Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 435

Criminology / by Dr Arthur Mac Donald,...

Source gallica.bnf.fr / Bibliothque municipale de Lyon-part Dieu

Mac Donald, Arthur. Criminology / by Dr Arthur Mac Donald,.... 1893.

1/ Les contenus accessibles sur le site Gallica sont pour la plupart des reproductions numriques d'oeuvres tombes dans le domaine public provenant des collections de la BnF.Leur rutilisation s'inscrit dans le cadre de la loi n78-753 du 17 juillet 1978 : *La rutilisation non commerciale de ces contenus est libre et gratuite dans le respect de la lgislation en vigueur et notamment du maintien de la mention de source. *La rutilisation commerciale de ces contenus est payante et fait l'objet d'une licence. Est entendue par rutilisation commerciale la revente de contenus sous forme de produits labors ou de fourniture de service. Cliquer ici pour accder aux tarifs et la licence

2/ Les contenus de Gallica sont la proprit de la BnF au sens de l'article L.2112-1 du code gnral de la proprit des personnes publiques. 3/ Quelques contenus sont soumis un rgime de rutilisation particulier. Il s'agit : *des reproductions de documents protgs par un droit d'auteur appartenant un tiers. Ces documents ne peuvent tre rutiliss, sauf dans le cadre de la copie prive, sans l'autorisation pralable du titulaire des droits. *des reproductions de documents conservs dans les bibliothques ou autres institutions partenaires. Ceux-ci sont signals par la mention Source gallica.BnF.fr / Bibliothque municipale de ... (ou autre partenaire). L'utilisateur est invit s'informer auprs de ces bibliothques de leurs conditions de rutilisation.

4/ Gallica constitue une base de donnes, dont la BnF est le producteur, protge au sens des articles L341-1 et suivants du code de la proprit intellectuelle. 5/ Les prsentes conditions d'utilisation des contenus de Gallica sont rgies par la loi franaise. En cas de rutilisation prvue dans un autre pays, il appartient chaque utilisateur de vrifier la conformit de son projet avec le droit de ce pays. 6/ L'utilisateur s'engage respecter les prsentes conditions d'utilisation ainsi que la lgislation en vigueur, notamment en matire de proprit intellectuelle. En cas de non respect de ces dispositions, il est notamment passible d'une amende prvue par la loi du 17 juillet 1978. 7/ Pour obtenir un document de Gallica en haute dfinition, contacter reutilisation@bnf.fr.







and Weakling as Related to the Abnormal Specialist in Education Member of the MedicoClasses, U. S. Bureau of Education: -Vew York, and the Anthropological Society, Legal D. C, and U. S. Delegate Society, Washington, to the International Society of Criminal at Brussels, i8q2 Anthropology






KMedicine at the University


of Tw^&J&ffl'yk

-' '

hi THE

/ y&^









for this


of Rochester : A. B., 1879 ; A. M.. 1S83. University Princeton and Andover Theological Seminaries, 1879 and 1881. Union Theological Seminar}'. 1S80-1S83. Harvard Post Graduate Courses in PhiUniversity: and Theology, losophy, Metaphysics, 1SS3-1885. in : Appointed Fellow Johns Hopkins University 18S5. Psychology, European Training, 18S5 to 1S89 : of Berlin, Medicine and Science. Univeisity of Leipzig, University Psycho-Physics. of Paris, CI.meal and Experimental University Medicine. Universities of Zurich Clark and Vienna. Docent Psychiatry, in Crimiin and

Hypnotism, Criminology. Mass.: Worcester, University,

nology, 18S9-1891. United States Bureau of Education Weakling as Classes,

: Specialist Education Related to the Abnormal 1892.


1892, by the


at Stationers' Hall,

London, England.]







;BY PROF, CESARE LOMBROSO, OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN, ITALY IT is well that the problem of the science of crimhas been attacked from its

of the type. When this it will no longer be possible to deny the organicity of crime, its anatomical nature and degenerative source; and then all the new reforms, such as institutions for incorrigible and insane criminals, will become a necessity. This point, as to the type, is scarcely recognized, even b)' the most respectable savants. The reasons for this are many: Above all, there are the criminals by occasion or by passion, who do not belong to the type, and should not, for in great part it is the circumstances, and often the laws even, which make them criminals, and not nature. And then ideas concerning the criminal some have strange type. No doubt if the acceptation of the idea of type it cannot is carried out in its complete universality, be accepted; but I have already said in my previous

inal anthropology most important side, that is once resolved, problem


that it is necessar3r to receive this writings idea with the same reserve with which one in statistics. When it is appreciates averages said that the average of life is 32 years, and thai the month least fatal to life is December, no one understands all, or almost all, men by this that should die at 32 j'ears, and in the month of December; but I am not the only one to make this restriction. In order to show this, I have only to cite the definitions which Monsieur himself Topinard, the most inveterate of my adversaries, gives in his " The remarkable work. is a type,'' says Gratiolet, "The "synthetic impression." type," says Goethe, is " the abstract and general image," which we deduce from the observation of common parts and " The from differences. type of a species," adds " never Isidorus G. Saint-Hilaire, appears before our eyes, but is perceived only by the mind." " Human " have no real existwrites Broca, types," ideals, which ence, the)'' are abstract conceptions, come from the comparison of ethnic varieties, and are composed of an ensemble of characters common to a certain number among themselves." I agree full)' with these different points of view. The type is indeed an ensemble of traits, but in reit is also the lation to a group,which it characterizes, ensemble of and those traits, prominent the most often, whence comes repeating a series of consequences which the anthropologist should never lose sight of either in his laboratory or in the midst of the populations of Central Africa. its most themselves



Isidorus G. Saint-Hilaire says the type is a sort and a common center, about which of fixed point in a diverse the differences presented are deviations indefinite and varied sense and oscillationsa about which nature seems to play, as anpoint atomists used to say, and as is said still in the a picture so perfect. a series of skulls, a certain Take, however, one in a good condition of homogeneity, such as, for example, the first series of Auvergnat, which was studied by Broca. This series came from an old mountain in a separated cemetery, locality, us once for all that the skulls represent reminding individuals, handle them at his ease. Sometimes with this advantage, that one can at will and measure and arrange them there Germanic languages. An example seems useless after

are less generic reasons which the type ; and this produce skepticism concerning is ignorance of what the type is really. Thus, it is very strange to see Joty, in his" Young Prisoners," of the chief ones, which illusgive the portraits trate the most complete type, and after this den)' the type. Likewise Magnan (" Actes du Congres Criminelle de Paris") presents two d'Anthropologie of seven with the most complete criminal portraits type, and yet he denies its existence. Now, he is he would certainly acting in good faith, otherwise not have presented a document which contradicts his assertions. It is evident that he is in error as to what the type is. The same is the case with who denied the median occipital Manouvrier, fossa,



in believing that it was a really nutritive depresI am glad, however, sion. that the subject is treated in North where our school has America, taken such deep root, and has already found practical applications, as at Elmira. And thus, if the new ideas originating in the Old World shall die not of him who there, sterilized by the neglect, created them, but of him who does not comprehend them, and shall find in the New World those them by fertilizing and applyperpetuate ing them, so the grape, the fruit of the vine, the first and the first sin of the Asiatic patriarch consolation, will World commence modified to return to us from the New and improved. who will


IN Part mainly vidual author America. the

I. the results

of the researches

of others

have been given. Part II. consists of indiand typical cases personalty studied by the in penal and reformatory of institutions from side.

The "type" has been considered rather than the physical psychological

The author

takes great pleasure in acknowledging his indebtedness first, and most of all, to Lombroso for inel." his epoch-making Much assistance excellent work," L'Homme Crimfrom and has also been derived " Les treatise, Criminels,"

Dr. Corre's

some of the writings been freely consulted: Aubry, Benedikt, kindly of the Jille offered and

of the following authors have von Krafft-Ebing, Bernheim, de la Tourette, von Holder, Laurent, Tenchini. every The author, by those special pleasure also too, was assistance in which in charge cases were


studied; edging locked

and he takes the up same. with

great He was

in acknowlto be it was cells.


permitted criminals whom out of their


to allow dangerous The endeavor has been to follow






personal names first


in the

cases been

studied, omitted.



of the The is

of places, portion


of the to of the

bibliography languages. practical

(Part The side


divided treat

according more

English of crim-

works inology. The Ferri's arranged directly

second recent

portion, work,


of which

is taken Criminale,"

from is more

"Sociologia heads, side

under to the

special scientific D. C,



of criminolog}".








Criminal typeType scarcely recognizedReasons not belonging to type Criminals by occasion of type limitedDefiStrange ideas of typeIdea of Gratiolet, and nitions Goethe, Saint-Hilaiie, traits an ensemble of prominent BrocaType Skulls easily arranged Joly's inconsistency root of Error of Magnan and ManouvrierDeep school in AmericaIdeas to return to Europe and improved modified Preface PART I.GENERAL I.THE CRIMINOLOGY. EVOLUTION OF CRIME.

i-iv v-vi


methAbsolute impartiality impossibleDescriptive of crimePhenomena od in scienceEmbryology of life in war patriotic closely alliedTaking realms explain Nature a synthetic wholeLower of of nature cruelEquivalents higherActs on histological conditions murderDependence of crime, increase from vegetable to Equivalents Irresistible Infanticide animal Cannibalism of weather on animalsTheft impulseInfluence of kleptomaniaInanimals Species among on animalsSwindling and fluence of alcohol deceit of animalsMeannessSense of property of animalsPrehistoric races Punishment the rulePhilologiMan's progress slowCrime



increase of population cal evidenceExcessive ordained Homicides comby religionAbortion Mexican monAncient New aristocracyThe in Sweden, New Zealand, CaledoniansCustom of assassins Idea of property etc. Celebrity from point of view of savage wantingCrime Greatest of crimes Natural conservatism Arabs, AbyssiniansRudimentary Brahmins, jus of despotism Theft a serious tice Increase a secondary offenseDuels crimeMurder first Compensation for legal forms of punishment of chiefs increasedMuscular vengeancePower of crime in infancy force not sufficientGerms of anger in childrenWays of maniFrequency and festation Children's lying', love, cruelty, murderImpure origin of justiceVengeance Lynch lawExtreme egotism of man.War.,.. CHAPTER II.-THE PHYSICAL CRIMINAL. of childrenAnomaliesPhysically Measurements childrenEffect of education defectiveCriminal normal and criminalAdultsWeight Minors, of different classes of criminalsPhysiHealth of eximpressionsClassification ognomyFirst thieves, pedtypeMurderers, pressionsEthnic erasts, swindlers, forgers, etc.HairEyePhysi Illustrative type proverbsFacial ognomical to distinguish musclesDifficult recidivistsTatsoldiersCauses of tooing of sailors, prostitutes, Comparative tattooing Craniology study and intellig'enceWeight Cranial of capacity craniumSemi-horizontal circumference-Auricular angles, table Curves Cephalic index most common Vertical and Brachycephalic frontal indicesCorre's resultsCranial anom of asymmetry and alies, table Surroundings and membersHomicides, hereditySkeleton violators, thieves, assassins, idiotsCerebrology brain weightAnomaliesConcluComparative of present knowledgeRecipsionInadequacy rocal influence of brain and craniumPathologv SIDE





of prison Regularity in thievesPremature



senility, agitated tableProstitutionPathological Mortality, tableValvular omy, insufficiencyLiver stomach CHAPTER General III.PSYCHOLOGY OF

health life anatand 36-69


lessMeteoric sensibility sensibility greater of sight, hearingLeft-handednessAnomalies vascular Blushing Sphygmography, mobility casesViolators' feeble reflexesLonreaction of of insensibility criminalsEffects gevity as great as physical--Peculiar acts of Moral

criminalsSentimentsInstability always present extreme Vanity, casesVengeance Cruelty lust-murdersWine and gambling and sexuality, fast lifeCrime and insanity Other tendencies, and passions, Sensibility savagery, impetuosity Conduct at execuVulnerability, analgesia Suicide defiant, tions, fainting, loquacious of criminalsGlaring contraSoldiersReligion dictions CHAPTER IV.INTELLIGENCE OF CRIMINALS.


the averageLacenaire's Selow testimonyCredlack of ulousness, levity, foresightSpecialists in crimeSuperstitionsPoisoners, of species assassinsIdlers and vagrantsCriminthieves, rare scientists and als of geniusCrime among and crime-Poets mathematiciansEducation of education in France, and artistsPer cent, with Austria, ItalyCompared insaneSlanginto criminal Insight mind-Objects by attributes, for guards, disguiseMany synonyms phonetic ideas of criminals- drunkenness, moneyFew and signaturesIn Naples Cyiminal hieroglyphics and SicilyTwo of the insane, groupsWriting of criminals over lettersLiterature points The ancientsDescriptions of species of swindlers and vagabondsProduct of leisure hours ./Esthetical Old friends in prison % feeling

X " Tiravallura


"Criminal of venmaximsSongs " To influgeanceLacenaire, my Love "Bad ence of prisonNovice blushesFirst step taken Bad miasmaProductions passionsLiterary of the insane





tendencies deCriminality strengthenedSavage velopedVanityConstant purposeSexCharacter of associationDivision of laborCriminal of punishmentMethod idea of trialAid of fitThe Camorra womenFeigning epileptic for candidacyEnemy of HierarchyAspirants " Si " of authorityExposure lifeBanquetThe Distribution of "la Camorra"ExtortionsThe tenth sufferDeath partThe poor penalty, Determination of guiltCertainty of punishment The of Camorrists MaffiaWordVariety of MaffiaCodeProKeeping secretsOrigin tection of the richVengeanceAnarchy Thieves and assassinsArgot"Picciotti" detectionWhen to use arms Avoiding 119-128




of LacenaireContagion ReformationTestimony the from of pressCasesTropmanReading confessionFiner sensibilinovelsSignificant ties hardenedWeaklings affectedContagion and or revolverWomenSeduction by vitriol of the crowdFalse abandonmentApproval less employedProgress of heroinePoisoning science ..129-135 CHAPTER VII.CRIMINAL HYPNOTISM.

of voluntary stateSemblence ViolationLethargic Somaction Memory confused Simulation nambulismDoubtful of Jilles offensesOpinion de la TouretteExperimental casesPost-hypnotic statesCharcot's to hypnocaseSubject - tism Danger to hypnotiser perHysterical states sonsSterno-mastoid muscleAnalogue



of LiegoisFalse Irresistible forceExperiment fearPrecautions testimony through Duty of of suggesting to witness magistrateDanger of suggestibilityCriminal Determination sugof BernheimInfluence of hypgestionsCases nosisIndirect influence on other patientsExplanation of noted caseChambigeSubconscious state in loveSuggestion, passion irresistible automatismCase of young lady Idio-dvnamic of love during somand physicianConfession of sugnambulismSuspicious pregnancyCase existlawyerDouble personalityPast gestible for swindlingNormal ence forgottenArrested degrees of transpersons at times capriciousAll formationThe role of suggestion in morality Greatest criminals not always most guilt)'Case of LaurentKrafft-Ebing's case of theftAuto and experimental hypnosisCase of romance Simulated 136-154 hypnotism CHAPTER VIII.RECIDIVATION. a professionReformation rarePrison or Crime Defective asylum prison discipline deepens names, coarseness, audacious criminalityFalse of severe punishmentFirst stage plotsNecessity of insanityAlcoholics seldom thievesPersecutive hallucinationsVon Holder's classification Crime and insanity, distorted manifestations of inclinations commonCivilization mindCriminal in Belgium, and recidivation increaseStatistics of habitual Prussia, Austria, FrancePersistency seldom crime Criminal purposesProstitutes in Prussia, Belgium, reformCellular system notions of crime Increase of FranceLegal sensePoint of view of crime in youngMoral sense feebleFeelings of crimicriminalsMoral of honorDeep remorse a myth nalsIdea to justifyLacenaireConfesTableConfession and sion of the Marquise of BrinvillesInconstancy moral metamorphosisCrimivoluptuousness nals' argumentsTwo kinds of justice, natural and artificialThieves' meeting in LondonDivision of bootyMutual 155-166 jealousy







into typical the DetailsInsight casesRepetition ruleValue of single casesVisiting reformatoriesPure murder and meannessThe theft, worst casesPrison environment knownSignificance of complaintsOrder of procedurePrevious of prisoner knowledge importantMethod of interviewAbnormal casesEach case presented so as to leave reader independentImof slight about portance offensesKnowledge after leaving prisoners prisonAdvancementInstitutions useful to society for stud)'Knowledge of causes' first stepDegree of cure important Exact rareNeed of exact methods knowledge of criminal at moment of crime imPsychology of scientific portantBeginning 169-173 sociology




CASE " A."

Characteristics of murderersHeredityCause of murderUnconscious of repulsionCasesHeroism and ferocityAutobiography of " A "Evil home surroundingsDrunken of fatherTeasing to kill animalsRoving inanimalsTendency stinctInterest in seeing thingsStoning of old " of of institution A," from records ladyHistory of autovery poorFacts Family confirmatory etc.Previous edubiographyWeight, height, discationComplaints against "A"Making turbance, doing poor workStealingAssaulting with knifePunishmentRelease from institution of officers; to boys, Testimony disagreeable strikes does not care how he works them; at suicideGood scholarNo meAttempt chanical not hilarious vicious, abilityNot Has spells, and staresSometimes with sillyNot other muchHardlv knows what he does boys " A " when and badLetter of excitedBright " A " farmerExamination of of Testimony Idea of his homeHis old account of stoning



of retaliationCruelty womanAngerIdea to Lack of self-controlIntended Dizzy feeling. at Suinot feel to blameAttempt murderDid examinationCraniology cidePhysiological to of repulsion : not epilepticWant Conclusion too soon freedom lifeAllowed, 174-203 taking CHAPTER Idea II.PURE THEFT.

and popuof theftIncorrigibilityLiberality " B," historyFather intemperate larityCase disorder Previous arrestsComplaintsGeneral habits BurglarizingInsubordinationFilthy guiltyTestimony pleads ImpudenceGenerally at trade, bad in schoolA of officersGood good of evilIndomitable of knowledge soldierProud durdesiresBehavior in religious willSincere criesInterview with ing punishmentSeldom " B "Not when talkativeState very young himResults Father unfavorablePhywhipped sical and craniological examinationAsymmetry of headConclusionStrong passion for stealing doubtful influencesReformation Hereditary of institutionAntecedents Case " C "Records willful Good familyConduct reportGeneral disobedienceSchool recordLettersSigning false checkCraniologyPhysinameForged cal examinationNo special abnormalityGood of officers risk for life insuranceTestimony " fellow workman" Slick shoesGood Stealing obstruction on railwith "C"Put Interview with a woman road" Devil in me "Living associates"C's" Stole apples when youngBad at idea for improving disciplineLying prison schoolExcuse for bad behaviorVisited places at nightPlayed poolLoose girlsParole " D "Testimony of Case ConclusionHistory of officersConduct in another reformatoryEsto kill a to prisonThreatened on way caped in detectiveParents orderly peopleIngenious with "D "WhippingIntends crimeInterview to him of stealingInjustice to quit crimeCause InventorGenius for escapingElectrocution

XIV ReformationPrison


experienceIll-will to crimeConclusion-CrimiprisonersReturns nal geniusUntruthful and crookedCause his criminality

of of 204-256

CHAPTER III.PURE MEANNESS. " E "Records TermMiss of institution : childdisorderlyAppropriathoodComplaintsVery things ing thingsVulgar talkBreaking " Tantrum "Beyond of controlTestimony and defiantAbandoned officersObsceneOpen with Miss "E" lifeReligionInterview Mother a " run-about"Very bad homeCraniology Physical examinationAutobiography of " F "Records of instituConclusionHistory and surlyTestitionComplaintsImpudent drunkard mony of officersHome poorFather and criminalInterviewWhipped by father Treated well by grandparentsEasily angered examination-Conclusion CraniologyPhysical General making conclusionsSociety practical experimentsRelease only on reasonable probaof reformationIndeterminate sentence bility to society the basis of punishment bestDanger of details Publications in newspapers injurious Foolishness of crime...... 257-272 PART III.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CRIME.

275-287 English of the National of the Congresses Proceedings Prison Association of the United States 287-303 Periodical and Press Literature 304-331 Italian, Spanish, other languages..332-371 French,German, 372-375 Craniology Criminal statistics 376-390 39J-393 Cerebrology 394-400 Psycho-criminal pathology. 401 anatomy Pathological 402-403 Anthropometry 404 Physiognomy of Criminology 405-408 Congresses Index 409-416








conceive THErnosfcimpartial individu/aMv&^can of would be one coming from ajstSther planet, who has no special interest upon this earth, except to see things exactly as they are. But such absolute is impossible it has been ; nevertheless, impartiality one of the efforts of science to endeavor at least to to such an ideal. A large part of the approximate in simple science consists and exact rigid which should be given, of course, description, without to any views that one ma)' conregard We shall attempt hold. sciously or unconsciously in this chapter to describe certain in phenomena all world, which, if occurstages of the animate ring in the sphere of man, would be called criminal. Such a description what constitutes is meant by the evolution, of crime. or the embryology, seemingly unrelated are from the point of view phenomena of nature closely allied. If it be said that we cannot compare of a plant or animal with the action that of man, it may be said also that a comparison of actions




is to




of savages



of civilized

men is



for the greatest of crimes in one can questionable, be the greatest in the other; even in of virtues our present civilisation the taking of life in war is a patriotic virtue. The plant, act, and is therefore regarded as a

the animal, the savage, the child of civilized man himself, are stages man, and civilized in nature, which one into the pass imperceptibly whole. other, and form one synthetic According, method nature ma)' be then, to the natural-history in her lower realms in order to gain an studied into her more insight developed stages ; for the processes of elimination although may be more direct and severe in the beginnings of nature, yet her whole they are in essence the same throughout extent, reaching into the highest spheres of action and thought. From these points of view, man}' of the acts of nature are the most cruel and immoral. The insectivorous the equivalents plants commit of murder. When insects light upon a leaf of the iitricularia these insects neglecfa, it allures by its appendages, plays with thera, catches them in an elastic valve, which closes in behind, and imprisons them until Did we not know that these they die. conditions we depend on histological might suspect ambush, and liberty premeditation, of choice ; for very small insects are refused by this plant. It may be possible that some human crimes likewise depend upon histological conditions. As we pass from the vegetable to the animal, the phenomena number Thus of equivalents of crime increases of life in order to procure taking in variety. food or to










horses, bulls, and stags. cannibalism is sometimes practiced among wolves; one field mice when they fall into a trap devour another ; rats do the same ; porpoises and rabbits even when the}' have been known to do likewise have plenty to eat (Lacassagne) ; once in a while a But with cannibalism, dog. ; the female of the crocodile somegoes infanticide times eats those of her young who do not know how to swim. As among barbarous so peoples, on there has been infanticide civilized, among dog will eat another account abandon off with of bodily Lombroso saw a hen deformity. the weak and lame of her brood and start the

been observed among It is a familiar fact that

are birds robust ones. There who break their eggs and destroy their nests ; monkeys who dash the heads of their young against a tree when the}'' are tired of carrying them. Cats', hares, and dogs furnish the equivalents of infanticide, and the young of foxes practice There parricide. as in men, an irresistible impulse for of passions. The patient dromedaries when agitated become furious, trample those who trouble them under their feet ; but having satisfied their vengeance they become quiet again ; in such cases the Arabs throw their clothes at the and let him vent his rage on these. dromedary In certain after a species of ants, the warriors, are possessed with a sort of fury, and fight in their the everything way ; they even attack slaves who strive to calm them by seizing them by the legs and holding them firm until their anger is combat, is in animals, over-excitement



