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This document is based on the braille code used in the United Kingdom for presenting mathematics in braille, and includes advice about specialist mathematical symbols and layout conventions. Written for teachers, it covers the braille needed for maths topics and conventions up to GCSE level. It is essential for young people who may use braille in public examinations to learn to recognise and understand braille maths notation and present their working and answers correctly. Braille Mathematics Notation published in 2005 by the Braille Authority of the United Kingdom is a more comprehensive guide giving greater detail and covering the complexities of the maths code up to and including postgraduate study, including pure, applied maths and statistics.

1 Number notation

This section covers the braille required for positive and negative numbers, arithmetic operators, using brackets, indexes and roots.

Numbers are written in braille using the NUMERAL SIGN (number sign), dots 3, 4, 5 and 6 0 is 2 is 3 is 4 is 5 is 6 is

7 is 8 is 9 is 10 is 35 is 100 is 296 is

1 is

#j #a #b #c #d #e #f

Large numbers in print are sometimes written with a comma and sometimes with a space: eg 10,000 or 10 000. In braille a mathematical comma (dot 3) is always inserted as follows: 30 000 or 30,000

The minus sign (dots 5,6 followed by dots 3,6) written unspaced before the numeral sign indicates a negative number: 4 ;-#d 80

;-#hj

Dots 5,6 are not used in a minus sign after an equals sign.

The signs for add, subtract, multiply and divide and equals always have a space BEFORE them, but are followed immediately by the number.

;6

;- (dots 5,6 followed by dots 3,6) ;8 (dots 5,6 followed by dots 2,3,6) ;4

(dots 5,6 followed by dots 2,5,6)

Examples: 4 + 2 = 6 4 2 = 2 4 x 2 = 8 4 2 = 2

230 28 + 42 6 = 238

3 x 16 = 48 = 96 2

1e) Using brackets with positive and negative numbers

When it is necessary to add or subtract positive and negative numbers two signs can occur together. If this occurs, the signed number should be enclosed in ROUND BRACKETS; gh (dots 1,2,5) is used for open round brackets and ar (dots 3,4,5) is used for close round brackets: 2 3 = 5 is or 2 3 = 5 is

When multiplying or dividing positive or negative numbers, the multiplication sign can be omitted, and the division sign can be replaced with a / sign (dots 4,5,6 followed by dots 3,4) _/ 3 ( 6 ) = 18 18 / +3 = 6

Often it may be necessary to use braille brackets to make the layout clear, even when they are not used in print. Additional explanation of the notation for brackets will be found later in this section.

1f) Punctuation

When punctuation is required with mathematical expressions, the MATHEMATICAL SEPARATION SIGN dot 6 must be used. If punctuation is used straight after a number without the separation sign, the punctuation sign could be read as the denominator of a fraction. 144. is 25, is

36? is 55! is

Long braille calculations need to continue from the end of one line of braille to the beginning of the next. The MATHEMATICAL HYPHEN (dot 5) is used, unspaced at the end of the line, to indicate that the rest of the calculation is on the next line. 1+2+3+4+5+6+7 + 8 + 9 + 10

1g) Indices or powers

The superscript (or power) sign is the ING contraction (dots 3,4,6) + followed by the number written in the lower part of the cell without the numeral sign. Thus lower 2 (dots 2,3) denotes squared, middle 3 (dots 2,5) denotes cubed, lower 4 (dots 2,5,6) denotes the power 4 and so on. The power sign follows the number, unspaced. 42

#d+2

33

#c+3

84

#h+4

If the superscript is negative, the minus sign (dots 5,6: dots 3,6) is placed between the superscript sign and the lower case number. 43

#d+;-3

If the superscript is a positive whole number with a + sign, the superscript sign must be followed by a plus sign and an ordinary number sign. 4+3 61.5

121/2

1h) Subscripts

Subscripts can be used with both numbers and letters (see algebra section) and the rules for their use are different in each case. The subscript is the "CH" contraction dots 1,6 * followed by the appropriate number written in the lower part of the braille cell without a numeral sign. 11012 (binary)

#aaja*2

1i) Roots

The root sign is the SH contraction (dots 1,4,6) % It is written BEFORE the numeral sign, unspaced. The root sign is used on its own for the square root. For the cube root, a middle 3 (dots 2,5) is placed, unspaced, between the root sign and the numeral sign; for the fourth root, a lower 4 (dots 2,5,6) is placed between the root sign and the numeral sign, and so on.

64

3 4

125 16

1j) Inequalities

These signs have a space before and after: < means is less than and is dots 2,4,6 in braille: [

12 < 14

#ab [ #ad

14 > 12

#ad o #ab

These signs have a space before but not after them: means is less than or equal to and is "dots 2,4,6: dots 2,3,5,6" in braille: x 5 -9 < n 20

means is greater than or equal to and is dots 1,3,5: dots 2,3,5,6 in braille: o7 p 10

;p o7#aj

1k) Approximations

These two signs have a space before but not after: means is approximately equal to and is dots 4,5,6: dots 2,3,5,6 in braille: _7 999 1000

#iii _7#ajjj

means is not equal to and is dot 5: dots 2,3,5,6 in braille: "7 999 1000

#iii "7#ajjj

1l) Brackets

In mathematics there are three types of brackets: ( . . . . . ) { . . . . . } [ . . . . . ] In braille: ( is the GH contraction (dots 1,2,6) and ) is the AR contraction (dots 3,4,5). ROUND BRACKETS CURLY BRACKETS SQUARE BRACKETS

<.....>

ROUND BRACKETS

[.....O

CURLY BRACKETS

[ is the OF contraction (dots 1,2,3,5,6) and ] is the WITH contraction (dots 2,3,4,5,6).

(.....)

