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STUDY NOTES Topic 2: Plants 1.

Describe plants as autotrophic or anis!s .

"n autotroph is a plant #hich can !a$es its on %oo&. Plants are autotrophic or anis!s pri!aril' because the' !a$e their o#n %oo& throu h photos'nthesis. "n e(a!ple o% an autotrophic or anis! is the Eu lena. )ather in%or!ation %ro! secon&ar' sources to &escribe *an Hel!ont s e(peri!ent an& the *ali&it' o% his conclusions .

+an Hel!ont #as e(peri!entin on #hether plants onl' nee& #ater %or ro#th. The tests conclu&e& that trees in&ee& onl' nee& li ht to ro#. Ho#e*er +an Hel!onts conclusion !a' be in*ali&, because onl' the tree #as #ei he&, not the lea*es, #hich %ell o% in autu!n. The *ali&it' o% this e(peri!ent !a' also be ar ue& because, +an Hel!ont %aile& to reali,e that plants also nee& sunli ht as #ell as lucose to ro#, not onl' #ater! Trace ele!ents: Minerals re-uire& b' plants in s!all a!ounts. The' are i!portant nutrients an& consist o% iron, copper, nitrate etc Macro Ele!ents: Minerals re-uire& b' the plant in lar e a!ounts. The' inclu&e nitrate, phosphorus an& potassiu!. 2. I&enti%' the i!pact o% te!perature , !oisture an& o(' en le*els on the er!ination o% see&s .

O(' en: Nee&e& %or respiration (burnin o% su ar in cells) .ater: Is nee&e& %or the plant to ro#, because it pro*i&es ener ' %or respiration to occur in the see&. .ar!th: Che!ical reactions nee& #ar!th so the' can ta$e place -uic$er. E(peri!ent on the er!ination o% see&s , an& the e%%ect o% #ater le*els on this process .

The a!ount o% #ater i*en to a see& clearl' a%%ects the process o% er!ination. In the assi n!ent con&ucte& its e*i&ent that the !ore #ater a see& ets, the -uic$er it er!inates.


Pot 1 ( ro#th)

Pot 2 ( ro#th)

Pot / ( ro#th)

Pot 0 ( ro#th)

1 #ee$ 2 #ee$s / #ee$s 0 #ee$s

E(plain ho# col& stora e , *acuu! pac$a in all a%%ect the er!ination o% a see& .

an& &eh'&ration

Col& Stora e: Storin see&s in a col& area, &oes not allo# #ar!th to et to the see&, there%ore, the see& #ill not er!inate . +acuu! Pac$a in : Re!o*es the see&s o(' en suppl'. Deh'&ration/Desiccation: Dr'in see&s out #ill stop the see& %ro! s#ellin an& burstin the see& coat. Outline techni-ues use& to pro!ote be&s , li!e pelletin an& Mistin . er!ination . E . . Heat

Heat 1e&s: Heats the soil to pro*i&e !ore #ar!th, so that the see& coul& er!inate -uic$er. The' are use& in nurseries. Li!e Pelletin : pro!otes er!ination in the le u!es. Li!e an& Rhi,obia are applie& to the see&, assistin in ro#th. Mistin : Mistin has been i&enti%ie& as a strate ' to $eep the see& !oist. This helps the see& ain #ater an& burst the see& coat. I&enti%' "ustralian nati*e see&s that are er!inate& b' pre - treat!ents such as , abrasion , cuttin , heat , s!o$in an& leachin .

"brasion: Rou hin up o% the see& coat to re&uce the thic$ness. This allo#s #ater to enter the see& !ore easil'. Cuttin : Cuts the see& to spee& up the process. Cuttin rou hs up the see& coat to re&uce the thic$ness, so that #ater, heat an& o(' en coul& easil' enter the see&.

Heat: Most co!!on !etho& %or "ustralian plants. Naturall' occurs throu h bush%ires. Heat opens the see& coat, an& this allo#s -uic$ #ater entr', resultin in a %aster er!ination process. S!o$e: S!o$e or s!o$e #ater be%ore so#in is bene%icial. This allo#s che!ical sti!ulation %or er!ination. Leachin : Runnin #ater o*er the see& to &issol*e or #ash out er!ination. This pro*i&es !oisture %or the see&, an& e*entuall' spee&s up the process o% er!ination. Di%%erent plants ha*e &i%%erent re-uire!ents %or ro#th .

