l'8spagne (!) espagnol+e la Su&de su=dois+e la Suisse suisse la .ur4uie turc+turc4ue l'WNraine uNrainien+ne la Vo@aume"Wni

norvegese la Macedonia macedone la Polonia polacco+a il Portogallo portog-ese la Vomania romeno+a la Vussia russo+a la Scozia scozzese la Serbia serbo+a la Slovacc-ia slovacco+a la Slovenia sloveno+a la Spagna spagnolo+a la Svezia svedese la Svizzera svizzero+a la .urc-ia turco+a l'Wcraina ucraino+a il Vegno Wnito

la Germania /weden tedesco+a la Gran Bretagna britannico+a la Grecia greco+a l'Wng-eria ung-erese l'Aslanda islandese l'Andia indiano+a /wedish /wit=erland /wiss Turkey Turk Okraine Okrainian Onited Mingdom Onited /tates $ales $elsh

les 8tats"Wnis gli Stati Wniti le Pa@s"de"Galles Galles gallois+e gallese

The article is not used with %alta in either language# Pre*ositions X +ontractions

Pre*ositions are highly idiomatic in any language6 so it is always better to learn them in common *hrases# (evertheless6 here are the most common *re*ositionsH English to6 in6 at in6 to on with without !or !rom6 by o! over / above under / below in !ront o! behind near !ar French > en + dans sur avec sans pour de de au"dessus au"dessous devant derri&re *rJs de loin de Italian a in su con senza per da di sopra sotto dietro di !ronte a vicino a lontano a

"n both languages6 *ossession is shown by using de or di (o!) rather than the 8 's in -nglishH le c-at de 1uca + il gatto di 1uca /uca's cat %or the cat of /uca& In French and de combine with the definite articles: + le = au, + les = aux, de + le = du, de + les = des. Italian has several more contractions involving prepositions and articles: il a da di in su al lo allo l' all' la alla i ai gli agli le alle

dal dallo dall' dalla dai dagli dalle del dello dell' della dei degli delle nel nello nell' nella nei negli nelle sul sullo sull' sulla sui sugli sulle

con col collo coll' colla coi cogli colle Osually no article is used with in be!ore words denoting rooms in a house or buildings in a city# The contractions with con are rarely used nowadays6 but you will see them in older writings# 7erbsH Mnow Present *ense sais so sais sai sait sa savons sappiamo savez sapete savent sanno Past *ense savais sapevo savais sapevi savait sapeva savions sapevamo saviez sapevate savaient sapevano Future *ense saurai sapr9 sauras saprai saura sapr> saurons sapremo saurez saprete sauront sapranno

savoir + sapere 8 to know !acts

conna tre + conoscere 8 to know *eo*le6 *laces9 to be ac?uainted with

connais connais conna t connaissons connaissez

conosco conosci conosce conosciamo conoscete

connaissais connaissais connaissait connaissions connaissiez

conoscevo conoscevi conosceva conoscevamo conoscevate

conna trai conna tras conna tra conna trons conna trez

conoscer9 conoscerai conoscer> conosceremo conoscerete

connaissent conoscono

connaissaient conoscevano

conna tront conosceranno

5ood X %eals English bacon bee! beer beverage biscuit bread break!ast butter cake candy cheese chicken chocolate co!!ee cookie cottage cheese French le bacon le bIu! la bi&re la boisson le biscuit le pain le petit d=jeuner le beurre la g3teau le bonbon le !romage le poulet le c-ocolat le ca!= Italian il lardo il manzo la birra la bevanda il biscotto il pane la colazione il burro la torta la caramella il !ormaggio il pollo il cioccolato il ca!!& il biscotto la ricotta lo zucc-ero !ilato la panna la !rutta la cena l'uovo il grasso la !arina il prosciutto English lunch meal meat milk mustard mutton oil omelet *e**er *ie *ork rice roast roll salad salami salt sauce sausage sou* steak stew sugar su**er French le d=jeuner le repas la viande le lait la moutarde le mouton l'-uile (!) l'omelette (!) le poivre la tarte le porc le riz le r?ti le petit pain la salade le salami le sel Italian il pranzo il pasto la carne il latte la mostarda la carne di montone l'olio la !rittata il pepe la torta il maiale il riso l'arrosto il panino l'insalata il salame il sale

le biscuit le !romage blanc la barbe > cotton candy papa cream la cr&me dessert le dessert dinner le d ner egg l'Iu! (m) !at la graisse !lour la !arine ham le jambon

la sauce la salsa la saucisse la salsiccia la soupe la minestra le bi!tecN la bistecca la rago;t lo stu!ato le sucre lo zucc-ero le souper la cena

hamburger honey hot dog ice ice cream 4am 4uice lolli*o*

le -amburger l'-amburger le miel le -ot"dog la glace la glace la con!iture le jus la sucette il miele l'-ot dog

tea toast veal

le t-= le pain grill= la veau

il t& il pane tostato

la carne di vitello il g-iaccio vegetables le l=gume il legume il gelato vinegar le vinaigre l'aceto la marmellata water l'eau l'ac4ua il succo wine le vin il vino il leccalecca yogurt le @aourt lo @ogurt Past *ense pouvais potevo pouvais potevi pouvait poteva pouvions potevamo pouviez potevate pouvaient potevano voulais voulais voulait voulions vouliez voulaient devais devais devait devions deviez devaient volevo volevi voleva volevamo volevate volevano dovevo dovevi doveva dovevamo dovevate dovevano Future *ense pourrai potr9 pourras potrai pourra potr> pourrons potremo pourrez potrete pourront potranno voudrai voudras voudra voudrons voudrez voudront devrai devras devra devrons devrez devront vorr9 vorrai vorr> vorremo vorrete vorranno dovr9 dovrai dovr> dovremo dovrete dovranno

7erbsH +an6 $ant6 %ust Present *ense peu: posso puoi pouvoir + peu: pu9 potere 8 peut to be able pouvons possiamo to6 can pouvez potete peuvent possono veu: veu: vouloir + veut volere 8 voulons to want voulez veulent dois devoir + dois dovere 8 doit to have devons to6 must devez doivent 5ruits X 7egetables English almond a**le a*ricot artichoke as*aragus avocado French l'amande (!) la pomme l'abricot (m) l'artic-aut (m) l'asperge (!) l'avocat Italian la mandorla la mela l'albicocca il carcio!o l'asparago l'avocado English lemon lentil lettuce lime melon mint French le citron la lentille la laitue le citron vert le melon la ment-e Italian il limone la lenticc-ia la lattuga la limetta il melone la menta voglio vuoi vuole vogliamo volete vogliono devo devi deve dobbiamo dovete devono

banana barley bean (broad) bean (kidney) berry broccoli cabbage carrot cauli!lower celery cherry chestnut chives corn cucumber currant cy*ress date egg*lant !ig !ruit garlic gra*e!ruit gra*es ha=elnut herb horse8 radish lea!

le banane l'orge (!) la !&ve le -aricot la baie le brocoli le c-ou: la carotte le c-ou"!leur le c=leri la cerise la c-3taigne( le marron la ciboulette la maXs le concombre la groseille le c@pr&s la datte l'aubergine (!) la !igue le !ruit l'ail (m) le pamplemousse le raisin la noisette l'-erbe (!) le rai!ort la !euille

la banana l'orzo la !ava il !agiolo la bacca i broccoli il cavolo la carota il cavol!iore il sedano la ciliegia

mushroom oats olive onion orange *arsley *ea *each *ear *ine *inea**le

le il !ungo c-ampignon l'avoine (!) l'avena l'olive (!) l'oignon (m) l'orange (!) le persil le pois la pOc-e la poire le pin l'ananas (m) la prune l'oliva la cipolla l'arancia il prezzemolo il pisello la pesca la pera il pino l'ananasso la susina

la castagna *lum la cipollina *otato il granoturco il cetriolo il ribes il cipresso il dattero la melanzana il !ico la !rutta l'aglio il pompelmo l'uva la nocciola l'erba la barba!orte la !oglia *um*kin radish ras*berry rice rye sage seed

la pomme de la patata terre le potiron le radis la !ramboise le riz le seigle la sauge la zucca il ravanello il lampone il riso la segale la salvia il seme gli spinaci la !ragola il pomodoro la rapa la vite la noce l'anguria il !rumento

la graine les =pinards s*inach (m) strawberry la !raise tomato turni* vine walnut la tomate le navet la vigne la noi:

watermelon la past&4ue wheat le !roment

To s*eci!y the ty*e o! tree that a certain !ruit grows on6 4ust make the noun masculine and add 8ier to the 5rench !ruit / change the last letter o! the "talian !ruit to 8o (sometimes the !ruit and the tree will be the same)# la pomme + la mela 8 a**le9 le pommier + il melo 8 a**le tree