In a quarrel between the bears in a zoologithe female at Cologne, cal garden becoming the male held it under water until it exhausted, over. and then dragged it around to make was drowned, sure of its death. In northern of Scotland, troops cows have been known to put their guilty companhas seen the most docile ions to death. Magnan use of alcoholic drinks, become dogs, by continued Lombroso has observed a parallel mischievous. with foul meal. case in roosters Ants poisoned become paralyzed, by chloroform except of which in the head, by the moving bite they in reach. It is known that in a sect of everything narcotized assassins in the Orient of hemp by a mixture the homicidal and opium. have their fury is excited (Pierquin.) Meteoric conditions thus influence; of the same species, or related animals ones, are in the torid fiercer zone than in the less warm the lions in the Atlas (Rousse); regions of America less formidable than those in have been known during Cattle the at the approach warm season, and especially of a storm, to be taken with an attack of fury and rush against persons and trees until the storm bursts and the rain calms them. vice among is a common animals. In Theft mountains the desert. to satisfy hunger the passion is generally stealing There is a selection of suitable objects; irresistible. the dog or cat confine themselves to food; there or hiding, but the food is is, as a rule, no hoarding But in the stealing of useless artiused at once. cles practiced by magpies, rats, and monkeys, the are much






is often or at long intervals, systematic, or hiding being the rule; this is a sort of hoarding or a love of stealing perniciousness, kleptomania, As the magpie is notorious for its own sake. for method objects, so we find the parallel to help among savages, who have been known to all the movables, being themselves on shipboard Somefascinated by mirrors, cutlery, and jewelry. stealing glittering hives and carry off the provisions; they gradually acquire a taste for this, and If bees form companies and colonies of brigands. of honey and brandy, they can are given a mixture under acquire a taste for it, and become irritable its drink and cease to work, and, like influence, men, fall from one vice into another, giving themto plunder and theft. selves, without scruple, times bees, in order crowds well-furnished to save trouble, attack in

(Buchner.) and deceit are known among animals. Swindling stables horses are known to have preIn military tended to be lame in order to avoid going to miliA chimpanzee had been fed on tary exercise. cake when sick; after his recovery he often feigned in order to procure dainties. The cuckoo coughing sometimes nest, and lays its egg in the sparrow's the deception surer it takes away one of the Animals are conscious of their sparrow's eggs. deceit, as shown by the fact that they try to operate secretly and noiselessly; they show a sense of guilt in advance to if detected; they take precautions in some cases they manifest regret avoid discovery; and repentance. Thus bees which steal, hesitate to make



often before and after their as if they. exploits, feared punishment. how his monOne describes theft: while he pretended to sleep key committed him with the animal and hesitation, regarded moved or seemed stopped every time his master on the point of awakening. Such, and many more well-known facts, may be due, perhaps, to fear of which follows a misdeed, punishment, naturally thieves. just as is observed among habitual are not so numerous Cases of meanness among the animals; a surprising one is the innocent dove, which sometimes hides under her wings food for which she has no need simply to deprive her comin the comis manifested property for prizes, as in the struggle for the female, petition or for food, rank, or nests. The dog territory, the property of his master, and even distinguishes discriminates between objects to differbelonging ent members of the same family. It is well known of that, by a wise employment animals punishment, , There are, however, sible to change. The and repeated ticity .habit of and improved. can be trained that it seems imposinstincts cat, in spite of a long domesnever loses its punishments, panions. The sense of

and a curious coincidence is, stealing; a thief is the most difficult that, among criminals, to reform, and is generally Severity incorrigible. but it renders sometimes, may help feeble animals the more vigorous In the case of crimvindictive. inal man the of punishment same idea is true; less brutal have better results. means






from animals to man we find, as is passing natural to expect, the lowest degree of savagery in races. Without tertiary discussing prehistoric in general the manner of life of man, we know man; it was the lowest degree of savquartenary split, were used as weapons; agery; stones, roughly those on the was the main occupation; hunting In but were not fishermen; mollusks, they located on certain points of the shore as indicated and debris of shell-fish by the piles of rejected The bow was for a long time unknown; kitchen. to them, were spears of wood, with flint fastened their weapons; under they knew fire; they lived were too often rocks, but rarely in caverns, which inhabited with which man animals, by carnivorous would not voluntarily The animals known fight. in this period show how much prudence was necessary to man; how he was as much hunted as he coast was a hunter; thus his progress was slower than in later days. There Among the savages crime was the rule. is philological evidence to show that in Sanskrit the word for crime is the word for action; there are ten or more roots which the idea of express or wounding; in criminal killing slang the same is one explanation is that synonyms abound true; All lanfor acts that are repeated very often. and murder plunder guages agree in representing Even mythology as the first source of property. in heaven. makes crime triumphant Ravuvavu Laverna was the god of assassins among the Fijis; was the goddess of thieves among the Romans, and ate



the Peruvians infanticide. The

large increase of explained by the fact that excessive in comparison with natural means of population, Such homicides subsistence was a constant peril. and religion, and were often ordained by morality furnished the a title to glory. is common animals, Abortion, among frequently The lions. unknown to Some savages. used their chil-

of parricide and goddess All these were held in adoration. in savage life is number of homicides



Africa tribes in Central dren as a bait to catch

Mexicans the ancient a child woman rearing " The sick and aged were of baby-carrier." stigma as is sometimes the case among animals. murdered, The New Caledonians found such customs natural, and requested their that death; religion taught

of aristocracy had as a precept that a should be expelled with the

the future life in the same state in they entered which a city no On entering they left the earth. man over forty was found. Such customs were not confined to savages, but were in practiced before and law had reached a Europe morality Strabo sufficient says that degree of development. inhabitants of ancient Bactria trained their the aged and sick. In Sweden dogs to devour the large clubs (until they preserved 1600) with the old and sick; which such cruelty they killed was a solemn act, performed themby the relatives selves. In funeral rites it is a common practice the relatives among most diverse races to sacrifice In New Zealand and slaves of the deceased. the the woman who refuses to live after the death of her






is greatly admired. In Central Africa husband it belief that the ghosts of the ancesis a religious tors drink the blood shed, and so as much blood is as possible. The Pauras in India had a offered caste whose duty it was to carry off men and children as booty for sacrifice. The ancient Greeks The Auschildren. calmed the winds by offering did not value the life of a man much more tralians For a Malay, homicide was a that of a toad. it was not uncommon to test weapsort of a joke; In a Kassago ons on the first comer. tribe, the was performed to satisfy curiCaesarean operation, " was an enemy, For a savage a stranger osity. than With the Fijis it was a was a glory. assassin. ambition to become a celebrated great a young man was not able to marry In Borneo For the he had killed at least one man. unless whom was a rarity. CannibalThe ism is the highest degree of human savagery. form is caused by necessity, and has most common have even exhumed gone so far that the Australians season bodies. They have an epoch called "the for eating men." Among many other causes, there is the belief that one assimilates the courage of his his heart, his sagacity enemy by eating by eating is prevented his eye, and that his vengeance by In the the whole Sandwich body. devouring death when a good prince dies a natural Islands, body is eaten, to keep it from being profaned; this is called "eating the chief for love." There are some peoples who wage war simply to in eat the conquered. is so ingrained Cannibalism his Australian natural death to kill



the Fijis that they cannot praise food better than " that it is as tender as a dead man." by saying of the seashore were regarded The inhabitants by old fishy taste"; some as having "an the Euro" too were salty." peans In cannibalism there has been a gradual diminution in cruelty and a development of natural senforms. It was first the whole timents and judicial body, then a part which was eaten, then man was replaced by animals, and at last symbolic figures are employed. The primitive nor peoples did not have property, and much less of theft. the idea of property, In Egypt the profession of a thief was recognized by to inscribe the State; he was required his name the place where those from whom and designate he had taken things could obtain them by paying a certain sum. The Germans desired their youths to practice stealing on their frontiers to keep them from in idleness. languishing Thucydides says that among the Greeks on the islands was piracy a glory. In Sparta theft was permitted; punishment was administered in case of maladdress. In Central Africa thieves are held in general esteem. Real crimes, from the point of view of the savage, are small in number, and have been distinguished late and in an irregular manner. Crime consists in failures to conform to established usages, and to whatever, have been religion, through may made sacred by continual custom. The Hindoo must not drink certain beers intended for the must Brahmin alone; the young man in Australia






not taste of the flesh of the " emou," which is only to the aged and the chiefs. permitted While man takes pleasure in a slight innovation, he struggles against radical ones; he likes inertia or of the same movements. So the domestic repetition at first against animals novelties, protest great as gas or steam. Even children are furious when there is a change of house or apartments; they desire to see the same things; they like to hear the same stories over and over again in the same Man is naturally words. and it is conservative, if he would have progressed doubtful had there not been innovations which were necessary to endure in order to escape still greater pains; progress has been forced men upon him by extraordinary a superior with exalted altruism, mental activity, the people on, who in events, urging foreseeing turn have often taken vengeance the by killing reformer. Savage races, whose minds are less active, react with the greatest force against any innovation, reas criminals. the innovators the garding Gradually of religion, priests, wise men, and phyguardians sicians, sorcerers, etc., became chiefs of the tribe, and section, and were considered as sacountry, them was the cred, so that any offense against greatest of crimes. commits a slight offense when he A Brahmin is an atrokills some one, but to kill a Brahmin Ambition of despots, of cious crime. intrigues priests, joined with the blind fear of the populace of ancestral and the worship customs, have given



rise to some of the most strange laws: In Oceanica it is a crime to touch the body of a chief, or for a woman to touch her hand upon the head of her A Saxon law husband, or to enter into a canoe. with death whoever burnt a body instead punished it. In the code of Manou, of burying whoever scatters a heap of earth, or cuts a blade of grass or pares his fingernails his fingernails, is lost, or impure just as much as if he was a slanderer man. idea of Among savages there was little The Arabs did not crime; vengeance was a duty. to be punished allow the homicide by the soverwith The Abyseign; they fought for him and family. over to the nearest relasinians give the murderer tives of the victim, to be by them disposed of at The Kourraukos their pleasure. punish homicide can always free himself by death, but the guilty to parents or friends of the by paying damages this is regarded affair. victim; wholly as a private The rudimentary idea of justice somewhat general in Africa is, that there is no crime, but only damage to some chief or particular In Australia person. each one applied his own penal sanction; later he consulted with the tribe, and vengeance became civil and religious; death or retaliation was the result generally reached. children strike (To-day until back again, and are often not content they strike just where they were struck.) Murder was of little except in case of a chief, consequence by a stranger. priest, or if committed Among the in Africa, the murder Ashantis of an important by death, the culprit person.was punished being






to kill himself; but the son of a king could allowed The Fijis not suffer the death penalty. regarded of a crime according the gravity to the social posiso in the laws of the Middle tion of the guilty; man was much worse Ages, a theft by a common With the increase of despotism than by a chief. the chiefs beand the force of arms in invasions, instead of the tribe, and theft, as came proprietors it was against them, became a crime, and one of of crimes; worse than assassination, greatest or interests of which did not involve the property the chief. The code of Manou defines murder as a the offense, but ordains to cut to pieces with secondary who deceives his customer. a razor a goldsmith theft was considIn Asia, among the Mongolians, With than murder. the ered worse Germans, when theft was announced by a horn, it was not considered a crime. Punishment and vengeance became confinally fused ; the idea was to kill or to wound sufficiently to give compensation to the victim or his friends for the damage incurred or pain endured. Among the Germans one should kill his and Australians, but loyally ; he must veil the corpse and adversary, where it lies. indicate to the relatives Such punlike scuffles and duels ; thus a and furnishes tribe warns another tribe beforehand it with weapons ; at a given signal arrows are shot, and after a number of deaths, they shake hands The first legal forms and close with a ball (Tylor). of punishment men against were duels an individual or combats by guilty. several As presumed ishments were more



became life and property sation was sought, which tee tion for the

guaranto the social ; and this varied according posiof the offender. The custom of compensation and murder vengeance being once introduced, with intervention of a third person authority

more valuable, the tribe would


fix the amount. followed ; he should naturally and the possession Thus, by the increase of wealth it was possible to repair damage of property more This increased in turn the power of equitably. and executive were both judges This was extended to all magistrates. system or offenses, which, were other crimes considered from the point of view of damage to the king. the chiefs and priests endeavored to Naturally the chiefs, who maintain penhave virby a too severe and absolute which were introduced tue ; and thus punishments became for all at first for selfishness profitable than musfor with no other humanity, protection if humanity would cular force it is doubtful have of acquiring a veritable been capable organization. in a normal The germs of crime are met with, It is a the first years of infancy. manner, during familiar fact that if many embryonic forms should become monstrosicease to develop, they would ties. So a child if it retained either istics would become The with little moral sense. of its charatera criminal, or a person frequency of anger in some it may etrated been discouraged so advantageous to themselves have been by this means that morality which into society, otherwise might laws ; yet






children is notorious ; in the first few months it is manifested of the eyebrows or by movements hands ; at the age of one year the child strikes at other people, breaks objects, and throws things those who displease it. and impulsiveObstinacy ness predominate, as those who wash and care for children often experience. Certain children cannot wait a moment for what they have asked ; tomorrow is as long as eternity. Some become furious when they cannot reach a thing, some bite or when angry. It is not when they are washed rare to see a child scratch and bite its nurse when withdrawn from the breast ; when a request is renot infrequently fused in the street, children strike their parents. As in animals, so in man, jealousy is not only of excited by love, but especially by the instinct In children it is sometimes violent passion. ; they break objects rather than see their playmates have Like animals they do not like to see others them. Lombroso saw a little who petted. girl at Turin would not nurse when the other breast. Perez says the first arises from the facility them in order to quiet avoid a reproach or to refused because it saw its little twin sister at

humility ousy, as when a little her little brother

cause of children's lying with which parents deceive them. lie often to Children obtain that which has been or them, or to show themselves strong, as to the they wish to deceive themselves of their situation, or on account of jealseeing her mother caress that he has struck the imagines girl,



After the age of three or four years chilparrot. dren lie for fear of being punished, or are assisted to it by the way we question them. They feign sickness to escape doing similar to the anything, case of the horse lameness. military feigning and a shallow sentiment for truth Impulsiveness are not infrequent, so that dissimulation is practiced motive. A little will slightest girl " The to her mother: sometimes say lady next door said I wasn't dressed very nicely." Children detest if generally injustice, especially the injustice consists in the they are the sufferers; want of accord the habitual between manner in which the}" have been treated and that which they experience Affection accidentally. is rare among for the

babies; they manifest for pretty faces or for that which sympathy gives them Too much pleasure. they do not novelty or are frightened at it. A child's love understand, be caused and the hope for by gifts may often more, and when not realized among the love often they fades. Cruelty is common children; delight hitthings,

in breaking inanimate objects, tearing on ting animals, caterpillars; tramping smashing to kill it. the lower classes boys anything Among from 5 to 10 years of age are notoriously cruel. But murder, no less than anger, vengeance, and is found in children. at 13 had a cruelty, Caligula slave cast into an oven for a slight offense. Two the one 13 and the other 10 years of age, children, a spite against having him in an out-of-the-way a comrade place, of 7 years, met threw him into a






A boy in the deep hole, and stoned him to death. State of Iowa (n years of age) went early in the into the room where his grandparents morning were sleeping and shot them his both; seeing move he finished him with an ax. He grandfather " I did it all alone." told the boys afterwards. The occasion of his deed seems to have been a refusal to allow him to do something. Another boy of 13 in the heart because he refused to pay a debt he owed him for a game. Such crimes in the case of children, if less cruel than in the case of adults, are so from the lack of force rather We than ferocity. have seen how theft commenced to be stabbed his comrade

when the era of conquests opened, when punished the chiefs held on to what they had acquired and to divide with refused their feebler companions. In this instance it would seem morality and punishin a measure out of crime; ment of crime developed that is, were crimes themselves. Such a theory of of justice the inthe impure origin may explain it is distributed with which the ; to-day equality find difficulty in obtaining poor sometimes justice, do not infrequently make punishment and riches The instinct of vengeance is at present milder. in humanity; thus the compladeep-rooted quite the condemcency with which the public consider nation of an insane culprit for a murderous act, as This impatience in the case of Guiteau. against the criminal as a patient is a sentiment regarding is latent in each of us. We desire vengeance, we may have changed its name and apalthough 3 which

34 pearance. Western which times baric tion, blood is this A and an form

CRIMINOLOGY. of this is reproduced as " lynch in our



of popular anger. explosion has for a cause, as in cannibalism, pleasure participate of excitement. from in a scientific in

law," Somea bar-

a cruel satisfaction, to and a passion or a love at all man others

to see an execushedding of view, kills not rarely do,

Looking he exceeds only but his own

beings those which jects to

species, of all other it is not that a The

criminality the animals which species advantage of of with an

point ; he

impunity; to kill he subthe The human basis of and in


species surpasses this is egotism

egotism of all others.


psychic still remains

force, not moral force. physical idea of war At present the bloody race. Modern human the whole the 000 vast this in this, its civilization highest for men trained

has exists, while Rome, war,

Europe, at least

where 12,000,with her

had empire, only is the state of the commercial it is claimed ; but the is much

; and 300,000 legionaries at present, is world which, the war face are of an-

and glory, yet, in and that commerce it is said that race. To more war has the

tagonists of purging cholera strata much The


accomplish preferable, the sufferers, of a nation murder is

this, however, the lower for while is still and in war sacrificed. deeply point developof

are preeminently of the best blood of the

instinct savage from War rooted. is universal



natural-history an extension






In primitive times it homicide. ment of universal the ferocity of in character, was terrible exceeding beasts ; in the next stage of developthe wildest and ment one did not eat his enemy, but mutilated war is the same tortured him, and modern civilized in essence, though tive genius is at utmost enemr to different in form. For itself mutilate invento its the present exerting discover how to kill and

at great distances, and, to the disgrace of it seems to have sucthe 19th century humanity, ceeded. And, while we look with horror upon the are not inapplicannibal, the words of Montaigne cable when he says that " it is more barbarous to kill alive man than to roast and eat a dead one."












FroM 79 children less than 12 years of age confined i n houses of correction, among wh om were 40 thieves, and 3 whose crime is 27 vagabonds, 7 homicides, finds as predominating anomstated, Lombroso alies: 30 with deformed ears, 21 with small, retreat16 with projecting 19 plagiocephalic, ing foreheads, cheek bones, 14 with prominent jaws, 7 with raised frontal 6 hydrocephalic, sinuses, 5 crosseyed, 14 with 10 with facial asymmetry, of physiognomy and cretins, 9 goitrous, The striking thing is alies among children pear. A little less than cent.) present abnormal 9 with deformed the large number which subsequently half of the children moral tendencies, nose. of anomdisap(44 per such as not

extreme love of vagabondage, irritability, persistence in lying, an odd propensity to move oneself and to tear clothes. continually, in criminal characters physical children are 69 per cent., or double those without here the physical anomalies any moral anomaly; are 30 per cent. The semi-delinquents, masturbators and thieves physical 72 per cent, to 83 per cent, morbid reaches anomalies; heredity have of bs The morbid








Out of 100 rich these children 70 and 66 per cent. at Turin, in the International College 53 pupiis normal and morally. were absolutely physically Of 44 with bad immoral of degeneracy, only 6 had The very small proportion tendencies. of anomalies is due to the selection of psychical In general, and to superior the pupils training. which in adults would constitute moral anomalies, in chila criminal, are much larger in proportion characters The psychidren, but disappear through education. cal anomalies are double in proportion in criminal and reach a still higher figure in these chilchildren, The researches of dren when they are immoral. Bischoff, Bom, Corre, and Lombroso Lacassagne, Ferri, results:

Biliakow, the give

Troyski, following

188 young criminals with 437 normai Comparing of young men of the same age and same manner was a little superior life, the stature in the criminals at the age of 10 to 13; equal from 13 to 16; superior of 1.54 to 1.51, and from 16 to 18, in the proportion from 19 to 21. As to weight, the criminalsinferior were superior in every Feries, except from 13 to 16, where the two were equal; but cranial circumin all the young criminals was inferior. ference of 12 criminals diameter The minimum frontal to that of from 12 to 14 (107-108 mm.) was inferior 12 normal (111 mm.). Adults. In all regions of'Italy the stature of criminals is



is in contradiction with the figures but agrees with Biliakow Thompson, the highway robbers (100 homicides); especially in comparison and homicides are superior with the and thieves. As to weight, in violators, forgers, superior. of Wilson This the criminals the violators are superior; general and thieves giving the minimum The fingerweight. reach of the criminals is superior. health and Of 567 homicides, 53 were in delicate health ; 143 thieves, 19 were in delicate 3 ill-formed 21 violators, and 10 ill-formed; 4 were in delicate health and 3 ill-formed ; 34 forgers, 5 were in delicate health and 1 ill-formed; 2 were 23 incendiaries, in delicate The brigands, health and 2 ill-formed. and incendiaries are slim, and in good homicides, are frail ; health, while the thieves and violators the latter, due to solitary especially probably pleasure, homicides their the traces of which are in the face. The are larger and stronger ; but they need and use it more than the thieves. strength Physiognomy. is the expression of the individual. we will or no on seeing a person Whether for the of him, and, though first time we form an opinion we are we may be mistaken, still, on the whole, much more often than wrong in our first right A distinctly face is much honest impressions. more likely to be what it appears than otherwise. that The platitude are deceptive is appearances truth. How such a statement can be only a partial is seen from the fact that we believed so easily The face








much more easily those cases in which remember we were deceived than those in which we were not, for a jar to our minds, produced by a disappointfor the mind to hold in ment, is more tangible the has classified facial memory. Montegazza into physiological, moral, intellectual, expressions In the physiological, we have the and sesthetical. of health indicated, assimilation of food, condition the marks of disease or suffering, the general funcof the body. The moral characteristics tioning to interpret, for they influare the most difficult in a large measure by the ence and are influenced There is the open, frank, generous, genial others. it is attractive; not beautiful, there face, although Then is the dull, countenance. unsympathetic there is the intelligent the intellectual expression, indicated in the characters being anatomically The assthetical characforehead, eye, and mouth. in the symmetry ters are indicated or asymmetry of the features; the color of eye, skin, and shape of nose have, as a resultant, beauty or the opposite. The clergy have generally a distinct physiognomy, so in the case of actors, teachers,and men; literary all those who give their lives to intellectual work of any kind can be distinguished from the modern business man ; it is not difficult in a college town to distinguish the students from the town boys, The veterans of the army simply by their faces. have a well-marked If one walks physiognomy. a prison, he certainly will see something through common in most of the faces that is characteristic, however unable he may be to describe it; one has



in visiting an insane asylum. experience as to assthetical physiognomy differs The criminal, little from the ordinary man, except in the case of women who are most always homely, if criminals, have a large, not repulsive ; many are masculine, a similar small eye, large, pointed mouth, nose, ill-shaped and irregufrom the mouth, ears extended distant The intellectual implanted. larly physiognomy in criminals, and when in an shows an inferiority it is rather exceptional way there is a superiority, and shrewdness. of the nature of cunning The is marked by vulgarity, inferiority by meager cranial small dull The dimensions, forehead, eyes. moral is marked in its lowest form physiognomy with a sort of unresponsiveness or ; there is little no remorse ; there is sometimes the debauched, In the lesser forms of crime there haggard visage. is difficulty in making out much that is special, as the individual is capable of concealing his motives and impulses. Lombroso of his gives the results on 220 men and 204 women of different study men have the ethnic nationalities: type Twenty out.of their Semitic 211; 8 Jews preserve type. TJiose the ethnic type are of inferior intelwithout or are criminals In the men ligence, by occasion. a large jaw, rarity of beard, hardness of regard, and abundance of hair are predominant ; projectforehead, ing ears, receding eyes, and a squinting deformed of nose are to be noted. Those guilty rape (if not cretins) almost always have a projecting eye, delicate lids.;, the most physiognomy, large lips and eyeof them are slender, and blond,








rachitic. gance,

The pederasts and curly long

often hair,

have a feminine eleand, even in prison

garb, a certain feminine figure, a delicate skin, childof glossy hair, parted in ish look, and abundance the middle. Murderers and thieves who break in the open houses have woolly hair, are deformed and have powerful cranium, jaws, enormous zygoma;, are covered with scars on the head and trunk, and are often tattooed homicides have a ; habitual sometimes and cold, immobile, bloody, glossy, look ; often an aquiline nose, or, better, a dejected hooked one like a bird of prey, always large ; the abundjaws are also large, ears long, hair woolly, beard rare, canine teeth, very ant and rich (dark); large ; the lips are thin. A large number of forgers and something have an artlessness, and swindlers in their manner, which gives confidence to clerical victims ; some have a haggard their look, very small eyes, crooked nose, and face of an old woman. custom for the brigands to wear It is a common

tresses as a sign of terribleness. shows Archaeology with projecting us Tiberus eyes, facial asymmetry, with a wicked, cruel, and and large jaws. Caligula a menacing of -the defiant expression, expansion look, upper lip, palor, thin lips, fixed and terrible strong matic asymmetrical fossa is the jaws; most the left side of the zygoNero has a developed. jaws, large eyes, sinuses and a

of face, strong asymmetry striking far apart, very projecting somewhat low forehead.

with the aid of Marro, finds as to the Lombroso, hair with 500 criminals 500 normal (comparing



men) that maximum lators


incendiaries cent.)

and for




(57 per the minimum


way robbers, brown hair.