Di%%erent plants ha*e &i%%erent re-uire!ents %or ro#th. This !a' be because o% en*iron!ental a&aptations. The chan es #hich !a' e*i&ent, #hich *ar' %ro! see& to see&, !a' be te!perature, #ater -ualit', !oisture an& cro#&in o% see&s. E(plain the e%%ect o% te!p , !oisture , #ater -ualit' an& Cro#&in o% see&s .

Te!perature: Plants ro# the best in #ar! te!ps. This can be relate& bac$ to re-uire!ents %or er!ination, #ar!th. Too col&, #ont ro#. Too ho#, #ont ro#. Moisture: The hi her the !oisture le*els, the shorter it #oul& ta$e %or the see& to er!inate. Deserts ha*e little rain, hence the poor ro#th o% plants. .ater 2ualit': Plants re-uire oo& #ater to ro#. I% the #ater is pollute& or conta!inate&, then the plant #ill not ro#. Cro#&in o% see&s: .hen see&s are cro#&e& the' #ill be in to co!pete %or essential nutrients #hich are %oun& in the soil. Outline e%%ects o% li ht intensit' on see&lin ro#th .

The a!ount o% li ht #hich a plant nee&s in or&er to ro# is 34%. I% this 34% o% li ht is not %ul%ille&, ro#th #ill be abnor!all' slo#. I% one plant recei*e& 144% li ht intensit', #hilst another recei*e& 54%, the one #hich recei*e& 144% #ill ro# !uch -uic$er.

E(peri!ent on the e%%ect o% #ater le*els on

er!ination .

"i! : To test i% &i%%erent #ater le*els #ill a%%ect the process o% er!ination.

Metho& : 1. )ather all a*ailable resources #hich are rele*ant to the e(peri!ent. 2. Place Pott' !i( in the containers, %illin up three -uarters o% the container. /. Place 24 see&s in the pott' !i(, an& co*er the see&s #ith appro(i!atel' 5!illi!etres o% soil. Do this consistentl' %or all %our containers. (Re%er to 6i ure 1.1) 0. .ater see&s on a re ular basis, e*er' 2-/ &a's. .ater one container #ith 75!ls, the secon& container #ith 54!ls, an& the thir& container #ith 25!ls o% #ater. 5. Ho#e*er the %ourth container &o not #ater it 8. Place all the containers on the sa!e #in&o# sill, appro(i!atel' 5 centi!eters apart %ro! each other. 7. Monitor all containers on a re ular basis (2-/ Hours), an& note &o#n an' chan es. Conclusion : The !ore #ater the see& obtains, the -uic$er it #ill er!inate.

The i!portance o% one na!e& %actor on see&

ro#th .

Te!perature is *er' i!portant %or see&lin ro#th. The raph sho#s that the opti!u! te!perature %or see&lin ro#th is /5 &e rees. "n' te!perature hi her than 54 &e rees Celsius is too hot %or the see&, an& there%ore it #ont er!inate. "n' te!perature belo# 25 &e rees is too col& %or the see&. There%ore the te!perature o% the en*iron!ent has a strict i!pact o% #hether or not the see& #ill actuall' er!inate.

0. Plants ha*e *ar'in abilities to sur*i*e in &i%%erent !oisture le*els an& &iscuss the a&aptations o% (eroph'tes , !an ro*e , an& epiph'tes .

9eroph'tes : Thic$ #a(' cuticle, #hich re&uces #ater loss. Ti htl' pac$e& le*els o% cells un&er the lea% sur%ace. Can hol& !ore #ater, an& &oesnt ha*e to release #ater it is currentl' hol&in . Lea*es #hich curl up re&uce the sur%ace area, resultin in less e*aporation. Man ro*e : +er' thic$ root sur%ace to pre*ent #ater loss.

Epiph'te : S!all roots calle& pneu!atophores #hich ro# upri ht out o% the #ater. Ta$e in o(' en #hen soil is co!pletel' #ater lo e&.

