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HISTORY

In 1898 Ferdinand Porsche designed the Lohner-Porsche carriage, a series-hybrid vehicle that used a one-cylinder gasoline internal combustion engine that spun a generator which powered four wheel-mounted electric motors !he car was presented at the 19"" #orld $%hibition in Paris !he up to &' (m)h *+& mph, fast carriage bro(e several -ustrian speed records, and also won the $%elberg .ally in 19"1 with Porsche himself driving /ver +"" of the Lohner-Porsche carriages were sold to the public -ltough this is more an e%ample of electrical transmission than a hybrid vehice !he 191& 0ual Power made by the #oods 1otor 2ehicle electric car ma(er had a four cylinder internal combustion engine and an electric motor 3elow 1& mph *4& (m)h, the electric motor alone drove the vehicle and above this speed the 5main5 engine cut in to ta(e the car up to its +& mph *&& (m)h, top speed -bout '"" were made up to 1918 647 !here have also been air engine hybrids where a small petrol engine powered a compressor 8everal types of air engines also increased the range between fill-ups with up to '"9 by absorbing ambient heat from its surroundings 617 In 19&9 the development of the first transistor-based electric car - the :enney ;ilowatt heralded the development of the electronic speed control that paved the way for modern hybrid electric cars !he :enney ;ilowatt was the first modern production electric vehicle and was developed by a cooperative effort between <ational =nion $lectric >ompany, :enney >oachwor(s, .enault, and the $ure(a #illiams >ompany -lthough sales of the ;ilowatt were dismal, the development of the ;ilowatt served was a historical 5who?s who5 of electric propulsion technology - more recent wor(ing prototype of the electric-hybrid vehicle was built by 2ictor #ou( *one of the scientists involved with the :enney ;ilowatt and also brother of author :erman #ou( , #ou(?s wor( with electric hybrid vehicles in the 19'"s and 19@"s earned the title as the 5Aodfather of the :ybrid5 6+7, #ou( installed a prototype electrichybrid drivetrain into a 19@4 3uic( 8(ylar( provided by A1 for the 19@" Federal >lean >ar Incentive Program, but the program was (illed by the $P- in 19@' 8ince then, hobbyists have continued to build hybrids but none was put into mass production by a maBor manufacturer until the waning years of the twentieth century !he regenerative-bra(ing hybrid, the core design concept of most production hybrids, was developed by $lectrical $ngineer 0avid -rthurs around 19@8 using off-the shelf components and an /pel A! :owever the voltage controller to lin( the batteries, motor *a Bet-engine starter motor,, and 0> generator was 1r -rthurs? !he vehicle e%hibited C@& mpg fuel efficiency and plans for it *as well as somewhat updated versions, are still available through the 1other $arth <ews web site !he 1other $arth <ews? own 198" version claimed nearly 8D mpg !he 3ill >linton administration initiated the Partnership for a <ew Aeneration of 2ehicles *P<A2,6D7 program in 8eptember 49, 199+ that involved >hrysler, Ford,