(23 percent.); and thieves attain the The violators

hair; the viothe idlers, highmaximum for

and swindlers form the of the blonds. Dark hair and majority (black is predominant in general, brown) among criminals with normal as compared men, in the proportion of 49 per cent, to 33 per cent.; light hair (blond and red) in the proportion of 16.5 to 6.85 per cent. Marro among 507 criminals found ro percent, with little thick hair, 44 per cent, with hair, with a maximum of 53 per cent, in vagabonds, 47 per cent, in assassins. From 4,000 criminals Bertillion finds 33.2 per cent, with brown iris; 22.4 per cent, with or red iris. 32.4 per cent, yellow that many of these characteristics While are often seen in ordinary men, yet the large jaw, of the women, bad look, the masculine appearance thick hair, and receding ears, strabism, projecting brown; it is true in criminals. frequent there are the doubtful in the points Although case of criminals, yet in the case of 'the so-called norrnal men there is much greater uncertainty; for we know little or nothing of their lives; some of all men, need the aggravating them, as among occasion to become criminals. Easy circumstance in life and agreeable can protect surroundings severe adversity turn into some, whom might we may say that most every individual criminals; has his limit which he would commit a beyond criminal act. Poverty, misery, and organic debility forehead are much more a dark








the cause of crime. The infrequently criminal type is very rare among physiognomical The normal men, but frequent among criminals. popular mind, though often inexact, has not failed are not to notice many criminal characteristics. A few will illustrate proverbs by Lombroso)(collected this: is nothing worse than scarcity of "There " Pale face is either false or beard and no color." " A red-haired treacherous" man and (Rome). bearded woman, greet them at a distance" (Ven'' Be thou of the woman with a ice). suspicious man's voice." "God preserve me from the man " " Pale face is worse without a beard (France). " " Bearded woman and than the itch (Piedmont). unbearded man, salute at a distance" (Tuscan). " Man of little " Wild beard, of little faith." look, " Be cruel custom." suspicious of him who laughs, " and beware of men with small and twinkling eyes (Tuscan). There are not a few women, who, although ignorant of the lower side of life, are instinctively suspicious of persons unknown, but criminal in character. There may be a heredity element here, as in the case of our little house-birds, who strike their cage with wing and beak, when a bird of prey passes over them, which enemy wasonly known to theirancestry. There is little doubt but that physiognomical characteristics can be modified by the criminal. Lombroso has observed that when a murderous man is made to make a violent effort, his physioghis face, takes the ferocious look nomy, especially at the moment of the crime. peculiar to the criminal



stands in close relation with facial Physiognomy and cranial signs of degeneration. It must not be how great an influence habits have over forgotten the mimical facial muscles, how gradual the pasfeatures to prison physisage is from harmonious ognomy, which is caused in part by passions temAlso the unconscious influence porarily changed. of the style of hair, beard, look, demeanor, and clothing is to be noted; in prison garb, for example, a face makes quite another from that impression dress. Von Holder, in ordinary from 1,022 portraits of recidivists of both sexes, found it imone a criminal possible in many cases to pronounce his physiognomy. from Physiognomy, though uncertain, gives us valuable hints sometimes. Tattooing. Following is a table of statistics
Ko. Condemned Condemned Condemned Condemned Deseiling Criminals Criminals for murder for theft for forgery, for rape or rebellious and violence '. . swindling . . soldiers , So . 141 . 54 .11 4 .90. , 191



Proportion, Tattooed, per cent. 16 20 20 '5 1 1 4 50 14 11.1 -g25 4 20.9

who are not recidivists who are recidivists

The largest number who tattoo are found among the smallest the recidivists; number, omitting crimes against decency, are the forgers and swindlers. enables Perhaps their superior intelligence of tattooing. them to see the disadvantage As a rule women tattoo very little. Men who are not








tend to give up the custom; criminals while among the criminals the usage reaches large proportions. Almost all tattoo the fore-arm and the palms of the number tattoo the shoulders, hands; a smaller and fingers (miners). Those who chest (sailors) tattoo the back and the private parts have generally in the prisons. The or lived been in Oceanica, most frequent among symbols of war are naturally the soldiers. Parent-Duchatelet has seen quite extensive tatIn men, the lowest prostitutes. among tooing in the name or symbols of love consist ordinarily of the woman loved, or in the date of the initials first love, or in one or more hearts transfixed by an is suffior two clasped hands. Obscenity common as indicated by the symbols over ciently and genital parts. The pederasts are the abdomen arrow Parent-Duchatelet never very fond of tattooing. found any obscene symbols among the prostitutes. A parallel characteristic of prostitutes is that they seldom read obscene literature. As in the case of sailors and savages, criminals all parts of the body, which indicates among to pain. them all a low degree of sensibility Of 89 66 were tattooed between the ages adult criminals of 9 and 16. Of 89 criminals 71 were tattooed The causes of a custom of so little while in prison. and frequently are found in: harmful, advantage, to engrave the image of a saint on (1) Religion; one's own engraved the early flesh was a proof of love; the Phoenicians on the forehead the sign of their divinity; the name of Christ Christians engraved tattoo



Sailors had still another upon the hand and arm. be recognized motive which was that they might in the sea. if they perished (2) In the desire of of soldiers have imitation. Often a whole company the same symbol tattooed. (3) In the spirit of venby the symbols. (4) In lazigeance, as indicated ness, as in the prisons where they amuse themselves more diffifor nothing else to do; inaction being cult to endure than the pain itself. has (5) Vanity thus the savages go naked, influence; very great signs upon parts most exposed; in enduring courage having others tattoo the do it to show their " Birmans " the pain. Among indicates social position. of New Zealand tattooing of association and of sect, as among (6) Feeling the Camorrists of Naples, was a cause. (7) Noble thus the image of a passions also were iufluential; chest; the soldiers friend or the souvenirs of childhood give courage to the soldier. or erratic passions, as (8) Atavism shown by obscene symbols, the most are, perhaps, causes. is one of the characfrequent Tattooing teristics of primitive man. In prehistoric cases, and in ancient Egyptian sepulchers, the instruments used for this purpose. the insane indicates among criminality, have not been sailors or soldiers. Craniology. CRANIAL CAPACITY.By a comparative study of 121 criminals and 32S normal finds men, Lombroso that craniums of small volume exceed, and those of very large volume are rare, in the case of criminals, are found Tattooing if they the








the criminals were larger of stature than although men ; he also shows from his own the normal and those of others, that in general, when statistics is not due to hydrocephaa large cranial capacity with a developed intelligence. lus, it is concomitant the cranial of criminals capacity in the equal to that of other men, with variations minimum and maximum capacities; but, as Lombroso remarks, those results relate only to assassins ; in addition cretinism is somewhat extensive Ranke made his researches. where (Bavaria) Borfind in a number dier and other observers of assassins a capacity superior to that in normal men. these divergences explains by the difference in method, and the insufficient probable number studied. WEIGHT OF CRANIUM.The of average weight is superior to that of the ordinary indithe cranium to Lombroso, who examined vidual 21 according Italian assassins; on the other hand, Manouvrier, on in France of 44 assassins and 50 nor-' examination mal men, found the weight of cranium inferior. As Manouvrier to the relation of the weight may be true, as Corre suggests, the cranium is less related to ment to the capacity, it that the weight of the brain developRanke makes

than it is to the osseous system ; thus the skeleton and the length of its members would be a fact to consider. Corre, Bordier, Lombroso, Ferri, and Lauvergne find the horizontal cirWeisbach, in criminals inferior to that of ordinary cumference men. SEMI-HORIZONTAL CIRCUMFERENCE.Almost all



to the predominance give a slight over the semi-antecircumference semi-posterior rior. In such cases, in which the predominance is the muscular mass in the anterior circumference, moter for of the temporal bone, the most powerful the jaw, must be taken into consideration. the auricular Broca's method of measuring anthe use of the stereograph, gles, by which, through measurements

of the cranium are obtained, is as folprojections lows : O, is the apex of the auricular angles, A, is the alveolar C, bregma, point, B, sub-orbital, D, The first angle lambda, Js, inion and ^ophisthion. the facial (A O B) represents region ; the second cerebral ( O C) the frontal region ; the third the fourth (D OE) the (C O D) the parietal region; cerebral region, and the fifth (E O F) the occipital The size of these angles region of the cerebellum. does not depend upon the size but upon the form of the cranium; this gives the angles special value. Corre measured of widely differ150 craniums ent categories, and confirms the value of these anodes.








table we see that the frontal angle increases as we rise toward the superior races, but stand comparatively low (50.9). that the criminals From this Cranium. 1
i. I S 2 ."i

K1rt Z Degs. Gorilla Chimpanzee Microcephalics Idiots (not microcephhcs) New African French Modern Caledonians.. Negroes assassins Parisians. !"'"; ( Women (22 in number)... J Women 1 JJ.^1,-:; 43.3 51.8 s'3 48.5 fii 59.5 52.5 47.5

o ^ h. Degs. 35 35 41.2 44 52 51.4 50.9 54-6 55.4

._ fltX C Degs. 58 54 59.3 62.5 *3 61 61.7 67.1 59-7 50.8

o ot O Degs. JQ 36.5 38.3 3<5 32 36.6 40.0 4o.i 37.7


.i *. O -2 tDegs. 108 138.5 144.6 148 145 155 153.5 154.4 152.9

-x y C -3 < Degs. 43 35.7 32 3 30 27 35.1 20.9 30.6 30.1

1 and Hamy's tabic. Quatrefage 2 The nasal orbital to facial projections. angle corresponds s The total cerebral includes the frontal, parietal, angle cranium. to the cerebral angles, which correspond



In the French assassin the frontal angle is smaller than in the African Orchanski and Heger negro. to the normal man a superior agree in according anterior of the cranium. projection concludes CURVES.Bordier that the parietal is larger in criminals; Benedikt and Lomregion broso find no appreciable difference. CEPHALIC INDEX.This the general expresses it is less in proportion form of the cranium; as the length is greater, and more as the length is With the brachycephalic less. some variations, 4




common criminals. among Lombroso of a tendency considers this an indication to exaggerate ethnic indices. Corre interprets this more in the sense of arrest of development that of the child. approaching VERTICAL INDEX (diameter drawn from the base to bregma).Lombroso finds no notable differand Bordier make it ence; d'Ardouin, d'Orchanski, in criminals in the same (comparison greater race); on the find it less. other hand, Heger and Dellemagne

is the


FRONTAL INDEX.Lombroso again finds no notable deviation, Bordier and Corre find it larger in assassins. frontal index the (The expresses transversal of the anterior cranial development length of face there is a large in favor of the criminal; this exceeds predominance the simple length, but this is in connection with the development of the jaw, for, according to of the face, in relation to the Ferri, the length height of the vertex to the chin, is much greater in criminals ; this height indicates face to the development the relation of the of the cranium. Also the region.) Under the total

breadth of face breadth) bizygomatic (maximum is larger in criminals. to Lombroso, the lowest nasal indices According are twice as rare, and the highest are twice as frequent in the criminals. Lombroso, Ferri, Orchanski, Manouvrier development and others of the lower agree as to the greater criminals ; jaw among


From the following table, arranged by Dr. Corre, be evident are in millimeters): (measurements Face.

some facial




2 u w


* a (/3 'X t. v. o ^

Corre. ^
w CJ SZ .J. 3 <n , ^ J=


u n

,A w

^ c

?g S3 i'qs

e< = ti

-o TO S

1 *

g =

.S > ^i



length Simple length Bizygomatic breadth * Indices: Facial Nasal Orbital Palatal Total u8 (?) 87.7 132.2 65.0 46.8 S3.7 74.7






' | ....



S 2 *

S J f *-

W-o 87.6 r33-3 66.2 .... ....

3-r, 3 U

5 *J '

'32- 2 004 T32-S 68.0

133 o 92.0 *32-o 6g.6 ".

S >

140.0 92.6 33- 69.6

-S ,-. C CJ
.... 92.0


.... S9.7 I3z-7 67.0 ....

.... 86.0 ....

8q.o 133-6 65.3 45.6 Sri.4 81 5

155 5 90.0 131.0 68.6

138.0 86.0 135-0 63.6

X w

130.0 65.6







of of

1 Facial maximum orbit to

index relation expresses to maximum breadth its horizontal diameter.


length Palatal

maximum of nose. index

breadth Orbital expresses

to simple of face. Nasal length index expresses index of relation vertical expresses diameter of relation of width to length of palatal vault.

relation the base



orbital in crimcapacity greater it, as in the case of birds of prey, inals, explaining of certain by the coordination organs as the result Lombroso finds of more frequent more developed indebted to Dr. exercise ; this capacity in thieves and assassins. Corre is still We are

and others for the following of the median (or metopic) facts : (i) Frequency frontal suture. This character appears with brachyheads and may be regarded as indicating cephalic or parietal ; (2) the parietal occipital inferiority earlier. sutures grow together Tims, the parietal sutures are soon effaced, so the or occipito-parietal and ; (3) the notched parietal-frontal temporal sutures are the interparietal considered This simplest. bone in Peruvians anomaly (as an and Negroes) is as a sign of inferiority ;

by Anouchine in certain animals and constant in emit is normal life ; (4) the supernumerary or Wormien bryonic in the region of the median bones are frequent posterior fontanelles ment ment and of the fontanelle characters ; (5) other ridges lateral are posterior the developwith the efface-

of the superciliary or even frequent

mediary protuberance; mastoid apophyses. tive with the great of the tempondevelopment in turn is related to the deparieta! region, which of the jaw ; (6) the backward direction velopment of the plain of the occipital as in infedepression, rior races, is more frequent surface of the cranium, convolutions, and of the in criminals. where the meningeal The under traces of the are vessels

of the interdepression the development of the These characters are' correla-








has not been sufficiently to give studied, found, more knowledge vasculariencephalic concerning zation. For instance, a fossa, situated on a level of the internal to an crest, corresponding occipital abnormal of the lobe of the cerebeldevelopment in lum (occipital fossa) is four times as frequent criminals as in ordinary men. As the following table gives the results from over 3,000 cases, studied by independent investigators, it deserves special attention. It shows the proportion of anomalies found in 66 male by Lombroso and 60 female criminals; also Legge's figures from 1,770 normal Amodei from those of Lombroso and craniums, bodies and 170 insane. 1,320 soldiers' note the distinctive cranial anomalies

One should as sclerosis epactal bone, receding forehead, frontal sinuses, supercilliary craniums, ridges, oxycephalic internal nasal suture, facial asymmetry, fusion of the of the occipital and the atlas; anomalies depression fossa in men. As regards sex. the men occipital furnish more anomalies than the women; althe number; the women exceed in most in anomalies of thebasilary craniums, platycephalic and of the frontal of the depression apophyses bone and in fusion of the atlas with the temporal many double bone. occipital Lombroso finds anomalies character on looking at the general, as a whole, a distinctive teratological from the union of many anomalies in the in

same cranium, the proportion being 43 per cent., while simple isolated anomalies only show 21 per that atavism He admits does not explain cent,



the frequent cranial and facial fusion obliquity, and the welding of the atlas with the occipital Table of Asymmetry.

o & Per Cent. heads. IOO Plagycephalic Cranial sclerosis 18.0 Sutures ('* souddes") 25.0 Suture 0.0 (*' metopique") Wormian bones 28.0 bone. Epactal 5.0! atlas Fusionof with bone 0.8 occipital Middle fossa 4.1 occipital Hollow of Civini 27.0 forehead 18.0 Receding of the tern- ( Frontal Appophyses '-5 bone.... f poral and i develSuperciliary ridges f25' oped sinuses... Anomalies of lower teeth 6.0 20.0 Large jaws Very large jaws 4.5 Traces of the intermaxillary suture 52.0 " 2.0 Oxycephalicn Double fossa 6.0 sub-orbitaiy " 6.T Subscaphocepalic'' Prognatism 34-o 20.0 Projecting zygomaticapopliyses... Nasal Glabella much depressed... 13.0 Platycephalic of the face Asymmetry of the teeth Asymmetry of the temporal Projection Frontal beak of the coional of the coronal Depression Wormian bone of pterion Anomalies of the occipital Feminality Projection'of of the frontal the orbital bone anffiel'j J, 15.0 6.0 6.0 bones. suture glands. fossa.. 27.0 2.0 29.0 16.0 2.5 15-0 3

"C U Per Cent. 42.0 31.0 37.0 12.0 ; 59.0 9.0 3.0 16.0 15.0 36.0 3-4 , 62' 2.0 37.0 10.6 24.0 7.5 18 o 6.0 34.0 30.0 31.0 22.0 25.0 10 43.0 9.0 50.0 23.0 IC.O 6.0 ^g

*C U Per Cent. 21.0 31.0 26.0 5.0 46.0 1.7 3.2 3.2 8.1 6.8 , , 6.6 2t>' 3.2 25.0 3.3 3.3

O Per Cent. 17.2 17.2 33.3 10.o 20.0 6.S 3.4 10.o .... >9-'0.5 6.5

p w

J A Per Cent. 24.0 50.0 28.0 0.0 68.o 3.8 2.7 14.0

Per Cent.

100. 8.0 5.1 .... 5.4 26.0


2.3 , e7-

40.0 100



32.0 7.6 33.0

10.o 6.9 0.1



3.0 11.5



80. 18.0 05






and exaggerated









seem to him to result from eror from of the foetal cranium, rors in development from the nervous centers. diseases slowly evolving of frontal But the frequency sinuses, receding and foreheads, developed superciliary ridges Those anomalies that men with such a probable number of cranial anomalies have parallel anomalies and feelings for these phenomena in intelligence in volume and form of the are visible alterations sclerosis makes it intellectual centers. craniums While one can find many asymmetrical asymmeamong normal people, and while certain or to the alterations tries can be due to education, excess or defect, functioual of convolutions through or psychological due to physiological causes; yet one causes are limited. these occasional Although do the work of can sometimes part of the brain the place another, yet one lobe can hardly supply of another. inis that cranial asymmetry Dr. Corre's opinion in cerebral state of perturbation a certain dicates cannot education and that when remedy action, is a large chance for the inthese defects, there which into evil impulses, degenerate and nature the intellectual or suppress overrule is acts. Yet every asymmetry develop into criminal a defect of cerebral not necessarily development. of the influence above, under For, as suggested stincts to education covcan be corrected, of function This can be due to comered up, or eradicated. But a functional operations. plex psychological have a funcdisease would not, strictly speaking, defect



compensation, to Corre, according two regions exactly


for this only by


be understood, between substitution According of cranial to de-

Corre and Broca, formations have their origin in the brain. Broca in the foetus or which, says that every affection the form of the encechild, alters gravely young

homogeneous. a certain number

a deformity of mass, produces phalic necessarily the cranium. When we consider the early surroundings (unalcoholic conditions, parents, etc.) of the hygienic where he may begin vice as soon as concriminal, due to neglect sciousness awakes, malformations, and rough treatment, cranial malformation conditions. osteological are may But not Yet surprising. be frequently due to

here, still, hereditary influence and surrounding conditions in early life exert their power. and rachMany are scrofulous strucitic, which affections modify the osteological ture. In its turn, the cranium forces the brain to a reduction and in general development, nutritional cause irremediable perturbations in the brain. troubles and Clequet say that the head that Lacassagne is symmetrical is more developed on the posteriorly left anterior side, and the head symmetrical anterion the left posterior side. orly is more developed There is sometimes a tendency if to compensation; the predominance is parietal, it is counterbalanced to a certain point, by a frontal-prominence or occipiThere is a tendency to correction tal, or both. by the relative development of certain opposite regions. in its








Skeleton and Members. a strong of the development osseous system, while thieves and violators have The assassins generally weak skeletons. have a but some of them strong physical organization, and with little merit the double epithet of strong intelligence. Weight, stature, and thoracic development in connection with small forehead would of malefactors close to pathological ings, as Cretins and Idiots ; because in both cases of muscular there is often the same coexistence The bandit force and intellectual of depression. the most brutal kind however is not so weak menforce is in service of his tally, since his muscular a number put beHomicides show

cerebral is which, although activity, incomplete, The idiot, on the kept awake by his mode of life. other hand, has little to develop his mental activity. a strong Although physical organization among assassins is the rule, there are some exceptions, as in persons practicing ambush, or where the victim is required. Dr. Corre menis feeble, or strategy tions a young flirt at Paris, who had assassinated instrument lovers, her favorite She was gentle in manner, being the hammer. ; but was remarkpolite, and of agreeable physique force ; she always able for muscular dressed in attire. gentleman's The extremities in criminals are often deformed. The hands are large and short in murderers and in for assault and battery those condemned ; they are long and narrow in thieves. Lacassagne found with large finger-reach. 600 out of 800 criminals and robbed several



Cercbrology. after comparing the BRAINWEIGHT.4. Bischoff, with 422 of norweight of 137 brains of criminals mal men, obtained no striking difference. Lomon the broso, finding an asymmetrical predominance right in 41 per cent., and on the left in 20 per cent. (38 per cent, being equal), thinks this is significant, since in physiological the two sides are asymmetries Giacomini found in 42 homicides 20 with equal. right lobe heavier, and 18 with the left lobe heavier; in the four others the two lobes were equal. Topisays that large brains have less convolutions; and small brains more. In this way there is a comas in the case of Gambetta, whose brain pensation, was small, but finely convoluted. Anomalies. did not find Flesch, out of 50 brains of criminals, anomalies. From an examination one without of 28 brains he found: of the meninges, Alterations to the extent of 50 per cent.; adherences of the pia and to the gray mater substance, 4 per cent.; adherences to the gray substance, 6 per cent.; internal hemorrhagica! pachymengitis, 10 per cent.; leptomeningitis in young men, 14 per of the base, 1 percent.; cent.; tubercular meningitis oedema of the pia mater, 7 per cent.; altheroma of the basiliary 8 per cent.; arteries, spinal hemor1 per cent.; atrophy of the gray rhagic meningitis, 1 per cent.; cerebral substance, 3 per hemorrhage, cent. These anomalies generally were not accomof the dura mater nard








panied them.


