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Seismic Retrofitting Of Building Structures

Abstract
This report provides criteria to evaluate the performance of existing buildings with steel and composite structures, either framed or braced. It also presents a comprehensive review of rehabilitation strategies to retrofit structural members and connections (local intervention) and/or frames (global intervention). The evaluation criteria and upgrade schemes have been derived from extensive experimental and numerical tests carried out in Europe, Japan and the US in the aftermath of recent earthquakes. They are intended to enhance the strength, stiffness and energy dissipation of existing framed buildings during future earthquakes. Indeed, it is expected that retrofitted buildings exhibit: (i) no damage during low-intensity earthquakes, (ii) some nonstructural damage during moderate earthquakes and (iii) structural and nonstructural damage during major events but the global collapse is prevented. Steel structures have been extensively used in seismic areas worldwide because of their favorable mass-to-stiffness ratio, ductility and hence, enhanced energy absorption capacity. Indeed, the typical steel frame configurations, i.e., moment resisting frame (MRF), concentrically braced frame (CBF) and eccentrically braced frame (EBF), exhibit different behavior with regard to stiffness, strength and ductility. Indeed, MRFs provide a satisfactory strength and possess an excellent ductility but they suffer large story drifts due to low lateral stiffness. By contrast, CBFs are capable of ensuring both required strength and stiffness, but buckling failures limit the global ductility. EBFs combine the strength and the stiffness of the CBF with the ductility of MRF; therefore their intermediate behavior results in agreement with the stiffness, strength and ductility required in seismic design, thus limiting the structural damage during earthquake loading. On the other hand, MRFs exhibit damage generally limited to nonstructural components, while structural and nonstructural may be found in CBFs. Similarly, composite MRFs show damage concentrated in infills, claddings and other nonstructural

components; while buckled and/or yielded braces characterize the seismic response of CBFs.

Objectives
The goal is to protect human life, ensuring that the structure will not collapse upon its occupants or passerby, and he structure can safely be exited

Structure Serviceability: The goal is that the structure while remaining safe or exit, may require extensive repair before it is generally useful or considered safe for occupation. Structure Functionality: Primary structure undamaged and the structure is undiminished in utility for its primary application. A high level of retrofit ensures that any required repairs are only cosmetic. Structure Unaffected: This level of retrofit is preferred for historic structures of high cultural siginificance