Aeneral 1otors, =8>-., the 0o$, and other various governmental agencies to engineer the ne%t efficient and clean vehicle !he <.> cited automa(ersE moves to produce hybrid electric vehicles as evidence that technologies developed under P<A2 were being rapidly adopted on production lines, as called for under Aoal 4 3ased on information received from automa(ers, <.> reviewers Fuestioned whether the G3ig !hreeH would be able to move from the concept phase to cost effective, pre-production prototype vehicles by 4""D, as set out in Aoal + 6.eview of the .esearch Program of the Partnership for a <ew Aeneration of 2ehiclesI 8eventh .eport, <ational .esearch >ouncil, *4""1,, p @@7 !he program was replaced by the hydrogen focused Freedom>-. initiative6&7 of Aeorge # 3ush?s administration in 4""1 !he focus of the Freedom>-. initiative being to fund research too high ris( for the private sector to engage in with the long term goal of developing emission ) petroleum free vehicles In the intervening period, the widest use of hybrid technology was actually in dieselelectric locomotives It is also used in diesel-electric submarines, which operate in essentially the same manner as hybrid electric cars :owever, in this case the goal was to allow operation underwater without consuming large amounts of o%ygen, rather than economiJing on fuel 8ince then, many submarines have moved to nuclear power, which can operate underwater indefinitely, though a number of nations continue to rely on diesel-electric fleets -utomotive hybrid technology became successful in the 199"s when the :onda Insight and !oyota Prius became available !hese vehicles have a direct lin(age from the internal combustion engine to the driven wheels, so the engine can provide acceleration power !he 4"""s saw development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles *P:$2s,, which can be recharged from the electrical power grid and do not reFuire conventional fuel for short trips !he .enault ;angoo was the first production model of this design, released in France in 4""+ :owever, the environmental benefits of plug-in hybrids depend somewhat on the source of the electrical power In particular, electricity generated with wind would be cleaner than electricity generated with coal, the most polluting source /n the other hand, electricity generated with coal in a central power plant is still much cleaner than pure gasoline propulsion, due to the much greater efficiencies of a central plant Furthermore, coal is only one source of centrally generated power, and in some places such as >alifornia is only a minor contributor, overshadowed by natural gas and other cleaner sources !he Prius has been in high demand since its introduction <ewer designs have more conventional appearance and are less e%pensive, often appearing and performing identically to their non-hybrid counterparts while delivering &"9 better fuel efficiency !he :onda >ivic :ybrid appears identical to the non-hybrid version, for instance, but delivers about &" =8 mpg *D @ L)1""(m, !he redesigned 4""D !oyota Prius improved passenger room, cargo area, and power output, while increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions !he :onda Insight, while not matching the demand of the Prius, is still being produced and has a devoted base of owners :onda has also released a hybrid version of the -ccord

4""& saw the first hybrid 8=2 released, Ford 1otor >ompany?s Ford $scape :ybrid !oyota and Ford entered into a licensing agreement in 1arch 4""D allowing Ford to use 4" patents from !oyota related to hybrid technology, although Ford?s engine was independently designed and built In e%change for the hybrid licences, Ford licensed patents involving their $uropean diesel engines to !oyota !oyota announced model year 4""& hybrid versions of the !oyota :ighlander and Le%us .K D""h with D#0-i which uses a rear electric motor to power the rear wheels negating the need for a differential !oyota also plans to add hybrid drivetrains to every model it sells in the coming decade For 4""@ Le%us is offering a hybrid version of their A8 sport sedan dubbed the A8D&"h with 5well in e%cess of +""hp5 !he 4""@ >amry :ybrid has been announced and is slated to launch in late 8pring as a 4""@ model It will be built in ;entuc(y, =8- -lso, <issan announced the release of the -ltima hybrid *technology supplied by !oyota, around 4""@ -n . L Pol( survey of 4""+ model year cars showed that hybrid car registrations in the =nited 8tates rose to D+,D+& cars, a 4& 89 increase from 4""4 numbers >alifornia, the nation?s most populous state at one-eighth of the total population, had the most hybrid cars registeredI 11,D4& !he proportionally high number may be partially due to the state?s higher gasoline prices and stricter emissions rules, which hybrids generally have little trouble passing :onda, which offers Insight, >ivic and -ccord hybrids, sold 4',@@+ hybrids in the first 11 months of 4""D !oyota has sold a cumulative +"',8'4 hybrids between 199@ and <ovember 4""D, and :onda has sold a total of 81,8'@ hybrids between 1999 and <ovember 4""D 6'

In 1ay 4""+ L. $ast started test runs with the so called <$ *new energy, train and validated the system?s operability *series hybrid with lithium ion battery, in cold regions In 4""D, .ailPower !echnologies had been running pilots in the =8 with the so called Areen Aoats which led to orders by the =nion Pacific and >anadian Pacific .ailways starting in early 4""&647,6+7,6D7 -lso in 4""& A$ introduced its hybrid shifters on the mar(et !oyota claims to have started with the >oaster :ybrid 3us in 199@ on the Lapanese mar(et In 1ay 4""+ A1 started to tour with hybrid buses developed together with -llison 8everal hundreds of those buses have entered into daily operation in the =8 !he 3lue .ibbon >ity :ybrid bus was presented by :ino, a !oyota affiliate, in Lanuary 4""& In 4""+ A1 introduced a diesel hybrid military *light, truc(, eFuipped with a diesel electric and a fuel cell au%iliary power unit :ybrid light truc(s were introduced 4""D by 1ercedes *:ybrid 8printer, and 1icro-2ett 8P- *0aily 3imodale, International !ruc( and $ngine >orp and $aton >orp have been selected to manufacture diesel-electric