the thinks

symptoms that




in his observaSaltmann, tions on the development and gradual multiplication of the motor centers of the cortical substance, shows how the brain can be deeply affected, and at the same time never manifest the symptoms of the disease. In experiments made on new-born dogs and rabbits after birth, electric exciimmediately tation of the gray matter is not capable of exciting centers are little by little the groups of muscles. distinguished, following The defect of these centers in the first periods of life often explain at that time how cerebral diseases can rest latent; if, for instance, there is an arrest in one region, the multiplication of development of centers ceases, but as in foetal life some regulative other centers can perform the functions of all; thus the psychical work, being less divided, is imperfect, and the pathological process rests dormant. In 92 brains of criminals were found in the central membranes : Opaqueness and adhesions in 10 ; in 3 ; slight inflammations ossifications in diverse in 3 ; softening in 3 ; points parts in 1 ; osteoma in 5 ; arterial of hemorrhages in s ; degeneracy in 3.; adherence tumors of the posterior horns in 1; and cerebrum from a study of nineteen brains of Benedikt, criminals of different finds a typical nationalities, confluence of fissures ; that is to say, if we regard the fissures as rivers, floating bodies can pass into hemorrhages of cerebellum of the lateral ventricles in 2. in 2 ; abcess a movement. But the




almost tween

all the

important Riidinger has shown that brachycephalic and dolicocephalic brains have these in fcetal characteristics life. Huschke has shown that negroes' brains belong to Thus the three important fissures of type. the outer surface, that is the central fissure, the third frontal of the interfissure, and a portion fissure have a great tendency to unite with parietal the Sylvian fissure, so that there results not only an anterior and posterior but also branch, rising three the central branches, namely, fissure, third and a portion of the interparietal parietal, " that to Benedikt fissure. that an says, suppose constructed brain can function atypically normally is out of the question. What we do not know is, this way and not that; why such a brain functions and why, under certain conditions, psychological it functions just in this way." Benedikt's results do not seem to be confirmed of others, For inby the investigations after examining brains stance, Tenchini, thirty-two from the prison of Parma, does not find of criminals these peculiarities ; yet he does find a greater freanomalies than in normal men. quency of cerebral

the other fissures ; because fissures are wanting. This substance is wanting. brain

bridges means





of the criminal's Ou 1' knowledge brain of the brain in general is very inadequate, in spite of the numerous investigations been made. The fact that an

as well as and this that have individual has








and at the same time cerebral anomalies, psychical or cranial or both, does not show that either one is it may justify the cause of the other, although a that they are in some way related. presumption are based upon brain anFor such conclusions which is a atomy rather than brain physiology, field about which very little is known. It is easy to conceive that brain circulation, and qualitative has as much to do in its effect on the quantitative, mind as anatomical It is, nevertheless, relations. reasonable to assume, that in the last analysis is based every physiological irregularity anatomical one ; yet the reverse may be would seem to be, also. The probability and anatomical physiological mutually react one upon the other ; and to decide primary There upon an assumed that the act and is which

is wholly beyond our present knowledge. is still another often overdifficulty, between the craninm and looked, as to the relation brain. In embryonic that life, it is quite probable the development of the brain has great influence and it is possible, later upon that of the cranium, on at least, that the cranium has equal influence upon the brain. Pathology. In criminals or feeble than is rather medium constitution On account of strong or vigorous. a wanderisolation, regret from want of freedom, vices (common in prisons), the ing life and solitary constitution On the other hand, may be impaired. to this life, which is calmer, some adapt themselves the



more regular in regimen, and free from temptations to debauch. action Yet, on the whole, the depressive in the prisons is predominant. Ferrus found of and of Clairvaux in good Milan 1,455 criminals health out of 2,153 on their arrival, and 227 with constitutions feeble; number, 908 at the end of a certain good health, 379 in fair health, run down in health. fair 471 with of the whole time were in

and 579 had notably

in says feeble health predominates Lauvergne thieves in the galleys, and that they are the most numerous class there. In spite of the severities of ancient prisons, quite a number reach an advanced Out of 252 inage. Corre found 69 from 60 to 70 years of corrigibles, age, and Rochefort three over 70. At Brest, Toulon, and in France (for 1843, 1849, 1853) the proof deaths was an average of 46.1 per thouportion the mortality sand; for the same period in France to Corre, mortality was 25 per thousand. According the age of the person at the moment and augments after the age of entrance, especially less power of adaptof 40. This latter fact indicates The proportion of mortality ation to prison life. adult is small in the case of those just beginning had time to contract life, who have scarcely permanent habits, or who while in liberty have known But in the case of those from 21 to only misery. and moral action takes place 30, where the physical in the change of existence, the proportion of deaths it increases increases till it finds its greatly; maximum above 40, when the constitution is increases with








result of an senilitythe by a premature 20 years of and irregular life. Those agitated in the show a maximum mortality age or tinder and this maximum is first year of imprisonment; 20 in any other Between not exceeded period. the are more from and frequent 30, deaths aftersecond to the fifth year of imprisonment; weakened is affected in a less degree by the mortality of imprisonment. the duration 5 to During there is an increase 20 years of imprisonment, from 30 to 40 years of persons in mortality the condemned after 40 years, of age. Among to conditions of age are according the deaths wards of imprisonment. rather than duration at Brest, from In the marine hospital 1846, 200 deaths took place, the following gives the data: 1844 to table 1

< t! u < " 5

diseases Pyrexial diseases Constitutional Diseases of nervous.centers. Diseases of heart and large vessels Disease" of the respiratory organ& Diseases of the digestive " organs 1 Corre, " Les Criminels."

? |||QI
15.5 8.4 10.3 14.8 22.2 22.2

- II


31.5 10.5 5.2



of the

1 4*5 f { ^-3'' (" ) f "^

'J"J , 7-4 |

-^o 10.5

j J Almost wholly of the ( heart. (Pulmonary predominance. ) intes1 Almost wholly lina!. }

The phoid.

are to a large extent cases of pyrexia tyIn France it has been, found that the hy-



are much better in the prisons than gienic conditions is conin caserns, so that the per cent, of mortality soldiers and sailors than siderably higher among The convicts show a very low criminals. among in pyrexia, but a high morper cent, of mortality in constitutional to alcoaffections, tality owing of phthisical and a maximum diseases. holism 1'he young criminals in nervous
Workmen and Guards. Per cent. 11.4. 8.0 11.4 4.5 49.7 8.0 87


give a large diseases.



niw Diseases.

Convicts. Per cent.

Soldiers. ,.j,.,> (Adults..) Per cent.

Sailors. (Adults and adoiescents.) Per cent. 36.0 4.6 15.1 1.1 27.9 12.7 86 among young

Pyrexia Constitutional.. Nervous 1 Cardiac Phthisical D'gest'eorg'ns No. of deaths..

12.5 12.5 62.5 6.2 16

46.2 2.1 6.4 1.0 14.0 27.8 96

1 Mostly criminals.

brain diseases. - Almost wholly

Predominance of meningitis stomachal and intestinal.

Among advanced diseases softening habits. mortality

were many guards in age. free these Among persons there are rather is ; or hemorrhagic of the brain from age or intemperate The nervous diseases reach those condemned a maximum for crimes




among or violation, for crimes while against decency their percentage is only 10.3 petagainst property, on life. Sexual cent., and 5.2 per cent, for attacks crime most ordinarily arises from, an unhealthy of cranial has passion ; the frequency asymmetries already been referred to in this criminals of women Among class of criminals. all categories the.








percentage hard labor resistance cerned.

of mortality is high, especially where is required; so that woman shows a less in constitution as far as crime is con-

The following table gives the proportion of mortality in the central prisons (Tardiem):
Men. Per cent. Condemned Condemned Condemned Condemned to bard labor . . . . . , . . . , . .5-79 .5.16 , 5.34 . 2.2S to seclusion for correction. to chains . Women. Per cent. 7-79 7-36 5.55

of 1,319 deaths in the central prisons, 345 "were from acute maladies : 247 men and 78 women; maladies : 769 men and 205 974 were from chronic women. It is found that farmers, soldiers, sailors and beggars give a much larger death vagabonds, rate when in the prisons for life than those engaged in other those in the liberal profesoccupations; sions show a lower rate of mortality; then follow those in diverse sedentary inhabitants of callings, the city for the most part. Dr. Castello calls attention to the fact that the a large number who furnish of crimiprostitutes, and have affections connected nals, are cardiopathic, with the cerebral-spinal As to the resistregions. ance and morbidity of criminals of all races, transfar from : home, there are two conditions ported (1) where they are placed as free among a population not much better than themselves; an agglomeration or by intermingling of the by selection races is formed, where tend to characteristics where the criminals mingle. (2) The condition





allowed gradually criminal. Orgeas gives

with mingle this table :

D led from 1 faludism. Per cent.




D ied of yellow fever. Per cent. 46.6 4.5 0.5 2.4 3.3 5.4



. . .

. . . .

.18.1 . 3S.1 . 14.3 .29.7 . 16.5 . 13.5

Transported Europeans Negroes and Mulattoes Transported Transported Chinese and Anamiles 1 Marsh disease. Negroes Hindoos .

or immigrants . .

(31 years), 12,148 died, escaped. The figures are encouraging as far as acclimatation is concerned; reform by colonization in healthy climates as in New Caledonia is favorable. For the period from of those 1865-75, the mortality was 3.7 per cent. From 1879 to 1882, transported in spite of the enormous increase of number, the fell to 2.5 per cent. mortality and. prostitution often go pari-passu. of anomalies and morbid states is found certain cateprostitutes among among In prostitutes and in many gories of criminals. criminals the voice is hoarse and masculine. This a result of complex of which is, however, habits, alcoholism is the main cause perhaps. There exist also the relations between the development of the vocal and genital a reciprocal organs, perhaps Criminality The frequency relation, Among as singers has been shown in certain cases. organs and declaimers the genital

According 1887, out of 1852 to 1883 appeared or

to the 24,170


statistics into


of France for Guiana from and 3,140 dis-








are much frequently

developed, present.






Pathological In

Anatomy. 20 per cent, as to accithese insane so grave the calculating In

Flesch found 50 autopsies, which showed affections of the heart be

on the cause of death; dental affections of the pericardium and the mortality was 50 per cent. dium, affections criminals resemble the insane. the lesions Comparing people as given by Hogen, table: in we normal have the




h'ormal. Per cent. of the heart Hypertrophy of the heart . Atrophy . 16 . . . . . 1.2 3.6 3.1 2.1

Insane. Criminal. Per cent. Per cent. 10 3.1 5.2 3.6 2.9 26 11 n 9 17 2 50

of the heart Fatty degeneration Valvular of the heart insufficiency Pericardic Affection adherence of the heart . . in general

. 25

From criminals



a valvular




is quite marked atrophy (17 per cent.); to the insane in (n per cent.) and a close analogy with the normal should as compared hypertrophy Mendel be noted. (Die Manii 1881) shows that in maniacs is from the cardiac affections 3.4 to 14 Witkowski and 5.5 per cent, in dementia. percent, cases that pride, has found in cardio-pathological a tendency to impetuous acts egoism, uneasiness, and violent manifestations in the case of especially are of great tricular hypertrophy, self against those attacked or others, with ven-





troubles, character aortic lesion

a study of 39 cases of cardiac that in general they manifest a concludes The to mental alterations. inclined from

or less procauses subsiding (more and a neuroof the psychical powers nounced) into hysteria; state that may develop pathological and to mitral lesions predispose to melancholia, In cardiac attacks of violence. insanity, depresdelirium with hallucinations, sion, melancholia, in attacks of with short oscilations, especially The in impulsive forms, are frequent. asystolia acts and the between close connection psychical circulation of the blood is shown by the sphygmoRindfleisch anatomy says that pathological graph. basis of the mental indicates that the anatomical in the distrian anomaly is essentially affections that follow. bution of the blood and consequences Liver. and had infiltration (29.4 per cent.); 5 had atrophy,and fatty degeneracy from 6 suffered per cent.); 5 had "brunes"(g.& stagnation (9.8 per cent.); hypersemia with billious infiltration 2 with fatty (9.8 per 5 tuberculous, 1 hypertrophy 5 cirrhosis (9.8 per cent); cent); livers 4 nutmeg (7.8 per cent.). (1.9 per cent.); in criminals; alcoaffections predominate Hepatic Fifteen holism explains it in part. Stomach. In 35 autopsies were found sions, 4 cancers, 3 hypereemia, 8 catarrhs, 1 dilitation, 2 disten1 round Out of 50 autopsies, mal in six cases only. Flesch found the liver nor-








In 8,204 autopsies at the hospiulcer, and 16 normal. tal of Milan, Lombroso found cancer in 156 cases cancer of liver in 0.5 per cent. This (1.9 per cent.); is a fifth less than in the criminals examined by out of 1,214 German Knecht, criminals, found: 23 cases of goitre and cardiac hypertrophy, 146 cases of hernia, 51 cases of congenital phymosis, of testicles or devolopment 29 cases of arrested " 2 cases of and cases of epispadias 5 penis, hypoFlesch. spadis." is frequently the cause of phymosis This the young. coincident arrest, with a feminine is often development, ordinarily " the " apanage of the passive pederasts, which is common in young vagabonds and petty thieves. Congenital in onanism



General IT is generally criminals. among extent also they ance of their admitted

Sensibility. that sensibility finds proof is less in the


state, die -crying

but the criminals tattooing; permit this custom as a guarantee of their reputation; can manifest a stoicism about it; this resistof the flesh can have as cause a hypnotic as with ecstatic martyrs, or with witches who that

The they do not feel the flames. slaves dread suffering even more than dead galley We shall see that from this physical in(Corre). comes in great part moral sensibility insensibility. Lombroso and Marro find general onesensibility sixth less, and sensibility, to pain two-fifths less than in the average person. Touch is obtuse in 44 per cent, of criminals, while among non-criminals it is the sense of touch is almost 29 per cent. Athough normal in swindlers and thieves, it is always less in murderers. ordinary men. Lombroso found this the case in 29 out of a thunder before 112; 9 were quarrelsome just in the ears, shower; many, were dizzy, had buzzing and headache on very windy days. METEORIC SENSIBILITY.The criminals under the influence than of the weather are more





Bono found 60 per cent, of 221 young criminals color blind, which is more than double that of 800 students and of 590 workmen. HolomBiliakow found grena found the same proportion. color blind; 50 per cent, of roo murderers among normal Russians there were not more than 4.6 per cent. Schmitz shows that 55 per cent, of those diswith are subject colors to difficulty tinguishing grosser nervous diseases, as epilepsy, chorea, etc. HEARING.Biliakow found dullness in hearing in the left ear. predominant to be more pretend A common feeble than they really are. character is agility, especially among thieves, some of whom have the spryness of the monkey; the they climb most slender trees, and jump upon the roof and thus enter the house. table LEFT-HANDEDNESS.We give a comparative (Lombroso) of 133 criminals and 117 young
Criminals. Per cent. Maximum Maximum Maximum force force force of left hand .... ... hands. . 23 67 9 of right hand of equal of both





Normal. Per cent. 14 70 14


by occasion by nature


of 261 condemned


9 out of 96 were left-handed. " " " Criminals . 28 . 145 " " " and to dextrous criminals 34 Forgers " " " Thieves 10 141 " " " Murderers . 4 . ." . 52 " " I 10 " Violators. .... " " " Women criminals . 10 , . 44



number of cases sensibility is duller than on the left side ; there is a predominance of cranium and brain on the right side in criminals admitted that left; it is generally of the superiority have Broca, Ogle, and Jackson right hemisphere. remarked that in aphasia on the left, the frontal convolutions on the right show more extravasations. Dr. Lepine mentions cases of left-handed convolutions people with lesions in the left frontal who did not have aphasia. When a left-handed and treated as inauspicious, he this fact. The idea of swinnaturally exaggerates is associated with left-handedness in Lomdling bard)' and Germany (Linker). person Corre remarks that with right-handed people, not only the right on the hands, but the teeth right side are more developed ; while the teeth on the left side show less vitality, and more of a tendency to decay. There is a superiority among forgers and those criminals where cleverness is necessary ; 14.3 petcent, are left-handed among the men, 22 per cent, Out of 771 ordinary women, among the women. only 4.3 per cent., and out of 238 workmen, 5.8 per cent, are left-handed the insane, 4 13 pet; among cent, to 4.27 per cent. was left-handed (Tiberius to Tacitus.) according ANOMALIES OF MOBILITY.Virgilio in 194 cases of chronic diseases found a proportionally large number of epileptics and chorea ; also ataxia in thieves as compared with homicides) (especially is suspected handedness is the result of the

In a large on the right





were frequent affections. Clark finds crime among II per cent, of common epileptics. BLUSHING.Twice as many criminals as insane are incapable of blushing, to Amadei, according It is admitted that the Bergesio. and the Malays blush little ; the Hindoos rarely, and the South Americans also little. Of 98 criminal men, 44 per cent, did young not blush ; of 122 female 81 per cent, criminals, did not blush when examined by Pasini and Lombroso. Tonninni, Chinese Andromico prostitutes trade or profession blushed when ; one, however, as to acts contrary to nature. reproached In the house of detention, the homicides related their deeds openly and without ; those blushing who had poisoned their husbands, blushed a little. Those condemned for theft did not find one among regular, legal who blushed when asked as to her and

blushed to the ears first, and then in the face ; but the prostitutes among these gave no sign of blushing. SPHYGMOGRAPHY In the study of the reactions of the vessels in relation with the phenomenon of thought, criminals reaction broso : and criminals, by occasion, gave hardly any vascular from Lom; here are some examples the robust but habitual

foreAttsatw.Large jaw, tattooed, receding and neuoropathic head, born of inebriate parents, thief from infancy, never reacted at the sound of or discharge of a pistol, or when under the of painful impression things, or under the influence music,



physyears of age, regular of a glass washer, laughs easily, inventor iognomy, speaks the slang, says he steals to procure money for " " of une femme-nue the photograph speculation; for the first time ; but grada reaction produced made no current less afterwards, a painful ually variation. Dalza.Thirty years of age ; had' an insane until 24 ; afterwards thief ; at the ; straight affections ; had receding age of 12, had cerebral and was much forehead, atheroma, large jaw, after tattooed. A strong electric current provoked, curve ; a wounding a descending of 8 pulsations, uncle ; rising of 9 pulsations caused a rise, then a fall after the 4th until the 16th. pulsation continuing and very habitual backslider, Ayliate.Thief, the pulsations, ; sad music diminished gay young music increased them, no reaction from calculation the pulincreased or from pricking ; the revolver the same result ; the vanity produced lowered the pulse of the electric machine thought a little ; on another pistol, dagger, day neither a wine, nor the head of a dead person produced 12 puldefined effect ; vanity raised the line during sations ; their number. sations without modifying Prato Teonesto.Seventeen years of age; son of an alcoholic ; with criminal type ; at 5 he stole wine from ousy his father's one of his cellar; later he struck companions through wine ; abused jealand his vanity calculation caused a sudden

of calculation ; but 18 pulsations. Rafallo.Twenty-six



an elevation






women ; prison was not tiresome to him, in fact he felt first-rate there. Sad music lowered the line with diminution of pulsations. of Photograph " "une femme-nue lowered the pulse, loosened it, and after a short elevation lowered the line. Mula slight diminution of 4 by 12 produced tiplying hand, the sight of wine or pulse ; on the other flattered vanity raised, then lowered, the line of the pulse. Reazzo.Swindler ; 24 years of age, simulated affected that he had two heads, and monomania, of obscene some mice in his stomach ; composer recitations with the ; a good pulse ; no reaction current ; the sentence most painful electric pronounced : " Here is a judge who wishes to see thee," made a notable depression. for soldier, honest, imprisoned Roggero.Young reaction in a row, gave an extraordinary wounding the line ; calto painful electric current, lowering a depression at the 3d pulsation. culation produced exact results are not In all such experiments vascular looked for, as the causes that influence The absence of reaction reaction are so numerous. in ten of Lombroso's cases, with the painful electric current, would indicate analgesia, when the stimucenters. In the lus does not reach the psychical cases of the fear of the judge or the wine, or espethe reactions were superior to the cially vanity, and indicate that pleasure, and normal, vanity, fear of pain have more power than pain itself; another to cerindication is, that those who are insensible tain sorts of impression are liable to be less sensi-



The reflex action was bie to others. knee-pan in 53, in 47 cases out of 100, abnormal normal and in some often enfeebled. show a contingent minimum of feeble Violators mean of exaggerated and a contingent reflexes, Thieves rise a little above the general reflexes. average in feeble reflexes, and are a little inferior and cheats, Rogues, excess either of feeble reflexes or of exaggerated the same thing reflexes; is observed robbers. Murderers among highway furnish a contingent of feeble and and sluggards reflexes. An inferior vasomotor activexaggerated as inhaling ity is put in evidence by such methods of amyle, or producing of nitrite blushing by a but this procedure is more or less conreprimand; Without too much importance testable. attaching it may be said that among to details, criminals there is an imperfection of sensitive activity of difIt is known how indifferferent degrees (Corre). and savages are to pain; negroes ent the negroes in order to escape work; cut the hand laughing tortured when the Indians, by fire, sing gaily in their initiations the redpraises of their tribe; without what would kill a skins endure complaint civilized on a hook from man; they are suspended head downward, in the a beam in the wigwam, midst of a thick smoke. This should be remembered with the insensibility in connection to tattooing; the fingers, the lips, or with the custom of cutting the teeth as a sign of mourning of crushing in ceremonies. funeral reflexes. in exaggerated knaves .show a notable





criminals live to be 80 or 90 LONGEVITY.Some has given the following Settembrini years of age. table: Out of 631, 227 were more than 40 years of age; 203 were from 30 to 40 years of age; 201 were Corre thinks that the want 40 years of age. in criminals of sensibility gives a hint as to their and vitality. longevity under Effects of Insensibility. Moral criminals. devoid of insensibility is as great the criminal he has as physical in is not entirely much certainly

Although moral feeling,

less of it than normal persons. Pity for the sufferthat first becomes ing of others is the sentiment in the criminal. In order to feeble, if not extinct, into the criminal obtain a real insight we himself, can do no better than give some of the words and by Lombroso. Here is one on coldly of the fatal telling blow which killed his wife, said he asked her pardon for it, but she refused him. on whom Another, the view of the dying victim had no effect says, " I kill a man just as I drink a glass of wine." Another befifty cuts from a knife; he throws himself on the bed coming fatigued, A normal near by and sleeps peacefully. man, into crime by passion or by unexpected pushed would have made efforts to conceal circumstances, his murder. One adorns the body of his wife as if for a wedding, places it on the table between him tion and the the two grave-diggers, three eat their repast. and in this posiAnother, having kills his mother with acts of the criminals themselves as related



cut his brother up into pieces, and not wishing to at his dinner, when they brought be interrupted the members of his victim to him, said: "They are than in my stomach"; much better there and with the guillotine, he replied, when threatened " You can divide me into two, but not into six, as I have done to this one." was One, whose brother executed, stole a purse and four watches, being that my brother is and said, " What a misfortune not here to have his share!" of their Some speak so coldly and unconcernedly crimes in court that they would be taken for wit"nesses rather than authors of their deeds. One, a few hours his execution, asks for a boiled Anchicken, and eats it all with a good appetite. the three from desires to executioners, other, One reminds choose his "Professor." the priest to him repentance) of the bottle of (preaching wine him fifteen days bepromised and when on the point of mounting the fore; he recomscaffold, the last and only thing which mended to his wife who was his accomplice, was to francs. While one give him credit for thirty-seven was being who was to executed, his accomplice, his hair quietly. A former exefollow, arranged cutioner to be guillotined) (about seeing that the instrument of death was not well arranged, fixed it, disposed the block into a convenient position, and quietly placed his head upon it. There are many curious things related as to the An assassin, while his head was already last hour: on the block, hearing his accomplice complain, which he had before





said to him: " Do not forget that by accident we were subject to one more disease." An executioner, not being able to seize the neck of one having the goiter, excused himself, swearing that that had never happened to him ; " Nor to me either," reAnother of the bad plied the culprit. complains conditions which he passed of the street through on his way to execution. A savant said on the his finger at the ax and at the scaffold, pointing " Here is and Omega, and thou, exeblock, Alpha art Beta." cutioner, One who smoked his cigar on hearing his death sentence read, said: "I smoke this cigar with preand lying in wait." meditation Another was ocwith his unedited works. Another cupied gives lessons in hygiene to the jailors. Another replies who hurried to the executioner, the him, saying " Be not hour was advanced: fearful, they will not without me." commence is shown by the frequency of murInsensibility at which the murderers ders after an execution had been witnesses, by the nicknames given to instruments of execution and to executioners, by recitations where the favorite is the death pensubject Lombroso considers these facts as one of the alty. most powerful in favor of abolishing arguments the death penalty, it turns because from crime than it leads into crime, owing to fewer individuals the law of imitation, which has such force over the masses ; this species of horrible the charm attracts crowd around the victims of justice ; this doleful and solemn show, so appropriate to please the



of other-evil-doers, vanity goes so far as to give veneration to the bodies of the executed, as sacred Out of 167 condemned relics. to death in EngWhile land, 164 had been present at executions. show extraordinary many criminals courage, owing much to this insensibility, the majority of evil doers are cowards when the excitement is over and they find themselves in unexpected The chief of peril. of Ravenna learned that a dangerous police assassin had boasted that he would kill him ; the chief of police sent for the assassin, put a pistol in his hand and invited him to shoot him ; the assassin to turn immediately began pale and tremble. It is probable that acts of courage on the part of criminals are often due to their insensibility and which to a childish hides the danger impetuosity and makes them blind when they have a purpose to reach or a passion to satisfy. This insensibility and the gravity of the death of others and their own, in connection with their strong passions, explain a between the crime and its disproportion frequent motive; thus, one kills his comrade because he snores too loud; or because he refuses to black his boots; or a quarrel for five centimes ends in assassination. This moral insensibility indicates is why cruelty found so often among persons who seem at times accessible to goodness. Aberration of feeling characterizes the criminal and the insane; and a high decan be found with a tendency to gree of intelligence crime or insanity. This accords with the fact that the alterations of the face and eyes are more frequent







of the telligence and the anomalies of the feeling more cranium, the eyes. with those of the face and especially Sentiments. many but some remain. wanting, an entire family ing killed name Among criminals sentiments are good after havTroppmann, the wept on hearing

The anomalies of the cranium. are more in relation with those

of in-

Some love their wives and of his mother. La Sala, who said she loved cats more children. and who caused her lover to be than her children, and had a passion for her accomplice, assassinated, passed many nights in true charity work at the beds a man risked Another after killing of the dying. his life in order be precipitated Another xxi.). his wife to safe a cat from a roof commits which was about to de Claude, (Memoires in order to enrich murder

and child whom he loves. Parent-Duchatheir telet has shown that some prostitutes support some also have an aged parents and companions; lovers in spite of blows extreme passion for their and cruel treatment from them.

