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# CO

2
Calculations
= 6.31E+07 g/hr
= 553013 tonne/yr
CO
2
/kW hr = (Mass Flow Rate CO
2
)/(Net Power)
= 636 g CO
2
/ kW hr
Low NOx Burners
No effect on carbon dioxide emissions
SO
2
Calculations
Using the US EPA Compilation of Emission Factors Document AP-42
Energy Input = 1.1E+09 Btu/hr <== Therefore classified as utility boiler per US EPA AP-42
Emission Factor :
9.6 kg SO
2
/1E6 m3 fuel burned
= (Natural Gas Flow Rate m
3
/hr)(9.6 kg SO
2
/1E6 m
3
fuel burned)
= 0.308 kg/hr
= 2.70 tonne/yr
SO
2
/ kW hr = (Mass Flow Rate SO
2
)/Net Power
= 0.00311 g SO
2
/ kW hr
Low NOx Burners
No effect on sulphur dioxide emissions
CO Calculations
m n
1 mole CO
1 mole CH
44.01 g
mole CO
CO CH
2
4 2
2 4
- -
=
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( )( ) m n mole d 1 d 24 hr
44.0 1g
mole CO
CO
CH
2
2
4
-
=
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( ) m V Emission Factor SO CH 2 4
- -
=
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RANKINE CYCLE : NATURAL GAS : HIGHER q : COGENERATION
BOILER CALCULATIONS
Boiler Material Balances
BASIS : 1 mole of CH4 fed **Natural gas is assumed to be methane**
Combustion Reaction
Material Balances
Component Inputs (mole)
Outputs
(mole)
CH4 1.00 0.00
Let Excess Combustion Air = 20 % O2 2.40 0.40
Incoming N2:O2 and Ar:O2 Ratios N2 8.95 8.95
CO2 0.00 1.00
H2O 0.00 2.00
Ar 0.11 0.11
Boiler Energy Balance : Combustion Side
where -Q represents the heat transferred to the steam tubes surrounding the combustion chamber.
C
p
=a + bT + cT
2
+ dT
3
DATUM : All gases at 25 C
Enthalpy IN :
Enthalpy OUT :
Component a b c d T (K) TDATUM (K)
hOUT
(J/mole) Moles HOUT (J)
H2O 32.24 1.92E-03 1.06E-05 -3.60E-09 423 298 4268.1 2.00 8536
N2 28.9 -1.57E-03 8.08E-06 -2.87E-09 423 298 3657.0 8.95 32728
O2 25.48 1.52E-02 -7.16E-06 1.31E-09 423 298 3760.5 0.40 1504
CO2 22.26 5.98E-02 -3.50E-05 7.47E-09 423 298 4948.3 1.00 4948
Ar 20.3 423 298 2537.5 0.11 270
TOTAL 12.46 47987
AHRXN = LHV = 802.42 kJ/mole CH4
HHV = 890.4 kJ/mole CH4
HVAP,H2O = 87.98 kJ/mole CH4 combusted
Q = 47.987-802.42
Q = -754.43 kJ/mole CH4 combusted
The Thermal Efficiency of Boiler can be defined
= 94.0 %
Flow Rate Natural Gas = 771,121 m
3
/d @ 0 C, 1atm **Note : Fuel flow rate set to obtain
electrical power output of 100 MW.
Using the ideal gas law : Gas Constant (R) :
8.21E-05 atm m
3
/mole K
3.44E+07 mole/d
1.433E+06 mole/hr
398 mole/sec
Energy Available to Produce Steam:
=(754.4 kJ/mole CH4 Combusted)(398.189 mole/sec)
( ) ( ) Q n * h n * h H
OUT IN
RXN
= +

A
d h c T d T
h C T d T
p
p
T
T
D A T U M
=
=
}
( )
( )

