Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

I.

Major Drug classification Cardiovascular Drugs Therapeutic Classification Cardiotonic glycosides Common Generic Names Digitoxin, Digoxin Action Increase the force of cardiac contraction Decrease heart rate Adverse effect Bradycardia, arrhythmias Fatigue, muscle weakness, agitation Hallucinations Anorexia, nausea, yellow-green halos around visual images Headache /rthostatic hy#otension "achycardia Flushing 0al#itations Indication/s Congestive heart failure tachyarrhythmias Nursing interventions
! "ake a#ical #ulse for full

Other important information ,arrow range -etween thera#eutic and toxic doses Calcium salts are contraindicated

minute! $ecord and re#ort significant changes in rate or rhythm %! &onitor serum levels of #otassium and drug and monitor '() *! Assess for these sym#toms +! "each how to take #ulse and what signs to re#ort ! "reat with "ylenol %! "olerance usually develo#s *! monitor vital signs +! teach to stand u#, move slowly 1! teach client to lie down if di..y

Coronary vasodilators

,itroglycerin, ,ifedi#ine, Diltia.em

Dilate coronary arteries Decrease cardiac workload

Angina

Antiarrhythmics

3idocaine, 0rocainamide hydrochloride, 0ro#ranolol hydrochloride, 4uinidine gluconate

Decreased cardiac conduction

Bradycardia "achycardia Hy#otension

0revention or treatment of atrial or ventricular arrhythmias including those secondary to &I and digitalis toxicity

! $emain with client during infusion "achycardia %! &onitor '(), B0 and heart rate and rhythm

0rotect this drug from light, moisture and heat 2u-lingual ta-let taken at the first sign of angina #ain Client should sit or lie down &ay re#eat ta-le every 1 minutes * time if needed Call doctor if no relief "o#ical drug measured on ruled a##lication #a#er and a##lied to non hairy area ,arrow thera#eutic index Do not confuse lidocaine with e#ine#hrine used for local to#ical anesthesia I5 dose of Inderal much smaller than 0/ dose

Antiarrhythmics

5era#amil

Calcium -locker

Headache

Atrial arrhythmias

! "reat with "ylenol

Decrease cardiac conduction Angiotensionconverting en.yme inhi-itors Ca#oto#ril, enala#ril, -ena.e#ril 0revents #roduction of angiotension II, causing system vasodilation

Consti#ation Di..iness Heart failure Dry cough Dro# in B0 during first -* hours following first dose Di..iness, orthostatic hy#otension "achycardia, #al#itation /rthostatic hy#otension Headache, di..iness ,ausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia 6eight gain Hy#ertension &anagement of CHF

Antihy#ertensives

Hydrala.ine hydrochloride, #ra.osin hydrochloride

$elaxes smooth muscle

Hy#ertension7 congestive heart failure

%! Increase dietary fi-er, fluid intake and e"reat with "ylenol *! Increase dietary fi-er, fluid intake and exercise ! treat with "ylenol %! increase dietary fi-er, fluid intake and exercise *! advise clients to change #osition slowly +! monitor B0, weight, signs to CHF resolution ! monitor heart rate and rhythm %! teach client to stand u#, take stairs and move around slowly *! treat with "ylenol! "each client to lie down if di..y +! give with meals 1! give diuretic if needed

Com#liance is -iggest #ro-lem -ecause side effects are worse than the disease 2ide effects can -e minimi.ed -y ad8usting dose or changing drugs Com#liance may -e increased -y giving drugs 9d rather than several times daily

Antihy#ertensive

&ethyldo#a

2ym#atholytic

Drowsiness, sedation /rthostatic hy#otension ,ausea, vomiting Dry mouth 'dema, weight gain Hy#okalemia Altered glucose meta-olism