Instability. in some form in is always present Instability criminal confessed to LomA certain criminals. " The cause of is words: in these broso my crimes I cannot see for friendship; a too great propensity even if he is far away, one of my friends offended, without One raising my hands to avenge him." by excessive love of his pushed to his first murder because mistress, killed her a little time afterwards, 6



him. loved his mother Another reproached but in a fit of anger threw her from passionately, One had loved a woman for many the balcony. after his he years, but two months marriage, she rid of her. Prostitutes allow get to strike them till blood their paramours comes; can but later the least pretext them. estrange found some who had changed Parent-Duchatelet desired the tattooed initials of their paramours thirty times. Vanity. with merit. While inversely in artists and litterateurs, it developed sufficiently reaches its highest La Gala stage in criminals. inscribed in his cell" "To-day, March 24th, La to make stockings." Gala has learned Lacenaire was affected much more by the criticism of his bad Vanity verses sentence. One of the by his death most common causes of modern crimes is to satisfy to shine in the world, "to cut a figure." vanity, A criminal and his mistress killed, one his wife, the other her husband, and married one another in in the world." order to save " their reputation an extreme vanity about being out of Sometimes debt has led to murder. When a noted thief wears kind of vest or cravat, his associates adopt With the majority there is of criminals " " no blushing; to say of one that he is a skirmisher that a great A is, an assassinis compliment. of fine priest by all, was murdered; certain and gentle none could spirit, respected account for it; a certain his style. than increases to





a very young man, the priest out to his comrades, killed him pointing and criminal simply to show his courage virility. The criminal is proud of his strength, beauty, riches wrongly and of short acquired courage, and of his success in crime. As in most duration, have their aristocracy. Their classes, the criminals bands of one another. Prostitutes jealous to belong to the superior always pretend grade; the phrase, " Votes eles unc femme de vingt sous," is considered an outrage. The stealer of the thousands makes fun of the The assassins consider thempoor pickpocket. selves superior to the thieves and swindlers, but the forgers do not associate with the assassins; the highway robbers thieves. despise the petty A highway robber once said: "I can be a thief, thank I am a respectable man." but, God, After a whole family, a criminal killing rejoiced that all St. Petersburg were thinking about him. comrades will see now, if lie said, "my "Well," in thinking that I would never they were right be talked A vulgar about." at sharper boasted court of imaginary crimes in order to appear as a A veteran criminal said: "The assassin. great to those of my of the present are inferior brigands in their purity, who were not time, who flourished but worked for the love of their trade." politicians, Such vanity, in connection with lack of foresight, to justice. aids in bringing criminals Just after a said to one of his misa criminal strange murder, tresses: "Yes, I love them, the women, but in a are








possessed way; I choke them after having peculiar their throats. them; my pleasure consists in cutting soon hear me talked about." An O, you will was as follows: on a tombstone "Here inscription in this world, tired of stealing lies poor Tulac, Some dream of to steal in the other." departs crime, and, it may be celebrity through reaching like to be that they often succeed; added, they names and photographs in talked about, see their the papers, etc., etc., are pleased to give their autoreceive even offers of marthey sometimes graphs; women. A prisoner tried riage from respectable to kill one of his fellows because another criminal, who was on trial at the time in the city where the " too much received and was, attention," prisoner " too from sentimental especially many bouquets," he desired to be lionized also; he did as well as he expected, for he did not strike his victim quite hard enough to kill him; but had ten years more added to his sentence for the he did. The developed injury pride of criminals and ladies; not succeed is a farce; they are too good to work, lazy to act, and lazy to feel; it is necessary to stimulate their natural torpor by their grosser appetites; yet this is in its effect. only temporary Crime, like prostituOne-sixth of the accused tion, is fed by idleness. in France are of the unoccupied; they are fatigued workmen. easily, and do much less than ordinary Some pose as unfortunates, victims of fatality, criminals by the hatred of an unjust society. As there is no virtuous man without so there weaknesses, are many criminals with altruism of praise. worthy








same time



an anti-altruism.

Some great criminals can be encouraged some pity for others; and vice this

manifest sentiment is present

are not without honor; they to better they have things; but those hardened to crime little or no altruism, and when it is of short duration.

Vengeance. An excessive vanity is one of the main antece-

A certain baron caused a perdents to vengeance. son to be assassinated, because in a procession he before his failed to stop the statue of the Virgin house. "To see the man die whom you hate is a pleasure, and to hate and avenge is the only was the assertion of one criminal. thing I enjoy," A criminal a slight altercation with his having him for many years, who had supported friend, struck him and tried to throw him into a well. He divine friend him ; was stopped ; his wounded pardoned " I will be condemned, but but he answered, it, if I patience ; I regret that I did not accomplish get out of prison, I will fix him ;" he kept his before made his Another, just dying, promise. farmers with whom comrades swear to kill certain A woman had he had not yet settled his accounts. her neighbor, who was opposed to the poisoned of her son ; on being condemned to death marriage to her victim, after to grant and invited pardon " God has of Our Saviour, : the example replied done that which pleased Him ; but I will never pardon." friend for Another a joke, the cloak of his tightened but accidently caused a slight



tear ; he apologized and promised to make it good; his friend, however, would not listen to him, but stabbed him instead of accepting the apology. A case like to the vengeance of savages, was that of a certain criminal at night who, being insulted by an unknown person, armed himself, and struck the first man he chanced to meet. Cruelty. during ten years, to the person. Crimonly five were with violence inals who kili for the sake of killing are feared by their companions. After a prostitute, murdering and finding a criminal was so only a watch, When enraged that he ate the scraps of her flesh. bl )od has been once tasted by those who take pleasure in it, to kill becomes a burning passion. One complained while dying, because having killed 99 men he had not made it an even hundred. took such extreme Another pleasure in drinking to take it blood, that when it was not. convenient from his neighbor, he drank his own. In cases of this kind, carnal love is often found in which the the sexual passion. In sight of blood stimulates fact bloody scenes are often followed by the lowest debauches ; thus after bloody battles, an abnormal manifests itself ; it is a impulse to rape sometimes of what was generally in warrecurrence practiced fare among Thus in some murders at savages. the greatest atrocities are committed present solely because they cause intense sexual excitement in individuals who are so abnormal or so degenerOut of 860 thefts in London





in no other way. such excitement Murders of this nature are not due to the love of for its own sake, as is generally assumed, cruelty but they owe their cause to the love of sexual exThus in rape creates. citement which the cruelty ated as to obtain that the of an atrocious nature, it is not improbable is practiced, not for the purpose of accomcruelty the outrage, but solely for the sexual gratplishing ification that In another eral itself the cruelty work the author generates. has considered sev-

cases of this nature, two of which are self-confessed. One of these is that of a sexton of a church, who brained a little girl, but did not attempt rape. he confessed to braining Just before his execution the passion that a prostitute also, and described The descripboth his crimes. led him to commit tion was so obscene that it could not be printed, in legal form. the case was published although of " Jack the Ripper," The atrocities so-called, and are of New York) murderers of similar (Frenchy, sexual pasdoubt caused by a pathological without sion.

Debauches may be the result of forced chastity, and shepherds. as in the case of priests, soldiers, with The trades that expose to contact blood, asthe butcher ; or impose a solitary life, as that of a This have their influence. or hunter, shepherd seems to be and mutilation species of lust-murder increasing; depth of imIn London street-walkers, morality. the so-called not to mention higher grades of fast and become very much excited women, naturally it indicates the lowest the common



as those committed nervous, when such murders " " the are reported. Ripper by Jack There is also among criminals deep but tempoin their character; as a fit of irritarary alterations the least apparent cause. The jailors tion without it ; they say there is a bad quarter of an recognize are not their during the day, when criminals This peculiarity own masters, not themselves. has been noticed among savages and animals. women For cruelty and ferocity reach the extreme. Some of their methods of torture cannot be described. It was women who carried out and " " on sale the bodies of at Paris ; put gendarmes hour who forced a man to eat his own roasted flesh ; women who carried on their poles human entrails. It was a woman who caused a young girl to die of her Starvation, forcing which was richly served, touch a thing. Wine After criminal and daily to sit at her table, without her to allowing


is satisfied, drinking and vanity follow. Some criminals comgambling generally mit crime in order to be able to become drunk; the because they find in drunkenness the cowardly, courage necessary to carry out their misdeeds, and think also they can find in this a means of justificarevelries tion; because also drunken push young men into crime. The saloon is the place where the criminals find their accomplices; it is the abode where they not only meditate their but crimes, where they spend the money obtained by crime;





the saloon is the one true home of the criminal; and sometimes the keepeic of the place is their banker. Of 10,000 murders committed in France, 2,374 occurred in saloons; out of 49,423 arrests in New Alcoholism is the 30,507 were drunkards. of much of the paralysis and ateromasia, in a fatty degeneration in the intima of consisting the arteries. The rich abuse champrostitutes in order to chase pagne; the poor drink whisky York, cause away or to gain temporary disagreeble thoughts, to carry on their trade. There are excepstrength tional cases of thieves, prostitutes, and swindlers who are total abstainers. is quite comGambling mon

there is a fascination in criminals; among themselves with the money of others, amusing which at times is a burning The criminal passion. is between two fires; on the one hand, unbridled lust for the property of others; on the other, madness beyond to squander stolen money. parallel This makes it evident how many are always in poverty, although possessing large sums at times; but cupidity is not the true spur to crime, it is the brutal which are impossible to satisfy. passions The miserly man is less carried into crime than the This life between spendthrift. haphazard is also one of the main causes plenty and poverty of premature death. Other Tendencies.

The criminals like the table and love the dance. Here is one who made his debut as thief in order to buy macaroni: another at Paris, who steals in



the dances. The love of the criminal is almost sensual and savage; one wholly boasts of twelve mistresses; some who are married in one case a their wives for money; exchange was the consideration. An dog and five florins American tresses around counterfeiter were numerous the town. his misonce, that to form a line enough love soon Carnal lessens in said


to attend

while in swindlers, and some thieves; poisoners, assassins it may persist; a good number, among the physical incentive a state passes over from of partial into excesses of much more impotence violence, periodic but they are less durable and assume a form. Platonic love is very exceptional

sentimental many prefer among thieves; ways to take care of their lovers obscene; female thieves when sick, and remain true to them for a certain of time, unless their sickness continues too length there are all grades of Among prostitutes long. from the lowest pederasty to the love of passion; music, books, pictures, medals, are often impetuous and violent; them sight from and flowers; will nothing lack they stop fore-

as they getting satisfaction, and never think of the future. Relalioti to Insanity. in

common with the of certain violence, instability pasand physical sions, moral insensibility, exaggerated idea of themselves, and sometimes passions for and desire to recall drink, their crimes; but there is this difference, the insane care rarely

Criminals as insane,







for gambling take a dislike

and much more often revelry, to those nearest to them as wife and children must have society, while ; the criminal the insane prefer solitude and thus plots are rare in the asylums. Sensibility The and Passions.


criminal more the savage; approaches the moral sense of the or savage is animal but in and extinct, instability impetuousity are much alike ; the savage is a child the physical powers of a man ; he has a great love for gambling, but he is not very greedy. all their Some after sell tilings, losing money gamble themselves away, and if young sell themof the tribe. selves outside The Chinaman will gamble his last coat away in the cold of winter. There is in the savage a mixture and of cowardice they with ; lust and the love of blood mingle ; love Alcoholic are fatal to savages, liquors to destroy the entire race. The savages, tending where custom or religious precepts have prohibited liquor, supply its place by curious means, as movements of the head up and down, or right and left, a like effect. which produce Laziness is also a of savages. characteristic Some of them are re" To suffer in order to to all work saying pugnant suffer ; it is better to die than to work." courage is lust. Vulnerability. some explanation

gives Analgesia ness of criminals. had right forehead

of the Lombroso saw a thief been fractured laterally

hardiwhose by a



in 15 days the thief was well and no rehatchet; action occurred. There is also the case of a murof a reproach, derer (a mason) who, on account from a third story into the court, and continued his work. Lomgot up laughing, who perbroso cites the case of an infanticide threw himself formed a covered, fever. the Cassarian knife without kitchen with operation upon herself the child ; she reand killed dressing the wound, and without

Feeling Death

as to Death.

is accepted without trouble by few crimifor the pains that nals ; some fear it for itself, behind it. it ; others for the unknown accompany of the thought before the They may seem cold-blooded yet there are none who do not expect magistrate of sentence. to obtain a commutation Of 24 the most and expressed women, 5 died cowardly, at the stake ; 18 mounted the revolting cynicism scaffold by calmly (for the most part comforted In general of death. and repentant, religious exhortations), resigned and some with sadness, but without Of fainting. 4 were noisy, one ex64 men, 25 died cowardly, one yawned, 12 were cited, one was loquacious, without apparent cynical to the end, and finished chosen as if in a theater trouble, by them; 5 died 1 with the insensibility of a with indifference, or the unconsciousness of the insane, 18 brute, died courageously, calm, resigned pre(generally of the priest), and showed pared by exhortations the criminals are afraid





these were all grades ; the repentance ; among the most sincere ; the lowest criminals appeared to leave behind grades not desiring higher any diminish the horror of their doubt, which might on their family, memory and the shame reflected in proaid, persisted accepting religious their innocence. claiming hold to life ; under Criminals bad conditions, imminent and they fear to loose it ; but before certain death a few are courageous, it is thinking and little In women the of short duration pain. of the religious intensity feeling gives them supeat the critical moment. Once in crime, riority although than man ; woman is often more cruel and raging in terror few faint ; women also have habits more reserved than men. Men manifest and gross more often as marks of fear, or as studied attitudes of insensibility. an index excessive in Vanity, most criminals, too blusgives a show of courage to be permanent. Some tering and too apparent have fear of being used for anatomical studies and shown to everyone ; having their deformities feel the they possibly they imagine might In the army no better prescalpel. English ventive of suicide is found than having it known that bodies of suicides go to dissecting-rooms. throw themselves into the The less courageous arms of the priest, and deny their crime; others their faults to him who grants often confessing with a loud voice their divine pardon, proclaim with theminnocence and die in contradiction selves. of or



Religion While

of Criminals.

some of the. chiefs of the bands ridicule the majority of criminals believe in it ; religion, many of these make a sensual use and accomodation of it for their personal advantage. To a priest who was exhorting a criminal asked repentance, " How many hotels he would reach before arriving at Paradise, as he only had 6 cents to spend on the route." The criminal's God of peace and justice is a benevolent guardian and an accomplice. 1 the free men are more to Lombroso According in the churches; but Lombroso adds frequently that 61 per cent, of the violators and 56 per cent, of the assassins frequent the church. Ferri to be an found only 1 who professed atheist out of 200 assassins; 7 of the others showed an exaggerated devotion, 5 were strong in the faith; the rest, while scoffing at the priests, in God. affirmed that they believed One said, " He does not depend upon me to be a good man, it is God who gives this sentiment." Out of 2,480 In who were tattooed, 238 had religious symbols. the soul is their slang, God is the great "Mek"; "the perpetual"; in Spanish the church is called the sainted. These facts point to a belief in God and the immortality of the soul. The Bohemian
Criminals. 1 Regular Irregular Absence.. attendance attendance at church (500) 46% 25" 38" Normals^ (100) 57% 13" 29"





they obtain divine pardon if they wear the shirt a year which they had on at the time of the murder. A criminal killed having12 soldiers and a priest, believed himself invulbecause he kept on his breast a consenerable, crated Some bands place sacred images offering. in the woods and groves where they keep candles A criminal after burning. 3 women, strangling was said to be the most assiduous and sincere at church and the confessional. Three criminals reeat on Good Friday, and when of the prison of them inquired "What? about it, they replied: Do you take us to be excommunicated?" A woman criminal who had strangled a little point-blank the director her death sentence turned and hearing "Death is nothing, the essential is to save the A soul, as I have saved mine, I mock at the rest." criminal of Milan, notorious who had been congirl, said, demned for 34 murders attended mass every he preached Christian and religday; morality ion continually. A young man of Naples, who had killed his father, had asked of a Madonna to commit for the force necessary the deed. He " I have the said, proof that she aided me, for at the first blow of the club that I gave, my father fell dead; and I am extremely feeble." A woman " under divine the of her husband places poisoning In urging another on to crime, one protection." " I will said, come, and I will have God inspire thee." a chapel, Another, having stolen to found continued to steal in order to furnish it. After on fused to





his mistress, a criminal gave her absostrangling then sold the proceeds lution " in articulo mortis," of his thefts to enable him to have mass said. At the moment when her lover, a criminal do the rest." Virgin tend so. indifference criminal, not seem to prevent vice crime much and it very them; among serves sometimes as a pretext to one or the other. their beds the Spanish prostitutes place above Child of the Virgin, like the sinners of the respectable world mours. who While cases this is hypocritical, it is more often, in the case of criminals, frank and naive. Thus it is that is unfortureligiousness nately and too often allied with the baser instincts of man, and such glaring contradictions become social ulcers. go from in many the church to their paralife of the In the ordinary does is the rule. Religion to be irreligious ers and companions; setting fire to the house of " said, May God and the Holy Numbers of prostitutes prein the presence of their lovbut they are far from being



IN intelligence the criminal is below the average. that the wandering It must be remembered and life of a criminal and his knocking uncertain about world favor a development of his intelliThe first in Europe to investigate and esgence. tablish an average were the Spaniards. Out of 10 53,600 about 67 per cent, had a fair intelligence, per cent, were below the average, and 18 per cent, were depraved ; less than 1 per cent, mentally and 2% percent, possessed hardly any intelligence, could not be classified. The majority feel themselves for any unqualified constant work, and their purpose is to escape every Lacinaire said to his judges, kind of occupation. " I have been lazy; it is a shame, I admit, always in work. To work is to make but I am sluggish I have energy an effort and I feel myself incapable; If it is necessary to work I care not only for evil. Anto death." to live, I prefer to be condemned other who killed his father, because he reproached to remain all night him for his laziness, preferred alone in the stables rather than make the least ex7 in the



to go to his bed. This almost universal lazy most of them, feeling in criminals explains why even those of genius, were bad scholars. ertion of mind are inconstancy criminals. In Switzerland it is calculated that 44 per cent, of the condemned have been led to crime by their levity. are so light-minded, The prostitutes as not to be mobility, Levity, characteristics of able to hold their attention on any idea; it is difficult to reason with them; thus comes their lack of which aids their patrons to retain them foresight, and impoverish them. have much Criminals The credulity. great criminals never foresee the possibility of their being and when they are, they are astonished discovered, have made how they could such a " great mistake." This of mind to levity gives a tendency and humor; some laugh much, are astoundraillery the most ing in the use of slang, turn into ridicule and sacred things with a play on words cherished and by puns: of these things they are proud; it is a species of intellectual a show, but it indicates want in the moral sense. or They are indifferent, even have an agreeable where other men feeling would experience fear or pain. Criminals are so deficient in lack of foresight, as often to tell of their misdeeds to the police; it is lost time to " play fine" with clearer after them; they see a little arrest than before; this stupidity in is illustrated their- becoming confidential friends on first acthere is quaintance; they return to places where every probability of being caught. In defending and





effect; insisted not 14 times. are superThey in magic stitious and omens. enough to believe The great criminals, after having shown skill in the for their crimes, do not hold out, but preparation intoxicated and loose all become by impunity prudence. They have little logic; there is a disprobetween the motive and the crime; the exeportion cution of the crime, as a piece of art, leaves much to than be desired; so that lawyers with more ingenuity and irrehonesty find facts to show the innocence of their clients. Violence and passion sponsibility in the execution of the crime increase improvia crime and of dence; the pleasure of committing it to others aids in their general bungling. telling A wife sent to her husband a poisoned cake with a him to partake of it af^er dinner; letter inviting but she did not see that her husband could not eat it all at once and that a fragment of it joined to the letter would be sufficient to discover the author One who had killed his brother but had forgotten an alibi, to wash the proved after the stains of blood from his coat. Another, execution of his crime, lit a lamp, which could to find traces of or policemen help the neighbors him. Specialists //*Yi%?ile^nkninals /A-ntE-fj>Y-et"in the in Crime. of the crime.

themselves, they the very opposite of a murder, one tim 13 times and



on details which have thus in giving an account that he wounded the vic-

are less capable than ordinary the same things practice of doing



to be very they seem to the world continually Even idiots, by practicing clever. the same thing, become very quick. Some thieves enter stores in the latter case only, some private houses,and there are those who steal haphazard make much preparation beforehand, ting a key to fit the lock. and those who getperhaps

