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PART A 1.0 INTRODUCTION Junk food is food that is easily available and easy provided. It is also known as snack.

Junk foods are well loved by children today. It is very easily available especially in the grocery store. There are a variety of junk food such as chocolate, sweets, soft drinks, instant noodles and ice cream. Junk foods can be categorized as less nutritious food because it contains carbohydrates that will harm our health, saturated fat and salt with a high rate and low or no fibres, proteins, vitamins and nutrients metal in it.


JUNK FOODS AND ITS EFFECT Junk foods give us a lot of bad effect if we still keep on taking this constantly. It is not

only harmful to our health, but also a waste of money. The impact of junk food can be seen from the following three aspects of health, psychological as well as social.


HEALTH ASPECTS Junk foods is very dangerous to our health if we keep eating them always. It may

causes a lot of harmful diseases such as heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and brain damage. Researchers from Pacific Health Education Centre in Bakersfield California, and Prevention Concepts, Inc.. in Los Angeles, have conducted a study which involves 200 students and discovered eight out of ten students took the excess saturated fat through junk foods. According to the laboratory tests, its shown that junk foods will cause high blood pressure. It also contains cholesterol levels in the blood are high and 10% of girls were diagnosed with high blood pressure. Therefore, this study had clearly shows that there is excess saturated fat in junk foods will narrow the blood vessels. this will lead causes of high blood pressure especially when a person's age is increased.In another study, scientists from Scotland and Saudi Arabia discovered junk foods are the main cause of the increased incidence of allergic diseases and asthma among children. This study involving 100 children with symptoms of asthma and other 200 children who do not have diabetes found that those consuming less vegetables, vitamin E, Trace metals and milk are more easily attacked by this disease. Therefore, we found that cases of asthma increased by 50% in the span of 10 years.

Junk foods are also harmful to the heart. Based on CNN.COM.HEALTH dated March 14, 2000 reported that junk foods can increase the risk of heart disease. Teenagers are at a higher risk to be exposed with this disease that come from saturated fat and cholesterol found in junk foods. This finding were presented in the meeting at American College of Cardiology in Anaheim, California. Junk foods can also damage brain function. A study was done at Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care at the University of Toronto, Canada, in relation to this matter. They believe that snack does contain excess fat, concentration and memory damage the brain. Besides, junk foods can also damage our brain function because it requires glucose to function properly and excess of fat will interfere the role of glucose. According to Professor Carol Greenwood, a scientist from the Kunin-Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit at the University of Toronto concluded, junk foods may contain high levels of fat and protein. It is low in carbohydrate diet that certainly not suitable for the human brain.


PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS As known, junk foods contain a lot of preservatives, artificial flavourings and

colourings. Therefore, it is not only affects on our health, but it is also can affect on our psychological aspect. Children who like to eat junk foods will become more active or commonly known as hyperactive. A non-governmental, www.fabsearch.org is an NGO that was founded in 2003 and they are actively doing research and collecting variety of reference sources to prove that food has relationship with human behaviour. According to a study conducted by the Unit of Psychiatry, University Of Bristol, United Kingdom, found that children who was given junk foods as young as four years will contribute to bad behavioural and hyperactivity. In addition, children who love to take junk foods are also found to be quite weak in their education process. This is because its contain excessive chemicals that can interfere with the brain nervous system in children. Body will become weak, tired and weary quickly. They will become irritable as well as act more aggressively. Sugar and chemicals that are found in junk foods make children to be more active. So, they are quite difficult to control their discipline in home or school. Therefore, it is clearly show that junk foods can affect our thinking skills and mindset. In year 2004, Nur Amalina Che Bakri was succeed to get a surprise in SPM result by her excellence result with 17A1. She was very concerned about what she ate. She does not eat junk foods and also carbonated drinks. In other words, those who love to eat junk foods are more easily to get fat and obesity. Therefore, they are

more often to isolate themselves from friends because of low self-esteem. Friends are also more likely to tease a child like this and it will cause depression to the child.


