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# Momentum, Energy, and Work

Momentum in 1 Dimension Momentum is the product of mass and velocity. It is measured in kg m/s. Example 1: In a completely inelastic collision, two objects were initially moving towards each other as shown. Calculate the velocity of the combined masses after the collision. Total Momentum Before Collision, Total Momentum After Collision, = 1 1 + 2 2 = 1 1 + 2 2
In this case, 1 = 2 = so

1 1 + 2 2 = (1 + 2 ) = 1 1 + 2 2 (4 kg)(2 m/s) + (2 kg)(1 m/s) = = / 1 + 2 4 kg + 2 kg Momentum in 2 Dimensions When we solve 2-D problems: 1. 2. 3. 4. Resolve all the vectors into perpendicular components ( and is often the most convenient). Solve each set of components separately. Determine the resultant by using Pythagoras Theorem. Determine by tan = .

## Example 2: Ball 1 collides with ball 2 on a frictionless horizontal plane.

a) Determine and of ball 1 after the collision. < > 1 1 + 2 2 = 1 1 + 2 2 (0.2 kg)(8 m/s) + (0.1 kg)(0 m/s) = (0.2 kg)1 + (0.1 kg)2 1.6 kg m/s = (0.2 kg)1 cos + (0.1 kg)(7 m/s) cos 30 1.6 kg m/s = (0.2 kg)1 cos + (0.7 kg m/s) ( 3 ) = (0.2 kg)1 cos + (0.35 kg m/s)(3) 2

1 cos =

1.6 kg m/s (0.35 kg m/s)(3) = 8.0 kg m/s (1.75 kg m/s)(3) (I) 0.2 kg < > 1 1 + 2 2 = 1 1 + 2 2

(0.2 kg)(0 m/s) + (0.1 kg)(0 m/s) = (0.2 kg)1 + (0.1 kg)2 0 kg m/s = (0.2 kg)1 sin + (0.1 kg)(7 m/s) sin 30 1 0 kg m/s = (0.2 kg)1 sin (0.7 kg m/s) ( ) = (0.2 kg)1 sin 0.35 kg m/s 2 (0.2 kg)1 sin = 0.35 kg m/s 1 sin = Divide (II) by (I): 0.35 kg m/s = 1.75 m/s (II) 0.2 kg

## 1 sin 1.75 m/s = 1 cos 8.0 kg m/s (1.75 kg m/s)(3)

sin 1.75 m/s = tan = cos 8.0 kg m/s (1.75 kg m/s)(3) = tan1 ( ) = 8.0 kg m/s (1.75 kg m/s)(3) 1.75 m/s 1.75 m/s = = /, sin sin 20 1.75 m/s

## Rearrange (II) to solve for 1 : 1 =

b) Is mechanical energy conserved in this collision? P and K are the two forms of mechanical energy. In this problem, we can ignore changes in P , as both objects are traveling in the horizontal plane. IMPORTANT: ENERGY IS SCALAR. DIRECTION DOES NOT MATTER. Use the speed of the balls in the following equations. Does K1 + K 2 = K1 + K 2 ? 1 1 Before the collision: K1 + K 2 = 1 1 2 + 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 = (0.2 kg)(8 m/s)2 + (0.1 kg)(0 m/s)2 = 6 J 2 2 1 1 After the collision: K1 + K 2 = 1 1 2 + 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 = (0.2 kg)(5 m/s)2 + (0.1 kg)(7 m/s)2 = 5 J 2 2 Mechanical energy was not conserved because K1 + K 2 K1 + K 2 . Thus, this is an inelastic collisionsome energy converted to heat and sound due to the collision.

If

K = K

## then the collision is (perfectly) elastic then the collision is inelastic

K K

Example 3: An object with a mass of 6.0 kg explodes into three parts, in the proportions shown below. The largest piece moves to the left with a speed of 20 m/s. The smallest mass moves at an angle of = 60 below the x-axis. The middle-size mass moves at an angle = 30 above the x- axis. Calculate the speeds of the smallest and middle-size masses. < > 0 = 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 1 1 = 2 2 + 3 3

(3 kg)(20 m/s) = (2 kg)2 cos 30 + (1 kg)3 cos 60 1 Simplify: 60 kg m/s = (3 kg)2 + ( kg) 3 (I) 2 < > 0 = 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 Simplify: 0 = (1 kg)2 + ( 0 = 0 + (2 kg)2 sin 30 + (1 kg)3 sin 60 Rearrange: 2 = ( 3 ) 3 (II) 2

3 kg) 3 2

## Plug (II) into (I): 60 kg m/s = (3 kg) ( 3 = From (II) 2 = (

1 3 ) 3 + ( kg) 3 = (2 kg)3 2 2

60 kg m/s = /, 2 kg

## 3 ) (30 m/s) = 153 m/s = /, 2

Alternate Solution: Vector Diagrams 2 30 60 3 1 = 1 1 = (3 kg)(20 m/s) = 60 kg m/s cos 30 = 2 3 2 = 1 cos 30 = (60 kg m/s) ( ) = 52 kg m/s 1 2 2 52 kg m/s = = /, 2 2 kg 2 30 60 3

