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Cognition

Shoaib Mirza

Cognition
1. You are daydreaming in the middle of a lecture. Are you actually thinking? a. b. c. d. Yes. No. No, but daydreaming is an example of cognition. Yes, you are thinking and daydreaming is an example of cognition.

ANSWER ! 2. Computer programs capable of doing things that require intelligence when done by people are associated with a. b. c. d. artificial intelligence. proxemics. cerebronics. computeri"ed creati#ity.

ANSWER A 3. a. b. c. d. is the study of the meaning of words and language. $inguistics Encoding Semantics Syntax

ANSWER % !. "epresentations used in thinking include a. b. c. d. mnemonic de#ices. kinesthesis. concepts. primarily figments of the imagination.

ANSWER % #. $asic speech sounds are called a. b. c. d. morphemes. syllables. phonemes. syntax.

ANSWER % %. A solution that correctly states the requirements for success in sol&ing a problem but not in sufficient detail for further action is called a'n( solution. a. heuristic b. general

Cognition
c. functional d. specific ANSWER & ). *luency+ fle,ibility+ and originality would be most characteristic of which type of thought? a. b. c. d. con#ergent thinking mechanical problem'sol#ing rote problem'sol#ing brainstorming

Shoaib Mirza

ANSWER ! -. .hat type of concept is /uncle/? a. b. c. d. con(uncti#e relational relati#e dis(uncti#e

ANSWER & 0. 1he inability to see new uses for familiar ob2ects is termed a. b. c. d. non'flexible thinking. functional fixedness. proacti#e inhibition. interference.

ANSWER & 13. A person who is concerned about health+ but who continues to smoke cigarettes+ is making an error in 2udgment called a. b. c. d. functional fixedness. ignoring the base rate. representati#eness. framing.

ANSWER & 11. 4anguage is termed producti&e if it a. b. c. d. allo)s for communication of thoughts and ideas. is capable of generating ne) ideas and possibilities. increases one*s adaptation to a changing en#ironment. pro#ides a set of rules for making sounds into )ords and )ords into sentences.

ANSWER & 12. .hich of the following is usually associated with creati&ity? a. con#ergent thinking b. di#ergent thinking

Cognition
c. modeling d. syntax ANSWER &

Shoaib Mirza

13. A truck gets stuck under a bridge. 5e&eral tow6trucks are unable to pull it out. At last a little boy walks up and asks the red6faced adults trying to free the truck why they ha&en7t let the air out of the truck7s tires. 1heir o&ersight was due to a. b. c. d. di#ergent thinking. cogniti#e style. synesthesia. fixation.

ANSWER ! 1!. 8euristics are problem sol&ing strategies which a. b. c. d. use a trial and error approach. use random search strategies. guarantee success in sol#ing a problem. reduce the number of alternati#es.

ANSWER ! 1#. Characteristics of creati&ity include a. b. c. d. con#ergence. flexibility. gender differences. rigid personality factors.

ANSWER & 1%. A perceptual set that causes one to become hung up on wrong solutions or remain blind to alternati&es is called a. b. c. d. inhibition. fixation. conditional thinking. incubation.

ANSWER & 1). 9f 0- out of 133 people respond /:olden "etrie&er/ when asked to name what dog best represents the concept /dog+/ then a golden retrie&er would be called a a. b. c. d. denotati#e concept. prototype. relational concept. feature.

ANSWER & 1-. 1he rules for ordering words in sentences are called

Cognition
a. b. c. d. grammar. syntax. semantic differential. heuristics.

Shoaib Mirza

ANSWER & 10. 1he solution to arithmetic problems requires a. b. c. d. mechanical solutions. con#ergent thinking. insight. brainstorming.

ANSWER & 23. A person would ha&e the 4;A51 difficulty in classifying a. b. c. d. a cactus a fern an oak a palm as a tree or shrub.

ANSWER % 21. A student who takes a multiple6choice test by reading the stem of each item+ generating the correct response before looking at the choices+ and then choosing the response closest to the answer is using a. b. c. d. a heuristic. an +ideal+ solution. #icarious problem sol#ing. an algorithmic search strategy.

ANSWER A 22. 9n baseball+ an /out/ is a a. b. c. d. con(uncti#e concept. relational concept. dis(uncti#e concept. prototype.

ANSWER % 23. 1he stage of creati&e thought during which problem sol&ing proceeds at a subconscious le&el is the stage. a. b. c. d. incubation orientation preparation illumination

ANSWER A

Cognition

Shoaib Mirza

2!. A person is asked to decide on a ma2or in school< another is asked to decide on a career. .e may say that the different answers they gi&e to broad and specific questions are because of a. b. c. d. differences in representati#eness. base rate differences. differences in framing. differences associated )ith irrational personalities.

ANSWER % 2#. 1he correlation between 9= and creati&ity is a. b. c. d. #ery high. #ery lo). "ero. more positi#ely correlated the higher the ,-.

ANSWER & 2%. >&ersimplified concepts of groups of people are referred to as a. b. c. d. group thinking. social stereotypes. relational stereotypes. dis(uncti#e stereotypes.

ANSWER & 2). 1hought that is intuiti&e+ hapha?ard+ or personal is termed a. b. c. d. inducti#e thought. deducti#e thought. logical thought. illogical thought.

ANSWER ! 2-. a. b. c. d. are the smallest meaningful units of speech. .orphemes /honemes /heromones %oncepts

ANSWER A 20. 1he ability to speak two languages is referred to as a. b. c. d. bi'languagism. fluency. bilingualism. none of these.

