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## Rin and Rout of the Inverting Amplifier

We can use the concept of the virtual short to easily determine the input resistance of the invertin amplifier. !ecall that the input resistance of an amplifier is"

!in =

vin iin

#or the inverting amplifier\$ it is evident that the input current iin is e%ual to i1 " !2

i2 vin !1 v,
,
oc vout

iin = i1
v+
+

iin = i1 =

vin v1 !1

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## -he non,invertin terminal is .connected/ to virtual ground"

v = 0
and thus the input current is"

iin = i1 =

vin !1

## We no) can determine the input resistance"

!in =

vin iin

! = vin 1 vin = !1 -he input resistance of this invertin amplifier is therefore !in = !1 0 1o)\$ let's attempt to determine the output resistance !out. !ecall that )e need to determine two values" the short-circuit sc oc output current iout and the open-circuit output voltage vout .

( )

-o accomplish this\$ )e must replace the op,amp in the circuit )ith its linear circuit model"

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!2 i2 vin !1
,

ii = i1

v,

op !out

vout = 0
sc iout

+ v +

op i + out , 4op 5v + v 6

## #rom 23(\$ )e find that"

op sc iout = i2 + iout

)here"
op iout =

oc 4op v vout

!oop i2 =

4op v

!oop

and"

v vout v = !2 !2

## -herefore\$ the short-circuit output current is"

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sc iout =

v 4op v op !2 !out
v

## op !out !2 4op = op !2 !out 4op op v !out

-he open-circuit output voltage can li*e)ise 7e determined in terms of 4op and v, "

!2 i2 vin !1
,

ii = i1

v,

op !out

+ v +

+
,

op i2 = iout

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i2 =

v 5 4opv 6

## and thus vout is"

oc
oc vout = v !2 i2

1 + 4op = v !2 v op !2 + !out ! + ! op !2 1 + 4op out = 2 op op !2 + !out !2 + !out !oop !2 4op = v op !2 + !out !2 4op v op !2 + !out

) v

## Now\$ )e can find the output resistance of this amplifier"

!out

oc vout = sc iout

## !2 4op 4op = op op ! + ! ! o o 2 op ! ! = 2 o op !2 + !o = !2 !oop

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:n other )ords\$ the inverting amplifier output resistance is simply e%ual to the value of the feedback resistor !2 in parallel op )ith op-amp output resistance !out . Ideally\$ of course\$ the op,amp output resistance is zero\$ so that the output resistance of the invertin amplifier is likewise zero"
op !out = !2 !out

= !2 0 =0

1ote for this case;)here the output resistance is zero;the output volta e )ill 7e the same\$ re ardless of )hat load is attached at the output 5e. .\$ regardless of iout 60

!2 i2 vin !1
,

ii = i1

v,
op i + out , 4op 5v + v 6

iout 0
+
,

+ v +

-hus\$ if !out = 0 \$ then the output volta e is e%ual to the opencircuit output volta e;even )hen the output is not open circuited"

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vout =

!2 v !1 in

## for all iout 00

!ecall that it is this property that made !out = 0 an .ideal/ amplifier characteristic. We )ill find that real 5i.e.\$ non,ideal06 op,amps typically have an op output resistance that is very small 5 !out = !2 6\$ so that the inverting amplifier output resistance is approximately equal to the op,amp output resistance"
op !out = !2 !out op !out

!in = !1
op !out !out

5ideally <ero6

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iin (t )
vin ( t )
+

!2 !1
,

iout ( t )
vout (t )
+

iin (t )
vin (t )
+
+ !
op !out

iout (t )
vout ( t )
+

( ) v (t )
!1
2

in