There is6 are H "l y a / +'e6 ci sono Al @ a is the 5rench e.*ression !or there is or are# C'& is "talian !or there is6 while ci sono means there are# il @ a une c-aise + c'& una sedia there is a chair il @ a trois c-ats + ci sono tre gatti there are three cats Al @ a also means ago in 5rench when it *recedes a time *eriod# "n "talian6 you add !a a!ter the time *eriod# il @ a un mois + un mese !a one month ago (ecessityH "l !aut / Bisogna6 ,ccorre6 +i vuole To e.*ress necessity6 such as must6 have to6 need (to)6 re?uire6 it's necessary to6 etc# 5rench uses il !aut I verb or a noun (whether singular or *lural)# "talian has several more e.*ressionsH bisogna I verb9 or occorre I verb9 occorre I singular noun / occorrono I *lural noun9 or ci vuole I singular noun / ci vogliono I *lural noun# The verbs will always be in the in!initive# Al !aut !aire des courses' + Bisogna !are la spesa' You must / "t's necessary to go grocery sho**ing# Al !aut ac-eter du pain' + 7ccorre comprare pane' You must buy bread# Al !aut du lait' + 7ccorre il latte' $e need milk# Al !aut des biscuits' + Ci vogliono i biscotti' $e need cookies# Partitive "n 5rench6 you must always e.*ress some6 es*ecially when s*eaking about !ood6 even though you do not have to do this in -nglish# Partitives are !ormed by using de (o!) I de!inite articleH du( de l'( de la and des in the *ositive9 but in the negative6 only de or d' are used# The *artitive (contractions with di) is not re?uired in "talian# You may use it in *ositive sentences6 but never in negative sentences# 8st"ce 4ue tu prends du vin ou de l'eau # + Prendi (del) vino o (dell') ac4ua# 3re you having (some) wine or (some) water %'ai ac-et= des livres interresants' + 6o comprato (dei) libri interessanti' " bought (some) interesting books# %e n'ai pas pass= de bonnes vacances' + ,on -o passato buone vacanze' " didn't have a good vacation# 7erbsH Present X Past Tenses "n both languages6 there are three ty*es o! verbs grou*ed according to the last letters o! the in!initive# "n 5rench6 there are 8er6 8re6 and 8ir verbs9 while in "talian6 there are 8are6 8ere6 and 8ire verbs# The !ollowing chart uses aimer+amare (to love)9 vendre+vendere (to sell)9 and !inir+!inire (to !inish) as e.am*les !or all regular verbs in the *resent and im*er!ect tenses# %*here is another simple past tense# the preterite# but it is rarely used in modern spoken French or Italian& aimer aime aimes 5rench vendre finir vends !inis vends !inis amare amo ami "talian vendere vendo vendi finire !inisco !inisci

Present Tense

aime aimons aimez aiment aimais aimais aimait aimions aimiez aimaient

vend vendons vendez vendent vendais vendais vendait vendions vendiez vendaient

!init !inissons !inissez !inissent !inissais !inissais !inissait !inissions !inissiez !inissaient

ama amiamo amate amano amavo amavi amava amavamo amavate amavano

vende vendiamo vendete vendono vendevo vendevi vendeva vendevamo vendevate vendevano

!inisce !iniamo !inite !iniscono !inivo !inivi !iniva !inivamo !inivate !inivano

"m*er!ect Tense

(ot all 5rench verbs that end in 8ir or all "talian verbs that end in 8ire use the above endings# /ome 8ir / 8ire verbs have slightly di!!erent endings in the *resent tense# "n 5rench6 verbs such as partir( dormir( sortir (to leave6 to slee*6 to go out) are con4ugated thusH !or the singular !orms6 take o!! the last three letters6 and add "s( "s( "t9 !or the *lural !orms6 take o!! the last two letters6 and add "ons( "ez( "ent# 5or e.am*le6 je pars( tu pars( il part( nous partons( vous partez( ils partent # "n "talian6 verbs such as partire( dormire( aprire (to leave6 to slee*6 to o*en) are conugated without the 8isc8 be!ore the regular endings# 5or e.am*le6 parto( parti( parte( partiamo( partite( partono' to like6 love to sing to look !or to begin to study to close to live to *lay to eat to show to s*eak to think to work to !ind to 4um* aimer c-anter c-erc-er commencer =tudier !ermer -abiter jouer manger montrer parler penser travailler trouver sauter amare cantare cercare cominciare studiare c-iudere abitare giocare mangiare mostrare parlare pensare lavorare trovare saltare to sell to wait !or to listen to lose to answer to go down to live to understand to !inish to choose to *unish to !ill to obey to succeed to cure6 heal vendre attendre =couter perdre r=pondre (>) descendre vivre comprendre !inir c-oisir punir remplir ob=ir (>) r=ussir gu=rir vendere aspettare ascoltare perdere rispondere (a) scendere vivere capire !inire scegliere punire riempire ubbidire (a) riuscire guarire

/*elling +hanges in the Present Tense There are a !ew s*elling changes in regular verbs in the *resent tense# These changes are usually made to re!lect the *ronunciation o! the con4ugated verb# "n 5rench6 verbs that end in 8ger will use 8geons as the !irst *erson singular !orm (nous mangeons)9 while verbs that end in 8cer will use 8\ons as the !irst *erson singular !orm (nous commen\ons)# 7erbs that end in 8yer change the y to i in all !orms e.ce*t nous and vous (4'essaie6 tu essaies6 nous essayons)# /ome verbs add an accent grave to the letter e to all !orms e.ce*t nous and vous (4'achJte6 il

achJte6 vous achete=)# /ome verbs double the consonant be!ore the verb endings in all !orms e.ce*t nous and vous (tu a**elle6 elle a**elle6 vous a**ele=)# "n "talian6 verbs ending in 8care and 8gare add an h be!ore the 8i o! the second *erson singular and !irst *erson *lural !orms (tu and noi)# 7erbs ending in 8ciare and 8giare do not add an e.tra 8i be!ore the tu and noi !orms# "rregular "m*er!ect 7erbs "n 5rench6 there is only one verb in the im*er!ect that is irregular6 Ctre# "t uses the stem =t" and the regular im*er!ect endings# Otre >tais >tions >tais >tie= >tait >taient "n "talian6 the stem o! essere becomes er" !or io# tu# lui)lei and loro6 and it does not take the v6 while the stem !or noi and voi is era" and it does take the v# The stems !or bere6 dire and !are are derived !rom the old 2atin in!initives6 and are beve"6 dice"( and !ace"# They also take the regular endings o! the im*er!ect# essere bere dire !are ero eravamo bevevo bevevamo dicevo dicevamo !acevo !acevamo eri eravate bevevi bevevate dicevi dicevate !acevi !acevate era erano beveva bevevano diceva dicevano !aceva !acevano Pronominal 7erbs Pronominal verbs are con4ugated like regular verbs6 but have an e.tra *ronoun be!ore them that agrees with the sub4ect o! the verb# %ost o! these verbs indicate a re!le.ive action 8 that re!lects back on the sub4ect# You can translate the *ronouns as myself# yourself6 etc# but we rarely use these words in -nglish# /ome other verbs indicate a reci*rocal action6 translated by each other in -nglish# mysel! yoursel! himsel!/hersel!/itsel! ourselves yourselves themselves to break (arm6 se casser leg6 etc#) to hurry to rela. to rest to get along me te se nous vous se mi ti si ci vi si

Ve!le:ive verbs rompersi to !all aslee* to get dressed to get married to get u* to have a good time s'endormir addormentarsi s'-abiller se marier se lever s'amuser vestirsi sposarsi alzarsi divertirsi

se d=pOc-er sbrigarsi se d=tendre rilassarsi se reposer s'entendre avec riposarsi intendersi con

to train/*ractice to be interested in to be bored to be called to com*lain about

to s'entra ner allenarsi remember to s'int=resser interessarsi to shave > di (the !ace) to sto* s'ennu@er annoiarsi (onesel!) s'appeler c-iamarsi to wake u* lamentarsi se plaindre to wash u* di

se souvenir ricordarsi di de se raser s'arrOter !arsi la barba !ermarsi

se r=veiller svegliarsi se laver lavarsi

(otice in 5rench that the re!le.ive *ronoun *recedes the in!initive6 whereas in "talian6 it is connected to the end o! the in!initive# $hen con4ugating verbs6 the re!le.ive *ronoun is always *laced be!ore the con4ugated verb in both languages# However6 in sentences where the *ronominal verb remains in the in!initive6 the re!le.ive *ronoun must agree with the sub4ect o! the main verb in the sentence# ,ous nous levons > Y- c-a4ue matin' + Ci alziamo alla Y ogni mattina' $e get u* at V am every morning# Al s'appelle Mic-ael' + Si c-iama Mic-ael' He's called %ichael# <ous allez vous amuser ce soir' + Andate a divertirvi stasera' You're going to have !un tonight# -tre sur le *oint de / /tare *er I in!initive "! you want to e.*ress to be about to do something6 5rench uses Otre sur le point de M in!initive and "talian uses stare per M in!initive# You can use these e.*ressions in the *resent and im*er!ect6 4ust as in -nglish# %'=tais sur le point de r=ussir' + Stavo per riuscire' " was about to succeed# 7n est sur le point de manger' + Stiamo per mangiare' $e're about to eat# <ous Otes sur le point de !inir' + State per !inire' You are about to !inish# -tre en train de / /tare I gerund To translate that an action is currently ha**ening (the *rogressive !orm in -nglishH be I gerund)6 5rench uses the *hrase Otre en train de M in!initive 6 while "talian uses stare M gerund# 0emember that Ctre and stare can be con4ugated in other tenses besides the *resent or im*er!ect# To !orm the gerund in "talian6 4ust re*lace the verb endingsH 8are becomes "ando6 8ere becomes "endo6 and 8ire also becomes "endo# There are three irregular !ormsH !are 8 !acendo6 dire 8 dicendo6 bere 8 bevendo' %e suis en train de lire' + Sto leggendo' " am reading# / "'m busy reading# / "'m in the middle o! reading# Al =tait en train de parler' + Stava parlando' He was talking# 8lles sont en train de partir' + Stanno partendo' They are leaving# ,n / /i To translate you# we# they# the people (in general6 abstract terms)6 5rench uses on M Zrd person singular conjugation whereas "talian uses si M Zrd person conjugation (which agrees with the sub4ect !or number)# However6 on in 5rench is a regular sub4ect *ronoun while si is not in "talian# "t is actually a re!le.ive *ronoun

