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IB Questionbank Physics 1

Thermodynamics Markscheme
1. B
2. B
3. B
4. C
5. B
6. A
7. A
8. B
9. B
10. C
11. B
12. A
13. A
14. A
15. B

16. (a) Q: thermal energy transfer to system;
U: change in/difference in internal energy;
W: work done by system; 3
Accept valid alternative is transfer from and done on.

(b) (i) isochoric / isovolumetric; 1

(ii) in procedure 1 the gas expands against the atmosphere;
this requires extra work to be done;
internal energy change for gas is less;
temperature is a measure of internal energy; 4
Ignore references to return of gas to initial state.
(iii)
U / J W / J Q / J
Procedure 1 +120 +80; +200
Procedure 2 +200; 0; +200
3
[11]


IB Questionbank Physics 2

17. (a) (i) random motion;
no gravitational effect;
no forces of attraction between molecules/atoms;
time of collision much less than time between collisions;
Newtons laws apply; 2 max

(ii) potential energy not used/irrelevant;
(because) there are no forces between molecules in an ideal gas;
gas speeds vary so need to take an average; 3

(b) (i) n = ;
n = 0.18mol; 2
Award [2] for bald correct answer.

(ii) show use of pV = constant;
19 10
5
Pa; 2
Award [2] for bald correct answer.

(iii) pressure equals ;
(to give 2.8 10
6
Pa)
or
pressure = ;
(c) (i)

smooth curve, curving correct way for (b)(ii);
vertical straight line for (b)(iii);
smooth curve, steeper than (b)(ii) for (c); 3
Labelled curves are not needed as such but direction must be clear.

(ii) (c) identified as H; 1

(iii) recognition that area underneath curve is measure of energy;
measure area enclosed by loop / pV changes; 2
[16]



RT
pV
290
10 19 420
5

4
10 3 . 2
420 31 . 8 18 . 0


|
.
|

\
|
=
V
nRT
IB Questionbank Physics 3

18. (a) (i) on gas is compressed 1 max
Correct answer and correct explanation.
(ii) ejected pressure remains constant, volume reduced
so temperature must go down 1 max
Correct answer and correct explanation.
(b) work done = pAV;
= 1.0 10
5
0.4 = 0.40 10
5
J (40 kJ); 2 max
Sign should be consistent with (a)(i) above-work by and + work here
would get zero for (a)(i) but [2] marks here.
(c) area enclosed;
~ 0.6 (0.2) 10
5
J (60 kJ 20 kJ); 2 max
(d) efficiency = work out/heat in;
= =50 % (17 %); 2 max
19. (a) isothermal: takes place at constant temperature;
adiabatic: no thermal energy exchange between gas and surroundings; 2
(b) (i) neither; 1
(ii) W = PAV = 1.2 10
5
0.05 = 6.0 10
3
J; 1
(iii) recognize to use Q = U + W;
to give U = 2.0 10
3
J; 2
20. (a) (i) no thermal energy into or out of the system / OWTTE; 1
(ii) overall work done BY the gas; 1
(b) B C; any sensible justification; 2
e.g. increase in volume at constant pressure requires thermal energy or
temperature increase etc.
21. (a) pV constant for isothermal / adiabatic always steeper;
hence AB; 2
(b) area between lines AB and AC shaded; 1

(c) area is 150 (15) small squares;
(allow ecf from (b))
work done = 1.5 1 10
3
1 10
5
;
= 150 J; 3
For any reasonable approximate area outside the range 150 (15)
squares award [2 max] for the calculation of energy from the area.
(d) no thermal energy enters or leaves / AQ = 0;
so work done seen as increase in internal energy;
hence temperature rises; 3
Award [0] for a mere quote of the 1st law.
22. a) increase in the degree of disorder (in the system); 1
(b) total entropy (of the universe); is increasing; 2
(c) entropy of surroundings increases by a greater factor;
because process gives off thermal energy / other appropriate statement; 2
(d) freezing causes release of latent heat;
entropy of surroundings increases;
more than the decrease when water freezes; [3]

120
60