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# Group 1 Members: Mat Aliza Gregorio Gerald Evora Pellesco Loyld Ronario John Joseph Tamayo Glaiza De Los

## Reyes Marc Carvey Liwang

December 2, 2012

Experiment 1
I. Objectives:
1. To become familiar with common linear measuring instruments 2.To be able to use vernier and micrometer calipers 3.To be able to determine lengths and volumes of materials/ substances

## II. Equipment and materials:

Meter stick, foot ruler, tape measure, vernier caliper, micrometer caliper, block of wood, piece of wire, coin, solid sphere, cylindrical cup, graduated cylinder, piece of stone, water.

III. Procedure:
A. Using the meter, foot ruler, tape measure 1. Examine the marks on the meter stick, foot ruler and tape measure. Determine the smallest value that can be read directly from each of these devices on both the Metric and English scales. Record your observed values. 2. With a ruler, measure the length of the block of wood using centimeter units. Make three (3) trials. Record the results in the data sheet.

3. Repeat measurements, but use the inch units. Make three (3) trials. Record the data obtained. 4. Using the average values obtained from the three trials using centimeter and inch units, calculate the number of centimeters equivalent to one inch. B. Using the vernier Caliper

The vernier caliper is used in length measurements to have an additional digit of the accuracy, compared to a simple ruler. It is precise to the nearest hundredth of a centimeter. There are ten divisions on the vernier scale, which is equivalent to 1/10 mm. The Object to be measured is fitted either over the upper jaws or between the lower jaws of the caliper. Two readings are done: the main scale reading and the vernier scale reading when a mark or line in the vernier scale coincides with any mark or line in the main scale.

Another Example is given below, where the zero mark of the vernier scale is between 21mm and 22 mm, so the reading in the main

scale is 21mm. Main scale. This number 3 is multiplied by the least count 1/10 mm or 0.1 to obtain the vernier scale reading. (3x 0.1mm = 0.30).

Exercise: 1. Following the sketched example, give the readings for A and B.

2. Get a vernier caliper and examine it. Determine and record: a. The smallest division on the vernier scale; b. The number of divisions in the vernier scale; c. The smallest division in the main scale; and d. The least count 3. Observe and record the reading, when the lower jaws are Completely closed. 4. With the vernier caliper, measure the height of a cylindrical cup. Make three (3) trials recording each of the values obtained.

## C. Using the micrometer Caliper

The micrometer caliper is an instrument used for measuring extremely small distances. It is a precise measuring instrument, the reading the of which is 1/100 mm = 0.001mm. The object to be measured is placed between the anvil and the spindle using the ratchet knob to close them lightly. When the ratchet clicks, the anvil and spindle are closed sufficiently. Each division found along the barrel of the micrometer, represents haves of millimeters. Every revolution will expose another division on the barrel, and will open another half millimeter. Each division represents 1/100 mm.

To read the distance between the anvil and the screw of the micrometer, a line or a division on the moving barrel must be equally aligned with the reading line on the fixed barrel. To get the final reading, simply add the number of half millimeters to the number of hundredths of millimeters.

In the example above, the anvil and the spindle are opened at 2.62 mm, that is, 2.5 or half millimeters and 12 hundredths of a millimeter.

Exercise: 1. Study diagrams A,B & C and write the corresponding reading for each or them.

2.Examine the micrometer caliper. Determine and record: a. the smallest division of the linear scale ( barrel scale) b. the number of revolutions required to advance one division on the linear scale c. the pitch of the screw d. the number of divisions on the circular scale (thimble scale) e. the least scale count. 3. Observe and record the zero reading, when the anvil and the spindle are completely closed 4. Measure the diameter of a metal sphere at several places with micrometer caliper. Platform three (3) trials D. Other direct measurements 1. Using the appropriate instrument, measure, as accurately as possible the following:

a. Block of wood width, height and thickness b. Cylindrical cup inside diameter, outside diameter, depth, and circumference c. a coin diameter, circumference and thickness d. a solid sphere - diameter Record all data obtained. 2. Using the cm unit, calculate: a. the volume of the block of wood b. the volume of the cylindrical cup c. the volume of the solid sphere E. Indirect Volume Determination. 1. Place 20.0 mL of water in the graduated cylinder, Record the volume of water as Initial Reading (I.R) 2. Carefully place a piece of stone into the cylinder without spilling/ splashing out the water 3. Repeat 1 & 2 to make three (3) trials and get the average volume. 4. Calculate in cubic centimeter unit (cc or cm^3) the volume of the piece of stone. Calculations: A. V = 1 x w x h C. V = 4/3 Questions: 1. Give the use of each part of vernier caliper labeled in the drawing. 2. Draw the portion of the main and vernier scales showing the positions of the lines /marks at zero reading. What is the importance of checking such reading before using the vernier caliper? 3. Give the use of each part of micrometer caliper labeled in the drawing. 4. Draw the main and micro scales of the micrometer caliper showing the positions of the lines/marks at zero reading. What is the importance of checking such reading before using the caliper? r^3 B. V= r^2h

## D. V (stone) = F.R. I.R.

5.What limitations are observed in making measurements using the: a. meter stick? b.ruler c. tape measure? d. vernier caliper? e. micrometer caliper? 6. Compare the five instruments in terms of the accuracies and uncertainties of the values obtained their use. In what decimal place will the last significant figure be in each case? 7. Is volume a fundamental quantity? Explain. 8. What kind of objects can have their volumes determines by water displacement?

Group 1 Members: Mat Aliza Gregorio Gerald Evora Pellesco Loyld Ronario John Joseph Tamayo Glaiza De Los Reyes Marc Carvey Liwang

December 2, 2012

Experiment 2 I. Objectives:
1. To become familiar with the common instruments used in measuring mass. 2. To compare the accuracies, precisions, and capacities of the different kinds of balance

II. Materials:

Single beam (Braun-Knech) balance, Double beam (platform) balance, Triple beam balance Ohaus, Four-beam Cent- o gram balance, block of wood, solid metal sphere, solid cylinder, piece of stone

III. Procedures:

1. Examine the 4 models/types of balances. From the scale, determine for each model/ type a. the accuracy or the smallest value that can be measured accurately.

b. the precision or degree of uncertainty ( the nearest value that can be approximated) c. the capacity or maximum value that can be measured. 2. Study how the mass of an object determined with the use of balance. After the principle is understood, measure the mass of each of the given materials using each of the models/ types of balances.

Materials:

## a. block of wood b. solid sphere c. solid cylinder d. piece of stone

Record the masses with the proper number of significant figures determined from the accuracy of each balance used.

IV. Questions:
1. Which type/model of balance do you prefer to use? Why? 2.Which type/ model of balance is the most accurate? Which has the biggest capacity? 3. What is the principle involved in mass measurement?

## 1. ____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2.____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

3.____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4.____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5.____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6.____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 7.____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 8.____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

## VI. DATA AND ANSWER SHEET

Name:______________________________________________ Date:_____________________ Course, Year & Sec._______________________________ Rating:__________________ Group No._________________________________________ Teacher:________________

## EXPERIMENT 2 MEASUREMENT OF MASS

Observations 1. Balance type/Model Accuracy(g) Precision(g) Capacity(g) a. Single beam balance b. Double beam balance c. Triple Beam (Ohaus) balance d. Four- beam (Cent-O-Gram) balance 2. Material/Object SB a. Block of wood b. Solid Sphere c. Solid Cylinder d. Piece of stone Answer to Questions: 1._________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3._________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

## Mass in Balance Type/ Model in Grams DB TB-O FB-C

Group 1 Members: Mat Aliza Gregorio Gerald Evora Pellesco Loyld Ronario John Joseph Tamayo Glaiza De Los Reyes Marc Carvey Liwang

December 2, 2012

## Reaction Paper For Experiment # 2

In performing our experiment no. 2 were confident that we could finish this experiment without any struggle. We prcised our estimated time would be more like less than 30 minutes. Were so flatter that we have also a good professor that who always supports and help each group on the room. Weve started the experiment having a share with the weighing apparatus with the other group. Knowing the fact the it might affect our goal but we know that, that wouldnt affect our target time. Were glad that we could accurately measure the following materials on the book without having any trouble. Each member in the group works together and help each other and each of us sharing each detail on what they learned and how they find the weight accurately. Having a Background on the materials was the key to perform fast and accurately. They were like all the same how they works the only different with their uniqueness of a weighing apparatus was that, they were have a particular maximum measurement of a mass.