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Geometrical Dimensioning

and Tolerancing
Mahender Kumar
ANSI Y14.5
Y14 5-1994
1994 Standard

This standard establishes uniform

practices for defining and
interpreting dimensions, and
tolerances, and related requirements
for use on engineering drawings.
What is a ‘good
good level of tolerance’?
tolerance ?

i h tolerance
l is
i better
(less vibration, less wear, less noise)

g tolerances is better
(easier to machine, faster to produce,
easier to assemble)
Tolerancing application: an example

The type of fit between mating features

Designer needs to specify:

basic diameter and the tolerance of shaft: S±s/2

basic diameter and the tolerance of hole: H±h/2

Allowance: a = Dhmin – Dsmax.

• Definition: Allowance for specific variation in the
size and ggeometryy of a p
• Need for Tolerancing
– It is IMPOSSIBLE to manufacture a part to an EXACT
size or geometry
– Since variation from the drawing is inevitable we must
specify y the acceptable
p degree
g of variation
– Large variation may affect part functionality
– Small allowed variation affects the part cost
• requires
i precise
i manufacturing
f t i
• requires inspection and potential rejection of parts
Tolerance Follows Function
• Assemblies:
– Parts will not fit together if their dimensions do not fall
with in a certain range of values
• Interchangeable
I t h bl PParts:
– If a replacement part is used it must duplicate the
g p
part within certain limits of deviation
• The relationship between functionality and
size/shape of an object varies with the part
– Automobile Transmission is Very Sensitive to the Size
& Shape of the Gears
– A Bicycle is NOT Too Sensitive to the Size & Shape
of the Gears (sprockets)
Two Forms of Physical
• Size
– Limits specifying the allowed variation in each
dimension (length, width, height, diameter, etc.) are
given on the drawing
• Geometry
– Geometric
G t i Dimensioning
Di i i &T Tolerancing
l i (GD&T)
• Allows for specification of tolerance for the geometry of a part
separate from its size
• GD&T uses special symbols to control different geometric
features of a part
Cost Sensitivity
• Cost generally increases with “tighter”
– Th
There is
i generally
ll a ceiling
ili tto thi
this relationship
l ti hi
where larger tolerances do not affect cost
• e.g.; If the Fabricator ROUTINELY Holds to ±0.5 mm,
Th a ±3 mm S
Then Specification
ifi ti will
ill NOT reduce
d Cost
C t
– Tolerances at the Limits of the Fabricator’s
Capability cause an exponential increase in cost
– Parts with small tolerances often require special
methods of manufacturing
– Parts with small tolerances often require greater
inspection, and higher part-rejection rates
• Do NOT specify a SMALLER Tolerance than
Tolerance Spec Hierarchy
• Generally Three Levels of Tolerances
– DEFAULT: Placed in the Drawing Title-Block
by The Engineering Firm
• Typically Conforms to Routine Tolerance Levels
– GENERAL: Placed on the Drawing By the
Design-Engineer as a NOTE
• Applies to the Entire Drawing
• Supercedes the DEFAULT Tolerance
– SPECIFIC: Associated with a SINGLE
Dimension or Geometric Feature
Fit Between Parts
• Clearance fit: The shaft maximum diameter is smaller than the hole minimum diameter.
• Interference fit: The shaft minimum diameter is larger than the hole maximum diameter.
• Transition fit: The shaft maximum diameter and hole minimum have an interference fit,, while the shaft
minimum diameter and hole maximum diameter have a clearance fit

Clearance Fit Interference Fit Transition Fit

Classes of Fit
The limits to sizes for various types of fit of mating parts are
defined by the standard ANSI B4.1

There are five basic classes of fit:

1. Running and sliding clearance (RC)
2 Location clearance (LC)
3. Location transition (LT)
4. Location interference (LN)
5. Force fits (FN)
Unilateral and Bilateral Tolerances:

nominal dimension

1.00 +
- 0.05 means a range 0.95 - 1.05


+ 0.10
0 10 + 0.00
0 00
unilateral 0.95 - 0.00 1.05 - 0.10
bilateral 1.00 +
- 0.05
Overview of Geometric

Geometric tolerances define the shape of a feature as opposed to its size.

We will focus on three basic types of dimensional tolerances:

11. Form tolerances: straightness,

straightness circularity,
circularity flatness
flatness, cylindricity;
2. Orientation tolerances; perpendicularity, parallelism, angularity; and
3. Position tolerances: position, symmetry, concentricity.

Basic Dimension
A numerical value used to describe the theoretically exact size, profile, orientation, or
location of a feature or datum target. It is the basis from which permissible variations are
established by tolerances on other dimensions
dimensions, in notes
notes, or in feature control frames

A theoretically exact point, axis, or plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of a
specified datum feature. A datum is the origin from which the location or geometric
characteristics of features of a part are established.

Datum Target
A specific line, or area on a part used to establish a datum.