SQUARE BRACKETS

Whichever form of bracket is used in print, the same form should be used in braille. Examples using round brackets (with numbers): (43 13) x 3 (2 + 4)(10 + 2) (47 x 20)/(56 8)

O = {1, 3, 5, 7} E = {2, 4, 6, 8}

Square brackets are usually used to enclose a long computation. Example using all three types in one sum: 5[12 {18 (3 1)}] = 20

This section covers the braille code for fractions, decimals, percentages and ratio.

2a) Fractions

Fractions are written with the numeral sign followed by an upper number for the numerator (the top number) and a lower number for the denominator (the bottom number).

1/2 2/3

#a2 #b3

1/4 7/8

#a4 #g8

In mixed numbers, the whole number is written unspaced from the fractional part. 5 3/4

#e#c4

2b) Decimals

The decimal point is dot 2. It comes unspaced from the numbers before and after it. 34

#c1d

075

#j1ge 5 #1e

The recurring sign is dot 5 and it is placed before the digit or digits of the decimal that recur. In braille only one dot 5 is used when more than one digit recurs. . 06 #j1"f . 20096 #b1jji"f . . 0142857 #j1"adbheg

2c) Percentages

The percentage sign is middle c, p (dots 2,5 followed by dots 1,2,3,4). It is written after the number, with a space between the number and the percentage sign: % 50%

3p #ej 3p

33 3 % 17.5%

#cc#a3 3p #ag1e 3p

2d) Ratio

The ratio sign in braille maths is dot 6 followed by dots 2,5. There is no space either before or after it. 2:3 5:6:7

#b,3#c #e,3#f,3#g

One of the major difficulties with braille mathematics, even at the most basic level, is the layout of simple sums: the linear method (across the page) OR the vertical method (down the page). Each method has advantages and disadvantages. A set of examples for the linear and the vertical layout of Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division in braille are given in detail in Appendix A.

4 Units of measurement

This section describes how to express units of length, area, volume, weight and capacity. These braille units are written AFTER the number and are SPACED from the number. If the unit is represented by a single letter, such as m for metre(s) it must be preceded by a LETTER sign (dots 5,6), so that it will not be read as a word.

millimetre centimetre decimetre metre kilometre mm cm dm m km written mm written cm written dm

mm cm dm ;m km

10

Examples: 25 mm 8 dm 250 km

#be mm #bej km

50 cm

#ej cm #ajj ;m

#h dm 100 m

When there are two units together, the general rule is to use the decimal point and the symbol of the larger unit. The basic rule is to follow the print. 1.75 m

#a1ge ;m

or

1 m 75 cm

#a ;m #ge cm

milligram decigram gram(me) kilogram tonne Examples: 675 mg 250 g 35 t mg written mg dg g kg t written dg

mg dg ;g ;t kg

6 dg 50 kg

#f dg #ej kg

As with the metric units of length, it is best to use the decimal point and write the larger unit symbol. The basic rule is to follow the print. 1.375 kg 1 kg 375 g 5.695 t 5 t 695 kg

11

millilitre ml written ml

ml cl dl ;l

700 ml 70 cl 7 dl 8 l

#gjj ml #gj cl #g dl #h ;l

Litre can also be written as L, (capital l), this is dots 5,6 (letter sign), dot 6 (capital sign), l

;,l

For area, use the squared sign. In braille, this is the superscript (power) sign ING (dots 3,4,6) followed by lower 2 (dots 2,3) +2 The squared sign follows the unit symbol, unspaced. These are the three most common metric units of area: mm2 cm2 m2

The other metric unit of area is the hectare (which is 10,000 square metres or 10,000 m2). The symbol for this is ha. 50 ha

#ej ha

12

For volume, use the cubed sign. In braille, this is the superscript (power) sign, ING (dots 3,4,6) followed by a middle 3 (dots 2,5) These are the three most common metric units of volume: mm3 cm3 m3

+3

Imperial units of length, weight, capacity, area and volume are in Appendix B.

5 Units of time

This section gives the braille code for periods of time, such as seconds, hours and days, writing times in both 12- and 24-hour clock, and writing the date.

second s written letter sign (dots 5,6) s 45 s minute

;s

#de ;s m9

#ae m9

13

hour

;h

#ab ;h hr #c hr ;d

hr

written "hr" 3 hr

day

This is used when day is written as d in print. If the word is printed in full, write dot 5, d "d which is the usual contraction for day. 10 days 10 d week wk written wk 6 wk month

#f wk

year yr

#c mon?s yr4

#be yr4

T he full stop is necessary so that there will be no confusion with the your contraction.

With all these contractions, remember that the braille follows the print. If the units are written out in full in print, then they are written out in full in braille.

14

There are two ways of writing time, either the a.m./p.m. format or the 24-hour clock format. When times of the day in print are written with a full stop between the hours and the minutes (e.g. 5.30), they should be brailled in the same way as decimal numbers, i.e. with a dot 2. This is then followed by a.m. or p.m., which are written spaced from the number, but without a space between the two letters. 2.45 a.m.

#b1de a4m4

10.15 p.m.

#aj1ae p4m4

Where am or pm are written without full stops they are written in braille as follows: am pm written letter sign (dots 5,6) am written letter sign (dots 5,6) pm

;am ;pm

2.45 am

In older braille texts you may come across times written with a second numeral sign separating the hours and minutes: 2.45 a.m.