Hy#ertension

Agents for Fluid and 'lectrolyte Balance

"hia.ides and thia.ide-like diuretics

Chlorothia.ide, hydrochlorothia.ide, chlorthalidone, 9uinetha.one

Inhi-it sodium a-sor#tion In the kidney Increase excretion of sodium and water

Hy#ertension 'dema

3oo# diuretics

Furosemide, ethacrynate

Inhi-it sodium and chloride rear-sor#tion in

Fluid and electrolyte im-alance

'dema 0ulmonary edema

! teach client that drug may cause drowsiness and to stand u#, take stairs and move around slowly %! give with meals *! #rovide fluids, hard candy +! weigh daily 1! give diuretic if needed ! monitor intake and out#ut, weight and #otassium level %! teach client to increase dietary #otassium intake *! o-serve for signs of hy#okalemia +! monitor -lood sugar 1! o-serve for signs of hy#erglycemia ! monitor intake and out#ut, weight and serum electrolytes

)ive in the morning to #revent nocturia High risk of digitalis toxicity due to #otassium de#letion

)ive in the morning to #revent nocturia

sodium, ethacrynic acid

the kidney Increase excretion of sodium and water

Car-onic anhydrase inhi-itor diuretics

Aceta.olamide

0romote urinary excretion of sodium, #otassium, -icar-onate, and water

Hy#okalemia Hy#onatremia Hy#ochloremia Hy#ocalcemia Dehydration /rthostatic hy#otension Acidosis Hy#okalemia

%! teach clients to increase dietary #otassium intake *! o-serve for signs of Hy#okalemia +! teach clients to stand u#, take the stairs and move slowly 'dema )laucoma ! use for short-term treatment or use intermittent administration schedule %! monitor intake and out#ut, weight and serum electrolytes *! teach client to increase dietary #otassium intake +! o-serve for signs of hy#okalemia ! monitor intake and out#ut, weight and serum electrolytes %! teach client to avoid excessive dietary #otassium ! monitor vital sign including central venous #ressure hourly %! insert Foley, record urine out#ut hourly *! monitor weight, intake and out#ut and serum sodium and #otassium ! give I5 infusions as dilute solution infused slowly %! monitor '() and serum #otassium levels *! give oral dose with meals and #lenty of fluids 1! /-tain client history ?! /-serve for hy#ersensitivity @! "ake meds as ordered A! )ive -% hours -efore meals or %-* hours after meals for -est a-sor#tion ! /-tain client history %! Change I5 sites after * days *! Caution in #atients wB renal

High risk of digitalis toxicity due to #otassium de#letion 3asix is similar in a##earance to digoxin

&iscellaneous diuretics

2#inorolactone, triamterene

&iscellaneous diuretics

&annitol

Increased excretion of water and sodium $educes #otassium excretion Increased osmotic #ressure of glomerular filtrate Increased excretion of water and electrolytes

Hy#erkalemia

'dema Hy#ertension

&ay -e used in com-ination with #otassium de#leting diuretics I5 solution may crystali.e! $edissolve -efore infusing -y warming -ottle and shaking

Fluid and electrolyte im-alances "ransient #lasma volume increase 0ulmonary edema Cellular dehydration Cardiac arrhythmias, heart -lock, cardiac arrest

'lectrolyte re#lacement drugs

0otassium chloride

,ecessary for cardiac contration, renal function and transmission of nerve im#ulses Bactericidal Inhi-its cell wall synthesis

/liguria 'dema Increased intraocular #ressure Increased intracranial #ressure Hy#okalemia

0enicillin Antimicro-ial Agents

Amoxicillin, Am#icillin, Cloxacillin

Hy#ersensitivity: rash, urticaria, ana#hylaxis

)ram ;<= cocci > some )ram ;-= cocci

$esistant strains may develo#

Ce#halos#horins

Cefa.olin, Ce#halexin, Ce#halotin sodium

Both -actericidal and -acteriostatic

Hy#ersensitivity 3ocal irritation at in8ection site

)ram ;<= cocci > some )ram ;-= cocci

&ay cause false #ositive urine glucose test

Aminoglycosides

)entamicin, ,eomycin, "o-ramycin, 2tre#tomycin

Inhi-its cell wall synthesis Both -actericidal and -acteriostatic Inhi-its cell wall synthesis