Maximum Material Condition (MMC)

The condition in which a feature of size contains the maximum amount of material within the
stated limits of size-for example, minimum hole diameter, maximum shaft diameter.
Least Material Condition (LMC)
The condition in which a feature of size contains the least amount of material within the stated
limits of size-for example, maximum hole diameter, minimum shaft diameter.

Regardless of Feature Size (RFS):

The term used to indicate that a g geometric tolerance or datum reference applies
pp at any
y increment
of size of the feature within its size tolerance.

Full Indicator Movement

The total movement of an indicator when appropriately applied to a surface to measure its variations
(formerly called total indicator reading-TIR).
reading TIR)
Virtual Condition

The boundary generated by the collective effects of the specified MMC limit of size of a feature and
any applicable geometric tolerances.

Feature Control Frame

The feature control frame consists of: A) type of control (geometric characteristic), B) tolerance zone, C)
tolerance zone modifiers (i
e MMC or RFS)
RFS), D) datum references if applicable and any datum reference

Profile of a Line
A uniform two dimensional zone limited by two parallel zone lines extending along the length of a feature.

Profile of a Surface
A uniform three dimensional zone contained between two envelope surfaces separated by the tolerance
zone across the entire length of a surface.

A l it
The distance between two parallel planes, inclined at a specified basic angle in which the surface, axis, or center plane
of the feature must lie.

Perpendicularity (squareness)
The condition of a surface
surface, axis
axis, median plane
plane, or line which is exactly at 90 degrees with respect to a datum plane or axis

The condition of a surface or axis which is equidistant at all points from a datum of reference.

Tr e Position
A zone within which the center, axis, or center plane of a feature of size is permitted to vary from its true
(theoretically exact) position.

A cylindrical tolerance zone whose axis coincides with the datum axis and within which all cross-sectional axes
of the feature being controlled must lie. (Note: Concentricity is very expensive and time-consuming to measure.
Recommended that you try position or runout as an alternative tolerance.)

A composite tolerance used to control the relationship of one or more features of a part to a datum axis
during a full 360 degree rotation about the datum axis.

Circular Runout
Each circular element of the feature/part must be within the runout tolerance.

Total Runout
All surface elements across the entire surface of the part must be within the runout tolerance.

A two dimensional tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes within which the entire surface must lie.

A condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line.

A condition on a surface of revolution ((cylinder,
y , cone,, sphere)
p ) where all points
p of the surface intersected
by any plane perpendicular to a common axis (cylinder, cone) or passing through a common center (sphere)
are equidistant from the axis of the center.

A condition on a surface of revolution in which all points of the surface are equidistant from a common axis.
Feature Control Frame
A geometric tolerance is prescribed using a feature control frame.
It has three components:
1. the tolerance symbol,
2. the tolerance value,
3. the datum labels for the reference frame.
Order of Precedence
The part is aligned with the datum planes of a reference frame
using 3-2-1 contact alignment.

• 3 points of contact align the part to the primary datum plane;

• 2 points of contact align the part to the secondary datum plane;

• 1 point of contact aligns the part with the tertiary datum plane
Straightness of a shaft
Straightness of a Shaft
• A shaft has a size tolerance defined for its fit into a hole. A shaft meets this tolerance if at every point
along its length a diameter measurement fall within the specified values.

• This allows the shaft to be bent into any shape. A straightness tolerance on the shaft axis specifies the
amount of bend allowed.

• Add th
the straightness
t i ht tolerance
t l to
t ththe maximum
i shaft
h ft size
i (MMC) tto obtain
bt i a ““virtual
it l
condition” Vc, or virtual hole, that the shaft must fit to be acceptable.
Straightness of a Hole

• The size tolerance for a hole defines the range of sizes of its
diameter at each point along the centerline. This does not
eliminate a curve to the hole.

• The straightness tolerance specifies the allowable curve to the


• Subtract the straightness tolerance from the smallest hole size

(MMC) to define the virtual condition Vc, or virtual shaft, that
must fit the hole for it to be acceptable.
Straightness of a Center Plane
• The size dimension of a rectangular part defines the range of sizes at any cross-section.

• The straightness tolerance specifies the allowable curve to the entire side.

• Add the straightness tolerance to the maximum size (MMC) to define a virtual condition Vc that
the part must fit into in order to meet the tolerance.
Tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes.
0.0 01

1.000 ' ±0.002

p ar al l e l
p lanes

0.0 01
Flatness, Circularity and
Flatness Circularity Cylindricity

• The flatness tolerance defines a distance between parallel planes that must contain the
highest and lowest points on a face.
• The circularity tolerance defines a pair of concentric circles that must contain the
maximum and minimum radius points of a circle.
• The cylindricity tolerance defines a pair of concentric cylinders that much contain the
maximum and minimum radius points along a cylinder.
Circularity (Roundness)
Tolerance zone bounded by two concentric cylinders
within which the cylinder must lie.


