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1.

Carbohydrate Glucose; Form in which plants transport carbohydrate / energy source; Glycogen; In plant cell walls;
[4]

One role in living organisms

2.

(a) (b)

Tissues are groups of (similar) cells performing similar functions; rgans are a number of tissues that perform a function "agnification is the number of times bigger an image is than the #specimen / original$; %esolution is the #ability to distinguish two points as separate points / degree of detail visible$ !
[4]

!

3.

(a) (b)

(i) (ii)

Glycerol / propan &' !' ( triol )ster

& &

(*tearic acid / saturated fatty acids$ have more hydrogen atoms; #*tearic acid / saturated fatty acids$ have no double carbon+carbon bonds; #*tearic acid / saturated fatty acids$ have no ,in,s; -allow converse statements about unsaturated fatty acids. &/ )nergy stores; 0ualification1 #"ore than / twice as much as) carbohydrate % Insoluble / compact / minimise mass % *ubcutaneous / adipose / blubber;

!

(c)

!/

2rotection / mechanical insulation; 0ualification1 3round #organs / named organ$ % %eference to adipose tissue % )ar wa4 giving protection against infection; 5aterproofing; 0ualification1 f s,in / fur / feathers / insect cuticle / ear wa4 % 6ydrophobic / insoluble / repels water;

(/

7/

)lectrical insulation; 0ualification1 %eference to myelin sheath / nerve cells / neurones / a4ons / dendrons % 8on+polar;

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0ualification1 %eference to respiration % Aesert adaptation ! 4 ! mar. 0ualification1 "a. bone. (a) &/ !/ (/ 7/ 9/ Contains (r)%83. *ource of metabolic water. (a) (b) (i) (ii) (i) (ii) (iii) .inding#site/groove$ to accept %83.inesis. 6as two (sub+)units. %eference to hormones. ! ! % 8 6 C 6 C 6 8 % C 6 C 6 ( & [8] (b) Glycine. Carbon nitrogen bac. . 3nd protein. 0ualification1 . %eference to cholesterol. 0ualification1 3s steroids. (ii) Condensation 5.ing beeswa4.uoyancy. <ess dense than #water / muscle$.9/ 6eat insulation. :/ =/ >/ ?/ &@/ &&/ Cell membrane structure. [8] 4. A83 replicates. #l9/!@$ hours. -ignore I and II. Cell division / cyto. "itosis / G! and mitosis.A3C. Formation of honeycomb. !@+(@ nm in siBe. & & ! & & [6] 2 . 0ualification1 %eference to phospholipids. 6 (c) (i) Correct amino acid parts on either side.. <ysine. 0ualification1 "embrane fluidity. 0ualification1 *ubcutaneous / adipose / blubber % 2revents heat loss from body. "etaphase.

(<ength) C 9@@@. Eesicles #brea. !/ 5ithout itself being changed / used over and over again / not used up. "altose is a disaccharide.er / eD$ colour means more protein / reference to use of calorimeter. 2urple / lilac / violet / eD.enedictFs reagent / in table &$. 7 3 . away (from Golgi) / move to cell membrane$. "itochondrion. &/ !/ (/ 7/ 9/ :/ =/ >/ (molecules/proteins) pass into the#cisternae/eD$of the %)%.6. The orange precipitate in table ! indicates a higher concentration of sucrose / eD. Correct answer in µm. (a) (i) *ucrose is a non+reducing sugar therefore gives negative result #with . ! (b) &/ !/ (/ 7/ 9/ 3dd #biuret solution (at room temperature) / G 6 and Cu* #*tated / eDual) volumes of both protein solutions. Intensity comparison / #dar. 8ucleus/chromatin/nucleoplasm. It is hydrolysed into #monosaccharides / glucose and fructose / reducing sugars). ! (ii) &/ !/ (/ 7/ "altose is #detected / eD$ at a lower concentration. Eesicles #brea. (a) (b) 3 . 3ctivation energy1 (/ )nergy needed for a chemical reaction to begin. "odified / carbohydrate added / become glycoproteins. (molecules) carried to Golgi / (vesicles) fuse with Golgi. 7$. Compared to a glucose solution of same (molarity / concentration$ eD. off (from cisternae) / form$. Therefore twice as much glucose after being hydrolysed. 7/ )nBymes reduce it. 7 [8] 8. ( (c) 9 [10] 7. (a) Catalyst1 &/ (Chemical that) #speeds up / increases rate of$ a reaction. Control of one other variable (e/g/ time' temperature' volume of biuret). (vesicles) fuse (with cell membrane). (proteins) concentrated. %eference to e4ocytosis. ! Correctly measured length.

& & ( (iv) &/ !/ (/ 7/ 9/ :/ ( [12] 4 . 3fter si4 days more cellulose bro.down of solutions at different concentrations Aisulphide bonds maintain #(tertiary/(A)structure/shape$.down even more. Glycosidic (β+&'7) &/ !/ (/ 7/ 9/ Hse water as basis to compare effect. Credit manipulations of data to compare brea.' the active site will be altered. Cellulose will no longer fit into the active site / eD.en down at lower concentrations. 3s copper ions increase more enBymes are affected. #Increase in concentration / higher concentrations) decreases rate of brea.down. %eference to non+active site directed inhibitor. If disulphide bonds brea. Copper sulphate decreases rate of cellulose brea. Cellulose will not be digested.(b) (i) (ii) (iii) 6ydrolysis.