hybrid truc(s for a =8 pilot program serving the utility industry in 4""D In mid 4""& IsuJu introduced the $lf 0iesel :ybrid !ruc( on the Lapanese 1ar(et !hey claim that appro%imately +"" vehicles, mostly route buses are using :inos :I1. *:ybrid Inverter >ontrolled 1otor M .etarder, system !here are many ways to create an electric-internal combustion hybrid !he variety of electric-I>$ designs can be differentiated by how the electric and combustion portions of the powertrain connect, at what times each portion is in operation, and what percent of the power is provided by each hybrid component !wo maBor categories are series hybrids and parallel hybrids, though parallel designs are most common today 1ost hybrids, no matter the specific type, use regenerative bra(ing to recover energy when slowing down the vehicle !his simply involves driving a motor so it acts as a generator 1any designs also shut off the internal combustion engine when it is not needed in order to save energy !hat concept is not uniFue to hybridsN 8ubaru pioneered this feature in the early 198"s, and the 2ol(swagen Lupo +L is one e%ample of a conventional vehicle that shuts off its engine when at a stop 8ome provision must be made, however, for accessories such as air conditioning which are normally driven by the engine Furthermore, the lubrication systems of internal combustion engines are inherently least effective immediately after the engine startsN since it is upon startup that the maBority of engine wear occurs, the freFuent starting and stopping of such systems reduce the lifespan of the engine considerably -lso, start and stop cycles may reduce the engine?s ability to operate at its optimum temperature, thus reducing the engine?s efficiency Series In a series design, the internal combustion engine is not directly connected to the drivetrain at all, but powers an electrical generator instead !his is similar to the operation of diesel-electric train locomotives, e%cept that as of 4""', the overwhelming maBority of diesel-electric locomotives do not store au%iliary power in batteries for use in propulsion, and thus can not be called 5hybrid5 vehicles !his may change if capacitators *8uper or =ltracaps, are used to act as short term storage which is the case for shunting locomotives in the =8 by .ail Power !echnologies 6&7 and motoriJed units at L.-$ast series hybrid is similar to an electric car which is recharged by electricity from a stationary fossil fuel power plant, e%cept that the power plant is carried on board $lectricity from the generator is fed to the motor or motors that actually move the car, and e%cess energy can be used to charge batteries #hen large amounts of power are reFuired, electricity comes from both the battery pac( and the engine-generator section 3ecause electrical motors can operate Fuite efficiently over a wide range of speeds, this design removes or reduces the need for a comple% transmission !he internal combustion engine can also be finely tuned to operate at its most efficient speed whenever it is running, for a great gain in efficiency 8eparate small electric motors installed at each wheel are featured in some prototypes and concept carsN this allows the possibility of

easily controlling the power delivered to each wheel, and therefore simplifies traction control, all wheel drive, and similar features !he advantage of this type of hybrid is the fle%ibility afforded by the lac( of a mechanical lin( between the internal combustion engine and the wheels - wea(ness of a series hybrid system, however, is that series hybrids reFuire separate motor and generator portions, which can be combined in some parallel hybrid designsN the combined efficiency of the motor and generator will be lower than that of a conventional transmission, offsetting the efficiency gains that might otherwise be realiJed -dditionally, the power delivered to the wheels by a series hybrid is limited by the electric motor*s, *which can be overloaded for a limited time however,, whereas in a parallel hybrid both the combustion engine and the electric motor can provide power to the wheels !he use of a motor per wheel eliminates the conventional mechanical transmission elements *gearbo%, transmission shafts, differential, :owever, when the motor is integrated into the wheel, it increases the unsprung masses and for better ride characteristics the motors may be fi%ed to the vehicle body, which reFuires the use of fle%ible couplings to the wheels -lso, mechanical bra(es need to be fitted to the wheels for safety reasons !he use of wheel motors is particularly interesting in vehicles such as urban buses, where it may facilitate the adoption of an all-low-floor design, as well as in all-wheel drive vehicles such as military vehicles *up to 8%8, where it simplifies mechanical design 8eries hybrids are the most efficient in driving cycles that incorporate many stops and starts, such as for delivery vehicles, urban buses or stop and go city driving In such vehicle use, the combustion engine can deliver power at a constant and more efficient rate For long-distance highway driving however, the addition of losses in the electric transmission comes forward and a parallel hybrid may be more advisable Fuel cell vehicles are often fitted with a battery or supercapacitor to deliver pea( acceleration power and to reduce the siJe and power constraints on the fuel cellN this is effectively also a series-style setup 6edit7 Parallel Parallel systems, which are most commonly produced at present, connect both the electrical and internal combustion systems to the mechanical transmission !hey can be subcategoriJed depending upon how balanced the different portions are at providing motive power In some cases, the internal combustion engine is the dominant portion and is used for primary power, with the motor turning on only when a boost is needed /thers can run with Bust the electric system operating alone 1ost designs combine a large electrical generator and a motor into one unit, often situated between the internal combustion engine and the transmission, in the location of the flywheel, replacing both