$enal toxicity /totoxicity

0ro#hylaxis -efore o#eration serious -acterial infections Bowel sterility -efore gastrointestinal surgery

#ro-lem
! 6eigh client to o-tain

'xcreted unchanged in urine

-aseline renal function studies %! &onitor out#ut, urinalysis, BC, and creatinine levels *! Increase fluid intake +! 'valuate clientDs hearing -efore and during medication

2ulfonamides Central nervous 2ystem Drugs ,on-,arcotic Analgesics

2ulfisoxa.ole A#irin Analgesic Anti#yretic Anti-inflammatory 0rolonged -leeding time ,ausea, vomiting, )I distress Arthritis &ild #ain fever ! "each client who takes large doses for a long time to watch for signs of -leeding %! )ive with meals, milk or antacids ! &onitor res#irations -efore and during treatment %! &onitor B0 and #ulse *! "each client to avoid activities that re9uire alertness ! Determine if ataxia is a sym#tom of the disease or a toxic effect of the drug %! "each client to avoid activities that re9uire alertness *! Cse only clear solutions for infusion +! )ood oral hygine and regular dental care ! 0rovide fluids, hard candy! Ice chi#s %! Increase dietary fi-er, Contraindicated for children under A years old -ecause use of as#irin for children has -een linked to reyeDs syndrome ,aloxone is used to reverse narcoticinduced res#iratory de#ression

,arcotic Analgesics

Codeine sulfate &e#eridinine hydrochloride &or#hine sulfate

Alter #erce#tion of #ain

Anticonvulsants

0henytoin sodium

Inhi-its s#read of sei.ure activity

$es#iratory de#ression Hy#otension! Bradycardia 2edation, clouded sensorium, eu#horia ,ausea, vomiting, consti#ation Ataxia )ingival hy#er#lasia

&oderate to severe #ain

)rand mal sei.ure

Do not mix with 1E dextrose -ecause #reci#itation will occur

Autonomic ,ervous 2ystem Drugs

Cholinergic Blockers

Ben.tro#ine mesylate, -i#eriden hydrochloride,

0arasym#atholytic

Anticholinergic Blurred vision Dry mouth

0arkinsonDs disease 'xtra #yramidal

'lderly #atients #articularly sensitive to sideeffects

#rocyclidine hydrochloride, trihex#henidyl hydrochloride

Consti#ation Crinary retention /rthostatic hy#otension drowsiness

sym#toms associated with anti#sychotics

*! +! 1!

)astrointestinal Drugs

Antacids

Antiemetics

Aluminum hydroxide Calcium car-onate Aluminum magnesium com#lex 0rochlor#era.ine maleate "rimetho-en.amide hydrochloride #ro#antheline Cortisone acetate Dexamethasone #rednisone

$educe acid in )I tract Decrease #e#sin activity

Consti#ation Hy#ernatremia Hy#ermagnesemia hy#o#hos#hatemia Drowsiness, di..iness

0e#tic ulcers

! %!

fluid intake and exercise &onitor intake and out#ut &onitor B0 "each client to avoid activity that re9uires alertness $ecord amount and consisting of stools increase

Can #roduce eu#horia and have a-use #otential

Clcer &edications Hormonal Agents 2teroids

Acts centrally -y -locking chermorece#tor trigger .one, which acts on vomiting center Anticholinergic Anti-inflammatory

,ausea and vomitting

! "each client to avoid activities that re9uire alertness

Drowsiness, di..iness, -lurred vision

0e#tic ulcer Adrenal insufficiency Allergic inflammation, edema, immunosu#ression Dia-etes mellitus