normally used with *ronominal verbs# But this should not cause many *roblems as you rarely use the sub4ect *ronouns in "talian anyway# The sub4ect !or the "talian e.*ression is *laced a!ter the verb and the verb agrees with it 8 singular or *lural# 8n Crance( on boit beaucoup de ca!=' + An Crancia( si beve molto ca!!&' "n 5rance6 they drink a lot o! co!!ee# / "n 5rance6 a lot o! co!!ee is drunk# 8n Atalie( on mange beaucoup de glaces' + An Atalia( si mangiano molti gelati' "n "taly6 they eat a lot o! ice cream# / "n "taly6 a lot o! ice cream is eaten# 5rench uses this same construction (re!le.ive *ronoun I Urd *erson con4ugation) !or the im*ersonal !orm and as a subsitute !or the *assive mood# 5or e.am*le6 in the 5rench 1e pain s'ac-&te > la boulangerie the verb is constructed the same as in the "talian Al pani!icio si compra il pane# "t's 4ust the word order that is slightly di!!erent# Both sentences mean 0read is bought at the bakery6 but the 5rench construction is not used as o!ten because active e.*ressions with on are more commonH 7n ac-&te le pain > la boulangerie' Plaire / Piacere Because the verbs aimer and amare means to like and to love6 it would be better to use the verbs *laire and *iacere when talking about things that you like# The construction o! these verbs can be con!using though because the word order is di!!erent !rom -nglish# "n 5rench6 the word order is sub4ect I indirect *ronoun I *laire# "n "talian6 the word order is indirect *ronoun I *iacere I sub4ect# You can think o! these verbs as meaning to please rather than to like# (ote that the verbs are only con4ugated !or third *erson singular and *lural6 because they agree with the sub4ects6 and not the indirect *ronouns# 1e !ootball me pla t' 1e sNi te pla t' 1es pommes lui plaisent' 1e sport nous pla t' 1es !ilms vous plaisent' 1a natation leur pla t' 7erbsH "m*erative The im*erative is the command !orm o! the verb# The sub4ect (you) is im*lied and doesn't need to be e.*ressed# You can also use the we !orm o! verbs to e.*ress /et's The im*erative con4ugations are very similar to the *resent tense con4ugations in both languages# "m*eratives in 5rench are slightly easier to !orm# The you singular !orm is identical to the tu con4ugations6 e.ce*t 8er verbs dro* the 8s# The you singular formal ) you plural and we !orms are identical to the vous and nous con4ugations# To !orm the negative o! an im*erative6 4ust *lace ne be!ore the verb and pas a!ter# 5or *ronominal verbs6 the a!!irmative im*erative is !ormed connecting the re!le.ive *ronoun to the verb with a hy*hen (te becomes toi in im*eratives)# To !orm the negative *ronominal im*erative6 the re!le.ive *ronoun is once again *laced be!ore the verb and ne is *laced be!ore the *ronoun and verb6 and *as is *laced a!ter the verb# Veste l>' /tay there# Cinis ton travail' 5inish your work# Mi piace il calcio' .i piace lo sci' Gli + 1e piacciono le mele' Ci piace lo sport' <i piacciono i !ilm' A loro piace il nuoto' " like soccer# You like skiing# He / she likes a**les# $e like s*orts# You like !ilms# They like swimming#

8coutez le pro!esseur' 2isten to the teacher# Commen)ons' 2et's begin# ,e !ume pas' )on't smoke# ,e parlez pas' )on't s*eak# D=pOc-e"toi' Hurry# ,e vous levez pas' )on't get u*# "talian im*eratives are not ?uite as similar to the *resent tense con4ugations# The you singular !orm is "a !or 8are verbs and "i !or 8ere/8ire verbs# The you singular formal (the 2ei !orm) is the o**ositeH "i !or 8are verbs and "a !or 8ere/8ire verbs# The you plural and we !orms are identical to the voi and noi con4ugations (4ust as in 5rench)# To make a command negative6 4ust add non be!ore the verb9 e1cept for you singular im*eratives6 where you use non M t-e in!initive # Pronominal verbs !orm the im*erative by *lacing the re!le.ive *ronoun a!ter the verb6 and they are written together as one word# (egative im*eratives !or *ronominal verbs 4ust add non be!ore the verb9 e1cept for you singular *ronominal verbs6 which use non M t-e in!initive # However6 the re!le.ive *ronoun attached to this in!initive must still agree with the sub4ect6 so it will be "ti and not "si# Vesta lQ# /tay there# Cinisci il tuo lavoro' 5inish your work# Ascoltate il pro!essore# 2isten to the teacher# Cominciamo# 2et's begin# ,on !umare# )on't smoke# ,on parlate' )on't s*eak# Sbrigati' Hurry# ,on alzatevi' )on't get u*# 5rench "rregular "m*eratives 2tre avoir savoir you singular you sing# !ormal you *lural 2et's& sois so@ez so@ez aie a@ez a@ez sac-e sac-ez sac-ez "talian "rregular "m*eratives andare va' vada andate venire vieni venga venite fare !a' !accia !ate dare da' dia date dire di' dica dite essere avere sii sia siate abbi abbia stare sta' stia

abbiate state

so@ons a@ons sac-ons

andiamo veniamo !acciamo diamo diciamo siamo abbiamo stiamo

In Italian# dare is to give and dire is to tell 7erbsH Present Per!ect / Past Per!ect Tenses The *er!ect tenses in 5rench and "talian are !ormed with to have or to be as au.iliary verbs and a *ast *artici*le# ("n -nglish6 to have is always the au.iliary verb#) To have or to be are in the *resent tense !or the *resent *er!ect6 and in the im*er!ect tense !or the *ast *er!ect# The ma4ority o! verbs will use to have as the au.iliary verb9 however6 all *rononimal/re!le.ive verbs in both languages use to be as the au.iliary# To !orm the *ast *artici*le o! a verb6 use the !ollowing endingsH French Italian

8er / "= 8are 8ir / "i 8ire 8re / "u 8ere

"ato "ito "uto

<erbs using to -ave (avoir+avere) as an au:iliar@ 7erbs that can take a direct ob4ect use to have as an au.iliary# $ord order is sim*ly *resent/im*er!ect !orm o! have I *ast *artici*le# "n the negative6 word order becomes ne I *resent/im*er!ect o! have I pas I *ast *artici*le !or 5rench6 and non I *resent/im*er!ect o! have I *ast *artici*le !or "talian# There is no agreement with the *ast *artici*le in gender or number unless there is a preceding direct object 5ollow the same rules !or agreement as you do with nouns and ad4ectivesH add 8e !or !eminine and 8s !or *lural in 5rench9 change 8o to 8a !or !eminine6 8o to 8i !or masculine *lural6 and 8o to 8e !or !eminine *lural in "talian# Italian 6ai mangiato Positive la mela' ,on -ai .u n'as pas (egative mangiato la mang= la pomme' mela' Preceding .u ne l'as pas ,on la -ai )irect ,b4ect mang=e' mangiata' French .u as mang= la pomme' English You ate the a**le# You didn't eat the a**le# You didn't eat it#

<erbs using to be (Otre+essere) as an au:iliar@ 7erbs that cannot take a direct ob4ect (i#e# intransitive verbs)6 as well as all *ronominal verbs6 generally use to be as an au.iliary# $ord order is *resent/im*er!ect !orm o! be I *ast *artici*le !or intransitive verbs and re!le.ive *ronoun I *resent/im*er!ect !orm o! be I *ast *artici*le !or *rononimal verbs# "n the negative6 word order becomes ne I re!le.ive *ronoun I *resent/im*er!ect o! be I pas I *ast *artici*le !or 5rench6 and non I re!le.ive *ronoun I *resent/im*er!ect o! be I *ast *artici*le !or "talian# The *ast *artici*le must agree in gender and number with the sub4ect !or all verbs using to be as an au.iliary# French 8lle est all=e > la poste' 8lle n'est pas all=e > la poste' ,ous nous sommes lav=(e)s' ,ous ne nous sommes pas lav=(e)s' Italian 8 andata alla posta' ,on & andata alla posta' Ci siamo lavati+e' ,on ci siamo lavati+e' English /he went to the *ost o!!ice# /he didn't go to the *ost o!!ice# $e washed ourselves# $e didn't wash ourselves#