the conventional starter motor and the generator or alternator - large battery pac( is reFuired, providing a higher voltage than the normal automotive 14 volts -ccessories such as power steering and air conditioning are powered by electric motors, so that they continue to function when the internal combustion engine is stoppedN this offers the possibility of further efficiency gains, by modulating the electrical power delivered to these systems, rather than having them run directly from the engine at a speed which depends on engine speed 6edit7 Full hybrid - full hybrid, sometimes also called a strong hybrid, is a vehicle that can run on Bust the engine, Bust the batteries, or a combination of both !he Prius and $scape :ybrids are e%amples of this, as both cars can be moved forward on battery power alone - large, high-capacity battery pac( is needed for battery-only operation !hese vehicles have a split power path that allows more fle%ibility in the drivetrain by interconverting mechanical and electrical power, at some cost in comple%ity !o balance the forces from each portion, the vehicles use a differential-style lin(age between the engine and motor connected to the head end of the transmission !he !oyota brand name for this technology is :ybrid 8ynergy 0rive, which is being used in the Prius, :ighlander sport-utility vehicle *8=2,, and >amry - computer oversees operation of the entire system, determining which half should be running, or if both should be in use, shutting off the internal combustion engine when the electric motor is sufficient to provide the power !he normal mode of operation is on electrical power alone, with the gasoline engine running only in cases where the e%tra power is reFuired, or where the batteries are discharged !he hybrid drivetrain of the Prius, in combination with aerodynamics and optimiJations in the engine itself to reduce drag, results in 8"9O 1""9 gains in fuel economy compared to four-door conventional cars of similar weight and siJe 6edit7 Input-split Hybrid !he !oyota :ybrid 8ystem !:8 ) :ybrid 8ynergy 0rive mode of operation with only a single power split device *incorporated as a single + shaft planetary gearset, is more generically called Input-8plit :ybrid, due to the fact that a fi%ed amount of torFue is transferred via the electrical path from the engine to the wheels !his in turn ma(es this setup very simple in mechanical terms, but does have some drawbac(s of its own For e%ample the ma%imum speed is mainly limited by the speed of the smaller electric motor -lso, the efficiency of the transmission is heavily dependent on the amount of power being transmitted over the electrical path, as multiple conversions, each with their own, less than perfect efficiency, lead to a low efficiency of that path *C" @, compared with the purely mechanical path *C" 98, $specially in higher speed regimes *P14" (m)h or @"

mph, the efficiency *of the transmission alone, therefore drops below that of a generic automatic transmission with hydrodynamic coupler !he main principle behind this system is the more-or-less complete decoupling of the power supplied by the engine *or other primary source, from the power demanded by the driver !hus a smaller, less fle%ible engine may be used, which is designed for ma%imum efficiency *often using variations of the conventional /tto cycle, such as the 1iller or -t(inson cycle, !his contributes significantly to the higher overall efficiency of the vehicle, with regenerative bra(ing playing a much smaller role !he differing torFue vs rpm characteristics of the internal combustion and electrical motors operate synergisticallyN an internal combustion engine?s torFue is minimal at lower .P1s, since the engine must be its own air pump !hus, the need for reasonably rapid acceleration from a standing start results in an engine which is much larger than reFuired for steady speed cruising /n the other hand, an electrical motor e%hibits ma%imum torFue at stallN therefore this engine is well suited to complement the internal combustion engine?s torFue deficiency at low .P1s, allowing the use of a much smaller and therefore more fuel efficient engine Interesting variations of that simple theme, as very well (nown *implemented in the !oyota Prius, are the