SOCIAL ASPECTS The impact of junk foods can also be seen from a social angle. Most of them who took

these junk foods can cause them to be more extravagant, wasteful and careless. Children for example, is the most easily influenced by junk foods commercial advertisements that aired on television. Thus, children will tend to force their parents to buy that junk foods which are usually available at the nearest grocery store. The family can also be affected because of the practice of saving money cannot be done when money is spent to buy more frequent junk foods. Besides, it may also have an impact on the family institution. Due to prefer enjoy junk foods, warm atmosphere between parents and their kids were declining because they were not sitting and enjoying their meal together. Furthermore, most of the parents who are busy with their work and do not have time to serve or cook are preferring to buy junk foods as a quick meal for their family such as instant noodles. As a result, most of the children are less loving their parents due to not eating food cooked by their mother but preoccupied with eating only junk food. For couples who are working, eating out, particularly at fast food restaurants make them lazy to cook and they assume that eating out could save their time. Some people might take for granted of this situation but in the real life, it still have affects to the family relationships as well as the development of the community. As a result, children nowadays are not proud of their traditional food due to influence of junk foods. In conclusion, we can say that the consumption of junk foods will give the negative effects in terms of increasing waste and less industrious attitudes among community members. In addition, it also gives an impact to the decreasing level of discipline especially among school children.


CONCLUSION As conclusion, we can say that the intake of junk foods may contribute to a negative

impact on all of us, especially the children who are major fans of its. From the health views, junk foods can cause a variety of diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. It is also may affect on brain function. From the psychological aspect, those who was taking n excessive junk foods can be react more aggressive and hyperactive. They are also shown us the signs of depression due to problems such as obesity or obesity besides weak in education. From the social view, it can undermine the relationship in the family. The power of advertising on junk foods can cause waste in the family. Children are tending to persuade their family to buy the junk foods. Thus, we can say that junk foods are not bring us benefits but it can cause various side effects such as long-term sickness came, depression and wastage.

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PART B 1.0 INTRODUCTION The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon that occurs due to global warming pollution. It occurs when the concentration of greenhouse gases in a confined space to rise and block heat from escaping easily. The greenhouse effect occurs when the composition of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide rises above normal levels. When the composition increases, the gas molecules are in thermal storage, will trap heat and slows down the process of heat release.


HOW GREENHOUSE GASES TRAP ENERGY FROM THE SUN The greenhouse effect is a natural process that regulates the temperature of the earth's

atmosphere. There is a layer around the earth's atmosphere. Sunlight penetrates the atmosphere will warm the earth's surface. Some of these heat will continue to radiate back into space by the earth. In the atmosphere, there are several types of gases like carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These gases are known as greenhouse gases. These gases will absorb some heat emitted by the earth. Heating process and reflection as well as heat absorption and release of heat from earth to space will balance the temperature of the atmosphere. This effect is known as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is important due to in the absence of the greenhouse effect, the earth's mean temperature will fall by 18oC. Heating process and reflection as well as heat absorption and release of heat into space will balance the temperature in the atmosphere. This effect is known as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is important due to maintaining the temperature to avoid from the temperature fall to 18oC. Nevertheless, the greenhouse effect also has negative impact to the earth which is an increasing in temperature that might be happen in a global basis. Ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun to the earth, some will be reflected back into space by the atmosphere, the other part will come to earth to warm the earth. The heat reached to the earth is reflected back by the earth's surface into space as infrared rays. Not all heat will penetrate the atmosphere. Most of this heat is absorbed by atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons. The trapped heat will raise the temperature of the earth and to make sure that the earth is always hot. The increase of polluting gases such as nitrogen

oxide and sulphur dioxide also trap heat and raise the temperature. The gases will act like a blanket that will allow heat in and this then will trap the heat. This trapped heat will raise the temperature on the surface of the earth. The greenhouse effect can be caused by either natural or man-made. There are a lot of activities done by human that caused greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increased. This increases the temperature of the atmosphere due to these gases trap the excess heat from the earth. The carbon dioxide is the most greenhouse gas that commonly produced. n past centuries estimated carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere has increased by about 30%. The main activity that resulting increase in carbon dioxide is the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. Every day, humans will burn the fossil fuels either through emission of smoke from vehicles and factories. Deforestation also will increase the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere and it cause the heat up to the earth. It also causes percent of heat could reach the earth. As we know, the tree is the main source of supply of oxygen to life on this earth. Therefore, deforestation will contribute percent of earth heating.


CONCLUSION Therefore, we can conclude that there are many negative impacts of the greenhouse

effect comes from human being if it is not controlled. The increment of global temperature will cause thawing of ice chunks in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans, which also caused heavy flooding. It also leads to the changes of wind direction that cause natural disasters such as storms and hurricanes. It can also affect on human health as well as their daily activities. Thus, as human being who loves this earth should reduce the greenhouse effect by limiting the air pollution. Some of the steps that we need to practice is less burning of fossil fuels by carpooling, reduce open burning and make our earth green by planting trees.