Positive (egative Positive Pronominal (egative Pronominal

The verbs that re?uire to be (Otre) as an au.iliary in 5rench areH aller8to go6 sortir8 to go out6 venir8to come6 mourir8to die6 arriver8to arrive6 partir8to leave6 devenir8 to become6 monter8to go u*6 entrer8to enter6 tomber8to !all6 revenir8to come back6 rester8to stay6 rentrer8to return home6 na tre8to be born6 passer8to go by (*ass)6 descendre8to go down# ,nly a !ew o! these verbs have irregular *ast *artici*lesH

venir"venu( devenir"devenu( revenir"revenu( mourir"mort( and na tre"n=# 3nd !ive o! these verbs (monter( descendre( sortir( rentrer( and passer) can sometimes be con4ugated with avoir i! they are !ollowed by a direct ob4ect# The verbs that re?uire to be (essere) as an au.iliary in "talian areH arrivare8to arrive6 andare8to go6 uscire8to go out6 entrare8to enter6 costare8to cost6 venire8to come6 essere8to be6 partire8to leave6 stare8to stay/be6 sparire8to disa**ear6 tornare8to come back6 nascere8to be born6 morire8to die# 5ive o! these verbs have irregular *ast *artici*lesH venire"venuto( essere"stato( stare"stato( nascere"nato 6 and morire"morto# (ote that avoir and Otre bot- use avoir as an au:iliar@ in 5rench6 but that avere uses avere and essere uses essere as an au:iliar@ in "talian1 3nd remember that the *ast *artici*le agrees with a *receding direct ob4ect when the au.iliary is to have9 but the *ast *artici*le agrees with the sub4ect when the au.iliary is to be# 7enir de / 3**ena To e.*ress that something has 4ust ha**ened6 use a !orm o! venir M de I in!initive in 5rench6 and a !orm o! the correct au.iliary verb I appena I *ast *artici*le in "talian# 1e train vient de partir' + Al treno & appena partito' The train 4ust le!t# House X 5urniture English alarm clock armchair ashtray attic balcony basement basket bathroom bathtub batteries bed bedroom French le r=veil le !auteuil le cendrier le grenier le balcon le sous"sol la corbeille le bain la baignoire la pile le lit la c-ambre Italian la sveglia la poltrona English hook house French le croc-et la maison le !er [ repasser le p=trole la cle! la cuisine l'=c-elle (!) la lampe la pelouse Italian l'uncino la casa il !erro da stiro il petrolio la c-iave la cucina la scala la lampada il prato la lampadina il soggiorno la serratura la cassetta postale i !iammi!eri il materasso il !orno microonde lo specc-io il !ornello

il portacenere iron (!lat) la so!!itta il balcone il sottosuolo la cesta il bagno la vasca da bagno le pile il letto la camera il campanello la coperta la persiana la libreria la scatola la scopa kerosene key kitchen ladder lam* lawn

bell (door) la sonnette blanket blinds la couverture le store le bookcase bibliot-&4ue bo. la bo tre broom le balai

light bulb l'ampoule living room le living lock la serrure la bo te [ mailbo. lettres matches les allumettes mattress le matelas microwave le !our [ oven micro"ondes mirror le miroir oven le !our

bucket

le seau

il secc-io la telecamera la macc-ina !otogra!ica la candela il tappeto la cassetta il lettore CD il so!!ito la sedia il camino il sigaro la sigaretta l'orologio l'armadio

*antry *icture *illow *i*e *i*e (water) *oker radio record re!rigerator roo! room rug sheet shel!

camcorder la cam=ra l'appareil" camera p-oto (m) candle la bougie car*et cassette le tapis

le garde" manger le tableau l'oreiller (m) la pipe le tu@au le tisonnier le radio le dis4ue le r=!rigerateur le toit la pi&ce le tapis le drap l'=tag&re la pelle la douc-e le bu!!et l'=vier le lavabo le salon la !um=e le canap= l'escalier (m) les marc-es l'=tage (m) le poOle le cabinet de travail le commutateur la table

la dispensa il 4uadro il cuscino la pipa il condotto l'attizzatoio la radio il disco il !rigori!ero il tetto la stanza il tappeto il lenzuolo lo sca!!ale la pala la doccia la credenza il lavandino il lavandino il salotto il !umo il so!> la scala lo scalino il piano la stu!a lo studio l'interruttore la tavola il rubinetto il tele!ono

la cassette la lecteur de +) *layer CD ceiling le pla!ond chair la c-aise chimney la c-emin=e cigar le cigare cigarette la cigarette clock la pendule closet le placard com*act le CD disc l'ordinateur com*uter (m) corner le coin cu*board l'armoire (!) curtain cushion desk dining room door drawer dresser driveway )7) *layer !ence !ilm !ire !lame le rideau le coussin le bureau la salle [ manger la porte le tiroir la commode l'all=e le lecteur de D<D le portail + cl?ture la pellicule le !eu la !lamme

il compact disc shovel il computer l'angolo l'armadio la cortina + tenda il cuscino la scrivania la sala da pranzo la porta il cassetto il com9 il viale d'accesso il lettore D<D lo steccato il rullino il !uoco la !iamma shower sideboard sink sink (bathroom) sitting room smoke so!a stairs ste*s story stove study switch

table ta* le robinet (!aucet) tele*hone le t=l=p-one

!lashlight !lat !loor !loor (levels) !lower !ree=er

la lampe de poc-e l'appartement (m) la planc-er l'=tage (m) la !leur la cong=lateur

la pila tascabile

television

la t=l=vision le grille"pain

il televisore il tostapane il gabinetto la salvietta l'aspiratore (m) il vaso

l'appartamento toaster il pavimento il piano il !iore il congelatore

toilet ($+) le cabinet towel vacuum cleaner vase la serviette l'aspirateur (m) le vase

!ront walk la promenade la passeggiata 7+0 !urniture garage garden ground !loor hearth English air*ort bakery bank bar barn barracks les meubles (m) le garage le jardin le rez"de" c-auss=e la c-emin=e i mobili il garage il giardino il pianterreno il caminetto Italian l'aeroporto la panetteria la banca il bar il granaio la caserma la panc-ina il ponte la libreria l'edi!icio la macelleria il castello il duomo il cimitero la c-iesa il cinema il consolato l'angolo

la il magn=toscope videoregistratore il muro la parete la !inestra il giardino

wall le mur (house) wall (room) la paroi window la !enOtre yard le jardin

Buildings X %aterials French l'a=roport la boulangerie le banc le bar le grange la caserne English *ort *rison restaurant road (highway) school sidewalk s?uare stable stadium French le port la prison le restaurant le c-emin + la route l'=cole le trottoir Italian il porto la prigione il ristorante il cammino + la via la scuola il marciapiede la piazza la stalla lo stadio lo stop il negozio la strada il sobborgo il teatro la torre la citt> il municipio il sema!oro

bench le banc bridge le pont bookstore le librairie building butcher's castle cathedral cemetery church cinema consulate corner le b3timent la bouc-erie le c-3teau la cat-=drale le cimeti&re l'=glise le cin=ma le consulat le coin

la place l'=table le stade le signe sto* sign d'arrOte store le magasin street la rue suburb la banlieue theater le t-=3tre tower la tour town la ville town hall la mairie tra!!ic light le !eu de

courtyard

la cour le passage crosswalk pour pi=tons dock le bassin dry le pressing cleaner's l'ambassade embassy (!) !actory l'usine (!) !arm la !erme la bouc-e > !ire hydrant incendie !ountain la !ontaine garage grocery store hos*ital hotel house hut inn lane (town) le garage l'=picerie

il cortile il passaggio pedonale il bacino la tintoria l'ambasciata la !abbrica la !attoria l'idrante la !ontana il garage la drog-eria l'ospedale (m) l'albergo (m) la casa la capanna l'osteria il vicolo la biblioteca

university village alloy brass brick cement chalk clay coal concrete co**er cork glass gold iron lead leather lime

circulation l'universit= le village l'alliage (m) le laiton la bri4ue le ciment la craie l'argile (!) le c-arbon le b=ton le cuivre le li&ge le verre l'or (m) le !er le plomb le cuir la c-au: le marbre le mercure le m=tal le caoutc-ouc l'argent (m) l'acier (m) la pierre le goudron l'=tain (m) le bois

l'universit> (!) il villaggio la lega l'ottone (m) il mattone il cemento la creta l'argilla il carbone il calcestruzzo il rame il sug-ero il vetro l'oro il !erro il piombo il cuoio la calce il marmo il mercurio il metallo la gomma l'argento l'acciaio la pietra il catrame lo stagno il legno

l'-?pital (m) l'-otel la maison la -utte l'auberge (!) la ruelle la library bibliot-&4ue market le marc-= ministry le minist&re monument le monument museum *alace *ath *avement *harmacy *ier *olice station le mus=e le palais le sentier le trottoir la p-armacie la jet=e le commisariat

il mercato marble il ministero mercury il monumento metal il museo il palazzo il sentiero il marciapiede la !armacia il molo la 4uestura rubber silver steel stone tar tin wood

+om*aratives / /u*erlatives Comparatives o! Superiorit@( An!eriorit@( and 8galit@ English more ### French plus ''' 4ue + plus Italian pi0 ''' c-e + pi0 '''

than less ### than as ### as

de ''' 4ue moins '''' 4ue + moins de''' 4ue aussi ''' 4ue + autant de ''' 4ue

di meno ''' c-e + meno ''' di cosQ''' come + tanto ''' 4uanto

5rench com*aratives are less com*licated than "talian com*aratives# Plus### ?ue6 moins### ?ue6 and aussi### ?ue are used with ad4ectives6 while *lus de### ?ue6 moins de### ?ue and autant de### ?ue are used with nouns# "n "talian6 *i]###che and meno### che are used when com*aring two ?ualities o! the same thing6 and with ad4ectives6 verbs or adverbs9 while *i]### di and meno### di are used when com*aring two di!!erent things# +os^### come and tanto### ?uanto are used interchangeably with ad4ectives6 but tanto###?uanto can also com*are two ?uantities (in which case6 the words agree in gender and number with the noun they describe)# Marc a plus d'amis 4ui d'amies' + Marco -a pi0 amici c-e amic-e # %ark has more male !riends than !emale !riends# Paul est plus grand 4ue Cranco' + Paolo & pi0 alto di Cranco' Paul is taller than 5rank# Paris est aussi belle 4ue Vome' + Parigi & cosQ bella come Voma' Paris is as beauti!ul as 0ome# Superlatives Ose the correct !orm o! the de!inite article i! using an ad4ective6 or 4ust the masculine singular !orm i! using an adverb6 and plus / moins or pi0 + meno# "! the ad4ective !ollows the noun6 you must re*eat the de!inite article be!ore the su*erlative !orm in 5rench6 but not in "talian# The *re*osition de + di (*lus contractions6 i! needed) means in with all su*erlatives# C'est la ville la plus ric-e d'Atalie' + S la citt> pi0 ricca d'Atalia' "t's the richest city in "taly# Arregular Corms French Italian ad4ective 8 com*arative 8 su*erlative bon " meilleur+e " le+la buono " migliore " il+la good 8 better 8 best meilleur+e migliore cattivo " peggio " il+la bad 8 worse 8 worst mauvais " pire " le+la pire peggiore piccolo " minore " il+la little 8 less 8 least petit " moindre " le+la moindre minimo adverb 8 com*arative 8 su*erlative bien " mieu: " le mieu: bene " meglio " il meglio male " peggio " il peggio poco " meno " il meno molto " pi0 " il pi0 English

well 8 better 8 best badly 8 worse 8 mal " pis " le pis worst little 8 less 8 least peu " moins " le moins much 8 more 8 most beaucoup " plus " le plus +lothing X Toiletries