addition of a fi%ed gear second planetary gearset as used in the Le%us .KD""h and !oyota :ighlander :ybrid !his allows for a motor with less torFue but higher power *and higher ma%imum rotary speed,, ie higher power density addition of a ravigneu%-type planetary gear *planetary gear with D shafts instead of +, and two clutches as used in the Le%us A8D&"h 3y switching the clutches, the gear ratio from 1A4 *the 5drive5 motor, to the wheel shaft is switched, either for higher torFue or higher speed *up to 4&" (m)h ) 1&& mph, while sustaining better transmission efficiency

6edit7 Combined-Split Hybrid Aeneral 1otors, 31#, and 0aimler>hrysler are wor(ing together on a so-called !wo1ode :ybrid system which is a full hybrid plus additional efficiency improvements !he technology will be released in 4""8 on the >hevrolet !ahoe :ybrid !he system was also featured on the A1> Araphite 8=2 concept vehicle at the 4""& <orth -merican International -uto 8how in 0etroit 687 !he main difference to the Input-8plit :ybrid is the addition of a second planetary gearset, and the addition of two clutches *which can actually operate as one, !his enables the switching *two-modes, of the percentage of mechanically vs electrically transmitted power, and in order to cope both with low- and high-speed regimes, only

smaller electrical motors with much less power and torFue can be used :owever, no diagrams could be obtained so far e%plaining the D gear-ratios *and why that would impose limits on the concurrent use of both electric motors or not, 1ost li(ely, an additional, +rd ravigneu%-li(e planetary gear with additional clutches is used for shifting between distinct final gear ratios 6edit7 Assist hybrid

$ngine compartment of a 4""' 1ercury 1ariner :ybrid Assist hybrids use the engine for primary power, with a torFue-boosting electric motor also connected to a largely conventional powertrain !he electric motor is essentially a very large starter motor, which operates not only when the engine needs to be turned over, but also when the driver 5steps on the gas5 and reFuires e%tra power :onda?s hybrids including the Insight use this design, leveraging their reputation for design of small, efficient gasoline enginesN their system is dubbed Integrated 1otor -ssist *I1-, -ssist hybrids differ fundamentally from full hybrids in that they cannot run on electric power alone :owever, since the amount of electrical power needed is much smaller, the siJe of the battery systems is reduced - variation on this type is 1aJda?s e-D#0 system, offered on the 1aJda 0emio sold in Lapan !his front-wheel drive vehicle has an electric motor which can drive the rear wheels when e%tra traction is needed !he system is entirely disengaged in all other driving conditions, so it does not enhance performance or economy Ford has dubbed :onda?s hybrids 5mild5 in their advertising for the $scape :ybrid, arguing that the $scape?s full hybrid design is more efficient :owever, assist hybrids should not be confused with actual mild hybrids li(e the >hevrolet 8ilverado :ybrid 6edit7 ild hybrid

$ngine compartment of a 4""' A1> 8ierra :ybrid ild hybrids are essentially conventional vehicles with oversiJed starter motors, allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting, bra(ing, or stopped, yet restart Fuic(ly and cleanly -ccessories can continue to run on electrical power while the engine is off, and as in other hybrid designs, the motor is used for regenerative bra(ing to recapture energy !he larger motor is used to spin up the engine to operating rpm speeds before inBecting any fuel 1any people do not consider these to be hybrids at all, and these vehicles do not achieve the fuel economy of full hybrid models - maBor e%ample is the 4""& >hevrolet 8ilverado :ybrid, a full-siJe pic(up truc( >hevrolet was able to get a 1"9 improvement on the 8ilverado?s fuel efficiency by shutting down and restarting the engine on demand 1ild hybrids often use D8 volt systems to supply the power needed for the startup motor, as well as to compensate for the increasing number of electronic accessories on modern vehicles Aeneral 1otors followed the pic(up truc( hybrid with their 3elt alternator starter *3-8, hybrid system, used in the 4""' 8aturn 2=$ Areen Line It operates in much the same manner as the 5start-stop5 system in the 8ilverado, but the electric motor can also provide modest assist under acceleration 6edit7 Plug-in hybrid