PV nRT
- -
= n
P V
R T
-
-
= =
N
O
3.729,
Ar
O
4.441*10
2
2 2
2
= =

q
BOILER
RXN
=
Heat TransferredtoSteam
Heat ReleasedfromCombustion
Q
H
=
A
CH 2 O CO 2 H O
4 2 2 2
+ +
( ) n * h
IN
= 0
= 300407 kJ/sec
Boiler Energy Balance : Steam Side
H2O IN (State 2) OUT (State 3) PIN=POUT and TOUT are design parameters.
T (C) 47.8 500 TIN is obtaind from calculations from the pump.
P (kPa) 7000 7000
State Compressed Liquid Superheated Vapour
h (kJ/kg) 200.14 3410.3
s (kJ/kg K) 0.6751 6.7975
Steam Produced
(300407 kJ/sec)/(3410.3 kJ/kg - 200.14 kJ/kg)
= 93.6 kg/sec
TURBINE CALCULATIONS
TURBINE : Energy Balance
Isentropic Expansion to 500 kPa
IN (State 3) OUT (State 4 Isentropic)
T (C) 500 151.86
P (kPa) 7000 500
State Superheated Vapour liquid vapour mixture
h (kJ/kg) 3410.3 640.23 2748.73 2738.6
s (kJ/kg K) 6.7975 1.8607 6.8213 6.7975
x (vapour fraction) 0 1 0.995
s of the mixture is calculated from : x=(6.7975-1.8607)/(6.8213-1.8607)
h is then determined from h = x(2748.73-640.23) + 640.23
151.86 C is the saturation temperature at 500 kPa
wISENTROPIC = hIN - hOUT
wISENTROPIC = 671.7 kJ/kg Work done if expansion is isentropic.
The actual expansion is not isentropic. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is defined :
For modern turbines an efficiency of 85% is acheivable. Therefore
wACTUAL = (0.85)(671.7 kJ/kg)
wACTUAL = 570.9 kJ/kg
hOUT can be determined from :
hOUT,ACTUAL = 2839.4 kJ/kg
Actual Expansion to 500 kPa
IN (State 3) OUT (State 4 Actual)
T (C) 500 192.8 At 500 kPa
P (kPa) 7000 500 T (C) h (kJ/kg) s (kJ/kg K) By interpolation : T4 = (200-151.86)/(2855.4-2748.7)*(2839.4-2748.7)+151.86
State Superheated Vapour Superheated Vapour 151.86 2748.7 6.8213 = 192.8 C
h (kJ/kg) 3410.3 2839.4 200 2855.4 7.0592 Similarly s4 = (7.0592-6.8213)/(200-151.86)*192.8-151.86)+6.8213
s (kJ/kg K) 6.7975 7.0235 = 7.0235 kJ/kg K
x (vapour fraction) 1 1 T (C) v (m
3
/kg)
151.86 0.3749
Power = wACTUAL*(Mass Flow Rate of Steam) = (570.9 kJ/kg)*(93.6 kg/sec) 200 0.4249
= 53.4 MW
By interpolation v4 :
PROCESS HEATER CALCULATIONS v4 = 0.4174
Energy Q*n =
-
( ) Q m h h
OUT IN
=
-
m
-
=
( ) Q=0, W=mh - h
IN OUT
-
( )
( )
q
TURBINE
ACTUAL
ISENTROPIC
IN OUT, ACTUAL
IN OUT, ISENTROPIC
=
W
W
h - h
h - h
=
085
34103
34103 27386
.
( . )
( . . )
=