#b#de a4m4

If in print the time is written with a colon or space separating the hours and minutes as in 5:30 or 5 30, the hours and minutes are separated by a repeated numeral sign: 5:30 or 5 30 is written

#e#cj

For 24-hour clock time, there are two formats, and the braille must follow the print. Sometimes the time is written as one unspaced sequence of numbers. In this case, the braille follows the print 1745

#agde

0030

#jjcj

15

0925

#jibe

Where a 24-hour clock time uses a full stop to separate the hours and minutes a dot 2 is used as the separator in braille. Where a colon or space is used the hours and minutes are separated by a repeated numeral sign: 17.45 17 45 17:45

00.30 00 30 00:30

09.25 09 25 09:25

When a period of time is indicated by two times joined by a hyphen the numeral sign is repeated after the hyphen: 2.30 - 4.30 14.30 - 16.30 4.30 - 6 am

5c) Dates

As a general rule, the date is transcribed into braille as it is presented in print: 25 May 2005

However, if the date is abbreviated, then the day, month and year are separated by a numeral sign, no matter what symbol is used in print, for example an oblique stroke, a hyphen or a full stop: If you are transcribing dates where a hyphen is used to link together two dates, for example 17-25 June, then the hyphen, dots 3,6, is used. The force of the numeral sign does NOT carry over the literary hyphen: 17 - 25 June 16.07.05 or 16/07/05 or 16-07-05

#af#jg#je

#ag-#be ,june

When dates are joined by a dash, the second number must also have a numeral sign: 1914 18 2000 2005

#aiad--#ah #bjjj--#bjje

16

When using an apostrophe the braille follows the print 1960s the 90s

6 Units of temperature

The degrees sign, o, (in braille, lower j, dots 3,5,6), is followed by capital C for Centigrade/Celsius, and capital F for Fahrenheit. These units follow the number UNSPACED. 35oC 70oF

#ce0,c #gj0,f

5oC 10oF

;-#e0,c ;-#aj0,f

7 Compound units

Most compound units used in mathematics are beyond the scope of this booklet. Refer to Braille Mathematics Notation 2005, produced by BAUK, for further details. For compound units of speed and density, the two units are separated by an oblique stroke (dots 4,5,6 followed by dots 3,4)

_/ ;m_/s

NOTE: The letter sign is not necessary within compound units. For example, in metres per second the letter sign is needed before the m, but a letter sign is not needed in front of the s.

17

km/h m/s (kilometres per hour) (metres per second)

km_/h ;m_/s

m4p4h4 ;mph

If MPH is written with print capitals and no full stops, then braille does NOT follow the print unless capitals are shown generally in the transcription. MPH Examples: 80 km/h 70 m.p.h.

;mph

The most common unit of density is g/cm3. As with units of volume, use the cubed sign, which is superscript (power) sign ING (dots 3,4,6) followed by middle 3 (dots 2,5) 6.4 g/cm3

#f1d ;g_/cm+3

18

8 Units of currency

8a) British currency

in braille is the letter "l" l written before the numeral sign without a letter sign. p (pence) in braille is letter sign (dots 5,6) p ;p, and follows the number unspaced. Examples: 50p

#ej;p l#d1ej

50

l#ej

The mathematically correct way to write four pounds fifty pence is 4.50 which is

Sometimes you may see 4.50p in print, which is mathematically incorrect; however, in braille transcription the print style is followed. A sign without a number is brailled as @l Example: Give your answer in

GIVE YR ANSW] 9 @l

8b) US dollar

The dollar, $, is written as lower d (dots 2,5,6), unspaced, before the numeral sign. The cent, c, written as letter sign (dots 5,6) c unspaced after the number. When using both units, use the $ sign and the decimal point to separate $ from cents. Examples: $10

4#aj

50c

#ej;c

19

$25.50

4#be1ej

The Euro () is dot 4: e dots 1,5 @e, written before the numeral sign and unspaced. 5 or 5 Euro

@e#e

7,85

@e#g1he

The Yen is dot 4: y dots 1,3,4,5,6 @y, written before the numeral sign and unspaced. 100 Yen

@y#ajj

For other foreign currency, please refer to British Braille 2004, published by BAUK.

This section explains why the letter sign can be needed for clarity, when single letters appear in a phrase, roman numerals are needed, or the contents of brackets could be confused with the bracket signs.

If in doubt, use the letter sign in algebraic expressions. Some general rules for the use of the letter sign: If the letter is used on its own, in a sentence, then the letter sign must be used or it will be confused with the word for which that letter stands: e.g. If x is a positive whole number

The letter sign is needed before the x so that it will not be read as it.

20

When the letter begins a mathematical expression in ordinary print, such as: p is a negative whole number

The letter sign is needed before the letter p so that it will not be confused with the word for which p stands, people.

Always use the letter sign with letters a j when these letters follow a number Examples: with letter sign: a b c d e f g h i j 3a

#c;a

5b

#e;b

11c

#aa;c

#bx

5y

#ey

3z

#cz

Roman Numerals are normally written as in literary braille. If small, they are preceded by the dots 5,6 letter sign. i v ix

;i ;v ;ix

ii vi x

;ii ;vi ;x

iii vii

;iii ;vii

iv viii

;iv ;viii

When labelling questions, sub-sections often use Roman Numerals, in brackets. In these cases, the standard literary brackets (lower g in braille dots 2,3,5,6) are used, together with the letter sign. (iii)

7;iii7

(ix)

7;ix7

(xiv)

7;xiv7

21

The use of capital letters in mathematical braille follows the new rules of British Braille 2004. The double capital indicator dot 6 dot 6 is now used for a sequence of two or more capital letters. Single capital letters standing alone now require a letter sign before the capital sign . III I

,,iii ;,I

IX V

,,ix ;,v

XIV X

,,xiv ;,x

Note: Everything which follows the numeral sign is a number, everything which follows the capital sign is a capital letter, and everything that follows the letter sign is a lower case letter until there is a space or another sign.