!he number of =8 survey respondents willing to pay QD,""" more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 1@9 in 4""& to 4'9 in 4""' Main article: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle - plug-in hybrid ele!tri! "ehi!le *PH#$, is a full hybrid, able to run in electric-only mode, with larger batteries and the ability to recharge from the electric power grid !hey are also called gas-optional, or griddable hybrids !heir main benefit is that they can be gasoline-independent for daily commuting, but also have the e%tended range of a hybrid for long trips !hey can also be multi-fuel, with the electric power supplemented by diesel, biodiesel, or hydrogen !he $lectric Power .esearch Institute?s research indicates a lower total cost of ownership for P:$2s due to reduced service costs and gradually improving batteries !he 5well-to-wheel5 efficiency and emissions of P:$2s compared to gasoline hybrids depends on the energy sources of the grid *the =8 grid is &"9 coalN >alifornia?s grid is primarily natural gas, hydroelectric power, and wind power, Particular interest in P:$2s is in >alifornia where a 5million solar homes5 initiative is under way, and global warming legislation has been enacted Prototypes of P:$2s, with larger battery pac(s that can be recharged from the power grid, have been built in the = 8 , notably at Prof -ndy Fran(?s :ybrid >enter 697 at => 0avis and one production P:$2, the .enault ;angoo, went on sale in France in 4""+ 0aimler>hrysler is currently building P:$2s based on the 1ercedes-3enJ 8printer van Light !ruc(s are also offered by 1icro-2ett 8P-61"7 the so called 0aily 3imodale !he >alifornia >ars Initiative has converted the ?"D and newer !oyota Prius to become a prototype of what it calls the P.I=8R #ith the addition of +"" lb of lead-acid batteries, the P.I=8R achieves roughly double the gasoline mileage of a standard Prius and can ma(e trips of up to 1" miles using only electric power 6117 Plug -in :ybrid are li(e 8eries :ybrids Loseph L .omm and Prof Fran( co-authored an article, 5:ybrid 2ehicles Aain !raction5, published in the -pril 4""' issue of 8cientific -merican, in which they argue that P:$2s will soon become standard in the automobile industry

See alsoI vehicle to grid 6edit7 Hydrauli! hybrid - hydraulic hybrid vehicle uses hydraulic and mechanical components instead of electrical ones - variable displacement pump replaces the motor)generator, and a hydraulic accumulator *which stores energy as highly compressed nitrogen gas, replaces the batteries !he hydraulic accumulator, which is essentially a pressure tan(, is potentially cheaper and more durable than batteries :ydraulic hybrid technology was originally developed by 2olvo Flygmotor and was used e%perimentally in buses from the early 198"s and is still an active area Initial concept involved a giant flywheel for storage connected to a hydrostatic transmission, but it was later changed to a simpler system using a hydraulic accumulator connected to a hydraulic pump)motor It is also being actively developed by $aton and several other companies, primarily in heavy vehicles li(e buses, truc(s and military vehicles -n e%ample is the Ford F-+&" 1ighty !on(a concept truc( shown in 4""4 It features an $aton system that can accelerate the truc( up to highway speeds 6edit7 Pneumati! hybrid >ompressed air can also power a hybrid car with a gasoline compressor to provide the power 10I in France produces such air cars *8ee video, -n -ustralian company invented a highly efficient air engine which may ma(e pneumatic hybrid vehicle more competitive - team led by !su->hin !sao, a =>L- mechanical and aerospace engineering professor, is collaborating with engineers from Ford to get Pneumatic hybrid technology up and running !he system is similar to that of a hybrid-electric vehicle in that bra(ing energy is harnessed and stored to assist the engine as needed during acceleration 6edit7 High-Po%er &iodiesel Hybrid !he newest hybrid still yet to reach the mar(et is the :igh-Power 3iodiesel :ybrid *:P3:, !hese cars run on a hybrid engine with a mi% of fuels and have e%cellent fuel efficiency and power In 4""', 8tudents from Philadelphia created a :P3: car which used soybean fuel that could go from "-'" mph in D " seconds and still achieve &" 1PA 6'7