h
OUT
Process Heater Energy Balance
H2O IN (State 4) OUT (State 1)
T (C) 192.8 45.81
P (kPa) 500 10
State Superheated Vapour Sat'd Liquid
h (kJ/kg) 2839.4 191.83
s (kJ/kg K) 7.0235 0.6493
x 0
Q = (93.6 kg/sec)(191.83 - 2839.4)kJ/kg
= -247.8 MW
That is, 247.8 MW of heat is supplied by the process heater.
PUMP CALCULATIONS
PUMP Energy Balance
The isentropic work for an incompressible fluid is given by
Isentropic compression to 7 MPa
IN (State 1) OUT (State 2, Isentropic)
T (C) 45.81 47.5
P (kPa) 10 7000
State Sat'd Liquid Compressed Liquid T2 is found using the following table
h (kJ/kg) 191.83 198.89 at 7000 kPa
s (kJ/kg K) 0.6493 0.6493 T (C) h (kJ/kg)
x 0 0 45 188.45
v (m
3
/kg) 0.00101 0.00101 50 209.33
By interpolation
wISENTROPIC is calculated by T2 = 47.5 C
wISENTROPIC = (0.00101 m
3
/kg)(10-7000)kPa = -7.06 kW
The negative sign indicates that work is being done ON the system.
hOUT is calculated by hOUT = 191.83 + 7.06 = 198.89 kJ/kg
The actual compression is not isentropic. The isentropic efficiency of the pump is defined as
For a well designed pump an efficiency of 85% is acheivable. Therefore
wACTUAL = (-7.05kJ/kg)/0.85 = -8.31 kJ/kg
Actual compression to 7 MPa
IN (State 1) OUT (State 2, Actual)
T (C) 45.81 47.8 hOUT = 191.83+8.31 = 200.14 kJ/kg
P (kPa) 10 7000 T2 and s2 are found using the following table
State Sat'd Liquid Compressed Liquid at 7000 kPa
h (kJ/kg) 191.83 200.14 T (C) h (kJ/kg) s (kJ/kg K)
s (kJ/kg K) 0.6493 0.6751 45 188.45 0.6387
x 0 0 50 209.33 0.7038
v (m
3
/kg) 0.00101 0.00101 By interpolation
T2 = 47.8 C
s2 = 0.6751 kJ/kg K
The power delivered to the pump is then calculated as
P=w*(Mass Flow Rate of Steam) = (200.14-191.83 kJ/kg)(93.6 kg/sec)
( ) Q = m h - h
OUT IN
-
( ) Q=0, W=mh - h
IN OUT
-
( ) w = P - P
ISENTROPIC IN OUT
v
( )
( )
q
PUMP
ISENTROPIC
ACTUAL
IN OUT, ISENTROPIC
IN OUT
=
W
W
h - h
h - h
=
, ACTUAL
= 777.3 kW
CYCLE EFFICIENCY
Thermal Efficiency
qTHERMAL = (Net Work Output + Thermal Energy From Process Heater)/(Total Heat Input Into Boiler (LHV))
= 94.0 %
EMISSION CALCULATIONS
NOx Calculations
Using the US EPA Compilation of Emission Factors Document AP-42
Energy Input = 1.1E+09 Btu/hr <== Therefore classified as utility boiler per US EPA AP-42
Emission Factor :
8800 kg NOx/1E6 m3 fuel burned
(Natural Gas Flow Rate m
3
/hr)(8800 kg NOx /1E6 m
3
fuel burned)
= 282.7 kg/hr
= 2478.5 tonne/yr
NOx / kW hr = (Mass Flow Rate NOx)/Net Power
= 0.94 g NOx / kW hr
Low NOx Burners
Reduction Factor = 79/550 as per AP-42
NOx/ kW hr = (Uncontrolled Emissions)*(Reduction Factor)
= 0.135 g NOx / kW hr
CO2 Calculations
= 6.31E+04 kg/hr
= 553013 tonne/yr
CO2 /kW hr = (Mass Flow Rate CO2)/(Net Power)
= 210 g CO2 / kW hr
Low NOx Burners
No effect on carbon dioxide emissions
SO2 Calculations
Using the US EPA Compilation of Emission Factors Document AP-42
Energy Input = 1.1E+09 Btu/hr <== Therefore classified as utility boiler per US EPA AP-42
Emission Factor :
9.6 kg SO2/1E6 m3 fuel burned
= (Natural Gas Flow Rate m
3
/hr)(9.6 kg SO2 /1E6 m
3
fuel burned)
= 0.308 kg/hr
= 2.70 tonne/yr
SO2 / kW hr = (Mass Flow Rate SO2)/Net Power
= 0.00103 g SO2 / kW/hr
Low NOx Burners
No effect on sulphur dioxide emissions
CO Calculations
Using the US EPA Compilation of Emission Factors Document AP-42
Energy Input = 1.1E+09 Btu/hr <== Therefore classified as utility boiler per US EPA AP-42
Emission Factor :
640 kg CO/1E6 m3 fuel burned
= (Natural Gas Flow Rate m
3
/hr)(640 kg CO /1E6 m
3
fuel burned)
= 20.6 kg/hr
= 180 tonne/yr
CO/kW hr = (Mass Flow Rate CO)/Net Power
= 0.068 g CO/kw hr
Low NOx Burners
Emissions of CO increases with the use of low NOx burners
Increase in CO emissions = Uncontrolled * 61/35
CO / kW hr
= 0.119 g CO/kW hr
STATE CONDITIONS : SUMMARY
Working Fluid : Water
Conditions at Different States Within The Cycle
Mass Flow Rate 93.6 kg/sec
336887 kg/hr
( ) m V Emission Factor NOx CH4
- -
=
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m N O x
-
=
m n
1 mole CO
1 mole CH
44.01 g
mole CO
CO CH
2
4 2
2 4
- -
=
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( )( ) m n mole d 1 d 24 hr
44.0 1g
mole CO
CO CH
2
2 4
-
=
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\

|
.
|
( ) m V Emission Factor SO CH 2 4
- -
=
|
\

|
.
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( ) m V Emission Factor CO CH4
- -
=
|
\

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.
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State 1 State 2 State 3 State 4
T (C) 45.81 47.8 500.0 192.8
P (kPa) 10 7000 7000.0 500.0
State Sat'd Liquid Compressed Liquid Superheated Vapour Superheated Vapour
h (kJ/kg) 191.83 200.14 3410.3 2839.4
s (kJ/kg K) 0.6493 0.6751 6.7975 7.0235
x (Vapour Fraction) 0 0 1.0 1
v (m
3
/kg) 0.00101 0.00101 0.04814 0.4174
END OF CALCULATIONS