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Extending the MOOCversity

A Mulit-layered and Diversified Lens for MOOC Research

Tanja Jadin & Martina Gaisch

connecting, interacting, and sharing across diverse cultures, attitudes and skill set (McAuley et al, 2010)

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One size fits all?

America = German?
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What about different cultures? In terms of learning culture, institutional culture, cultural differences?

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Short Overview Learning Culture & MOOCs

Behaviorism and xMOOCs
Drill & Practice, programmed instruction: quizzes and immediate feedback Changing behavior through reinforcement

Connectivism and cMOOCs

To know where the information can be found Impact of networks Considering more tools for collaborating, communication and learning

Constructivism and Web 2.0

Inquiry and problem-based learning Situated learning Learning in groups

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Trialogical Learning
(Paavola, Lipponen and Hakkarainen (2004)

Based on Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) including the work of Engestrm (expansive learning), Nonaka and Takeuchis's model of knowledge creation and the theoretical considerations of Scardamelia and Bereiter (knowledge building) Three metaphors of learning:
the acquisition metaphor: individual learning, learning facts the participation metaphor: interaction with others the knowledge-creation metaphor: interaction through shared objects

In the sense of cultural psychology and the approach of trialogical learning, MOOCs can be enhanced through the deliberately use of shared artifacts and knowledge creation.

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Shared Artifacts in MOOCs

MOOC The Future of Storytelling (iversity).

Creative task of the week:

Think about what you remember most about stories

Shared artifact with 90 comments

Picture by Ana Paula Pellegrino

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Introduction of Enhanced MOOC

Enhanced means
considering knowledge creation through collaborative development of shared artifacts transforming social practices during learning by incorporating culturesensitive material diversified and customized learning material culture-sensitive distribution of content

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Cultural Difference
Individualism vs. Collectivism

(Hofstede et al., 1991, Hall, 1984)

Individualism: everyone is expected to look after himself/herself Collectivism: strong ties between individuals, strong in-groups

High Context vs. Low-Context

High Context: the information is coded in the message, need to read between the lines Low-Context: the information is explicitly given, no reading between the lines necessary

Considerations of Space
Personal space, proximity, intimacy

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Learning Metaphor Learning Approach Focus Learning Environment xMOOCs Knowledge Acquisition Behaviorism cMOOCs Knowledge Participation Connectivism eMOOCs Knowledge Creation


Constructivism and Cultural Psychology Concepts, Facts Collaboration Shared Objects, Mediated Artifacts Video Lecture Video Lecture Diversified and Quizzes, Peer Grading, incl. Web 2.0 i.e. Blogs, Customized Learning Discussion Boards Microblogs; Social Media Material; Culture-sensitive Content Epistemological Culture, More Pedagogically Epistemologically in a Technical Tradition Driven, in the Tradition of Diverse, both (ICT, Mathematics) the e-learning Community Pedagogically and Culturally Driven, Low-context High-context Based on Psychological Theories Low-context and Highcontext

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Reflection and Discussion

Further research is needed to test our assumptions
Role of shared artifacts and mediating tools in learning with MOOCs Considering different cultures and their acceptance and usage of MOOCs What about offering different possibilities of learning in line with the dimensions stated?

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If we teach today as we taught yesterday, we rob our children of tomorrow. (John Dewey)

Prof.(FH) Mag. Dr. Tanja Jadin University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria tanja.jadin@fh-hagenberg.at

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Hall, E. T. (1984). The dance of life: The other dimension of time. New York: Anchor Books.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (Vol. 2). London: McGraw-Hill. McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G. & Courmier, D. (2010). The MOOC Model for Digital Practice. Retrieved from http://davecormier.com/edblog/wpcontent/uploads/MOOC_Final.pdf Paavola, S., Lipponen, L. & Hakkarainen, K. (2004). Models of Innovative Knowledge Communities and Three Metaphors of Learning. Review of Educational Research, 74(4), pp. 557-576.

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