9d) Brackets

When using curly brackets, and the letter o is listed within the bracket, then a letter sign has to be written before the letter o so as not to confuse it with the closing curly bracket, which is also a letter o. Thus: {a e i o u}

[a e i ;o uo

When using square brackets and the first term is the letter a, then a letter sign has to be inserted or the first terms will be read of a as the open square bracket is the OF contraction in braille. Thus: [a e i o u]

(;a e i o u)

The oblique stroke / , in braille, is dots 4,5,6 followed by the ST contraction, dots 3,4 _/ and it is frequently used in algebra, especially when writing fractions. It becomes necessary when either the numerator or the denominator or both are letters. Fractions in algebra cannot be written as they would be with numerical numerators and denominators.

22

Examples: 1 or 1/x x a 3 a b 1 x2

#a_/x

or

a_/#c

;a_/#c a_/b

or

;a_/b

#a_/x+2

If the numerator or the denominator of the algebra fraction is made up of two or more terms, these terms have to be joined together using round brackets: open bracket, < is dots 1,2,6 in braille and the close bracket, >, is dots 3,4,5 These brackets must be used in braille even if they are not used in print. (x + y)/z may be written in print as be used as follows: (x + y)/z x+y but in braille the brackets must z

<x ;6y>_/z

x x/(y + z) may be written in print as y + z but in braille the brackets must be used as follows: x/(y + z)

x_/<y ;6z>

w+x (w + x)/(y + z) may be written in print as y + z but in braille the brackets must be used as follows: (w + x)/(y + z)

y./<m ;8n>

23

11a) Simple operations

3a + 4a = 7a 5x + 3x = 8x 10z 6z = 4z 20p 5p = 15p

#c;a ;6#d;a ;7#g;a #ex ;6#cx ;7#hx #ajz ;-#fz ;7#dz #bjp ;-#ep ;7#aep

2x = 8 4a = 12 x2 = 25 a + 3 = 11 p 4 = 9 2c2 = 32 3a + 5 = 2a + 11

#bx ;7#h #d;a ;7#ab x+2 ;7#be a ;6#c ;7#aa p ;-#d ;7#i #b;c+2 ;7#cb #c;a ;6#e ;7#b;a ;6#aa

(6x)(3y) (3a + 5b)(6a 3b) x(x2) a(a3) with letter sign a(a3) with no letter sign (4x + 4y)/2 2(x 3) x (2/x) = 5

<#dx ;6#dy>_/#b #b<x ;-#c> x ;-<#b_/x> ;7#e <x ;6#a>_/#b ;6<x ;6#b>_/#c

24

xn

x+n

xn+2

x+n;6#b

x+#a2

If the numerical subscript refers to a letter, then the subscript is written as a lower case number, unspaced from the letter. x2 x2 This also applies if the subscript is a negative number. y-1 y;-1 If the subscript is a letter, then the subscript sign must ALWAYS be used and the letters written as upper case. xn

x*n

x2n

x*#bn

The arrow used in braille, is dots 2,5 followed by dots 1,3,5 space before but not after. xx+1

3o

with a

x 3ox ;6#a

25

11g) Function

The letter f dots 1,2,4 is used to denote function, followed by the argument. y = f(x a) y

;7f<x ;-a>

11h) Proportionality

The sign, is proportional to, is in print. In braille it is middle c (dots 2,5) followed by lower g (dots 2,3,5,6) written unspaced. 37 In braille the proportion to sign is positioned with a space before but not after the sign. y x2 y

37x+2

12 Geometry

12a) Degree sign

The degree sign in geometry, used as an angle measurement, is the same as the degree sign used for temperature. It is lower j (dots 3,5,6) 0 written, unspaced, after the number. Examples: 90o

#ij0

360o

#cfj0

45o

#de0

12b) Angle

In print, the angle sign is written in one of two ways. Angle CAB can be written CAB or CB. In braille, the angle sign is dots 4,5,6 followed by dots 2,4,6. This is followed by the capital letters labelling the angle: CAB

_[,,cab CB _[,,cab

26

In print, the sign for triangle is a small triangle before the three letters, triangle ABC is shown as ABC. In braille, this is written as dots 1,2,4,6 followed by dots 1,4,5 (which is the ED contraction followed by d) $d. This is followed by the capital letters labelling the triangle: ABC

$d,,abc

In print, the is parallel to sign is two parallel lines. This sign is placed between the two pairs of letters. AB is parallel to CD is written as AB || CD. In braille, the is parallel to sign is dots 4,5,6: dots 4,5,6 __ with a space before, but not afterwards. AB || CD

,,ab __,,cd

Note that AB is normally brailled as ,,ab in maths. In exceptional cases it can be brailled as ,a,b if it is thought liable in the context to be misread as the capitalised word ABOUT. The same applies to other such cases, e.g. CD (COULD).

In geometry theorems and proofs the therefore sign, which in print is is often used. In braille it is dot 6: dots 1,6 and looks just like the print symbol

,*

Leave a space between this sign and what follows. Example:

27

The sign to indicate a capital Greek letter is dots 4,5,6. The sign to indicate a small Greek letter is dots 4,6. The level of geometry covered in this booklet uses only and , but it is useful to recognise the commonly used letters of the Greek Alphabet: Letter Alpha Beta English Version a b Capital Greek Small Greek Capital Braille Small Braille

_a _b _g _d _? _m _p _s _w

.a .b .g .d .? .M .p .s .w

28

In formulae a letter sign following is not needed, as the letters will revert to ordinary small letters. Examples of formulae: C = d C = 2r A = r2 V = 4/3 r3

The three signs for sine, cosine and tangent are followed by the sign for the angle in question, or the angle itself (in degrees) written unspaced after the trigonometry sign. Sine (sin). The braille is the ED contraction (dots 1,2,4,6) followed by the letter s (dots 2,3,4) $s sin

$s.?

sin 45o

$s#de0

Cosine (cos). The braille is the ED contraction (dots 1,2,4,6) followed by the letter c (dots 1,4) $c cos