There are ten kinds of mendicants : Foreigners, the starving, those pretending sick, or to have been shipwrecked, those with petitions, etc., etc.; each has his speciality. There are the thieves who break into houses ; who use narcotics ; those who steal with hooks ; stealers of cheese ; of horses, Some force a lock with dogs, and game. great of a skill, others can climb easily to the height church but are incapable of breaking steeple, the least obstacle; some take to flight at through the least noise; others enter a house full of people and things ; some have great in the dexterity there are those who do not hesitate to leap hands; from the second story of a house or from a railroad train going at full there are those speed; who steal anything in their way; those who will not trouble themselves about things of little value; those who steal cattle, but would be afraid to of a hen-coop. Thus each one naturally finds the method best adapted to himself. When we consider how often he repeats the same things, his reputation for dexterity is far from Poisoners are generally being wonderful. open well educated; they are physicians, chemists; they have a sympathetic air, amiable address, persuabreak the door





sive language, whicli would deceive the very elect; has women. they are often passionate Poisoning have been a species of voluptuousness ; many with little been poisoned, sometimes motive, and are as many as 14 and 21 at one time; poisoners lust; they love, or unbridled pushed by cupidity, are calm, and deceitful, hypocritical, protesting to the very end; they carry their their innocence secret into the grave; have accomthey rarely assumes the form of Sometimes poisoning plices. with women. an epidemic, especially Thieves are fond of showy colors, toys, chains, and creduthey are the most ignorant earrings; lous of all; they are cowards by nature, make intimate acquaintance at first sight, if one speaks their travel slang; they even fall in witli foreigners, with men them not knowing their language; Frenchand Germans sometimes unite. Criminals in dreams, believe omens, and unlucky days; go their natural with prostitutes, associate in friends; bands; they like the noise of large cities, it is their of working element; they are incapable steadily, are bold liars; they are the most difficult to reform, the women who are courtesans in addiespecially tion. Swindlers are superstitious, clever, lustful, more than other crimicapable of good or bad actions and hypocrites, with a soft nals; they are bigots and vain, and lavish with their illair, benevolent money; they are often insane or feign ingotten sanity. Assassins affect a soft and sympathetic manner,'




a calmness pervades them; they are seldom to wine, but very much to gambling and given carnal love; among themselves they are audacious, and boast of their crimes. Their dexarrogant, of practice; one kills his victim the very first blow; when not engaged in their occupation they are gay fellows, and seek the society of the theaters. especially Idlers and vagrants 'are almost always of a gay and joyous humor; in prison others make clowns terity with of themselves; sober and calm in they are generally rows temper and avoid serious quarrels, especially where blood flows; they do not desire to injure their excuse is generseverely persons or property; to find work, not so much on account ally inability of fatigue as of uniformity of movement in their which is caused by division of labor in large and which'they cannot endure; factories, many of them rather than labor thus expose their health and life to much more dangerous work. They are not generally to the degree that would passionate lead to crime. Their lazy life and light gaiety work, have caused them to invent sonorous bellows, making produce like that of a fight, the crowd and attracting is a great another colorer of pipes, or police; colors another dresses flea-bites. One rabbits; claimed to have 27 professions. He was booterrand black, rag-picker, runner, public crier, etc., etc. These naturally are experts in slang. Now who and then new there forms are invent criminals of crime. genius, sueVidocq with strange which trades, such as noises is the result






and caused times, escaping many to fall into the hands of justice. many villains He has traced out in his memoir a pychology of crime. Criminals are endowed with a particular kind of genius. in whom no prison Noscino, Tuscany could hold more than a month, evaded his keepers after them warning. having given Another has left a manual the art of concerning At Sing Sing a prisoner succeeded opening locks. in establishing a distillery with the remains of fruits and potatoes furnished by the prison, and concealed this for a long time. howGenerally, of genius lack either the foreever, the criminals to carry their projsight or the necessary cunning ects through to the end; at the root of their that is sure to show character there is a lightness itself. In general their genius is more of a knavish and conand clever nature; they lack coherence in mental work; what they have of this is tinuity but it is intermittent. powerful are rare in the scientific world. Criminals Many of those accused of crime have not been proven Peculation may be more than a mere guilty. Sallust and Seneca were feebleness of character. certain proofs. accused of this, but without Creand celebrated bemani, a "consul" criminalist, a noted surgeon, was came a forger. Demme, Crime is very rare guilty of theft and poisoning. mathematicians and natural scientists. among Great men, and those in high positions, are often of every nature to accusations exposed by the envy and jealousy of others.




Lambroso tion :

gives the following


as to educaNormals. (100.) Per cent. 6 69 27

1. Analphabets ...... 2. Elementary instruction instruction 3. Superior

Delinquents. (507.) Per cent. 12 .... .... 95 12

are compared with 100 norHere 507 criminals are much below the normal men. The criminals mals in the two extremes, but not in the elementary instruction. In Austria the lowest per cent, of crime (0.83 to 0.71 per cent.) for 14 years was found to be among those engaged in scientific work. . Men of science in general find their investigations a pleasure in work their them to hold themselves, requires to the criticisms of the true. This training rigidly enables them to overcome their passions easier and 'to see clearer how a criminal action is not only unand of no profit, because the rejust, but illogical action comes with full force back upon the author of the crime. With poets and artists crime is more frequent; more by passion than those they are dominated in severe inductions or deductions. engaged Among noted poisoners many poets can be named of a certain grade, as Venosca, Winter, Lacenaire, but their reputation rested Barre, Lebiez; Lafarge, more on versification. The artists are led to crime more than by love or jealousy of their profession men of letters are. Cellini was guilty of several another kills his wife to marry murders; again;





and but there are few criminals among sculptors, still fewer among architects, perhaps their profesthe meditation. more calm of sion requires Painters abuse alcohol more than other artists. is more frequent Criminality among the liberal In Italy 6.1 per cent, of criminals have professions. in France, 6.0 per cent.; in education; superior from ^-6 to 3.11 per cent.; in Bavaria 4.0 Austtia, The proportion is here relatively greater per cent. it is easy for than in the other classes of society; to give poison, the lawyer the physician to cause and the teacher to be committed, rape. perjury is extremely common among prostitutes. Illiteracy with the insane; As compared criminals are much more lazy; but what they do has more purEducation tends to diminish pose. monomania, and epidemical insanity, religious insanity of murand less der, and it gives to crime a less violent base appearance. Sallust, Seneca and Demme were not free from the taint of crime, and Lombroso says thatComte, were Swamnerdam, Pascal, Tasso, and Rousseau more or less troubled with melancholia and monomania. Slang. The recidivists, who are collected together in the have a language of their own, and large cities, while the grammatical preserving type, general and the idiomatical in use assonances, syntax the vocabulary. among the people, they change and most The greatest curious alteration ap-



proaches tliat of the slang of primitive languages; the objects by one of their it consists in indicating " " " the the kid is called thus attributes; jumper "; "the "the "the lean," cruel," death, meagre," " the certain." We can, by a study of their slang, criminal turn of mind. obtain insight into their The soul is called " the false"; shame," the red or the " the inthe the the moon, hour," rapid "; bloody"; inconveformer or spy"; the street lamps, "the " the whitener or washer "; the the nient"; lawyer, " " the sacred "; blood, "; the purse, grape-jam " the saint or " the little saint the "; prison, pawn, " the or sow"; alms or sacred"; charity, pig-iron " the " the blessed the tiresome"; nun, preaching, the knee, "the devout the canon, one"; one"; the painter, the "the brutal one"; "the creator"; " the in of the is called prison soup Lombardy " bad" ; " blond, means a bottle of white wine; " " a dead bot" dull color stands for pale money; " "' " head is a Jew; tle is an empty bottle; curly " father sounder " is the " the sounder " is justice; wisdom designates "the salt." judge; method is to follow the metaphor of a Another is "pocket or celphonetic disguise, thus prophet " to its depth; lar alluding poverty is called "phil"To is to drink a osophy." strangle a parrot" the color of both is a'reen. The <rlass of absinth: " the hotel " The white is need." of prostitute " nuns are the teeth. The cravat arch in is "the " " the bridle is the chain of the prisoner; heaven "; " " the of is the executioner; the colpeace judge " the is In Lombardy the legs are prison." lege





called " the little "vice" pleasure; fork. Sometimes

" " branches "; ducat is used for for hunger; "teeth" for the

the metaphor is worthy to rest " " in ordinary to dethrone Juileettiser language. in Spanish for vagabond; is in French for drinker, A a Grecian is one who deceives in the game. number of locations with homophonic allusions to certain persons or places: to go to Niort is to deny, is to be ruined to go to Rouen (French titer) (ruine). Others, as among savages, are made by onoma" a stroke " is to is a pistol; walk; "tuff" topy: "tic" are found is a watch. aiso: Synonyms " " is the chief of justice; the ninth hour is papa the " sentinel." There is also a turning of words: is "ophelin"; for Orfevre (goldsmith) philanthrope filou "Andarea is to receive Legnano" (thief); There a club. is sometimes a double " Martin and as Rouplay, phonetic etymological, nant, gendarme "; Rouen is officer of the police, " and the " roue instrument of execution (wheel or " " Erdman is man-earth, for earthen pot. rack); strokes of consist only in changing Other transformations in making the terminations, to supmetatheses, which obscure the sense of press or add syllables the word, perhaps due to the idea of anything of lazy minds, as in new, a characteristic merely " zerver " or " server " or friod for froid; French, in Italian camaro for camorade. For"verser"; The Gereign words are a rich source for slang. mans borrow from the Hebrew, the Italians from and French, the Germans and the English from







it refers to a servant rogue; is to strike the convicts; it was borrowed from " the Italians the French also Fuoroba," ; by which is the cry of the galley sergeant to give the it means without robe. signal of a capture; Ancient from the terms, which have disappeared modern lexicons, furnish curious Arton, examples: the bread; lenza, the water; The cuba, the house. " to be warm " French (tire chaud) for to sussay " " The Spanish milanes for pect (se mefier). say to the ancient fabrics at Milan. pistol, by allusion There is a richness of synonyms for things espeto criminals; words cially interesting 17 different have been found that indicate the guards; 7 for The French criminals have pocket, 9 for sodomy. 20 for the to express drunkenness; 44 synonyms act of drinking; 8 for wine; that is 72 in all for Criminals 19 for water, and 36 for money " the need of good call them eyes ; they " clairs " " mirettes " ardents," (a species of (clear); bell flower), "quinquets" tend Criminals (lamps). " the to animalize skin for them the is things: the arm is a "pinion"; the visage is a hide"; "muzzle" a "snout," the mouth is a "beak." be : to They employ negatives voluntarily " vicious " is to be " will not clever; they say, Je suis " " bien fait," but Je ne suis pas dejete (crooked, " ne In conversation, warped, perverted). pas etre is equivalent to "etre un imbecile"; m6chant," worse; thus to put anything they make everything into the form of a corpse is to eat it. In spite of drink, have

means (Italian) whose business it





large possible resources the slang is poor, owing to rethe few ideas of criminals. Some expressions and main constant by reason of their sonorousness The Germans and Italians call a bizarre nature. account watch " tick." The analogy of situations for the numerous similitudes of ideas. Phonetical resemblances are much more rare; they are favored of criminals, who desire either by the inconstance unbeto escape justice or tu strike their victim this or to obey the vagabond known, instinct; their residence and carry causes them to change their expressions from one country into another. The principal cause of slang among criminals is the necessity for the malefactors to escape the of the police. But just as lang age is vigilance to location, custom, climate, changed according and new conditions, so slang follows the same has its laws. To a certain extent every profession This tendency to form slang among memslang. bers of the same trade is strong, especially when the trade is suspicious. Hieroglyphics and Signatures of Criminals.

a vertical for theft; Figure i is a hieroglyphic line crossed by a spiral, figure 3, indicates a theft ; the chain on the anchor in figure 4 completed




by the thief in escaping; figure 5 is the sign for a tramp or beggar ; figure 2 means, I am afraid of being imprisoned ; figure In England, 6, a player at dice, who loads them. in 1849, a map (" Cadger Map ") was found; it was and for tramps; the plan of the villages intended farms of the country was given, with the following the virtues or defects for indicating signs attached of the proprietors : X = bad (too poor); 0 = very nice gentlemen; look out for the dog; -( = = a = very religious go this way; people ; Q month in prison to be expected. are In Naples and Sicily, where the associations number of hierowell rooted, there are a large " wooden are a The shoe," prostitutes glyphics. of old shoes an allusion to the great abundance in the low cellars of Naples; poison is indicated by by a cage; brigand, by a serpent; prison, a belt with by a playingswindling, dagger; the chief a cat hung card; up is a sure theft; a full of the guards is a head with beard; theft in the country of grapes; is a bundle one a fortunate steal is a star or rose; a qualified is a key; the city is a is scissors; one in general is a rooster; is a scorpion; bell; the judge liberty 100 is a leg; 50 is half of a leg. 5 is a hand; Some of the signs change: the eye means a spy in in Southern Central and power Italy (by Italy allusion force of a bad eye). to the fascinating it is a horse, and Evasion is a bird, sometimes Lomsometimes a revolver discharged. being broso considers these doubly atavistic, because

the direction






the signs in use among ancient reproduce in the inclipeople, and they are the starting-point in figures, nation of savages to paint their thought transformed into letters. which were gradually futile to expect to obconsidered It is generally the writtain a glance into the character through some It is not impossible that the jests of a person, ing. his walk, his voice, his manner of pronunciation, due to the action of certain and all phenomena as to the muscles may give some useful indications such tactics.have of his character. Although too much for curiosity, and so much been followed has been written; that is frivolous yet too much is of value has has been claimed, so that whatever been covered up. after out of account those Lombroso, leaving state whose writing into criminals was wholly two groups: infantile, divides 520

and 1st Group. Homicides, robbers, highway The largest part of these write with letbrigands. and ters lengthened out; the form is more curvilinear due to the proat the same time more projecting, in quite of the letters either up or down; longation " t " is the the cross for a number heavy and profor warriors and energetic as is common longed with small their signature All ornament persons. some terminate their names strokes and flourishes; each others with a sort of hook; with (assassins) stroke. Of 96 inword ends with a sharp vertical peculiarity. dividuals, 36 showed no striking of thieves 2d Group: exclusively Composed who do not make their letters curvilinear, but all



has nothing strikare small; the signature is like that of the ing-. On the whole the writing The type for the thieves is a species of women. letters of almost all the letters. Of 106, hook, a bending The writing of the female 12 had no peculiarities. resembles that of the assassins in the homicides sex. In general all female criminals apstronger This is also proach the masculine type of writing. true of respectable women with some energy. to an irreproachable Lombroso suggested young man in the hypnotic state, that he was a brigand, and his writing he made large wholly, changed " t's." letters and enormous These results have when we compare them with the importance The insane, with exception of monomainsane. deformed niacs, have a fine writing, by scrawls, more letters where uneven, with the capital cramped, there should be small ones; the letters sometimes small have a measured longness, or are ridiculously and never of the same size. or Some maniacs put points over all the letters and particbetween each one; many monomaniacs insane, who may ularly all the insane or partially because they scribble be called literary, yearly of underlining a great volumes, have the custom them different number of words or of writing from them with great care in orthe others and tracing With der to imitate pointed writing. paralytics the first letters of each word and hypochondriacs the last are difficult to deare quite indistinct, all letters are trembling and uncertain and cipher; often preceded by shapeless signs, made by a hesi-





" " " " The r's and the t's of those taring pen. having dementia or general paralysis are replaced " 1" or even The maniacs and by suppressed. those with dementia place words over one another or write them partly in capitals and partly in small the same letters eight or ten letters, repeating A large number, the monomatimes. especially niacs, are not satisfied to follow the horizontal line, with but write vertically also and form designs their plans. Literature of Criminals. words, which resemble pages for topograpical

The ancients have as models of criminal literature the obscene books of Ovid, and Petronius, Aretino; but, aside from their contents, they are bad models, being devoid of rhetoric and of a low style as in the popular almanacs. literary " Trattato In Italy there is the famous dei " of Vagabonds); it describes Bianti 38 (Treatise and vagabonds of Central species of swindlers " testathe most curious of which are the Italy, " in order tors who feign dying to leave their " " to others; the affarfanti who pretended property to have expiated great crimes by cruel penitences; " the " formigoti who are false soldiers returning The from false to Palestine. expeditions " Sbrisci " to (sliders), who go naked, pretending and maltreated have been captured by the Turks; false incendiaries, who pretend to have the "ruffiti," left their homes in ruins. at public places), Out of 92 little stories (bought 8



Lombroso thefts; But


20 which




and comlong

ing leisure The

14 were in verse and 6 in prose. there is that aside from this literature, of the direct from product prisoners, moments and

of poems and still Spain; sing them outside an example:

of badly restrained passions. in numerous this kind are very where more so in Russia, people of the prisons. The following is

I will pillage the merchant I will kill the noble in his I will carry off the brandy world will know me One you writing find will of the the

in his store, castle, and beautiful as a king.


and the

prison says: the there brothers,

" There


ures, good repasts, in will be always you cannot work

treasfriends, outside a sweet existence; you if of your the midst enemies; will die of Such hunger." humanitarianin of

an excessive indicate writings hotels. into comfortable ism turns the prisons some aesthetical shows The following feeling " In the midst of the place nature: criminal Vicaria, with her

you how

for me she makes hands tiny and that I saw that it was my little mother, signs. like two fountains. her eyes flowed Mother, you of me, I am surrounded think alone who by evil Christians. We are who who in you, dear mother, Those are in error nals. Les Parias (men are of the lowest caste of breathe hell, in condemned. vain such your feeling And prayers." to crimi-






a caste Indians; objects of contempt) represents devoted to prostitution; they train their children from the sixth year on; if they are not thieves all actors, tattooers, they are strolling soothsayers, their quite doubtful professions. Notwithstanding deep degradation they have composed fine poetry but as far as its content goes, except the song of " it is very obscene and immoral. Here Tiravallura," are some of the morals of their poems: "What If by force, get by strategy. the deceits of you know how to put to profit others, you will not suffer from hunger. Ally thyself only with the strong; place thy house near the in order to steal by night the offerings. temple to be deceived by The imbeciles themselves permit you endeavor to profit from them." A stolen some chickens, thanked God jackal, having for favoring him; some one was attracted by his voice, and killed him. in God; the Moral: "Take care about confiding will not save you from the most fervent prayer stroke of a club." appearances; Some of the songs show how, in an uncivilized crime is considered country, right, or at least only a trivial sin, which is easy to expiate. are almost all works The songs of Corsica of for the murder bandits. They breathe vengeance of enemies, to kill them, and " I have for the murderer. hope for that I avenge myself; him; God will permit my I will be conqueror, killed or account is all made. of a friend; admiration bound." hatred cannot obtain



The sprinkled his seal.

writer him

of with




his victim, killing so as to mark him with

A large part of prison it is more haps because sions. Lacenaire wrote


adapted the following

is in verse, to criminal :


" To my love : I dream of thee in my happy moments, when o'er my brow shine the most vivid colors ; now, the dream has vanished, and my lot must follow the fatal destiny, which would cast me into the field of cruel death. Wait for me in heaven, thou beautiful immortal one. Curse me, I laughed at your meanness, I laughed at the gods, for you alone invented. Curse me, my soul without feebleness was firm and frank in its atrocities. However this soul was far from being black. I was sometimes kind to the unfortunate for virtue's sake, if my heart had been able to believe, doubt it not, I would have been virtuous." in his Lacenaire, autobiography, truths about the moral life in prison: " If a man on first young entering not learn the slang, and immediately self down to their unworthy keepers regrets rades; tempt, contempt always they man, tells some does


will he level, to sit by the side of friends; even the will frown him ; he blushes and upon that he has not been as bad as his comdreads prison this mean; in their one jeers learns and what their esteem men of conand are

himput be declared

he for


in happier receive nothing following his

prison, but disdain. models, in

why certain because out Thus two or


the young three davs





a green slang; now he is no .longer friends will shake his hands now simpleton; fear of compromising themselves. The without if considered a novice; and man blushes young the first he is not yet entirely perverted, although learns the step has been taken, and he will never stop half way. " When represent

prisoner not always

of a prisoner, it will you paint the portrait the some member of society. Although abandons his body to everything, though

opaque, some among them are transThe vulgar sand which parent. you trample a brilliant after it has under foot furnishes crystal passed known a burning crucible. through if one has not visited the Is a mountain Thecaverns?

distant from the light, is it though than the outer crust ? We have debut formities and diseases to make us shudder; exclude since when does horror study, or disease at a distance ?" In a letter he put the physician underground, less important "What a torment inacof himself: speaking to study ! It tion is, for one always accustomed in the holds me in a disgraceful laziness, to petrify . I have fear of losing what bosom of misery. is remains to me; all creation little intelligence and work, all nature has horror based on motion wrote of inertia, and should the prisoner be an exception to this universal law? Some cry bread, bread; but from the bottom of my solitary cell, I cry work ! work !" some of his bad Another to embellish endeavors actions, to excuse others, and to invoke the fatality



of being repugnant of sodomy, he maintained to the accusation it was a mark of good taste, and that in general crime to some men, for they were free was permitted Some of the letters from the law. and poems of Ceresa, Byron, and Foscolo show traces of the remorse and violence with which to rid they tried themselves of bad passions. Ceresa was a sodomite priest, who paints in vivid colors his struggle So Byron and Toscolo crime against evil. picture and adultery, but are irritated, if taken too literally. Lately it is due to Balzac, Victor Hugo, Dumas, and Zola, that this miasma has enSue, Gabosian, deavored to penetrate into literature. But this isolated phenomenon the may not always endure; taste which provoke parallel odors; should have an antidote in the which is aroused in the mind of the contempt reader True art loves to hover in purity and and this all the more, when it sees the serenity; pleasure, around it. great contrast (Lombroso.) The literary of the insane productions in autobiographical those of the criminal of complaint and its little cies, in vivacity But the productions of criminals excel and passionate eloquence. The burning show less lightness and more originality except when they lose themselves words or rhymes or homophonies, always seek. in resemble tendendetails. by their criminals of form, vain the new and better

of the stars for some.


the play of which the insane



ASSOCIATIONS of criminals strengthen and engender an evil ferment, which, anew old savage tendencies, develops sort of discipline, criminals commit


and b}r the vanity which would be repugatrocities These in maii3r cases, if they were alone. nant in large cities; in associations are more abundant the more civilized the country the less general, solid they are, and the less bloody, and are more The purand commercial societies. political the property to appropriate pose is almost always Sometimes of others; the}'unite against the laws. and poisoning. there are associations for abortion like Societies range the appearance from of pederasty, the most without gives to vice delicate to virtue, any desire of gain, blood that flowing by religious which

multiplying them b)' a in crime makes

committed homicide, but simply for the gives; to cannibalism fanaticism.

pleasure and rape, inspired

As to sex, the associations of men are almost the Women have associations sometimes only ones. for poisoning, or serve as receivers of stolen goods, or as indicators or mistresses. The associations



are composed almost wholly of young and unmarried men; man}' are legitimate without children, a manual instruction, exercising trade, or are in the arm}r. Criminals of education are mostly in be formed nal societies. A band " noirs carried the latest fashion; a captain of the National Guard was commander of another. As to organization, many have an armed chief with dictatorial power, and, like among savage tribes, his comes from Someauthority personal qualities. times there is a division of labor; there is an exea schoolmaster, a secretary, a commercial cutioner, and even a priest and physician. All have traveler, an unwritten to the letter. code, which is respected The bands of Sicily, Puglia, a Lombardy require vote for admission; disobedience of the majority laws is punished there is a sort of a trial, by death; but the verdict is always unfavorable; one acts as public chiefs the prisoner defends accuser; of the band are the judges. himself; the large cities; will ciations some are of often assogood family; in the bosom of non-crimiat Paris called the " habits

One of the greatest offenses is to steal for one's self without a part to the society. The giving of a crime committed with the accomrevealing comes next in gravity. In the courts one plices excused himself for not knowing the misdeeds of his companions, because he would not have been able to have informed himself without disobeying the law. Some bands of Ravenna gave the name of master to their chief, and before committing ' murder would take the oath over a dagger. Some