2 = 2 2 2 =

cos 60 =

## 3 1 3 = 1 cos 60 = (60 kg m/s) ( ) = 30 kg m/s 1 2 3 30 kg m/s = = /, 3 1 kg Conservation of Energy

3 = 3 3 3 =

Frictionless Case: no energy losses (ie. no heat or sound given off) Conservation of Mechanical Energy (ie. p & K only) K + p + p = K + p + p
G E G E

1 1 1 1 2 + + 2 = 2 + + 2 2 2 2 2 Assume is constant at 9.8 N/kg. is mass, in kg is height of the mass above a chosen reference level, in m is speed, in m/s is spring constant (dependent upon the stiffness of the spring), in N/m* is difference between the extended or compressed length and the original length, in m *Note: Spring Force, S =

Friction Included: K + p = K + p + F 1 1 2 + = 2 + + F 2 2 F is the work done by friction, in J F is the average friction force, in N is the distance (NOT displacement) over which this friction acts on the object, in m

## Activity on Energy: Calculate

a) the average friction force along the demo track Only consider the start and end points: p = p + F = + F

## ( ) (0.0276 kg)(9.8 N/kg)(0.55 m 0.21 m) = = . 2.86 m

b) the average power loss as the ball moves along the track. Power is the rate at which work is done or energy is given off/produced. = or

## It is measured in watts (1 W = 1 J/s). = F F (0.032 N)(2.86 m) = = = . 2.45 s

c) the balls maximum speed if friction is ignored. The ball will have its maximum speed when all of its potential energy has been converted to kinetic energy. By comparing the start position to the bottom of the first hill, p + K = p + K p = K (Let the bottom of the hill be our reference: p = 0) 1 = 2 2 Rearrange to find : = 2 = 2(9.8 N/kg)(0.55 m) = . / Impulse Impulse = where is the average contact force is the contact time f i = = ( )

= (f i ) = f i = The proof from above shows that impulse is also the change in momentum of the object where a force, , is applied upon it for a time interval, . Example 4: Calculate the force exerted on a rocket given that the propelling gases are expelled at a rate of 1300 kg/s with a speed of 40 000 m/s at the moment of lift-off.

= (f i ) = ( i ) f

## = (1300 kg/s )(40 000 m/s 0 m/s ) = .

Elastic Collisions In any collision (closed system, no external forces), 1 1 + 2 2 = 1 1 + 2 2 (I) For elastic collisions (kinetic energy is conserved), 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 + 2 2 2 = 1 1 2 + 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Let us consider the case when 1 = 2 = : From (I), 1 + 2 = 1 + 2 1 + 2 = 1 + 2
1 1 = 2 2

(II)

(III) 1 2 + 2 2 = 1 2 + 2 2

From (II),

1 1 1 1 1 2 + 2 2 = 1 2 + 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 2 1 2 = 2 2 1 2

## ) Substitute (III) into (IV): (1 + 1 )(1 1 ) = (2 + 2 )(1 1

1 + 1 = 2 + 2

or

1 2 = 2 1

Example 5: Completely Inelastic Collisions The Ballistic Pendulum A bullet of mass 15 g is fired towards a wooden block. Given that the bullet embeds itself into the 5.0 kg block and together they rise 8.0 cm, determine a) the speed of the bullet in the block at the point of rising. b) the speed of the bullet just before hitting the block. c) the average force the bullet exerts on the block if it takes 0.01 s to embed itself into the block. d) What is the energy loss as heat as the bullet enters the block? Solutions a) Use the conservation of energy for the bullet and block. At the point of rising, the system has its maximum kinetic energy, and no potential energy. After the bullet and block finish rising, they have their maximum potential energy, and no kinetic energy. = mass of bullet + block = speed of bullet + block K = p 1 1 2 2 = = 2 2 8.0 cm

Rearrange to find : = 2 = 2(9.8 N/kg)(0.080 m) = . / (right after the collision) b) Even though energy is lost, we can still use the conservation of momentum to solve this problem. Let the subscript b stand for the bullet, and the subscript B stand for the block.

b b + B B = b b + B B b b = (since B = 0 and b = B = ) Solve for b : b = c) Impulse = = Solve for : = (0.015 kg)(1.3 m/s 420 m/s) = = 630 N 0.01 s (0.015 kg + 5.0 kg)(1.3 m/s) = = / b 0.015 kg

this is the force which the block exerts on the bullet. By Newtons Third Law, the force which the bullet exerts on the block must be (ie. equal in magnitude, opposite in direction). d) Because this is an inelastic collision, some of the kinetic energy is transformed into heat after the collision. However, the total energy is still conserved in this system. K b + K B = K b + K B + H K b = K b+B + H 1 1 b b 2 = 2 + H 2 2

1 1 1 1 H = b b 2 = 2 = (0.015 kg)(420 m/s)2 = (5.015 kg)(1.3 m/s)2 = J 2 2 2 2 Example 6: Tarzan swings towards Jane whilst holding on to a vine. He grabs her and brings her to safety.