English a*ron barrette bathrobe belt blouse boot bra bracelet brush buckle button ca* clothes coat collar comb

French le tablier la barrette le peignoir la ceinture le c-emisier la botte le soutien" gorge le bracelet la brosse la boucie le bouton la cas4uette les vOtements le manteau le col le peigne

Italian il grembiale il !ermaglio l'accappatoio la cintura la camicetta lo stivale il reggiseno

English silk skirt sleeve sli**ers soa* sock stocking

French la soie la jupe la manc-e les pantou!les le savon les c-aussettes le bas

Italian la seta la gonna la manica la panto!ola il sapone il calzino la calza l'abito + il vestito gli occ-iali da sole le bretelle il maglione il costume da bagno il !ilo la cravatta la maglietta l'ombrello le mutandine il panciotto l'orologio la lana lo spazzolino il denti!ricio il trucco il rossetto lo smalto per ung-ie

il braccialetto suit la spazzola per capelli la !ibbia il bottone il berretto

gli abiti il cappotto il colletto il pettine le lenti a contact lens les lentilles (!) contatto cotton le coton il cotone dress la robe il vestito le cac-e" il earmu!!s wool oreilles paraorecc-ie la boucle earrings l'orecc-ino toothbrush d'oreille !ashion la mode la moda tooth*aste glasses glove handbag les lunettes les gants gli occ-iali il guanto makeu* li*stick nail *olish nail *olish remover mascara blush eyeliner

le costume + le tailleur les lunettes sunglasses de soleil sus*enders les bretelles sweater le pull"over le maillot de swimsuit bain thread le !il tie la cravate T8shirt le t"s-irt umbrella le parapluie les sous" underwear vOtements waistcoat le gilet watch la montre la laine la brosse > dents le denti!rice le ma4uillage le rouge le vernis > ongles

le sac > main la borsa il !azzoletto il cappello la giacca jeans

handkerchie! le mouc-oir hat 4acket 4eans le c-apeau la veste + le blouson le jean

le dissolvant l'acetone (m) le mascara le blusl'e@eliner il mascara il !ard lo spazzolino per ung-ie

mittens necklace needle nightgown out!it overcoat *a4amas *ants *in *ocket *urse raincoat ribbon ring sandals scar! shirt shoe shoelace shorts

l'ombre > paupi&re le !ond de le collier la collana !oundation teint l'aiguille (!) l'ago lotion la lotion la c-emise de la camicia da le sham*oo nuit notte s-ampooing l'apr&s" l'ensemble il corredo conditioner s-ampooing shaving la mousse > le pardessus il soprabito cream raser le p@jama il pigiama ra=or le rasoir les pinces > le pantalon i pantaloni twee=ers =piler le coupe" l'=pingle (!) lo spillo nail cli**ers ongles la poc-e la tasca nail !ile la lime le !il la bourse la borsetta !loss dentaire les mou!les le manopole eyeshadow

l'ombretto il !ondotinta la lozione lo sciampo il balsamo la crema da barba il rasoio le pinzette le !orbicine

la lima il !ilo interdentale il !erro l'imperm=able l'impermeable curling iron le !er > !riser arricciacapelli straightening la piastra le ruban il nastro le lisseur iron stiracapelli la bague l'anello hairs*ray la la4ue la lacca le s&c-e" les sandales i sandali hairdryer l'asciugacapelli c-eveu: l'=c-arpe la sciarpa *owder la poudre la polvere la c-emise la maglia *er!ume le par!um il pro!umo la c-aussure la scarpa cologne le cologne la colonia la lotion l'emulsione le lacet il laccio suntan lotion solaire solare le s-ort i pantaloncini s*onge l'=ponge (!) la spugna

7erbsH ,ther common irregular verbs ,ther irregular verbs to memori=e in 5rench in the *resent tenseH mettre ! to wear mets mets met mettons mettez mettent vivre ! to live vis vis vit vivons vivez vivent lire ! to read lis lis lit lisons lisez lisent dire ! to say dis dis dit disons dites disent suivre ! to voir ! to see vois vois voit vo@ons vo@ez voient mourir ! to die

croire ! to believe crire ! to write recevoir ! to

crois crois croit cro@ons cro@ez croient dare ! to give do dai d> diamo date danno Human Body English ankle arm artery back beard belly bladder blood body bone brain breast breath cal! cheek chest chin coccy. cold com*le.ion cough disease

=cris =cris =crit =crivons =crivez =crivent bere ! to drink bevo bevi beve beviamo bevete bevono

receive re)ois re)ois re)oit recevons recevez re)oivent dire ! to say# tell dico dici dice diciamo dite dicono

follow suis suis suit suivons suivez suivent salire ! to go up salgo sali sale saliamo salite salgono

meurs meurs meurt mourons mourez meurent uscire ! to go out esco esci esce usciamo uscite escono Italian la bocca il muscolo l'ung-ia il collo il nervo il dolore il naso la palma il polso la costola la tibia

,ther irregular verbs to memori=e in "talian in the *resent tenseH

French la c-eville le bras l'art&re le dos la barbe le ventre la vessie le sang le corps l'os (m) la cervelle le sein la -aleine le mollet la joue la poitrine le menton le cocc@: le r-ume le teint la tou: la maladie

Italian la caviglia il braccio l'arteria il dorso la barba il ventre la vescica il sangue il corpo l'osso il cervello il seno l'alito il polpaccio la guancia il petto

l'=paule (!) la spalla le s4uelette lo sc-eletro la peau la pelle le cr3ne il cranio la plante la pianta l'=pine la spina il mento s*ine dorsale (!) dorsale il coccige stomach l'estomac (m) lo stomaco il ra!!reddore tear la larme la lacrima la carnagione tem*le la tempe la tempia la tosse thigh la cuisse la coscia la malattia throat la gorge la gola

English mouth muscle nail neck nerve *ain nose *alm *ulse rib shin / tibia shoulder skeleton skin skull sole

French la bouc-e le muscle l'ongle (m) le cou le ner! la douleur le nez la paume le pouls la c?te le tibia

ear elbow eye eyebrow eyelid !ace !ever !inger !ist !lesh !oot !orehead gum hair hand head headache health heart heel hi* intestine 4aw kidney knee leg li*

l'oreille (!) la coude l'Iil le sourcil la paupi&re le visage + la !igure la !i&vre le doigt le poing la c-air le pied le !ront la gencive les c-eveu: la main la tOte le mal de tOte la sant= le cIur le talon la -anc-e l'intestin (m) la m3c-oire le rein le genou la jambe la l&vre

l'orecc-io il gomito l'occ-io il sopracciglio la palpebra la !accia + il viso la !ebbre il dito il pugno la carne il piede la !ronte la gengiva i capelli la mano la testa il mal di testa la salute il cuore il tallone l'anca il intestino la mascella il rene il ginocc-io la gamba il labbro

thumb toe tongue tooth vein wound waist wrist see hear smell taste touch enamel !illing crown gum bone root nerve iris cornea *u*il retina o*tic nerve lens

le pouce l'orteil (m) la langue la dent la veine la blessure la taille le poignet voir entendre sentir go;ter touc-er l'=mail le plombage la couronne la gencive l'os la racine la ner! l'iris la corn=e la pupille la r=tine le ner! opti4ue le cristallin

il pollice il dito del piede la lingua il dente la vena la !erita la vita il polso vedere udire annusare assaggiare toccare lo smalto l'otturazione la corona la gengiva l'osso la radice il nervo l'iride la cornea la pupilla la retina il nervo ottico la lente

liver la !oie il !egato lung le poumon il polmone moustache la moustac-e i ba!!i 7erbsH 5uture / +onditional Tenses

0ather than using au.iliary verbs be!ore the in!initive to !orm the !uture and conditional tenses (will and would in -nglish)6 5rench and "talian add di!!erent endings to the in!initives# There are several irregular stems6 but these stems are used to !orm both the !uture and conditional tenses# You must dro* 8e !rom 8re verbs in 5rench and dro* 8e !rom all in!initives in "talian6 as well as change 8ar to 8er6 be!ore adding the endings# 5or e.am*le6 you add the endings to *arler86 *artir86 and *rendr8 in 5rench and to *arler86 *artir86 and *render8 in "talian#

8ndings !or Cuture and Conditional .enses !or all verbs Cuture French Italian "ai "9 "as "ai "a "> "ons "emo "ez "ete "ont Conditional French Italian "ais "ei "ais "esti "ait "ebbe "ions "emmo "iez "este " "anno "aient ebbero Italian 3tems avere avr" andare andr" bere berr" dare dar" dovere dovr" essere sar" !are !ar" *otere potr" sa*ere sapr" stare star" vedere vedr" venire verr" volere vorr"