12 1

by symbolic Some associations are not allowed threatenings. to steal in the locality where they live so as to have a safe domicile. If anyone is put in prison for a small offense, they take the precaution to hide nails and files in the cracks of the walls. When they walk with their booty the women go ahead, holda child. they were nursing each had a manual for action, a of argot, and his particular task. Some dictionary imitated others the insane, and others epileptics, deaf-mutes. an epileptic Some, in feigning fit, fall down in a crowded while consorts thoroughfare pick the ferer. The pockets of those anxious to see the sufing the packages In another band as if






" Camost complete is the organization in Naples. morra" It is composed of a number of or former prisoners prisoners ; small independent An ; but under one hierarchy. groups are formed for candidacy aspirant (" picciotto ") must prove and show that he can keep a secret. courage For this reason he mnst wound or kill anyone who would name to him the sect. If victims were he must with one of his future fight wanting, with a knife. the task was colleagues Formerly to raise a piece of ; he was obliged their money, while the Camorrists pierced it with " " The must subdaggers. picciotto (candidate) mit to the apprenticeship of two, three, and sometimes who eight years ; he is under another, and perilous things gives him the most fatiguing to do, allowing him a few cents once in awhile for more difficult his



After he has gained the esteem of sake. charity's his master, by force of zeal and submission, his calls a meeting, and his reception master as a is del'berated If received, Camorrist he upon. must fight again in the presence of the assembly ; he takes the oath over two daggers in the form of a cross : to be faithful to his associates, to show in everything himself the enemy of authority, to at all with the police, never to have no relation denounce thieves, but to have for them a particular as towards affection, people who expose their life After finishes the this, a banquet continually. celebration. Each one can show his grade to a the superior, and can kill should he (the superior superior) rists are wound divided him The Camordangerously. and prointo simple members and senators of the band); they and richest the most courageous " " call Maestro or " Si." The

prietors (veterans elect from among a chief whom they "Si" cannot make

an important decision, without are as if the electors ; their discussions consulting " " The Si has an assistant, a for life and death. the disand secretary treasurer, ; he must regulate putes ; for this he has three weapons ; he must which vary from deprivation propose punishments, or to death; of part or all of the booty, to branding in fortunate or mercy may be accorded generously But his most imcircumstances by acclamation. " la distribute each is to portant Sunday duty " a little vessel or little piece ; this is the camorra in gambling-rooms extortions of regular product or bordells, or it may come from venders of news-





from or beggars ; or from hackmen, papers, who were the first field of cultivation prisoners and furnish still the best revenue. Upon entering " 1' huile the unfortunate must prison, pay, pour la " madone (" Madonna "), he then gives a tenth of all his possessions, and he must pay for drinks and for selling or buying, and for food, for gambling, on an easier bed. The poorest ones are sleeping ruined forced ; they are sometimes by these extortions to sell part of their ration and some of their clothes, should scanty they wish to smoke a pipe or have a party ; if they did not wish to gamble, be compelled is the to, for gambling they would revenue of the Camorrist. Their code is principal not written actness. or formulated The Camorrist but is followed with excannot kill a comrade from the chief ; but in revenge with anyone else, with the hope

without permission he can make away of establishing his reputation. A Camorrist can an inferior from five to eighteen suspend days. is condemned to death who betravs the Anyone the order of society, or who kills or steals without the chiefs, or steals a part of the " camorra," or violates the wife of a chief, or refuses to commit a murder when he has received the order, or attempts to change the statutes of the association, or shows himself in which in the case anyone cowardly, has the right he to strike him, provided society does it in the presence of two witnesses. In the other cases the society is called to protogether nounce the judgment. If there are doubts of a colas to the fidelity



before they send him a plate of macaroni him; if he refuses to eat it (from fear condemning of his guilt, of poison perhaps), they feel certain is solemnly pronounced; and his condemnation fate league, who shall execute (the lot) indicates the apprentice, the sentence. Sometimes two men are chosen, one to commit the prescribed the murder or to strike the responsblow, the other to take upon himself of it and to endure the pain; this latter proibility cedure was to obtain advancement; this would of honor. give him a heroic name as a martyr These sentences are executed with strict punctualcircumity, as may be seen from the following stance. In 1876 among those imprisoned at the fortress of " Ischia," was Joseph of Liberto. He came (moaning) to make to the governor of the " In the castle the following statement: part of the castle assigned to the convicts, a Camorra had been established for some time, and to my misfortune I found myself one of the chiefs. the laws Among is found this one, which is to compel all the convicts to pay us ten centimes (2 cents) a day. A certain Raso would not submit to this. We, the chiefs of the Camorra, have voted unanimously to put him to death, but the lot fell to me to strike Raso. I accepted, I should commit the crime this morning. But on reflection at the sad consequences of such a deed, the cause of which would be insignificant I restrained (only a few centimes), my arm and went out of the castle. I beg of you to isolate me, for my comrades, after this treachery, would kill me without But there are cases of mercy. pity,"





A young girl, whose lover had been condemned to death by the Camorra for refusing to pay his conasked for his pardon, and it was accorded tribution, Between societies Olympian majesty. to the chief different, disputes are referred wholly of a third party. If his decision is not satisfactory to both adversaries, to resort they are at liberty to arms. The Camorrist is the judge of his compatriots as to gambling or quarrels ; he maintains order in the houses of prostitution and prisons, favoring In turn, he holds those who have paid their dues. the taxes furnished by the prison; he lays aside a reserve fund which serves to prevent the killing of the poor, unfortunate one, who has been completely him in still this also helps to maintain stripped; greater widows The aged Camorrists subjection. receive a regular pension, The Maffia. word " Maffia" from the stone originates " called Maffie," where bad subjects used quarries, to hide themselves. The " Maffiosi," or members of the society, are a variety of the old Camorrists, The perhaps on account of their great tenacity in keepto Semitic races; ing a secret, a quality proper into the higher perhaps also from their extension of society. This from a society springs feudal The members follow their organization. code faithfully, Here are and apply it with vigor. some of the principal To keep absolute articles: silence concerning the crimes of which they are classes and their to her with



witnesses, and to be ready to give false testimony in order to cover to up traces; to give protection to defy public the rich, for many reasons; force at all times and everywhere, and always to be armed; to fight a duel for the most frivolous and motives, to stab treacherously; any price injuries received, even if one related to the offender. Whoever is ing in any of these respects is declared which means that he should not to hesitate to avenge at is intimately found want" infamous," be killed without

delay, even if in prison; there, if weapons to strike him are wanting, one should him in the suffocate If a member receives an pail for excrements. order to give himself the up to death, knowing to be irrevocable, he stoically obeys. Before killing a comrade, one notifies him by drawa pistol at ing a cross on his door, or by shooting his house. Lombroso has seen many escape death to be shut up alone in a prison cell. by imploring If mutual denunciation or anarchy were allowed, such a society of bloodthirsty men could not as. an organization. It is otherlong natural that a body of men living together for some time, adopt a special mode of life. The laws of criminal societies are sometimes violated ; this gives us an idea of an by their authors a place between anarchy and organization holding as is the case among many lavage peodespotism ples. It is the habit of thieves to steal from one another, and for assassins to choke one another. The Camorra and Maffia are varieties of low brigexist wise for condemnation





like to be distinguished from andage. They other criminals ; to share one another's joys, to kind of uniform. wear a certain Like ordinary rascals they have their argot: they say "sleep" " " " for war ; " ruby for death ; cats for eye ; "tic" " comtac for a revolver ; they call themselves " friends." as French criminals are called panions," The member of the "Camcrra" and of the Maffia domicile in the prison. has his principal He is in his enmities. One of them wishing implacable to avenge an offense and feeling himself the weaker at one, kept his vengeance for fifteen years, until last his adversary was condemned to death ; then he petitioned the Naples Court and obtained the favor of filling the office of executioner. Another, near the point of death from consumption, hearing that one of his comrades was making offensive proleft his bed, posals as to his account, immediately tavern, killed his comrade, and died a few moments after from the extreme effort. the officers of the Camorra at Naples at Among one time there was a surgeon charged to disarticulate the fingers of the " picciotti," so that they There is a code might be more expert at stealing. of a band of criminals at Paris ; the formerly articles of this code and the manner of operating are somewhat as follows : To avoid so dressing as to aid in detection ; not to have shoes which make a noise ; to walk backwards wherever the foot leaves under an any mark ; to take lodging assumed assumed name ; to name upon leave neither the real nor a card or book ; not to have went to the



in a serious way, but only temporarily; a mistress not to make known for a moment to one's mistress arms the secrets of the in cases except is recognized, or where, for example, the criminal the victim takes to flight or begins to cry out ; the code indicates when arms should be used. society ; of extreme not employ as necessity, to




REFORMATION from prison life in the majority of cases would seem to be a myth. the Lacenaire, has said that a young man in celebrated criminal, of the others, prison, on hearing of the adventures begins to regret that he was not a greater criminal himself. for a long time with The young man, surrounded and pethieves, murderers, violators, poisoners, ' with a blunted, leaves the prison if not derasts, moral conscience; for it must be reextinguished, that the company is not always so remembered have both winning ways pulsive, as many criminals and pleasant manners. Contagion This indirect which comes from the Press.

is as certain as the direct, contagion from often from insurroundings, Aubry gives several cases in illustration: fancy. A woman of Geneva, Switzerland, in 1885 killed her four children, then tried to commit suicide. In her autobiography were these words: " As a woman did it, which was in the newspaper." In 1881 a lad of 15 years stole from his patron; 9



the money was spent he found a and as he cut stabbed it in the abdomen, he said: " I have often read novels, and of a scene them I found the description when this which



its throat in one of parallel to

I have executed." man of 23 years commenced in SepA young his patron; in Notember of 1880 to steal frem in June, on the 17th, a revolver; vember he bought at about half past nine in the evening, he walked to by a group of several persons without speaking had he passed, when he thought he in which and hallooing, he could sneering "Raise he turned and fired five it"; distinguish, them; heard times scarcely two; a little saying a word, wounding individual farther on he saw another on a sitting that he was alone, passed him four bank, noticed and fired; his victim or five steps, and then turned such are the facts of his died soon afterwards; without crime. In his " The was the following: autobiography to society. of crime are advantageous consequences number There is a certain of the population (and who buy newspapers they are the most numerous) the exceptional occurrences. If we there are no more buyers, and consuppress crime to work at the ragno more employed sequently trade. I do not wish to lose my liberty for trifles. of imprisonment, I have always had horror and I much prefer Lacenaire is a capital punishment. his work man, a powerful individuality; splendid deductions. Shall I finish as leads to enormous simply Lacenaire ? My conscience answers, possibly. Poet, to read




but I have gone thief, assassin, a singular gradation; be stupid half way, it would to arrest a career which promises such good results." This man was deficient in moral education Inas he was proud and ambitious, he had extelligent at one time he had attempted illusions; perienced of bad reading, suicide; later, under the influence he had debased his judgment, and composed a for his own use, and thus became a subject morality of undoubted perversity. the celebrated who killed a criminal, Tropman, with poison and pick-ax, confessed that the family was the reading cause of his demoralization of in this imaginary novels. world he By living a strong passion for heroes of the prison developed who recover honesty with the spoils of their victims and die administrators of some charity. The readin ing about crime, and the seeing it illustrated newspapers, that render are of great in the case influence is are, of course, not the only elements one apt to commit crime, but still these as factors. If this happens importance of those of relatively sound mind, the

still worse on the weak-minded, insane, and the cranks. On November 4, 1825, a woman laid her child on its back across the bed; with one hand she seized its head, which hung over the part of the bed, and with the other hand she sawed its neck so quickly that the child had not timu to utter a cry. This was noised about in all Paris. A few came to the days after, a mother of four children doctor who had directed the consultation in regard and said: "I am in most terrible to the murderer,



I am torof this murder. hearing of my to kill the youngest by the devil I fear I cannot resist it. Will you recomchildren. me that he may admit mend me to Dr. Esquirol " into his hospital ? It was done, and she recovered. Another woman, who had recently given birth to a despair mented since she struggled homicide; she asked her husband to have it; finally against her shut up. Two other cases are positively known to have been caused or occasioned by the knowlIt is at first with repuledge of this one murder. sion that one hears of the details of crime, but with there gradually comes an indifference to repetition the whole matter. Then one may begin to look crime. The publication of upon complacently these cruel details tends to harden the finer sensiin most persons, and in many weak ones bilities As before referred can lead to overt acts. to, it is in every community, just those persons, numerous weak or on the borders of insanity or who, morally are affected most eccentric, insane, or sometimes of crime in popular publication by the detailed in the newspapers. form, as is common Contagion by Vitriol or Revolver. child, with having heard a monomania of this for same murder was taken

here is sufficiently A woman Contagion frequent. the vitriol to satisfy her vengeance; the employs are published in the newspapers; details another woman in like situation finds this method convenient. Such cases are where the woman wishes to but not to kill, disfigure,




cases are those of seduction and A young man makes the acquaintabandonment. ance of a young girl of the lower classes; he promises marriage, but time passes and his passion goes out. Often the social customs do not permit marriage with one of a lower class; the young man marries The classical a natural feminine jealousy springs up; first another; to kill him, but that requires courage, and, besides, she does not really hate him, but she has heard this would be convenient. She vitriolizing; there was a grareads of a case in the newspaper; if she disfigures cious her Besides, acquittal. his present former wife will not like it; friend, not wish to have anything more to perhaps would return him; then he would seems to her a capital to do. thing for it also; the newspapers renown racy articles. Revolver. more although are not perhaps of so mean or low a dangerous, nature as those who employ vitriol; the latter class A married woman move in a lower grade of society. at odious stories in the higher society was indignant about her life when she was a young circulated girl; a woman and a man were the parties who her. thus about First slie tried to were talking then she had the take justice into her own hands; before the court for false testimony; man brought for two years; but he appealed, he was condemned the case was delayed; in departing from the court, Those who use the revolver, do with to her. This She may get like to print about



six balls; he was as he went out, she discharged and died; the journals taken to the hospital gave columns details personal daily to the case, giving she was acquitted with as to the accused; the In a few of the crowd and the journals. applause conversation took place between days the following man and his wife: "If you were one of the another "I would would you have done?" jury, what the husband. Then have acquitted her," answered do you cry ?" asked the wife began to sob. "Why " I " with exultation she the husband. Ah," said, This same woam glad you are a man of soul." man, later on, was followed by an architect of note; becoming and declarations cause was the woman exasperated by his importunities The of love she finally shot him. a heroine out of the first making and press. by the public Poisoning. The Italy. crime of poisoning was done came with to France from

a bouquet, with a pair of gloves, with a letter, and.even with atorch; with a candle; VII. was killed Clement Pope this irrthe second half of the reign of Louis"XIV. of crime the striking form was""prevalent; thing of cases were among was that the great majority is now on the decline, as the nobility. Poisoning Poisoning indicated From 145; in the 1825 to l83S-40,22i; following 1830 there table, given by Aubry: were 150 cases; 1830-35, 18501845-50,259; 181; 1865-70, 165; the last 25 years

1840-45,250; 55; 294; 1855-60, 281; 1860-65, 1870-75-, 99; 1875-80, 7S. For




decrease is a marked to new one, owing processes and to the progress of science in finding in the organthe least traces of toxical substances thus poisoning tends to disappear while ism; seems to increase. This period general criminality coincides with the epoch when chemical discover... ies began. the




by hypnotizers on those hypnotized are violations or outrages of In the lethargic or cataleptic state, the modesty. is easily influenced; here also somnambusubject lism offers some dangers. The affective sentiments towards many world, the hypnotizer are strongly manifested in from the entire cases; the subject, isolated It is easy to only sees the hypnotizer. one in a mental state the actions of a person seem voluntary, and so not constitute a but the hypnotizer or magnetizer who in the somnambulism from similar disposito

ALMOST all the crimes


the danger comprehend like this. At this point might crime,

profits tions of mind, is guilty of the crime of violation. In the state of lethargy one does not remember on what transpired in this stage of the sleep, awaking is so confused or the recollection that the testicannot be trusted. There is also a lucid mony a still less degree of hypnosis. lethargy, is important the question when of arises, but in this state the recollection This state simulation can generthe leth-

In some cases of violation ally be trusted. victim to complete passes from lucid lethargy




while others argy; certain things are remembered, are confused or forgotten. of can serve for the committing Somnambulism one might say: the indivia voluntary abduction, dual is plunged into lethargy, and his totally unconscious state serves to carry him away. Certain magnetizers of India were accustomed to When there is employ this means to rob children. it almost a bodily and mental passivity, always state. A dishonest takes place in the lethargic of the facts hypnotizer, owing to the remembrance of real life in the somnambulistic state, can gain from his subject that he could not if knowledge were in his ordinary state. his subject Giraud, Teulon, and Liebeault give cases of this kind. Gilles de la Tourette speaks of not always receiving an answer to every question, but some even falsify of the suggestion. to cut short the importunity As to offenses against confidences morals, including and confessions, there is much doubt; and, accordthere need be no great ing to Gilles de la Tourette from the misuse of hypnotism in apprehensions such cases, for the cases of this nature that are and purely In simply experimental. are so great that a crime actual life the difficulties or confessions in the line of confidences would soon be detected; the hypnotizer also would be out. Also, in post-hypnotic states, easiiy found cited where sugthe hypnotic the magnetcondition, gested during would soon be detected. izer or hypnotizer Here " " i-s a supposed case given by Charcot: A desires murder can be committed that was are



to take revenge on " B." "A" has a patient whom he can put into the somnambulistic condition. He " to his to and kill subject go B," comsuggests him at the same time not to recall anymanding thing in the second hypnotization. Experimentare not the ally this is realized, but the conditions same in actual life, for the magnetizer would be sure to be found out. What does "A" do? At the hour suggested, while in hypnotic state, the patient -now in his natural or ordinary state, has a to him until present time) that thought (unknown he must kill " B." He arms himself and does it, where he finds him. no matter Of course, he is unaware that any such order was given him totally in the hypnotic condition. The patient is, of What does he say ? Nothing, or course, arrested. himself. To do it, he rather he tries to exculpate must invent a story out of whole cloth; but this would soon fall to pieces. It would not be long he would be shown to be a neuropathic before or easily hypnotizable; the person, or hysterical, would soon suspect that his magnetizer patient this" to him, and would have no had suggested reason, to keep silent as to a man- who had taken of him. "A" would be sure to be such advantage It would be. much safer for a magnetizer caught. to do the murdering himself. But there are danthere hypnotizer; gers for the honest and upright are cases where a hysterical person accuses the of abusing her or violating her. This magnetizer or malice, or some comes from pure imagination, ulterior of those hypnopurpose,, for the character




and it is not is not always beyond question, to see how an honest difficult hypnotizer might Sometimes women of be made to suffer severely. doubtful for the very reputation go to be hypnotized tized and scandal, and it is a legal purpose of blackmail that a jury will believe a woman's platitude story where she claims her virtue is at stake much easier of a man. are posthan the testimony Violations and somnambulistic the lethargic of what passed states. In both states forgetfulness the sleep occurs on waking up; nevertheduring in the somnambuless, if the crime is committed of it can be recalled at the listic state, the memory sible both in The criminal can time of a second hypnotization. make use of both states. The evidence of violation in either examining of these the states is circumstantial. After state of the plaintiff, and physical the expert that she is hysterical, should finding now see if she is hypnotizable; and, if easily so, can be obtained. In whether a complete insensibility who can be hypnotized, one the case of simulators a must see if their sleep is deep enough to permit are generally necescrime. Many hypnotizations of the violation can exist The conscioasness sary. at the time, and also the memory of it after awaking; the victim can will to cry, and yet be unable can make the claim The simulators to. that, in in their sleep, they willed resistance, but could not persons. carry it out. They are mostly hysterical attacks are the great criAt this stage, convulsive terion of the neurosis. Brouardel says that, however good the ability to



it is impossible when one provokes the simulate, of the sterno-mastoid contraction muscle, or of a group of muscles enervated by the same nerve, or when the experiment is tried. of colors in vision Violation in the somnambulistic state may take violence. There are states place with or without to the hypnotic, caused by a wound on the analogue head or natural domsomnambulism. Hysteria in most of such cases ; natural somnambulism is a transformation. can take place Suggestion in hysterical somnambulism as well as in hypnotic, in the latter but crimes state. are more frequent Pressure over the hysterical zone can cause one to a crime. Sometimes there is sleep, and commit unconsciousness of the crime, or want of resistance owing to intellectual feebleness. This is also true in case of idiots or imbeciles, who are brutally them. As by those who are paid to protect to moral responsibility, it must be borne in mind that caused somnambulism produces artificially extreme is imposed cases, where the act suggested ; that nothing is done in proin found sleep which may not have its analogue the waking state ; that hypnotic sleep exaggerates automatism ; it does not create it ; physiological and the absolute that between the fatal suggestion all degrees determination may exist ; voluntary that to analyze all the suggestive elements which in the acts which intervene we (in our absence) with irresistible force believe issue from geois, Professor tized a woman, Lieour initiative, is impossible. of Law at Nancy, France, hypnoand by suggestion (with false firetreated inates




arms) asked with



to shoot

immediately why entire indifference he did not Liegeois,

another person ; being she did it, she confessed killed ; she had him, asked, if it the idea to

because was not

When please her. who had suggested she did it

her, she answered, no; she is "alone guilty."


to postMany profound sleepers are susceptible which have been known to hypnotic suggestions, have taken place not only many days and weeks after were suggested but even as long as they False testimony is suffiyears. through suggestion and in the case of a child in ciently frequent, fear testifies because court, who through falsely, are so put as to threaten the child if the questions desired answer is not given. : Bernheirn suggests these precautions of false accusers is not so per(i) The testimony in memory sistent is not so con; the impression tinuous ; recollection is latent or obscure ; (2) the should ask questions without magistrate pressing the witness or indicating his own opinion ; one in order to obtain should not resort to suggestion as he may suggest the confession he confessions, desires ; (3) testimony can be suggested by one affirmations with force and conmaking viction and recounting the facts in the presence of other witnesses ; for some are influenced, accept what is said, and form an image of the event imitation. through should be questioned tain in their that For reason each witness alone, and it should be cerconversations no previous this witness



reciprocal ment of ment in

are conscious

has taken place. The agreesuggestion several witnesses is not always an argufavor of the truth, even when witnesses because in this case there can be unhonest,

is more false than suggestions. Nothing " the saying, " Vox populi, vox Dei ; (4) the encan measure the suggestibillightened magistrate witness ity of a suspected by skillful questions, can appear to accept what the witness says, insist and add to them, suggesting on the incidents dewill the suggestibility of the tails, which betray witness if he confirms these details. He says, for " You said when 'X' took : example your money, you let a piece fall, and picked " ? remember the circumstance into the it up again. If the accuser the suggestion, You falls the

; (5) a medical question in the majority of cases, can deterexamination, mine if one has to do with a suggestible person ; one generally can cause catalepsy by simple affircan be mation, and in some persons hallucinations Human is open to good produced. imagination and bad impressions are crimi; not all criminals nals; not all falsehoods, falsehoods ; there are those not only others but themselves who mystify without knowing it. Criminal Suggestions.

trap and confirms is by this fact determined

Certain in persons suggestible falsify good faith. It is easy to create fictitious remembrances, which or hallucinations, may be called retroactive false testimony. I say to one in his natural s'eep:




(Cases Bernheim). why you do not sleep now; your and sings, neighbor coughs fixes the fire, all the patients opens the window, complain." I awake this person a few moments afterwards. he awoke spontaneously; He rubs his eyes, thinks remembers Then I say: nothing. "You sleep, then, all the day." " " but I cannot he No," answers, "Why?" " On account


" I know




night." of patient in bed No. 6. He was

sick; he coughed, sang as if in delirium. probably I don't know what possessed him; he went to open the window." " Is it true ? You must have dreamed." " All heard him ; they can tell the patients his imagination souvenirs were created. have not complained. him?" " Four a noise." " Then " No. you." Then was worked upon, " But the other What did No. and new patients 4 say to to make

said to close the window, what "

and not

happened ? 4 got up and went to him, and they struck one another." " And what did the sister do ? " " She could not silence them." " " Did the director come ? " He came in a blue and said he dressing-gown, would put them both out to-day."