$c.?

cos 60o

$c#fj0

Tangent (tan). The braille is the ED contraction (dots 1,2,4,6) followed by the letter t (dots 2,3,4,5) $t tan Examples: Sine Rule: a /sin A = b/sin B = c/sin C

$t.?

tan 35o

$t#ce0

Area of a triangle: 2 absinC

1

#a2ab$s,c

29

13a) Co-ordinates

Co-ordinates are written in round brackets. Open bracket ( is the GH contraction in braille (dots 1,2,6) and close bracket ) is the AR contraction in braille (dots 3,4,5). The two numbers are separated by a space and NOT, as in print, by a comma. (3, 4) <#c #d> When using the four quadrants, the appropriate + or - sign is placed, unspaced, before the number. A comma, however, should be used when the second co-ordinate is signed either + or -, following the mathematical separator sign (dot 6). (-3, 5) BUT (-3, +5) Examples P(1, 2) Q(-2, -1) R(2, -1)

13b) Vectors

The vector between points A and B, is usually written in print as AB The superscript arrow is coded in braille as dots 4,6: dots 2,5: dots 1,3,5 .3O and it follows the capital letters, unspaced. In the example above, A B is coded as

,,ab.3O

30

The notation for writing a column vector is straightforward and there are two major rules about layout: The vector brackets (which in braille are the FOR sign, all six dots, placed at the beginning and the end of each number in the vector), MUST be underneath each other. The numeral signs for the two numbers in the vector also must be underneath each other. If the numbers are signed, then, on occasions, this can present problems with the layout. 5 6

=#e= =#f=

+4 3

=;6#d= =;-#c=

0 2

= #j= =;-#b=

10 4

=#aj= =#d =

+12 0

=;6#ab= = #j =

18 +5

=;-#ah= =;6#e =

When shape ABCD is translated by a certain vector to ABCD, the dash symbol is used. In braille this is dot 4, followed by the IN contraction (dots 3,5) @9 unspaced. ABCD ,,a@9b@9c@9d@9 If ABCD is translated to A"B"C"D" the double dash is written as dot 4, followed by IN IN.

31

13c) Matrices

The rules for column vectors also apply to matrices. Examples: 4 1 2 5

3 0 0 +4

The last example is rather complex. There are spaces throughout the matrix and these need to be counted carefully so that the brackets and the numeral signs are under each other.

+1 0 +10

0 3 5

9 +18 0

32

14 Handling data

14a) Data collection and tally charts

In braille, use the following notation for tally charts: dots 4,5,6 up to four times and then complete the five with a middle c dots 2,5.

is written in braille as

____3

An example of the correct lay out is illustrated below, and shows an imaginary tally chart of scores when a die is rolled 36 times Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tally Totals 7 6 4 10 6 3

Score t,y totals #a ''''''' ____3 __ '''''''' #g #b ''''''' ____3 _ ''''''''' #f #c ''''''' ____ '''''''''''' #d #d ''''''' ____3 ____3 ''''' #aj #e ''''''' ____3 _ ''''''''' #f #f ''''''' ___ ''''''''''''' #c

33

In print: 1 | 4 8 3 2 2 | 6 5 0 3 | 1 5 1 The vertical bar line in braille is dots 4,5,6 SPACED from the numbers

#a _ #d #h #c #b #b _ #f #e #j #c _ #a #e #a

14c) Standard deviation and mean -

In braille, the capital sigma, , is written as dots 4,5,6 (capital Greek letter sign), s

_s

As the capital Greek letter sign only relates to the following letter, in the example fx, the can be followed by the f and the x with no letter sign(s) needed. fx in braille is written as x (mean) is written as

_sfx

x:

14d) Probability

The probability of an event A is P(A), where A denotes the event In braille, this follows the print dot 6: P: open bracket GH contraction: dot 6: A: close bracket AR contraction. P(A) is

,p<,a>

34

Appendix A

This appendix gives examples of how to set out mathematical questions, calculations and answers in braille.

1 Number arrays

If numbers are displayed in columns and rows, the golden rule is that units must always line up under each other. Some children working at lower reading levels will prefer double line spacing. 1 11 2 3 4 5

12 13 14 15 23 24 25

21 22

#a #aa #ba

#b #ab #bb

#c #ac #bc

#d #ad #bd

#e #ae #be

In arrays that involve hundreds, tens and units, up to two spaces may be needed to ensure that the units line up. 100 101 102 200 201 202

#ajj #bjj

#aja #bja

#ajb #bjb

If the array includes numbers that require the mathematical comma eg 10 000, an extra space to take account of this is needed, so that the units still all line up. Similarly in arrays that involve decimals, the decimal points and units must all line up. 4.3 4.03 .5 5.4 15.6 5.04 15.06 .25 .75

The units of negative numbers in an array should also line up, so space for the minus sign dots 3,6 need to be factored in.

35

If numbers in print are listed separated by commas eg 1, 2, 3, 4, DO NOT include commas in the braille version, as these could be confused with the decimal point.

