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Control Valve Sizing Step 1: Define the System Variables System Variables System fluid Specific gravity of fluid

Fluid temperature Vapor pressure, Pv Flowrate Pressure @ Valve Inlet, P1 Pressure @ Valve Outlet, P2 Pressure Drop, P Valve Recovery Factor, Km Cavatation Index Factor, Kc Critical Pressure Ratio, rc 0.80 0.95 0.92 F psig gpm psig psig psi Units Location/Equation* P&ID Fluids Text Heat Balance / Vendor P&ID Fluids Text Heat Balance / Vendor P&ID See Below** See Below*** P = P1 - P2 Constant Constant Constant

* Indicates where or how the particular system variable can be found or calculated. ** P1 = Pump Discharge Head - Friction Losses - Flow Element Loss - Static Head *** P2 = Drum Pressure + Friction Losses + Flow Element Loss + Static Head

Step 2:

Define the Inlet and Outlet Pipe/Line Conditions Line Condtions Pipe size Pipe wall** Connection type*** Pressure class lb Inlet Units in Sch / in lb Outlet Units in Location* Isometric

Sch / in Isometric Isometric Isometric

* Indicates where the particular line condition can be found. ** Refers to the pipe schedule or minimum wall thickness. *** Refers to how the valve will be connected to the pipe. Ex. Butt weld, Flanged, etc. Step 3: Define the Allowable Pressure Drop for the Valve Pallow = Km(P1 - rc*Pv) Allowable DeltaP, Pallow Step 4: Determine if Cavitation Control is Needed If P > Pallow Cavitation Control is needed. If P < Pallow Cavitation Control is not needed. Step 5: Predict the Pressure Drop at which the Valve will begin Cavitation Pc = Kc(P1 - Pv) Pc Step 6: Calculate the Valve Flow Coefficient, Cv psi psi

G P

where, Cv is the valve flow coefficient Q is the flow rate (maximum, normal, minimum), gpm G is the specific gravity of fluid P is the pressure drop (psi) across the valve for corresponding flowrate Cv

Step 7:

Repeat Steps 1 through 6 for all other operating conditions. (ie maximum, minimum and normal conditions)

Step 8:

Select the Valve Type Decide which type valve is best for your application. The valve types are listed on following pages.

Step 9:

Select the Valve Size Use the calculated Cv's and manufacturer supplied chart to choose the proper valve size. Below is an example of a manufacturer supplied chart.

Useful Tips: Manufacturer supplied charts can be found in a valve vendor catalog. Try not to use a valve that is less than half the pipe size. A valve is much easier to control in the 30-70% travel range. Step 10: Contact the Valve Vendor(s) At this point contact the valve vendor(s) and present the above information. The vendor may be useful in the final selection of the valve that is best for your application.

Valve Types Gate Valve Type Service: Fluids: On-Off Steam Feedwater Condensate Isolation Non-throttling Infrequent operation Low cost High capacity Tight shutoff Low pressure drop Poor flow control Prone to cavitate at low pressure drops

Systems: Recommended Uses:

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Ball Valve Type Service: Fluids: On-Off Steam Condensate Natural Gas Balance of Plant Fully open/closed or limited throttling High temperature fluids (steam drains) Back pressure control

Systems: Recommended Uses:

Advantages:

High capacity Low leakage Tight sealing with low torque Poor throttling characteristics Prone to cavitation

Disadvantages:

Butterfly Valve Type Service: On-Off Flow Control Condensate Circulating Water Raw Water Balance of Plant Fully open/closed or throttling Frequent operation Low cost High capacity Good flow control Low pressure drop High torque required for control Prone to cavitation at lower flows Flow obstruction due to center post

Fluids:

Systems: Recommended Uses:

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Globe Valve Type Service: Pressure control Flow control Temperature control Steam Feedwater Condensate Natural Gas Critical Service Bypass Balance of Plant Natural Gas Throttling Frequent operation Efficient throttling Accurate flow control Available in multiple cages* High pressure drop More expensive than other valves

Fluids:

Systems:

Recommended Uses:

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

* Characterized Cages for Globe-Style Valve Bodies Equal Percentage: Equal increments of valve travel produce an equal percentage in flow change. Used in processes where large changes in pressure drop are expected. Used in processes where a small percentage of the total pressure drop is permitted by the valve. Used in temperature and pressure control loops.

Linear:

Valve travel is directly proportional to the flow change. Used in liquid level or flow loops. Used in systems where the pressure drop across the valve is expected to remain fairly constant. Used in steady state systems.

Quick Opening:

Large increase in flow with a small change in valve travel. Used for frequent on-off service. Used for processes where "instantly" large flow is needed. Used in safety systems or cooling water systems.

Other Valves Check Valve Designed to restrict the flow to one direction. If the flow reverses direction, the check valve will close. Designed to regulate the operating pressure of incompressible flow. Used to release excess pressure in gases or compressible fluids. Designed for on-off service and some throttling services. Controls flow by means of a cylindrical or tapered plug with a hole in the center that lines up with the flow path of the valve to permit flow. A quarter turn in either direction blocks the flow path. Designed particularly for applications of slurries or liquids with large amounts of suspended solids. It seals by means of one or more flexible elements, such as a rubber tube, that can be pinched to shut off flow. Designed to close by means of a flexible diaphragm attached to a compressor. When the compressor is lowered by the valve stem onto a weir, the diaphragm seals and cuts off flow. Used to handle corrosive, erosive and dirty services.

Relief Valve

Plug Valve

Pinch Valve

Diaphragm Valve

ocation*