! "each client to avoid activities that re9uire alertness

Insulins

2ulfonylureas

2emilente regular insulin 3ente ,0H Cltralente 0rotamine "ol-utamide Chlor#ro#amide tola.amide

Facilitates trans#ort of glucose into cells 3owers serum glucose level Increase insulin release from the #ancreas

Hy#oglycemia hy#erglycemia

! )ive orange 8uice or candy 0/ %! )ive ra#id acting insulin ! "each client to take in morning to avoid hy#oglycemic reaction at night %! %! Avoid /"2 medications and alcohol ! A-sor#tion -est if given -etween meals %! %! For )I u#set, give

$efrigeration is recommended -ut not re9uired

hy#oglycemia he#atotoxicity

Adult onset, noninsulin de#endent Dia-etes mellitus

Hematologic Agents

Hematinics

Ferrous sulfate

2ource of iron re#lacement

,ausea, consti#ation,-lack stool

Iron deficiency anemia

5itamin C may increase a-sor#tion

Anticoagulants

He#arin sodium

0revents conversion of fi-rinogen to fi-rin, and #rothrom-in

hemorrhage

Hrom-osis 0ulmonary em-olism &yocardial infarction

Antineo#lastics

Act -y many different mechanisms, most affected D,A synthesis or function

&any caused -one marrow de#ression, nausea, vomiting and mouth ulcers

Cancer Chemothera#hy

/-stetrics

/xytocics

oxytocin

2timulates contractions of the uterus

Cterine $elaxants

$itrodine hydrochloride "er-utaline sulfate

Inhi-its contraction of uterine smooth muscle $elaxes uterine smooth muscle

Hy#otension "achycardia fetal -radycardia or tachycardia Decreased urine out#ut Hy#otension hy#ertension ,ervousness "remors Headache

Induction of la-or

with meals or orange 8uice *! *! "each client to increase dietary fi-er, fluid intake and exercise ! &onitor #latelet count %! &onitor #artial throm-o#lastintime ;0""= *! Avoid salicylates +! /-serve for -ledding gums, -ruises, nose -leeds, and #etechiae ! Assess for signs of infection %! &onitor #latelet count *! &onitor I5 site carefully, ensure #atency, follow #rotocols for infiltration to #revent tissue, ulceration and necrosis +! 6ear gloves, masks, gowns while handling or #re#aring medication7 discard e9ui#ment in designated containers ! &onitor uterine contractions, -lood #ressure, heart rate and fetal heart rate %! &onitor intake and out#ut ! &onitor -lood #ressure and #ulse %! Heart rate and fetal heart rate ! &onitor -lood #ressure and #ulse %! Heart rate and fetal heart rate

I5 a-sor#tion is more regular than su-cutaneous in8ection 0"" should -e !1 or % times control value Anttagonist is #rotamine sulfate

Cse only when #elvis is ade9uate, vaginal delivery is indicted, fetus is mature, and fetal #osition is favora-le

0remature la-or

Cterine $elaxants

0remature la-or

Cse cautiously in clients with dia-etes, heart disease and hy#ertension

Anticonvulsants

&agnesium sulfate

Anticonvulsant

Antidotes

Calcium gluconate

'strogens

'stradiol

,arcotic Antagonists ,aloxone

Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Betamethasone

,eeded for nervous musculoskeletal en.yme reactions, cardiac contraction, -lood coagulation! And endocrine and exocrine secretions Hormone needed for ade9uate functioning of female re#roductive system7 inhi-its ovulation 0romotes calcium use in -one structure Interferes with narcotic a-sor#tion at narcotic rece#tor sites Corticosteroid

$es#iratory dde#ression Heart -lock Circulatory colla#se Increased magnesium Bradycardia Arrhythmias 5enous irritation

0rimary intracere-ral hemorrhage

Hy#ermagnesemia

! Hold drug if res#irations less than ?B % %! &onitor for arrhythmias *! &onitor intake and out#ut +! /-serve for neuromuscular or res#iratory de#resiion ! &onitor #ulse %! &onitor for arrhythmias *! Assess I5 site