2a) Using round brackets in multiplications

Sometimes a braille sum can be usefully adapted and abbreviated by using round brackets: Print......................Braille adaptation changes - 2 x 3 = - 6 - 3 x - 4 = 12 6 - -3 = 9 - 2 - + 4 = - 6 - 2 x - 4 = 8 - 2 ( 3) = - 6 - 3 ( - 4) = 12 6 - ( - 3) = 9 - 2 - (+ 4) = - 6 (- 2) (- 4) = 8

;-#b<#c> ;7-#f ;-#c<;-#d> ;7#ab #f ;-<;-#c> ;7#i ;-#b ;-<;6#d> ;7-#f <;-#b><;-#d> ;7#h

Sometimes using the slash sign dots 4,5,6 followed by dots 3,4 as an alternative to the divide sign 16 2 = 8 16 / 2 = 8 16 - 4 = - 4 16 / - 4 = - 4 - 20 - 5 = 4 - 20 / - 5 = 4

The power sign is dots 3,4,6 followed by the appropriate number in the lower part of the braille cell: 7 2 7 3 7 4 102 103 104

36

4-2 4-3 4-4 6-2 6-3 6-4

6+3 10+3 6+11 10 +11

#f+;6#c #f+;6#aa

#aj+;6#c #aj+;6#aa

61.5 101.5 62.5 102.5

#f+#a1e #f+#b1e

#aj+#a1e #aj+#b1e

6 10 6 10

#f+#a2 #f+#c4

#aj+#a2 #aj+#c4

The root sign is dots 1,4,6 before the numeral sign, unspaced. For cubed roots, the root sign is followed immediately by middle 3. 9 = 3 16 = 4

3 3

8 = 2 27 = 3

37

24 - 23 = 16 - 8 = 8

22 x 23 = 22+3 = 25

22 23 = 22-3 = 2-1

22 x 23 = 2(2+3) = 25

22 23 = 2(2-3) = 2-1

64 / 4 = 4

Time to travel to school Number of pupils (t minutes) 0 < t 5 5 5 < t 10.29 10 < t 20.57

,"t 6travel 6s*ool ,numb] ( pupils 7;t m9utes7 #j [ t [7#e ''''''' #e #e [ t [7#aj '''''' #bi #aj [ t [7#bj ''''' #eg

38

Each new sum should be numbered, and indented 2 spaces from the left margin (start in cell 3). Continuation lines should start at the margin (cell 1) Use double line spacing between sums for students, if they are not fluent braille readers. 1. 62 + 3 = 65 2. 62 - 2 = 60 3. 70 x 2 = 140 4. 70 2 = 35

#a4 #fb ;6#c ;7#fe #b4 #fb ;-#b ;7#fj #c4 #gj ;8#b ;7#adj #d4 #gj ;4#b ;7#ce

7a) Addition

21 + 32 = 51 + 2 = 53

(i) add the tens (21 + 30) (ii) add the units (51 + 2) (iii) = 53 128 + 35 = 158 + 5 = 163

(i) add the hundreds and the tens (128 + 30) (ii) add the units (158 + 5) (iii) = 163

39

7b) Subtraction

64 - 21 = 44 - 1 = 43

(i) (ii) (iii) subtract the tens (64 - 20) subtract the units (44 - 1) = 43

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) subtract the hundreds (654 - 200) subtract the tens (454 - 20) subtract the units (434 - 8) = 426

7c) Multiplication

22 x 3 = 60 + 6 = 66

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) multiply the tens (20 x 3) multiply the units (2 x 3) add tens to units (60 + 6) = 66

40

#fcc ;8#e ;7#c'jjj ;6#aej ;6#ae" ;7#c'ajj ;6#ej ;6#ae ;7#c'afj ;6#e" ;7#c'afe

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) multiply the hundreds (600 x 5) = 3,000 multiply the tens (30 x 5) = 150 multiply the units (3 x 5) = 15 add together using linear method

#bdi ;8#c ;7#fjj ;6#abj ;6#bg" ;7#gjj ;6#bj ;6#bg ;7#gdj ;6#g ;7#gdg

7d) Division

44 2 in print would be solved as In braille, change to linear layout: 2 (i) (ii) (iii) 2)44 22 44 = 22

#b #dd ;7#bb

41

842 6 in print would be solved as 6 )842 140 r. 2 In braille, change to linear layout: 6 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 842 = 140 r. 2

#f #hdb ;7#adj r4 #b

6 into 8 (hundreds) = 1 (hundreds) carry over 2 hundreds in your mind 6 into 24 (tens) = 4 (tens) 6 into 2 will not go = 0 (units) remainder of 2 units = r. 2

8 Long multiplication

16 x 13 16 x 10 16 x 3 160 + 48 = 208 = (16 x 10) + (16 x 3) = 160 = 30 + 18 = 48 = 200 + 8 = 208

#af ;8#ac ;7<#af ;8#aj> ;6<#af ;8#c> #af ;8#aj ;7#afj #af ;8#c ;7#cj ;6#ah ;7#dh #afj ;6#dh ;7#bjj ;6#h ;7#bjh ;7#bjh

42

#bg ;8#ac ;7<#bg ;8#aj> ;6<#bg ;8#c> ;7#bg ;8#aj ;7#bgj ;7#bg ;8#c ;7#fj ;6#ba ;7#hj ;6#a ;7#ha ;7#bgj ;6#ha ;7#cej ;6#a ;7#cea ;7#cea 9 Long division

Example: 294 13 in print would be solved as 2 2 r. 8 1 3 ) 2 9 4 2 6 3 4 2 6 8 In braille change to a linear layout: 13 294 = 22 r. 8 (i) 13 into 29 (tens) = 2 (tens) r. 3 (ii) carry over 3 (tens) in your mind (iii) 13 into 34 = 2 (units) r. 8 (iv) remainder of 8 units = r. 8 (v) = 22 r. 8 294 29 = 2 r. 3 34 = 2 r. 8

13 13 13

= 22 r. 8

43

10 Fractions

10a) Adding fractions

Example:

22

= =

1 +

34

1 +

51 8

10 2 10 8

1 + 1 + 1 8 4 4 + 2 + 1 = 8 8

10 7 8

#b#a2 ;6#c#a4 ;6#e#a8 ;7#aj#a2 ;6#a4 ;6#a8 ;7#aj#d8 ;6#b8 ;6#a8 ;7#aj#g8

10b) Subtracting fractions

24 3

= = = = = =

2 -

10 6

5 -

33

24 6 11 6

4 -

10 6

5 -

4 - 5 - 2 6 6 4 7 11 6 - 6 4 1 11 6 - 1 6 4 1 10 6 - 6 3 1 10 6 = 10 2

;7#aa#d6 ;-#e6 ;-#b6 ;7#aa#d6 ;-#g6 ;7#aa#d6 ;-#a#a6 ;7#aj#d6 ;-#a6 ;7#aj#c6 ;7#aj#a2

44

1 x 1 = 2 4 1 8

#a2 ;8#a4 ;7#a8 #a4 ;8#b3 ;8#d5 ;7#b12 ;8#d5 ;7#h60 ;7#d30 ;7#b15 #b#a2 ;8#c#a4 ;7#e2 ;8#ac4 ;7#fe8 ;7#h#a8

1 x 2 x 4 3 5 4 = = 2 x 4 5 12 8 = 4 = 2 15 60 30 1 x

22

34

= 5 x 13 2 4 = 65 = 8

88

22

1 1 4

#b#a2 ;4#a4 ;7#e2 ;4#a4 ;7#e2 ;8#d1 ;7#bj2 ;7#aj #f#b3 ;4#a2 ;7#bj3 ;4#a2 ;7#bj3 ;8#b1 ;7#dj3 ;7#ac#a3

45

= 5 1 4 2 = 5 x 4 2 1

= 20 = 2

10

63

2 1 2

= 20 1 3 2 = 20 x 2 = 40 3 1 3 =

13 3

11 Decimals

11a) Adding decimals

20.3 + 26.4 = 40.3 + 6.4 = 46.3 + 0.4 = 46.7 16.35 + 27.21 = 36.35 + 7.21 = 43.35 + 0.21 = 43.55 + 0.01 = 43.56

#bj1c ;6#bf1d ;7#dj1c ;6#f1d ;7#df1c ;6#j1d ;7#df1g #af1ce ;6#bg1ba ;7#cf1ce ;6#g1ba ;7#dc1ce ;6#j1ba ;7#dc1ee ;6#j1ja ;7#dc1ef

86.3 - 29.2 = 66.3 - 9.2 = 57.3 - 0.2 = 57.1 49.6 - 23.7 = 29.6 - 3.7 = 26.6 - 0.7 = 25.9

#hf1c ;-#bi1b ;7#ff1c ;-#i1b ;7#eg1c ;-#j1b ;7#eg1a #di1f ;-#bc1g ;7#bi1f ;-#c1g ;7#bf1f ;-#j1g ;7#be1i

46

Example: 8.3 x 2.1

#h1c ;8#b1a

Remove the decimal point before working out, change to 83 x 21 = 80 x 20 = 1600 and 80 x 1 = 80 and 3 x 21 = 63 = 1600 + 80 + 63 = 1680 + 63

= 1743 (now re-introduce the decimal point for final answer) = 17.43

#hc ;8#ba ;7#hj ;8#bj ;7#afjj & #hj ;8#a ;7#hj & #c ;8#ba ;7#fc ;7#afjj ;6#hj ;6#fc ;7#afhj ;6#fc ;7#agdc

;7#ag1dc

One approach is to change the sum to an equivalent sum where you are dividing by a whole number: 20. 4 0.2 But 20.4 0.2 = 204 2 2 204 2 204 = 102 20.4 0.03 But 20.4 0.03 = 2040 3 3 2040 = 0680 = 680 So 20.4 0.03 20.4 3 3 20.4 = 06.8 20.4 3 = 6.8

#bj1d ;4#j1b #b #bjd #b #bjd ;7#ajb #bj1d ;4#j1jc #c #bjdj ;7#jfhj #bj1d ;4#j1jc ;7#fhj

47

To produce vertical layout, the braillist needs to back space, which is a skill in itself. In choosing between linear and vertical layouts teachers need to be aware of the braille skills required and to develop these without compromising the development of the pupils mathematical understanding. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Digits, tens, hundreds etc are vertically aligned in columns. Horizontal lines are brailled in middle cs (dots 2,5) No closure line required. Operational signs should be placed as in print BUT often it is preferable to have the operation signs before the numeral signs. Competent braillists may be able to work without the numeral signs. However, the omission of numeral signs should be explained beforehand. Tens, hundreds are carried over mentally.

63 + 15 63 + 15 78

carry over tens and hundreds mentally

63 - 15 63 - 15 borrow mentally

48

236 - 58 236 58

48

178

22 x 3 x

22 3 66

24 x 12 24 x 12 48 + 240

#bb ;8 #c 333 #ff #bd ;8#ab 333 #dh ;6#bdj 3333 #bhh

288

294 13 22 r. 8 26 34 26 8

13 )294

The numeral signs can be omitted when the student is a competent braillist. Some students prefer to braille the answer down the side, underneath the divisor, as this is technically easier than returning to the top line. The final answer needs to be identified clearly eg 294 / 13 = 22 r 8.

49

1. Decimal points should be vertically aligned. 2. Operational signs should be placed as in print BUT often it is preferable to have the operation signs before the numeral signs. 22.24 + 21.35 43.59

#bb1bd ;6#ba1ce 333333 #dc1ei #bjc1ea ;6 #c1cj 3333333 #bjf1ha #cfd1hj ;-#cfc1ef 3333333 #a1bd #bb1c ;8 #c 33333 #ff1i

364.80 - 363.56

Remember that braille is written from left to right. The sighted computations, in vertical layout, which are no problem in print, require the brailler to be manipulated from right to left requiring much back spacing and checking. Cubarithms and Tactiles can be used to teach vertical layout.