Arregular Stems !or Cuture and Conditional French 3tems aller ir" avoir aur" courir courr" devoir devr" envoyer enverr" Ctre ser" !aire !er" !alloir !audr" mourir mourr" *leuvoir pleuvr" *ouvoir pourr" recevoir recevr" savoir saur" tenir tiendr" valoir vaudr" venir viendr" voir verr" vouloir voudr"

5or the past !uture and past conditional tenses6 you use the !uture or conditional o! the au.iliary verb (to have or to be) I *ast *artici*le# Future *ense avoir avere aurai avr9 auras avrai aura avr> aurons avremo aurez avrete auront avranno 4onditional *ense avoir avere aurais avrei aurais avresti aurait avrebbe aurions avremmo auriez avreste auraient avrebbero Future *ense 2tre essere serai sar9 seras sarai sera sar> serons saremo serez sarete seront saranno 4onditional *ense 2tre essere serais sarei serais saresti serait sarebbe serions saremmo seriez sareste seraient sarebbero

Agreement o! .enses\ 6@pot-etical Sentences +lauses beginning with i! (si / se) re?uire di!!erent tenses in 5rench and "talian# "n 5rench6 si is !ollowed by the *resent tense6 and the verb in the !ollowing clause is in the !uture tense# "n "talian6 both verbs must be in the !uture tense# Si j'ai le temps( je viendrai c-ez toi' + Se avr9 il tempo( verr9 a casa tua' "! " have the time6 " will go to your *lace# Y X en / +i X ne T and ci are *ronouns used to re*lace a *re*ositional *hrase beginning with any *re*osition e.ce*t de / di6 and they translate as it or there in -nglish# %'@ pense' + Ci penso' "'m thinking about it# %'@ suis all=' + Ci sono andato' " went there# ,'@ pense pas' + ,on pensarci' )on't think about it# 8n and ne are *ronouns used to re*lace a *re*ositional *hrase beginning with de / di6 da or to re*lace the noun !ollowing a number6 and they translate as about it/them or o! it/them in -nglish# %'en ai 4uatre' + ,e -o 4uattro' " have !our (o! them)# Parles"en' + Parlane' Talk about it# %e n'en doute pas' + ,on ne dubito' " don't doubt it# "n 5rench6 y and en are *laced be!ore a con4ugated verb and between a con4ugated verb and in!initive6 but a!ter an im*erative (and connected to it by a hy*en)# "n "talian6 ci and ne are *laced be!ore a con4ugated verb6 but a!ter an im*erative6 in!initive or gerund (and they are written together as one word)# 7erbsH /ub4unctive %ood Present Subjunctive o! Vegular <erbs 3dd these endings to the ils/elles *resent tense stem o! 5rench (ils boivent9 boiv8) and the regular verb stem (*arlare9 *arl8) in "talianH French all verbs "e "es "e "ions "iez "ent Italian !ere ) !are !ire "i "a "i "a "i "a " "iamo iamo "iate "iate "ino "ano

Present Subjunctive o! Arregular <erbs "rregular verbs in the 5rench sub4unctive still use the same endings as above6 with a !ew e.ce*tions# 2tre ! to be sois avoir ! to have aie faire ! to do !asse aller ! to go aille

sois soit so@ons so@ez soient

aies ait a@ons a@ez aient

!asses !asse !assions !assiez !assent

ailles aille allions alliez aillent

savoir ! to know vouloir ! to want sac-e sac-es sac-e sac-ions sac-iez sac-ent veuille veuilles veuille voulions vouliez veuillent

pouvoir ! to be able to pleuvoir ! to rain puisse puisses puisse puissions puissiez puissent

pleuve

%ost irregular verbs in the "talian sub4unctive are !ormed !rom the io !orm o! the *resent indicative6 and add the 8ere / 8ire endings to this stem# essere sia sia sia siamo siate siano fare !accia !accia !accia !acciamo !acciate !acciano avere abbia abbia abbia abbiamo abbiate abbiano potere possa possa possa possiamo possiate possano andare vada vada vada andiamo andiate vadano sapere sappia sappia sappia sappiamo sappiate sappiano bere beva beva beva beviamo beviate bevano stare stia stia stia stiamo stiate stiano dare dia dia dia diamo diate diano uscire esca esca esca usciamo usciate escano dire dica dica dica diciamo diciate dicano venire venga venga venga veniamo veniate vengano dovere debba debba debba dobbiamo dobbiate debbano volere voglia voglia voglia vogliamo vogliate vogliano

The sub4unctive mood must be used in subordinate clauses when the verb in the de*endent clause e.*resses want6 wish6 doubt6 !ear6 necessity6 !eelings6 etc# !or both 5rench and "talian# "talian also re?uires the sub4unctive a!ter verbs o! ho*e and o*inion6 while 5rench uses the indicative a!ter these verbs (however6 verbs o! o*inion in the negative or interrogative do in !act use the sub4unctive in 5rench)# %e veu: 4ue Paul me r=ponde' + <oglio c-e Paolo mi risponda' " want Paul to answer me# Al !aut 4ue Giacomo visite le centre' + Bisogna c-e Giacomo visiti il centro # Giacomo must visit the center# %e suis triste 4u'il parte' + Sono triste c-e lui parta # "'m sad that he's leaving# %e pense 4u'elle comprend l'allemand' + Penso c-e lei capisca il tedesco' " think that she understands German#

The sub4unctive must also be used a!ter certain im*ersonal *hrases and con4unctionsH il est (im)possible 4ue + & (im)possibile c-e it's (im)*ossible that il est probable 4ue + & probabile c-e it's *robable that il est utile 4ue + & utile c-e it's use!ul that il est juste 4ue + & giusto c-e it's right that il su!!it 4ue + basta c-e it's enough that bien 4ue + benc-=( sebbene( nonostante although pourvu 4ue( > condition 4ue + purc-=( a condizione c-e( a patto c-e *rovided that a!in 4ue + a!!inc-= so that pour 4ue + perc-= in order that > moins 4ue + a meno c-e unless sans 4ue + senza c-e without avant 4ue + prima c-e be!ore The im*er!ect sub4unctive is rarely used nowadays in 5rench6 but it is still very common in "talian# Amper!ect Subjunctive o! Vegular <erbs 5rench uses the il/elle !orm o! the sim*le *ast to !orm the stem !or the im*er!ect sub4unctive9 while "talian uses the regular stem# French Italian all verbs !are !ere !ire "sse "assi "essi "issi "sses "assi "essi "issi "]t "asse "esse "isse " " "ssions "issimo assimo essimo "ssiez "aste "este "iste "ssent "assero "assero "issero The third *erson singular in 5rench should also add a circonfle1e accent over the vowel that occurs be!ore the t# Amper!ect Subjunctive o! Arregular <erbs 7erbs that are irregular in the im*er!ect indicative are also irregular in the im*er!ect sub4unctive in "talian# essere !ossi !ossi !osse !ossimo !oste !ossero avere avessi avessi avesse avessimo aveste avessero bere bevessi bevessi bevesse bevessimo beveste bevessero dare dessi dessi desse dessimo deste dessero dire dicessi dicessi dicesse dicessimo diceste dicessero fare !acessi !acessi !acesse !acessimo !aceste !acessero stare stessi stessi stesse stessimo steste stessero

3greement o! tenses is stricter in "talian6 so you must use the im*er!ect su4unctive in a subordinate clause i! the de*endent clause is in a *ast indicative or conditional

tense# 5urthermore6 the im*er!ect sub4unctive is re?uired in "talian a!ter come se (as i!) and se (i!) in hy*othetical sentences9 whereas the im*er!ect indicative is used in 5rench# Al parle comme s'il =tait italien' + Parla come se !osse italiano' He s*eaks as i! he were "talian# Si j'=tais ric-e( j'ac-&terais un palais' + Se !ossi ricco( comprerei un palazzo' "! " were rich6 " would buy a *alace# 3nimals X "nsects English animal ant antelo*e antenna antler badger bat beak bear bee beetle bird blackbird bull butter!ly cal! car* cat cater*illar cheetah chicken French Italian l'animale l'animal (m) (m) la !ourmi la !ormica l'antilope l'antilope (!) l'antenne la ramure le badger la c-auve" souris le bec l'ours (m) l'abeille (!) l'antenna le corna il tasso English lark lion li=ard lobster (s*iny) louse mackerel French l'alouette (!) le lion le l=zard la langouste le pou la ma4uereau la taupe Italian l'allodola il leone la lucertola l'aragosta il pidocc-io lo sgombro la talpa la scimmia la zanzara la !alena il topo il mulo il pidocc-io il nido l'usignolo il polpo lo struzzo il gu!o il bue l'ostrica il pappagallo la pernice la zampa il pinguino il porco il piccione il luccio

il pipistrello mole il becco l'orso monkey mos?uito

la scarab=e l'oiseau (m) le merle le taureau le papillon le veau la carpe le c-at le c-enille le gu=pard le poulet le chim*an=ee c-impanz= claw la gri!!e cockroach cod cocoon cow le ca!ard la morue le cocon la vac-e

le singe la mousti4ue le papillon de l'ape (!) moth nuit lo scarabeo mouse la souris l'uccello mule le mulet il merlo mussel la moule il toro nest le nid la !ar!alla nightingale le rossignol il vitello octo*us la pieuvre la carpa ostrich l'autruc-e il gatto owl le -ibou il bruco o. le bIu! il g-epardo oyster l'-u tre (!) il pollo *arrot le perro4uet lo *artridge la perdri: scimpanz= l'artiglio *aw la patte lo *enguin le pingouin scara!aggio il merluzzo *ig le coc-on il bozzolo *igeon le pigeon la vacca *ike le broc-et