1.00 ' ±0.05

Rotate in a V


R t t b
Rotate between
t points
i t
Parallelism Tolerance
A parallelism tolerance is measured relative to a datum specified in the control frame.
If there is no material condition (ie. regardless of feature size), then the tolerance defines parallel planes that
must contain the maximum and minimum p points on the face.
If MMC is specified for the tolerance value:
• If it is an external feature, then the tolerance is added to the maximum dimension to define a virtual
condition that the part must fit;
• If it is an internal feature, then the tolerance is subtracted to define the maximum dimension that must fit
into the part.
• A perpendicular tolerance is
measured relative to a datum plane.

• It defines two planes that must

contain all the points of the face.

• A second datum can be used to

locate where the measurements are
Perpendicular Shaft, Hole, and
Center Plane
Shaft Hole Center Plane

• Shaft: The maximum shaft size plus the tolerance defines the virtual hole.
• Hole: The minimum hole size minus the tolerance defines the virtual shaft.
• Plane: The tolerance defines the variation of the location of the center plane.

An angularity tolerance is measured relative to a datum plane.

It defines a pair planes that must
1. contain all the points on the angled face of the part, or
2. if specified, the plane tangent to the high points of the face.
Concentricit Tolerance Note
.007 Tolerance
007 A
A Zone


This cylinder (the right cylinder) must be concentric What It Means

within .007 with the Datum A (the left cylinder)
as measured d on the
th diameter
di t
1 .0 0 ± 0 .0 1

1 .2 0
± 0 .0 1

O .8 0 ± 0 .0 2 Hole center tolerance zone

O 0 .0 1 M A B

True position Tolerance zone

0 .0
0 1 dia
t l

1 .0 0

A 1.2 0
Position Tolerance for a Hole
• The position tolerance for a hole defines a zone that has a defined shape, size, location and orientation.
• It has the diameter specified by the tolerance and extends the length of the hole.
• Basic dimensions locate the theoretically exact center of the hole and the center of the tolerance zone.
• Basic dimensions are measured from the datum reference frame.
Position Tolerance on a Hole
A composite control frame signals a tolerance
for a ppattern of features,, such as holes.

• The first line defines the position tolerance

zone for the holes.
• The second line defines the tolerance zone for
tthee patte
pattern,, which
w c iss generally
ge e a y smaller.
s a e.
Virtual Condition Envelope
All Required Tolerances
20.06 Maximum

0 06 20.00
20 00
Maximum Maximum
Allowable Allowable
Curvature Diameter
A uniform boundary along the true profile within whcih
the elements of the surface must lie.

0 .0 05 A B

A 0.0 01
A composite tolerance used to control the functional relationship
of one or more features of a part to a datum axis. Circular runout
controls the circular elements of a surface. As the part rotates
360° about the datum axis,, the error must be within the tolerance

1.500 " ±0.005

0 .0 0 5 A
0.361 " ±0.002

Deviat ion on each

circular check ring
is less t han t he
Dat um t olerance.
ax is

1.500 " ±0.005

0 .0 0 5 A
0 361 "
0.361 ±0 002

D i t ion
i on t he
t ot al swept when
t he part is rot at ing
Dat um
is less t han t he
ax is
t olerance.
Geometric Tolerancing -
• Maximum Material Condition ((MMC)) – The condition in
which a feature of size contains the maximum amount of
material with the stated limits of size, - fore example,
minimum hole diameter and maximum shaft diameter
• Least Material Condition (LMC) – Opposite of MMC, the
feature contains the least material. For example,
maximum hole diameter and minimum shaft diameter
• Virtual Condition – The envelope or boundary that
describes the collective effects of all tolerance
requirements on a feature (See Figure 7 7-25
25 TG)
Material Condition Modifiers
If the tolerance zone is prescribed for the maximum
RFS material condition (smallest hole). Then the zone expands
by the same amount that the hole is larger in size.
Use MMC for holes used in clearance fits.


No material condition modifier means the tolerance is

“regardless of feature size.”
Use RFS for holes used in interference or press fits.
LMC hole
MMC hole

hole axis t olerance zone

MMC peg will f it in t he hole ,

axis must be in t he t olerance zone

Given th
Gi the same peg (MMC peg), ) when
h ththe
produced hole size is greater than the MMC hole,
the hole axis true position tolerance zone can be
enlarged by the amount of difference between the
produced hole size and the MMC hole size.
O 1 .0 0 ± 0 .0 2
O 0 .0 1 M A B

Produced True Pos tol

1 .0 0
hole size M L S
B 0.97 out of diametric tolerance
1 .2 0
A MMC 0 98
0.98 0 01
0.01 0 05
0.05 0 01
0.99 0.02 0.04 0.01
1.00 0.03 0.03 0.01
The default modifier for 1.01 0.04 0.02 0.01
true position is MMC. LMC 1.02 0.05 0.01 0.01
1.03 out of diametric tolerance
For M the allowable tolerance = specified tolerance + (produced hole
size - MMC hole size)
Any question?