50

13 Confusion between decimal points, fractions and literary and mathematical punctuation

Decimal point is dot 2. Literary comma is dot 2. Mathematical comma is dot 3. Literary apostrophe is dot 3. Mathematical continuation sign is dot 5. Mathematical separation sign is dot 6. Literary and mathematical capital sign is dot 6. Examples: 1,402.502 and 1,402,502

Use dot 6 before a full stop after ordinary mathematical numbers (but not question numbers, etc). Without the dot 6, 1. can look the same as 1 and 4 2. can look the same as 2 . 4 1. and 2. and 1 4 2 4

#a4 #b4

#a4 #b4

So 1. should be written as #a,4 and 2. should be written as #b,4 , although the dot 6 is not required for question numbers. Likewise 1.0 could easily be confused with 1.0 and 1 10 1 10

#a1j

#a10

51

It is easy to see how the following pairs could be misread: 6.10 6 110 61.0 6 100

#f1aj #f110

#fa1j #f100

Understanding these potential confusions can help a maths teacher judge when a pupil has made a braille mistake but understood the mathematical concept. Remember that in braille lists the comma is not required. This avoids the confusion of 6, being written as

#f,1

numeral sign 6 dot 6 followed by comma dot 2 and looking similar to 6 9

#f9

Never split large numbers over two lines. Never split digits from operator signs. Always use the continuation sign (dot 5) when calculations continue onto the following line: 21 + 32 + 1 + 2 + 4 + 6.0 + 3

52

1 Units of length

Print inch inches in ins " foot ft ' Braille Print example 9 inch 9 inches 9 in 9 ins 9" 6 foot 2 ft 2' 2 ft 6 in 2' 6" Braille example

9* 9*es 9 9s _ foot ft .

y>d yd yds

4 yd 4 yds

2 Units of area

Print in2 ins2 ft2 yd2 Braille Print example 25 in2 25 ins2 8 ft2 4 yd2 Braille example

53

3 Units of volume

Print in3 ins3 ft3 yd3 Braille Print example 27 in3 27 ins3 8 ft3 Braille example

4 Units of weight

Print Braille Print example Braille example ounce oz

oz lb

8 oz

pound lb 3lb 12 oz

5 Units of capacity

Print pint pt gallon gal Braille Print example Braille example

4 pt 2 gallon 5 gal 3 gal 5 pt 54

Index

addition 2, 39, 48 algebraic fractions 23 algebraic layout 24 -26, angle sign 26 approximately equal to 6 area 12 arrays 35 brackets 3, 7, 22 capacity 12 centigrade, Celsius 17 centimetres 10,12, 13 circle formulae 29 compound units 17, 18 common confusions 51, 52 coordinates 30 cosine 29 currency 19 data charts 33, 34 dates 16 decimals 9, 46 degree sign 17, 26 density 18 division 2, 36, 41, 43, 49 equals sign 2 feet and inches 53 fractions 8, 23, 44, 45 function sign 26 geometry 26 - 29 grammes 11 Greek letters 28 hyphen, mathematical 4 imperial measures 53 indices 4, 36, 37 inequalities 6, 38 length 10 letter sign 20 -22 linear layout 39 - 47 litres 12 mass 11 mathematical comma 2, 51 maths hyphen 4, 51 maths separation sign 4, 51 matrices 32 mean 34 measurement 10 minus sign 2 minutes 13 money 19 multiplication 2, 36, 40, 42, 49 negative numbers 2 not equal to 6 oblique stroke 22, 23 operation signs 2 parallel to sign 27 percentages 9 pounds, pence 19 pounds and ounces 53 powers 4, 36, 37 probability 34 proportional to sign 26 punctuation 4, 51, 52 ratios 9 roman numerals 21 roots 5, 37, 38 seconds 13 separation sign 4 set notation 8 sine, cosine and tangent 29 speed 18 square roots 5, 37, 38 standard deviation 34 stem and leaf diagrams 34 subtraction 2, 40, 48 subscripts 5 superscripts 5 tally charts 33 temperature 17 therefore sign 27 time 13 - 16 triangle sign 27 vectors 30 - 31 vertical layout 48 - 50 volume 13 weight 11

55

Resources

Braille mathematics notation 2005

This 68 page book is the official statement of the rules of braille mathematics code, authorised by the Braille Authority of the UK. NEW 2005 Edition. 5.00 (Inc. VAT)

Compiled and authorised by the Braille Authority of the United Kingdom, this book is the standard reference giving the rules of the Standard English Braille as used in the UK. This 2004 edition replaces the previous edition published in 1992, and incorporates additions, amendments and corrections to the rules. It also supersedes the leaflet "Capitals in British Braille", TC20533-36, published in 1998. Available in print - TC20242, capitalised braille - TC20241 and non-capitalised braille - TC21119. 7.25 (Inc. VAT) Both books are available from RNIB Customer Services. Telephone 0845 702 3153 or email cservices@rnib.org.uk. RNIB sells a range of mathematical equipment that is either designed to be easy to see or to be used by touch. This includes the cubarithm for teaching the layout of braille arithmetic and a Maths concept kit for teaching mathematical concepts to children and young people with sight loss. For a free catalogue of our learning products please contact RNIB Customer Services on 0845 702 3153 or email cservices@rnib.org.uk

56

O-$!+ -%-&!, %( -$%, ,!+%!,: TC20909 U,%(# -$! B+a%&&! F+!(c$ C) ! TC20910 U,%(# -$! B+a%&&! G!+'a( C) ! TC20911 U,%(# -$! B+a%&&! S*a(%,$ C) ! TC21085P U,%(# -$! B+a%&&! Sc%!(c! C) ! ISBN 1 85878 664 9 978 1 85878 664 3 TC21086P 2007 P+) .c! b/ RNIB0)( b!$a&" )" RNIB/VIEW Ma-$!'a-%c, C.++%c.&.' G+).*

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