crab cray!ish crocodile crow deer dog donkey dragon!ly duck eagle eel egg ele*hant !eather !in !ish !lea !ly !o. !rog !ur gill gira!!e goat goose gorilla

le crabe il granc-io *ony l'=crevisse il gambero rabbit (!) il le crocodile raccoon coccodrillo le corbeau il corvo le cer! le c-ien l'3ne (m) la libellule le canard l'aigle (m) l'anguille (!) l'Iu! l'=l=p-ant (m) la plume il cervo il cane l'asino la libellula l'anitra l'a4uila l'anguilla l'uovo l'ele!ante (m) la penna rat rooster salmon scale scor*ion sea gull seahorse seal shark shee* shrim* skin slug snail snake sole

le pone@ le lapin

il pon@ il coniglio

le raton laveur il procione le rat le co4 le saumon l'=caille (!) le scorpion la mouette l'-ippocampe (m) le p-o4ue le re4uin la mouton la crevette le peau la limace l'escargot (m) le serpent + la couleuvre la sole le moineau l'araign=e (!) le calmar l'=cureuil (m) il ratto + il sorcio il gallo il salmone la s4uama lo scorpione il gabbiano il cavalluccio marino la !oca lo s4ualo la pecora il gamberetto + il gambero la pelle la lumaca la c-iocciola il serpente + la biscia la sogliola il passero

la nageoire la pinna le poisson il pesce la puce la pulce la mouc-e le renard la grenouille la !ourrure la branc-ie la gira!e la c-&vre la mosca la volpe

il ranocc-io s*arrow la pelliccia s*ider la branc-ia s?uid la gira!!a s?uirrel la capra l'oca il gorilla star!ish stork swallow

l'oie (!) le gorille la grassho**er sauterelle hamster le -amster hare le li&vre hedgehog le -=risson hen la poule heron le -=ron

il ragno il calamaro la scoiattolo la stella di l'=toile de mer mare la cigogne la cicogna l'-irondelle (!) la rondine le c@gne le tOtard la 4ueue le tigre le crapaud la truite il cigno il girino la coda la tigre il rospo la trota

la cavalletta swan il criceto la lepre il riccio la gallina l'airone (m) tad*ole tail tiger toad trout

herring hoo! horn horse hummingbird iguana insect 4elly!ish kitten ladybug lamb

la -areng le sabot la corne le c-eval le colibri l'iguane l'insecte (m) la m=duse le c-aton la coccinelle l'agneau (m)

l'aringa lo zoccolo il corno il cavallo il colibrQ l'iguana l'insetto la medusa il gattino la coccinella l'agnello

tuna turkey turtle was* weasel whale wing wol! worm =ebra

le t-on le dindon la tortue la guOpe la belette la baleine l'aile (!) le loup le ver le z&bre

il tonno il tacc-ino la tartaruga la vespa la donnola la balena l'ala il lupo il verme la zebra

(ature X Geogra*hy English air archi*elago bank bay barn beach branch bridge bud bush ca*e cave city climate cloud coast comet constellation French l'air (m) l'arc-ipel la rive la baie la grange la plage la branc-e le pont le bouton le buisson le cap la caverne la ville le climat le nuage la c?te la com&te Italian l'aria (!) l'arcipelago (m) la riva la baia la stalla la spiaggia il ramo il ponte il bocciolo l'arbusto (m) il capo + promontorio la caverna la citt> il clima la nube + nuvola la costa la cometa la costellazione il paese la campagna la corrente English rain rainbow river rock root rose sand sea shadow sky snow French la pluie l'arc"en"ciel (m) la !leuve le roc-er la racine la rose le sable la mer l'ombre (!) le ciel la neige Italian la pioggia l'arcobaleno (m) il !iume lo scoglio la radice la rosa la sabbia il mare l'ombra il cielo la neve il terreno il sud la sorgente la stella

soil la terre south le sud s*ring (water) la source star stem storm strait stream street sun l'=toile

la tige il gambo l'orage (!) + la il temporale tempOte le d=troit le ruisseau la rue le soleil lo stretto il ruscello la strada il sole

la constellation country le pa@s country(side) la campagne current le courant

da!!odil daisy darkness desert dew dust earth east !arm !ield !lower !oam !og !oliage !orest !rost grass gul! hail hay high tide hill ice island isthmus 4ungle lake lea! light lightning lily low tide

la jon4uille la marguerite l'obscurit= le d=sert la ros=e la poussi&re la terre l'est (m) la !erme le c-amp la blume l'=cume (!) le brouillard le !euillage la !orOt la gel=e l'-erbe (!) la gol!e la grOle le !oin la mar=e -aute la colline la glace A' le (!) l'ist-me la jungle le lac la !euille la lumi&re l'=clair (m) le lis la mar=e

il narciso la marg-erita l'oscurit> (!) il deserto la rugiada la polvere la terra l'est (m) la tenuta il campo il !iore la sc-iuma la nebbia il !ogliame il bosco + la !oresta il gelo l'erba (!) il gol!o la grandine il !ieno l'alta marea la collina il g-iaccio A'isola (!) l'istmo (m) la giungla il lago la !oglia la luce il !ulmine + lampo il giglio la bassa

sun!lower thaw thunder tornado tree trunk tuli* valley view water !resh water salt water watering can water!all wave weather west wind world (orth Pole /outh Pole (orthern Hemis*here /outern Hemis*here 3rctic +ircle e?uator 3rctic ,cean 3tlantic ,cean Paci!ic ,cean "ndian ,cean +aribbean /ea %editerranean

le tournesol la !onte le tonnerre la tornade l'arbre le tronc la tulipe la vall=e la vue l'eau (!) l'eau douce l'eau sal=e l'arrosoir la cascade la vague + l'onde (!) le temps l'ouest (m) le vent le monde

il girasole il disgelo il tuono il turbine l'albero il tronco il tulipano la valle la vista l'ac4ua l'ac4ua dolce l'ac4ua salata l'anna!!iatoio la cascata l'onda (!) il tempo l'ovest (m) il vento il mondo

le p?le ,ord il Polo ,ord le p?le Sud l'-=misp-&re nord l'-=misp-&re sud la cercle polaire l'=4uateur (m) l'oc=an Arcti4ue l'oc=an Atlanti4ue l'oc=an Paci!i4ue l'oc=an Andien la mer des Antilles la il Polo Sud l'emis!ero settentrionale l'emis!ero meridionale il circolo polare artico l'e4uatore (m) l'7ceano Artico l'7ceano Atlantico l'7ceano Paci!ico l'7ceano Andiano il Mar dei Caraibi il Mar

basse meadow moon mountain mountain range le pr=

marea il prato

/ea (orth /ea

la lune la montagne la c-a ne de montagnes l'embouc-ure mouth (river) (!) mud la vase nature la nature north le nord *eninsula la p=ninsule *lain *lanet *lant *ond *ot (!or *lants) English each each / every everyone everything

la luna 0ed /ea la montagna Black /ea la catena montuosa l'imboccatura %ercury 7enus -arth %ars Lu*iter /aturn Oranus (e*tune Pluto

M=diterran=e Mediterraneo la mer du il Mare del ,ord ,ord la mer Vouge il Mar Vosso la mer ,oire il Mar ,ero

Mercure <=nus .erre Mars %upiter Saturne Wranus ,eptuno Pluton

Mercurio <enere .erra Marte Giove Saturno Wranio ,ettuno Plutone

il !ango la natura il nord la penisola il piano + la la plaine pianura la plan&te il pianeta la plante la pianta l'=tang (m) lo stagno il vaso da le pot > !leurs !iori French c-acun c-a4ue tout le monde tout Italian ciascuno + ognuno ogni tutti tutto

"nde!inite Pronouns X 3d4ectives English some French 4uel4ue Italian alcuno altrettanto altro certo molto nessuno

everywhere partout someone something 4uel4u'un 4uel4ue c-ose

dappertutto + ovun4ue 4ualcuno 4ualcosa da 4ualc-e parte nessuno niente + nulla da nessuna parte

as autant de much/many other autre some / certain certain beaucoup a lot o! de not one / aucun none several plusieurs !ew

somewhere 4uel4ue part no one nothing nowhere whoever whichever personne rien nulle part

some such a so tant de much/many too much everything

parecc-io poco + peu de poc-i 4uel4ue(s) 4ualc-e tel tale + tali tanto troppo tutto

n'importe 4ui + c-iun4ue 4uicon4ue n'importe 4uel + 4ualun4ue +

trop de tout

whatever wherever

4uelcon4ue n'importe 4uoi + 4uelcon4ue n'importe o0

4ualsiasi 4ualun4ue + 4ualsiasi dovun4ue

various

di!!=rents

vario + vari

0elative Pronouns 0elative *ronouns are slightly easier to learn in "talian than 5rench# French who / that (sub4ect) 4ui who / that (ob4ect) 4ue about which / dont whom whose dont !rom where d'o0 *re*osition I *re*# I 4ui whom *re*osition I *re*# I !orm o! which le4uel Italian c-e c-e di cui il+la+i+le cui da cui *re*# I cui *re*# I cui

(otice that cui remains invariable at all times9 however6 when translating whose in "talian6 you must change the article be!ore cui to agree with the noun and not the antecedent# Al 4uale can always re*lace cui6 but it does agree with the gender and number o! its antecedent (com*arable to how le?uel agrees in 5rench)# Plus you have to remember to use the *re*ositional contractions with the article be!ore ?uale6 so in general6 it is easier to 4ust use cui in everyday s*eech# "l ?uale is *re!erred in !ormal writing# 5orms o! le4uel and il 4uale masc# sing# !em# sing# masc# *lural !em# *lural French le4uel la4uelle les4uels les4uelles Italian il 4uale la 4uale i 4uali le 4uali