a) Determine the maximum height to which they rise. b) Calculate the tension in the vine just before Tarzan grabs hold of Jane. c) Calculate the tension in the vine right after he grabs hold of Jane. Solutions I. a) Split the motion into three stages (refer to the diagram on the next page): Tarzan swings down to Jane. Let the subscript T denote Tarzan, and let the subscript J denote Jane. P T + K T = P T + K T P T = K T 1 T = T T 2 2 1 2 = T 2

T = 2 = 2(9.8 N/kg)(8.0 m) = 12.5 m/s this is Tarzans speed right before he grabs hold of Jane. II. Tarzan collides into Jane. T T = T+J T+J T+J = T T (75 kg)(12.5 m/s) = = 7.5 m/s T+J 75 kg + 50 kg

this is the combined speed of Tarzan and Jane just after they collide. III. Tarzan and Jane swing up to safety. K T+J = P T+J 1 1 T+J T+J 2 = T+J 2 = 2 2 T+J (7.5 m/s)2 T+J 2 = = . 2 2(9.8 N/kg)

Note: This is an inelastic collision, so kinetic energy is not conserved. Potential Energy at I: T = (75 kg)(9.8 N/kg)(8.0 m) = 5900 J Potential Energy at III: T+J = (75 kg + 50 kg)(9.8 N/kg)(2.9 m) = 2100 J "Loss" in Energy: 5900 J 2100 J = 3800 J b) Consider the forces acting on the vine (refer to the diagram on the right): = C = T G Solve for T : T = C + G = T = T T 2 + T

## (75 kg)(12.5 m/s)2 + (75 kg)(9.8 N/kg) = 8.0 m

c) This is similar to part b), except the vine now needs to support the weight of both Tarzan and Jane (refer to the diagram on the next page). = C = T G Solve for T : T = C + G = T = T+J T+J 2 + T+J

## (75 kg + 50 kg)(7.5 m/s)2 + (75 kg + 50 kg)(9.8 N/kg) = 8.0 m

Work Done to Change the Energy of a System Example 7: Determine the minimum work which needs to be done by a plane of mass 70 00 kg to leave the ground from rest and reach a cruising speed of 600 km/h at an altitude of 3000 m. = P + K 1 = ( ) + (2 2 ) 2 1 = + 2 2 1 1000 m 1h 2 = (70 00 kg )(9.8 N/kg)(3000 m) + (70 00 kg ) (600 km/h ) = 2 1 km 3600 s Example 8: What height must we climb to lose 1000 calories? (1 kcal = 4.186 103 J). Take the weight of the climber to be 500 N, and the ground to be our reference. = P = = 4.186 103 J = = = G 500 N

Efficiency Efficiency is a measure of how much of the energy put into the system in actually does useful work out . Efficiency = out 100% or in Power Power is the rate at which energy is produced or used up, in J/s or W. = or = and = = = = Efficiency = out 100% in

## AP Unit: Work and Gravity

Question: What is work needed to apply a force of 10 N on an object for a displacement of 5 m? Answer: = (area under the - graph, right)

= (10 N)(5 m) = 50 N m Question: What is work needed to move a mass from the surface of the Earth out to infinity?

Answer: We need to find the area under the graph of G vs. . This requires integral calculus.

=
E

E 1 1 1 1 = = ( | ) = E [( ) ( )] E E 2 2 E E E

E E

(work done on an object of mass to move it from the surface of the Earth to ) Work and Potential Energy

= P

E = P P 0 E

## P is at infinity where is on the surface of Earth P0

We place the reference at infinity because this is the same distance from everything in the universe. Being infinitely far from every object, the gravitational potential energy at infinity is zero: P = 0. E = 0 P 0 E P 0 = E or E P =

The formula above yields the potential energy of an object at a distance away from a large mass . Example 1: Calculate the work done to move an object of mass 12 kg from the ground to a height 1000 m above the Earths surface. = P = ( 1 1 ) ( ) = ( )

103

## 1 1 ) 6 m + 6.38 10 m 6.38 106 m

= . Compare with P = : = P = = (12 kg)(9.8 N/kg)(1 103 m) = 1.2 105 J Calculate the work done to get the same object to an altitude of 1 109 m above the surface of the Earth. = P = ( 1 1 ) ( ) = ( )

1 1 = (6.67 1011 Nm2 /kg 2 )(5.98 1024 kg)(12 kg) ( ) 1 109 m + 6.38 106 m 6.38 106 m = . Now compare this with P = : = P = = (12 kg)(9.8 N/kg)(1 109 m) = 1.2 1011 J (big difference!) Escape Velocity Escape velocity is the minimum speed which an object must be given so that when it is projected away from the planet it is resting on, it is able to leave the planets gravitational field and not come back. As P increases K decreases

2 e = i

## where i is the radius of the planet

Compare this with the formula for orbital velocity: O = O where O is the orbital radius, measured from centre to centre