5. Outline #a' #hich *e etati*e propa ation !etho&s an& re eneration occur in "ustralian nati*e plants :

1 . Cuttin : This process is use& to repro&uce plants that are &i%%icult to propa ate b' see&s. HO.: " lea% ste! is cut o%% the !other stal$ Dip cuttin into the ro#th hor!one. Place into a pot o% !oist soil. ;eep in a hu!i&, li ht an& #ar! en*iron!ent. Ne# roots #ill %or! bet#een 2-24 &a's.



2 . Di*ision : "n a&ult plant can be &i*i&e& into a nu!ber o% ne# plants. (") Suc$ers: " ne# s!all plant ro#s on the si&e o% an a&ult plant (bananas). (1) Runners: " len th o% ste! ro#s ne# roots an& lea%s. "ll plants pro&uce& this #a' are i&entical. / . )ra%tin :

Good fruit Bad root CUT ASEXUAL

Bad fruit

Good fruit Good root

Good root

Tissue Culture :

Metho& use& to ro# clone& cells o% a plant %ro! a s!all piece o% tissue ro#n in a sterile !e&iu!. People clonin species !a' be the onl' #a' that there #ill be !ultiples o% that specie. Clonin is use& a%ter all the processes abo*e ha*e %aile&. The #olle!i pine #as clone&. This process too$ a consi&erable a!ount o% ti!e; ho#e*er it #as i!portant because the #olle!i pine containe& an anti- cancer a ent calle& Ta(ol. I&enti%' the purpose o% clonin technolo ' to plants :

The sole purpose o% clonin is to pre*ent certain species o% plants %ro! beco!in e(tinct.

"&*anta es an& Disa&*anta es o% Clonin :

"&*anta es : Pre*ents species %ro! beco!in e(tinct an& also pro*i&es !ore eneticall' &i*erse species. Disa&*anta es : Cost, ti!e as #ell as resources. Processes o% tissue culture :

Selection: Cells or pieces o% or anis!s or tissue calle& e(plants are selecte&. De*elop!ent: Place& in a sterile !e&iu! in #hich the cells can ro# into a clu!p o% cells. This !e&iu! contains !acro-nutrients, *ita!ins an& hor!ones nee&e& to pro*i&e all necessar' ele!ents %or ro#th. E(plain the bene%its o% enetic &i*ersit' %or a species .

I&enti%' #h' "ustralian plants beco!e en&an ere& .

"ustralian plants beco!e en&an ere& because o% the harsh con&itions #hich the' are e(pose& to. The' !a' also beco!e e(tinct because o% the lac$ o% !ineral nutrients in the soil.

Outline one conser*ation strate ' use& #ith one rare specie in "ustralia .

1ree&in pro ra!s: The botanical ar&ens an& so!e uni*ersities are in*ol*e& in the bree&in o% rare species, e. . the #olle!i pine. Eli!ination o% intro&uce& species: Man' nati*e plants co!pete #ith intro&uce& species %or nutrients. Others are threatene& b' intro&uce& ani!als. Mana e!ent o% %ar! lan&: Discuss reasons %or conser*in plants . "ustralian species o%


Source o% %oo&: %oo& such as -ua&on an& !aca&a!ia are e(tracte& %ro! plants. Me&icine: ha*e the potential to pro*i&e ne# !e&icines that !a' pro*e bene%icial as the eucal'ptus oil. .olle!i pine, "nti-cancer a ent calle& Ta(ol. Econo!ic an& 1iolo ical reasons: Maintain bio&i*ersit'.



The i!portance o% , an& strate ies use& b' scientists to &e*elop an& !aintain see& ban$s an& a!etes .

Strate ies use& b' scientists to &e*elop an& !aintain see& ban$s an& a!etes: the %unction o% the ban$s is to preser*e plant species so that enetic &i*ersit' is not lost, but !aintaine&. See& ban$s: )enerall' store &or!ant see&s at -13 &e rees Celsius once the' ha*e been &rie& an& seale& in !oisture proo% containers. )a!ete an& <' ote ban$s: "re utili,e& #hen see&s are not store& properl' or #hen the' pro&uce a eneticall' &i%%erent plant.