ANSWER %

Cognition

Shoaib Mirza

33. 1he two most basic units of speech are a. b. c. d. )ords and rules of grammar. ideas and concepts. morphemes and phonemes. connotati#e and denotati#e meaning.

ANSWER % 31. .ords or ideas representing a class of ob2ects are called a. b. c. d. abstractions. attributes. thoughts. concepts.

ANSWER ! 32. @sychologist .olfgang ABhler belie&ed that the solution of a multiple6stick problem in chimpan?ees re&ealed a. b. c. d. ho) reinforcement strongly guided their beha#ior. an ability for #ersatile and appropriate beha#ior to changing circumstances. a capacity for insight. the same problem sol#ing abilities in chimps as in gorillas.

ANSWER % 33. /Anti/ is an e,ample of a. b. c. d. a phoneme. syntax. surface structure. a morpheme.

ANSWER ! 3!. Cormal problem sol&ing is likely to use a. b. c. d. mental images. olfactory sensations. synesthesia. semantic repression.

ANSWER A 3#. A detailed+ practical+ and workable solution to a problem is called a'n( solution. a. b. c. d. heuristic general functional specific

Cognition
ANSWER % 3%. 1he fact that /Dog bites man/ has a &ery different meaning from /Ean bites dog/ demonstrates the importance of a. b. c. d. connotation. syntax. conditional relationships. linguistic determinism.

Shoaib Mirza

ANSWER & 3). 9f you wanted to enhance creati&ity+ you would want to a. b. c. d. isolate yourself. make a rash decision. dig deeper into a problem )ith logic. look for analogies.

ANSWER ! 3-. Drawing conclusions on the basis of formal principles of reasoning is termed a. b. c. d. inducti#e thought. deducti#e thought. logical thought. illogical thought.

ANSWER % 30. 1hought that in&ol&es going from general principles to specific situations is called reasoning. a. b. c. d. deducti#e inducti#e di#ergent intuiti#e

ANSWER A !3. A rigid mental set can be a barrier to problem sol&ing. .hich of the following refers to a similar barrier to problem sol&ing? a. b. c. d. o#ersimplification in#alid reasoning functional fixedness di#ergent problem sol#ing

ANSWER % !1. American 5ign 4anguage is a. a true language )ith a syntax and grammar. b. a pseudo'language )ith no syntax or grammar. c. a code system.

Cognition
d. an easily understood pantomime. ANSWER A !2. 1he term /cognition/ includes a. b. c. d. thinking, problem sol#ing, reasoning, and dreaming. classical and instrumental conditioning. the use of memory systems. an acti#e process by )hich sensory input is selected, organi"ed, and integrated.

Shoaib Mirza

ANSWER A !3. A tendency to select wrong answers because they seem to match pre6e,isting mental categories is called a. b. c. d. intuition. representati#eness heuristic. base rate. framing.

ANSWER & !!. A set of rules for structuring sentences is called a. b. c. d. linguistic determinants. grammar. semantics. morphemes.

ANSWER & !#. 1he study of the meaning of words is important because a. b. c. d. it re#eals the connection bet)een language and thought. people speak different languages and translation becomes important. it is necessary to follo) the de#elopment of phonemes by a gro)ing child. it measures the emotional content of language.

ANSWER A !%. .hich of the following is 1"F; about animal communication? a. Animals exhibit #aried cries, gestures, and mating calls, but e#en these communications are often not understood by other animals of the same species. b. Although animal communication is limited, they can learn to use human language )ith ease and e#entually attain the communication skills of the a#erage high school sophomore. c. Animal communication can truly be called a language because it consists of symbols, grammar, and, most importantly, it is producti#e. d. While psychologists don*t doubt that animals communicate, there is disagreement as to )hether or not animals can actually be taught a language. ANSWER ! !). A concept referring to an ob2ect ha&ing at least one of a number of features is a concept.

Cognition

Shoaib Mirza

a. b. c. d.

relational con(uncti#e dis(uncti#e categorical

ANSWER % !-. :oing from general principles to specific situations is called a. b. c. d. logical thought. deducti#e thought. illogical thought. inducti#e thought.

ANSWER & !0. *luency+ fle,ibility+ and originality are characteristic of which type of thought? a. b. c. d. di#ergent thinking mechanical problem'sol#ing logic deducti#e reasoning

ANSWER A #3. 1he way a question is stated before problem sol&ing begins is known as a. b. c. d. representati#eness. framing. incubation. defining the base rate.

ANSWER & #1. Concept formation refers to a. b. c. d. the organi"ation of phonemes and morphemes into meaningful thoughts. the application of transformation rules to basic sentences. inducti#e as opposed to deducti#e thinking. organi"ing experiences into meaningful categories.

ANSWER ! #2. a. b. c. d. thinking goes from specific facts to general principles. !educti#e ,nducti#e !i#ergent %on#ergent

ANSWER & #3. 9f you translated /@epsi is for the younger generation/ into 5panish and the translation reads /@epsi re&erses aging+/ you ha&e a problem with

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Cognition
a. b. c. d. morphemes. phonemes. semantics. grammar.

Shoaib Mirza

ANSWER % #!. 1he rules that determine how words in a language can be put together to make sentences are called a. b. c. d. structural semantics. allophonetics. syntax. phonemes.

ANSWER % ##. Classifying things as absolutely right or wrong typifies a. b. c. d. good'bad or all or nothing thinking. multidimensional thinking. complex thinking. conceptual'categorical thinking.

ANSWER A #%. According to Chomsky+ we are able to e,press ideas in a &ariety of ways by applying rules. a. b. c. d. functional generati#e dis(uncti#e transformation

ANSWER !

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