/am*le /entences 2a !ille 4ui *arle est sym*athi?ue# 2a raga==a c-e *arla J sim*atica# 2a !emme 4ue 4e rencontre s'a**elle 2oren=a# 2a donna c-e incontro si chiama 2oren=a# 2es livres dont 4e *arle sont d'-lsa# " libri di cui *arlo sono di -lsa# 2'homme dont les cheveu. sont blancs est mon grand8*Jre# 2'uomo i cui ca*elli sono bianchi J mio nonno# 2es *ersonnes > 4ui 4e *ense sont loin# 2e *ersone a cui *enso sono lontane# The girl E-o is talking is nice# The woman t-at "'m meeting is named 2oren=a# The books about E-ic- "'m talking are -lsa's# The man E-ose hair is white is my grand!ather# The *eo*le about E-om "'m thinking are !ar away#

2a maison dans la4uelle 4e vis est trJs grande# 2a casa in cui vivo J grande# Y 2a casa nella 4uale vivo J grande# 7erbsH Passive 7oice

The house in E-ic- " live is very big#

,nly verbs that can take a direct ob4ect can be made *assive in 5rench and "talian# The sub4ect o! the active sentence becomes the agent in the *assive sentence (e.*ressed by par in 5rench and da I contractions in "talian)6 and the ob4ect o! the active sentence becomes the sub4ect o! the *assive sentence# The verb becomes a !orm o! be (in the same tense as in the active sentence) M a past participle6 which agrees with the sub4ect o! the *assive sentence# 0emember that you can avoid the *assive voice by using on + si as e.*lained earlier (es*ecially !or verbs that only take indirect ob4ects)# The *assive voice is used more o!ten in -nglish than in 5rench or "talian6 and it is usually best to avoid it in !ormal writing# Active English The cat eats the mouse# (*resent) The cat ate the mouse# (*ast) The cat has eaten the mouse# (*res# *er!#) The cat will eat the mouse# (!uture) 2e chat mange la souris# 2e chat mangeais la souris# French 2e chat a mang> la souris# 2e chat mangera la souris# Passive The mouse is eaten by the cat# The mouse was eaten by the cat# The mouse has been eaten by the cat# The mouse will be eaten by the cat# 2a souris est mang>e *ar le chat# 2a souris >tais mang>e *ar le chat# 2a souris a >t> mang>e *ar le chat# 2a souris sera mang>e *ar le chat# "l to*o > mangiato dal gatto# "l to*o era mangiato dal gatto# "l to*o > stato mangiato dal gatto# "l to*o sar_ mangiato dal gatto#

"l gatto mangia il to*o# "l gatto mangiava il to*o# Italian "l gatto ha mangiato il to*o# "l gatto manger_ il to*o#

5aire / 5are +ausative You can use the verbs !aire / !are I an in!initive to the e.*ress the idea o! having or getting something done or having or making someone do something (instead o! doing it yoursel!#) "! the ob4ect o! the verb is a noun6 it is *laced a!ter the in!initive# "! it is a *ronoun6 then it is *laced be!ore !aire or !are (e.ce*t !or loro6 which is always *laced a!ter the in!initive)# "n the *resent *er!ect tense6 the *ast *artici*le does not agree with the *receding direct ob4ect as it normally would in 5rench# %e !ais r=parer la voiture' + Caccio riparare la macc-ina' "'m having the car !i.ed# %e la !ais r=parer' + 1a !accio riparare' "'m having it !i.ed# %e l'ai !ait r=parer' + 1a -o !atta riparare' " had it !i.ed# D(o agreement with *receding direct ob4ect in 5rench only#E

The re!le.ive verbs se !aire + !arsi can also be used in this way when e.*ressing having something done or made for oneself # 0emember that Otre + essere are used as the au.iliary verb in com*ound tenses# %e me !ais couper les c-eveu:' + Mi !accio tagliare i capelli' "'m getting my hair cut# %e me suis !ait couper les c-eveu:' + Mi sono !atto tagliare i capelli' " got my hair cut# Italian only( $hen a causative sentence has two ob4ects6 the *erson being made to do something becomes the indirect ob4ect# "n "talian6 the indirect ob4ect is introduced by a# Al maestro !a leggere lo studente' The teacher makes the student read# Al maestro !a leggere la lettura allo studente' The teacher makes the student read the *assage# To avoid ambiguity with the indirect ob4ect6 the *re*osition da instead o! a can be used# The sentence Abbiamo !atto mandare il pacco a Maria can mean two thingsH :) $e had %ary send the *ackage or ;) $e had the *ackage sent to %ary# "! the !irst meaning is intended6 then da can re*lace a# 7erbs !ollowed by Pre*ositions be!ore an "n!initive %any verbs re?uire the *re*ositions > + a or de + di be!ore an in!initive# "n 5rench6 de contracts to d' be!ore an in!initive beginning with a vowel# "n "talian6 a becomes ad be!ore in!initives beginning with a8# Be!ore in!initives beginning with other vowels6 either a or ad may be used# Crenc- verbs M > M in!initive aider K to hel* a**rendre K to learn arriver K to manage chercher K to look !or commencer K to begin consister K to consist continuer K to continue demander K to ask to donner K to give encourager K to encourage enseigner K to teach h>siter K to hesitate inciter K to incite insister K to insist inviter K to invite obliger K to !orce to *arvenir K to succeed *ersister K to *ersist in *ousser K to *ush Atalian verbs M a M in!initive abituarsi a to get used to aiutare a to hel* andare a to be going to a**rendere a to learn as*ettare a to wait cominciare to begin consentire a to agree continuare a to continue convincere a to convince correre a to run dare a to give decidersi a to decide divertirsi a to have !un esitare a to hesitate !are bene a to do well !are in tem*o a to be on time !are meglio a to be better o!! !are *resto a to hurry u* !or=are a to !orce

*rovo?uer K renoncer K r>ussir K s'acharner K s'amuser K s'a**li?uer K s'a**rCter K s'attacher K s'attendre K se d>cider K se mettre K se *laire K se *r>*arer K se re!user K se r>signer K se r>soudre K se ris?uer K s'em*loyer K servir K s'e.ercer K s'habituer K s'obstiner K songer K tarder K tendre K tenir K veiller K viser K

to *rovoke to give u* to succeed to be bent on to have !un to a**ly onesel! to to *re*are to to become attached to e.*ect to to decide to begin to to en4oy to get ready to re!use to to resign onesel! to to resolve to to risk to use to be use!ul !or to *ractice/learn to get used to to insist to consider to be slow to to tend to to be an.ious to to look a!ter to aim

giocare a godere a im*arare a insegnare a invitare a mandare a mettersi a *assare a *ensare a *ersuadere a *re*arare a *rocedere a *rovare a restare a rimanere a rinunciare a ritornare a riuscire a salire a scendere a seguitare a servire a stare a stare attento a tardare a temere a tornare a venire a

to *lay to en4oy to learn to teach to invite to send to begin to to go on to think o! to *ersuade to *re*are to *roceed to try to stay to remain to give u* to come back to succeed to go u* to come down to kee* on to be good !or to stay6 stand to be care!ul to be late to be a!raid to to return to come to

Crenc- verbs M de M in!initive acce*ter de to acce*t arrCter de to sto* avoir envie de to !eel like to be avoir honte de ashamed avoir *eur de to be a!raid avoir raison de to be right avoir tort de to be wrong cesser de choisir de to sto* to choose

Atalian verbs M di M in!initive accettare di to acce*t ammettere di to admit as*ettare di to wait !or as*ettare di as*ettarsi di augurare di avere bisogno di to wait

to e.*ect to wish to need to have the avere il *iacere di *leasure avere inten=ione di to intend

conseiller de convenir de craindre de d>cider de d>!endre de demander de d>ses*>rer de dire de dissuader de em*Ccher de entre*rendre de envisager de essayer de Ctre heureu. de Ctre oblig> de >viter de !inir de interdire de menacer de n>gliger de oublier de *ermettre de *ersuader de *rier de *romettre de recommander de re!user de regretter de remercier de re*rocher de rCver de ris?uer de se d>*Ccher de se garder de s'>tonner de s'e.cuser de venir de

to advise to agree u*on to !ear to decide to !orbid to ask to des*air to say to dissuade to *revent to undertake to contem*late to try to be ha**y to be re?uired to avoid to !inish to !orbid to threaten to neglect to !orget to *ermit to *ersuade to beg to *romise to recommend to re!use to regret to thank to re*roach to dream to risk to hurry u* to kee* onesel! to astonish to a*ologi=e to have 4ust

avere *aura di avere voglia di avvertire di cercare di cessare di chiedere di comandare di credere di decidere di dimenticare di dire di dis*ensare di domandare di dubitare di !ingere di !inire di lamentarsi di mancare di minacciare di o!!rire di ordinare di *ensare di *ermettere di *roibire di *romettere di rendersi conto di ricordare di sa*ere di sbagliare di scrivere di scusarsi di smettere di sognare di s*erare di suggerire di tentare di tratarre di

to be a!raid to !eel like to warn6 caution to try to cease to ask to command to believe to decide to !orget to say6 tell to e.cuse to ask to doubt to *retend to !inish to com*lain to lack to threaten to o!!er to order to *lan to *ermit to *revent6 *rohibit to *romise to reali=e to remember to know to make a mistake to write to a*ologi=e to sto*6 cease to dream to ho*e to suggest to try6 attem*t to bargain