Antidote is calcium gluconate

Contraindicated in digitali.ed clients

Hy#oglycemia Di..iness, hy#otension ,ausea, vomiting A##etite increase, weight gain em-olism

0revent #ost#artum -reasts engorgement

! /-serve glucose in dia-etics %! &onitor weight *! $e#ort headache, chest #ain

$a#id #ulse Drowsiness, nervousness ,ausea, vomitting )I distress,hemorrhage, #ancreatitis 0oor wound healing C,2 de#ression, flushing, sweating "hrom-ocyto#enis Hy#ertension, circ! Colla#se, em-olism &yo#ia Blurred vision

"reatment of narcotic induced de#ression of neonate 2timulate lung develo#ment in infant

! &onitor res#iratory rate and de#th of neonate

! &onitor tem#erature %! &onitor -lood #ressure, re#ort chest #ain

Do not a-ru#tly discontinue7 adrenal crisis can occur

'ye &edications

&iotics

0u#illlary constriction

)laucoma 2urgical

!Csually disa##ears after F+F days of treatment

0ressed inner canthus for a minute

&ydriatics

0u#illary dilatation, cyclo#legia

Blurred vision 0hot#ho-ia

#rocedures on the eye Acute inflammation of the eye Diagnostic #rocedure

or two to decrease systemic a-sor#tion !6arn client a-out tem#orary -lurring of vision %!Dark glasses *!"each client not to drive until vision clear

Anti-anxiety agents

Ben.odia.e#ine Com#ounds 2edating Antihistamines Anxiolytics

C,2 de#ression &uscle relaxant anticonvulsant C,2 de#resant -us#irone Cnknown

0reo#retive medication $elief of short trem anxiety Di..iness, confusion Hy#otension, -radycardia Dry mouth Drowsiness, sedation Drowsiness, di.innes, lighthedeadness Anxiety disoreders ,arcotic withdrawal convulsions 2lee# distur-ance of anxiatey 2hort term use only de#ression

Beta-Blockers

0ro#ranolol Clonidine

,on-selective B--locker

!"each %-* week lag time -efore thera#eutic effect achieved %!&onitor B0, #ilse !/-serve carefully %!&onitor when out of -ed *!&onitor B0, #ulse +!Increase fluids !/-serve carefully %!Advice caution when out of -ed *!2uicide assessment +!/-tain emergency medical tretament !&onitor CBC %!Caution to stand u# slowly *!/-serve for nausea and vomitting !&onitor CBC %!Caution to stand u# slowly *!/-serve for nausea and vomitting

2edativeHy#notics

Flura.e#am "erma.e#am "ria.olam

0roduces C,2 de#ression and sedation

Anti-de#ressant agents

"etracyclic Antide#ressants "ricyclic Antide#ressants

Amoxa#ine &a#rotiline Imi#ramine Desi#ramine Amitri#tyline nortri#tyline

Blocks re-u#take of nore#ine#hrine and serotonin into nerve endings Blocks re-u#take of nore#ine#hrine and serotonin into nerve endings

Agranulocytosis Hy#otension 0aralytic ileus Agranulocytosis Hy#otension 0aralytic ileus

&A/ Inhi-itors

&a8or de#ressive disorders Agora#ho-ia 0anic disorders /-sessive com#ulsive disorder 0sychogenic #ain disoreder Beacuase of dietary restrictions,

&ood sta-ili.ers

&ood 2ta-ili.ers

3ithium car-onate

Alters ,a, (, and ion trans#ort in nerve7 interferes with -alance of e#ine#hrine and serotonin in C,2, there-y affecting emotional res#onses

use as second line antide#ressant if other antide#ressants not effective Bi#olar disorder, manic #hase &a8or de#ression Aggressive conduct disorder