Operator it." Patient



is not true,


dreamed I

answered: was awake." Another

" I did not dream

it, because

experiment: I suggested (Bernheim)

state that hypnotic pher, and had come to take his photograph, and that he (subject) had On awakening the subject was paid two francs. but what is to be noted is that three convinced, other patients, who were awake at the time, affirmed and saw my colleague take the present I said it was not so, but their convicphotograph. tion remained. it was easy to amplify By questions the suggestion from a fictiby their autosuggestion they tious memory. Another case, very suggestible and hypnotizable. were

in the subject was a photogramy colleague at four o'clock the day before

to one

Operator says: " I met at Stanislas Henritte, you yesterday Place! You were in singular circumstances. What when I saw you ?" happened and looks at her. Operator repeats the question she reflects, turns red, and says: Her face changes; "I dare not say." " You must tell me." " I was she says in a low voice. struck," " " By whom ? " By a workman." " '' ? Why Silence. She is ashamed and does not wish to confess.




Come, tell me." in Operator's She whispers to go with him." at her looked Operator



" I did "

not wish

Why you are falsifying. She became pale, confused, and, covering face, began to cry. " Tell me what you did yesterday." " I wanted to steal his watch." "And then?" " I was led to the police-station." with The poor girl was overcome

severely. did he strike

Henritte, " ? you up her



ator effaced the remembrance by saying: " You will not remember it any more." hallucination was extinguished. The retroactive Since criminals are easily suggestible, such experiments are not without instruction. Thus take the case: following A young woman of the best society and of high and children, fond of her husband was morality, accustomed to receive visits from a young man, a One day she was found in an friend of the family. and dead naked, garden, of a bullet the body had wound; The young man had fainted been outraged. at her side, wounded to, he narby a pistol. Coming in rated that the young woman being desperately to him, on condition that love had given herself isolated pavilion from the effects her dishonor. not survive He they both should afterwards. had sworn to kill her and kill himself true ? The young man impressed Is this account with frankness. Most persons considered everyone

of her



it an act of foolish sion can mislead


It is well known

ing to the young but at this time also before its execution, mediately the poor woman wrote a calm and serene letter to afone of her family; she spoke of her household and the young man in a simple fairs, her children, and natural a tranquil spirit. way, which indicated This would have been hardly possible had she been of the events soon to follow. conscious She was an exemplary affecwoman; modest, good, timid, and never passionate. She was, however, tionate, One day fixing her eyes upon a silver suggestible. state. She did not spoon, she fell into a hypnotic like Chambige, she was afraid of him. But how ? It might be said that Chamshall it be explained bige was alow assassin, who after having cowardly violated and assassinated a woman, had invented But this story to pose as a hero in a love tragedy. the facts Chambige had little drank from interpretation his comrades as superior; impressed moral sense; he had a sensual thirst, do 'not bear this out. he and

the most honest man the crime

pasnatures. Accordwas planned im-


all sources without But he had scruple. of his convictions; the frankness he produced this before the jury, but as a man without impression heart and without and not an impos.tor, prejudice, violator, or murderer. sees Madame Explanation (Bernheim): Chambige he desires to have her; she does not love Grille, and fascinated him, but still is dominated by him. She had a vague fear of him. It is easy to understand how by his allurements, and declarations"




she could fall into a hypnotic state, as in the case of the spoon, and loose her personality. Chambige imcould upon her facile imagination, working consciousness, pose another suggest a sexual exwhich she could not resist. citation Chambige that she loved him truly, could do all this, thinking at all about hypnotism. without knowing anything state did not love him, but her subto her normal conconscious state did. Returning Grille would not remember sciousness Madame Thus on the morning of the crime, the anything. victim wrote her letter in the greatest of tranquilcould have Chambige ity; an instant afterwards suggested to go to the pavilion, then came a foolish excitation. If the poor passion, an irresistible woman had made him promise to kill her after her to save her from dishonor, it would seduction be in her hypnotic the moral sense surviving state, as an old hereditary or by education, which feeling not be put down; her normal could conscience but not extinguished, in the could be dominated, somnambulistic state; but the passion suggested it for the time. She is not herself. overcomes characterizes somnambulism is not That which awake, conscioussleep, there is a somnambulism ness exists, but it is another state of consciousness in which the faculties of reason are lessened or of imagination, the idio-dyabsent; the faculties constructs the scene. namic automatism The subject is not himself. : A young lady of good family Case (Bernheim) of sweet and affectionate charvery intelligent, Her normal




for physician by a young hypnotized into time she passed crises. Each hysterical these attacks she confessed somnambulism; during her love which she had for him (she had married became her The physician to her will). contrary was Tn her state. this somnambulistic lover during normal state she remembered nothing. Becoming had she did not suspect it, not having pregnant, When for a year. with her husband any relation the real nature of her trouble, she finally discovered she became anxious, lost her head, and at partuLater on she rewas complete. lition her insanity These covered, but never suspected her physician. facts in this case show how the "somnambulistic the passions, or provoked, modifies state, natural and diminishes resistance and character, instincts, to evil temptations. recase of double We give another personality of Sciences at Paris : A lated before the Academy thirty-three years of age, was hysterical lawyer, A noise, a whistle, or reflecand very hypnotizable. of a looking-glass upon his eyes could put him into a hypnotic sleep. One day he was trying a case; fixed his eyes upon him ; he stopped the judge he presented In these conditions short and slept. his past existence : he forgot a double personality condition and entered into another ; he went and tion made visits, and bought things. he returned to his first condition, suddenly of what had passed in his he was wholly ignorant with his .other state. One day, after an altercation he had an attack which made his brother-in-law, came, When traveled,




personality appear ; he went to visit his tore his books and uncle, broke many objects, contracted debts, and was taken bemanuscripts, fore the court for swindling and condemned. All his recollections, effaced in turned in the somnambulistic Such the normal state. state, re-


cases are perhaps more frequent than we because as a suppose, they are not recognized pathological anomaly, when anaesthesia is complete. makes the diagnosis Anaesthesia, when incomplete, as the idea of somnambulism does not difficult, come to the mind. We all know persons whose lives are full of inconsequences and contradictions; their conduct timid, they manners, in their actions, etc. Then from time to time the is modified; disposition they become capricious, extravagant, go against their instincts, and commit state acts; after a time the normal reprehensible All degrees can exist, from a simple reappears. of disposition (perceptible only to intimate to the complete transformation of the friends) can be a mental moral being. This transformation intermittent disease, as periodic melancholia, dipor transitory All mental diseases somania, insanity. change are in reality states of modified consciousness. The extreme degrees only attract our attention ; the light to capriciousness or a sickly degrees we attribute state of feeling. It is clear how a~suggestion realizes psychical modifications; produced, gaiety and sadness are alternately there is a calm, then a passionate, disis irreproachable; are reserved in their their character is sensible



position, affection importance

a spirit of obedience or a hatred. These

to the magistrate, In the broad sense of the word philosopher. suggestion may play a role in our acts, good or bad. The greatest criminals are not always the most Dr. Laurent in guilty. gives a case of complicity is negative in-results as theft, where hypnotization to gaining a confession from the accused: for does not permit present state of our knowledge to know whether the person hypnotized obeys conscience or his will, which holds took state: in theft." and car" I didn't him place under while dependence. "The IdHowing accused L. "I "You the us his its the

or the opposite, an facts are not without the moralist, and the

conversation was in the hypnotic are accused

of complicity that with

am innocent." L. "You knew, however, riage had been stolen." " No, No," said patient know anything about it." L. " You knew it." "I

the horse energy,

swear to you, I did not." L. " I tell you, you did know it." " No," said patient more softly. L. " I assure you that you knew it, you knew it." "Yes, I knew it." L. " Is it certain you knew it ? " " I knew it." L " You did not know had that the carriage been stolen." it." . "'-Yes, I.knew




L. "No, I tell you; you did not know anything about it." " about it." No, I did not know anything The patient was sad Case of theft (Krafft-Ebing): and quiet; her head was supported on her arms; The she did not respond always when spoken to. obeyes were vague, as in a dream, not perceiving sat near by. The experimenter jects or persons the paopposite her and looked at her; suddenly tient took a special physiognomical expression. She heard a noise of a watch placed in the pocket the physician she approached physician; with adroitness, unhooked the watch and hid it in Likewise she took four a hole in her arm-chair. and hid other watches from the other physicians them in a flower-pot, then she took a book to read, in and kept on knitting. produces Krafft-Ebing of the her the state of autohypnosis. She did not react of the sense organs, exto the different excitations cept that some measures of a song played threw her into catalepsy. When one of the physicians the pieces with some money, she sought jingled The same and put them into her pocket. avidity, when keys were shaken; not effect was produced to take them, she grasped at them, being permitted struck the person who had the keys, gained posesThen she sion of them and hid them in a pan. were retook up her book to read. The objects taken by their owners. When transformed into of what octhe normal state, she knew nothing curred. On the next iant watch, she passed day, into" a brillregarding the experimental-



characteristic state, and the phenomena hypnotic of the autohypnotic of the continuation state, in which she was the day before, were repeated. She sought for the things hid and became agitated. In passing the hand in front of the patient, the exstate was produced; she perimental-hypnotic in this state, she came tranquil and apathetic; ceived the watch, but made no effort to take In her natural state she was not sesion of it. normal in any way. A Case of Romance (Grassef). A young hysterial girl of fourteen years entered on account of menstrual the hospital irregularities. Later on, she was discovered to be pregnant. This created much surprise since she was modest in and of a good family. the last manner, During to the young days of May, 1889, according girl's which was given in tears, a peddler came account, to her home to sell some cloth, and as women will extended conversatalk, her mother in somewhat the fact, that her daugther, was tion, mentioned in spite of her healthy appearance, unfortunate, attacks and losing consciousness. The in this; he prompeddler seemed to be interested A few days ised to return with some other things. he came, but seeing the mother afterward, leaving having the house pretended not to see her, and came, findalone. She said, "I will go and ing the daughter find my mother." He said, "There is no use"; and then seized her. She fell into one of her fits and lost consciousness and remembers nothing beperposab-




all The poor mother confirmed that took place. The patient was this as related by the daughter. the and in this state gave exactly hypnotized, same facts, of which she said she was the victim. This left little doubt as to the cause of the pregnancy. On the 30th of December, 1889, two months before parturition should occur, pains appeared; it to a fall on the stairs; and the patient attributed that parturition was at but it was soon evident term. This was not only a surprise but a decepbut when a The patient was hypnotized, tion. took place she opened severe uterine contraction her eyes immediately and screamed, and declared she could not rest when put to sleep. As the visit of the peddler was at the end of May, the child inshould have been born at the end of February It was beyond dispute stead of December. that took place at the end of March, and conception not of May. It was found that the young lady unknown to her family. A-t the had a lover, to furnish an honorsecond menstrual defection, able excuse to her mother, she invented her story. fact follows : Since This she confessed. Another in the hypnotic state she repeated exactly the same and in the pains of delivery the sleep story, ceased, the hypnotic sleep itself was a simulation. This she confessed. She was again hypnotized, and anaesthesia was complete. Then it was announced to her suddenly that it was useless to conher deception; she opened her immediately eyes, placed her hand over her face and went away tinue



It is therefore clear that the hypnotism crying. a simulation. That a fixed was to a great extent a light look provoked degree of hypnosis, accomis possible, but most of panied by insensibility, the acts the were simulated. during sleep were the spontaneous attacks simulated Equally The fascination the form of the sleep. affecting was simulated. For a long time she admirably that all came from her own personal pretended but later said that she had frequently imagination, Here is a hysterical seen a domestic hypnotized. would person, in which simulation appear impossible, who for the sole pleasure of being interestneed of hypnotism to justify ing, and of having her before her physician to pranks, commenced simulate later haying a lover and becomhypnosis; she utilized this to accuse an innoing pregnant, cent person and make herself the victim. case shows the necessity of prudence, as it is easy to see how she could have accused her All acts of a hypnotizfalsely. family physician are not necessarily able hysteria by suggestion; all acts need not necessarily be attributed to the " roue." A hysterical a can be neurosis. person This



or habitual recidivists, criminals, may find in crime, but, make it a trade detestable nothing like any other, or commit crime with an idea of for injustice vengeance of a recidivist is rare. carry on their trade suffered. Dismissed The reformation from home they more


into together, going serious crime, as in the case of a thief who, when strikes a fatal blow. If they do not surprised, succumb in prison from tuburculosis or heart disIt is often ease, they find their way to the asylum. observed that the asylum is for them a faint hope of Sometimes attacks of healing their bad tendencies. acute mania or melancholia have a.good influence, more often, after one attack of acute insanity, their criminal tendencies. The they conserve better natures choose less dangerous criminal acts, as swindling, sink lower and etc., but generally lower. is poor, Some, where prison discipline become much worse by associating with others. Both sexes practice of every kind, as deception forgery, goods, fire, to murder, perjury, etc. The stealing men do stolen concealing not fear to rob, to set the opportunity is favorable. and but




found committing are less frequently acts of this kind; lying, cunthey are mistrustful, lazy, and often give false names. ning, revengeful, to coarseness, boldness, In prison they are inclined refusal to work, and willful defiance, resistance, of their clothes and other effects (not unspoiling common with the insane).. They like to stir up to plots of the most audatheir fellow-prisoners to is necessary Severe punishment sort. cious The women the normal much they resemble one can regard them as in the first insane, The secondarily insane, before stage of insanity. are often given to stealis apparent, their insanity restrain them; so that concealing, counterfeiting, forging, ing, deceiving, and almost are infrequent, Murders etc. only is preshallucination occur when the persecutive" are generally addicted to alcohol ent. Those thieves. Those offenders; they are seldom light are- given more mental weakness hereditary These with acute forms _to crimes of unchastity. or progressive of insanity as mania, melancholia, The to the asylum. are soon brought paralysis, class (von of a mixed recidivists are somewhat with : (1st) They consist of those who have a Holder) to insanity or epilepsy; positive tendency (2d) lead them antecedents those whose family plainly and and (3d) those whose to crime; morality and environof honor feeling through training ment are destroyed. Criminal phenomena and the manifestations of

insanity further

are nothing new; they nothing bring or diseased manifestations than- distorted



of mental activities, ent in every man; one or the his mental through other

are presby themselves but by some they develop in direction. No one is sure that which cannot troubles, be endangered or that he can

soundness outer or inner

which lead to crime. escape inclinations might Von Holder data: In Italy gives the following the recidivists condemned by the court were in to 22 per 1878 13 per cent; in 1882 they increased In France cent. they were but 10 per cent, in to 42 per cent., 1826; in 1867, they had increased and in 1879 to 50 per cent. Thus the recidivists increase in number as civiliIn Belgium in 1869-71 zation advances. they reached. 70 per cent. In Prussia, from 1871 to who had already 1877 the number of condemned been once in prison ranged between 77 and 80 per cent, for men, and between 74 and 84 per cent, for In Austria, i860 to 1864, 33 per women. from in 1868-71 they reached 59 cent, were recidivists; per cent, for men and 51 per cent, for women. The influence of of heredity will be seen from the as recidivists, young In France, shown statistics.. by out of 1,000 recidivists: the 67 had not reached 16 to 21 years of age; age of 16; 264 were from 21 to 30; 215 from 30 to 40; 206 from 284 from comparatively the following 40 to 60; 20 from 70 years of age. The 60 to 70; and 4 were more than number

of those who continue to fall is persistence shown from the following: The number of recidivists arrested for the first time in France is 45



second time, 20 per per cent, of the total number; fourth cent.; third time, n percent; time, 7 per cent.; fifth time, 4 per cent.; sixth time, 3 percent.; seventh time, 2 per cent.; eighth time, 2 per cent.; ninth time, 1 per cent.; 10th and more times, 5 per cent. facts show how this preceding is confined to a small number backsliding sons. 2,413 years 1880 years. The habitual of perliberated Out of 6,108 prisoners in 1878, two (39 per cent.) were taken back within ; 27 per cent, of those arrested in Paris in had been condemned four times within ten

Some have as their sole purpose to gain an easy living in prison ; sometimes" they take no precautions as they desire one or two yearS'in prison to repair the dilapidated condition of their health ; on entering prison, they are welcomed by their old friends. himself cellular One, who by for the fiftieth had reinstated in a himself time, found of a mere jail; he said comsmall thefts me ; they in again will this

prison instead " Justice has defrauded plainingly, to take me not have a chance country." sometimes ameliorate the prisons vists. In Very they their will few

ever reform ; prostitutes but only to convents, go into condition. the food of Improving not lessen the number of recidi-

the cellular has not ha a system on the recidivists has ; the number good increased from 60 to 70 per cent.; in Belgium the increase has been 78 per cent. ; here the cellular Iri system has been in force for a number of years. Prussia influence



Spain, out same deed ; France and thieves and

for the 2,249, I;5^9 were returned In 933 were thieves, 429 murderers. Sweden one-third of the recidivists are ; these facts are not in harvagrants


some legal notions as to the morality mony with of criminals, and responsibility leaving out of consideration those who are so by passion or occasion. It is important to observe that these kinds of which furnish the largest number of the reare those which are noticed from infancy. cidivists In a single year in Paris 30 assassinations, 39 homi2 poisonings, 114 infanticides, cides, 3 parricides, 4,212 cases of assault and battery, 25 incendiaries, 80 obscene crimes, 458 thefts, 11,862 153 violations, simple thefts, were committed by young people. Moral A certain Sense in Recidivation. crime

criminal said to his comrades in prison: " If we were millionaires we would continue our This perhaps is the feeling of the great trade." of the habitual criminals. The moral majority sense is radically defective, if not incomprehensible A thief of Milan said: "I do not steal, I to them. only take from the rich that which they have too do otherwise ? much of; and do the merchants Why, then, should I be accused, and they left undisturbed ?" Another said with open face: "I do who make their misnot imitate my companions far from that, I am proud deeds a mystery; of them; I steal, it is true, but never less than two so large an amount thousand to attack francs; than a speculation." seems to me less a theft



" If I had not stolen, I could not have I could not even have lived; we myself, enjoyed in the world; without us what need are necessarily It is there be of judges, would lawyers, jailors? Another said: we who give them a living." Another said to his " We are necessary, God put us in the world judge, to punish the stingy and bad rich; we are a species of plague from God. And besides without us what would the judges do?" Another the justifies used in a robbery: violence "We bound them for our own safety, as the jailor does, when he puts the handcuffs on us; it was their turn; to each his turn." Another after a man to kill his sending his act to that of the ancient enemy, compared Romans who took vengeance by blood, when their honor was offended. not only believes that he has the and throw the blame on murder, others, who do not permit him to act as he likes; but he is proud of it. An assassin who kills out of thinks he does an honorable action, if vengeance " not heroic. "B who had been given to highway from his youth, and who in company with robbery another had killed several men complained of being sentenced to twenty years. " Ten is for if I killed sufficient, time. I performed my duty." as many at that The recidivist to steal, right

"But you killed women, also?" To this he replied: well merited it, they "They tried to escape." The remorse that knaws the conscience of a crimThe worst men conduct theminal, is a myth.

RECIDIVATION. selves better the best



in prison, that they will be knowing if they appear to have the best feel-

out of 410 assassins, did not find Thompson, ings. a sincere case of repentance. Ferri studied 780, and found who showed only 3.4 per cent, repentance their ler or who deeds. manifested The in any feeling homicides and assassins recounting had a smal-

than the bandits, rufproportion (1.2 per cent.) and especially 10 the thieves fians, (4.1 per cent.); a complete absence of remorse per cent, showed by their In general more than one-third effronteiy. are without remorse the In in effrontery their crimes. per cent, of by indifference or recital acknowledgment the following table, the and impudence, as shown and of


large excuse


is suggestive.



Assassins and Homicides. Per cent. 9.8 0.8 0.4 26.0 170 2.7 5.1 254

I Highway ; Robbers, Thieves, Pickpockets. Per cent. 9.4 1.1 3.0 S.3 25.0 .... 19.2 266

Per Those who simply confessed Complained Showed repentance Made excuses indifferent Appeared Appeared impassive Were impudent Number examined

cent. 9.6 1.7 1.7 18.0 23.0 1 1 10.2 608

If they see the justice of their confess their faults to benevolent the need of pouring out their

punishment, the}r persons; they feel hearts, to justify



before the world by reasons which men themselves always find to defend themselves. their denials are to avoid condemnaAlthough as to an offended tion, yet they show no feeling sense. Ferri, in examining 700 cases, found that 42 per cent, of the great criminals (homicides, and 21 per cent, assassins, and-highway robbers), and criminals of the lower (thieves, pickpockets, A denied their berime. obstinately swindlers), moral not infrequently protest his innocence, and in a abandon himself, deplore his misfortunes, freak will in a hilarious afterwards few minutes An important his guilt. a doubt show beyond prisoner will never pity their victim, fact is, that those recidivists him. The habitual and calumniate but deride that his trade is a fine thing as thinks criminal one being asked whether well as a pleasure to him; " I am no butcher he ever struck anyone, said," ; but he exthat he took pocket-books to the objection " Ah claimed, thing." yes, but what a beautiful some seem to repent, it is more to make Although illusions about themselves. profit of philanthropic wrote to after his first condemnation, Lacenaire, and money : " Alas ! there his-friend for protection is nothing to do but to repent, you can do a good 'I satisfaction of saying: deed and have the he one back from the evil way, for which brought was not born,' for without you I would still be enA few moments career." gaged in an infamous these lines he committed a theft and after writing he said ; on the scaffold planned an assassination he never knew what remorse was.



prisoner Yei*w because he said its color renrrfiien offered him brother whom he had killed ; but he obtanivj-j_ nis and when one ol~ slyly from his fellow-prisoners, them was not disposed to give him wine, he threatened them saying, " I have killed four like you and I will kill a fifth." Sometimes the remorse is only fear which takes the the fear of death or religious The Marquise of Brinvillers form of repentance. passed for a modei of penitence, at the last moment to her husband : " I die an innocent she wrote She was woman, and it is owing to my enemies." a parricide and fratricide. When her confessor induced her to change the terms of this letter, she to think otherwise, felt herself so incapable that him to do it for her. she requested Conducted she avowed that ideas of voluptuousto execution, ness and vengeance possessed her to the present moment. to her husband she repeated Alluding he live longer with people who have pur"Could " sued me out of hatred ? Lombroso calls attention to a case of especially moral metamorphosis : A man of forty years, after hallucinatwenty years in prison, had a religious tion and believed himself charged with a mission in honor of the Virgin, who appeared to him in his cell This idea took away all traces of criminal tendencies, and made him an apostle and philanthropist. A criminal can quite frequently understand what is wrong, but he does not give the same weight to his bad actions. One wrote after his first assassi-




me for this ,..iey will pardon a man having assassinated nation ---'ss." Another, ror money, on marching to the scaffold murmured: " Make a man die for such a little The thing !" not deny that He replied: "How could you stole a horse?" you call that a theft ? Would you have the leader Some would diminish the of a band go on foot?" of their acts on account of their good invillainy judge as in the case of clinations, carried on his trade in order wife and son. the assassin, who to provide for his said to a criminal: "You will

of their fault, but they Thieves are conscious more guilty consider the bankrupt than themA thief he is often unmolested. selvesalthough the natural, said: " There are two kinds of justice; in giving to the poor practiced stolen part of the objects by him; the artificial but for which justice, which the social law protected, he cared nothing." While the criminal has some idea of justice, yet it is more a matter of thought than feeling which choke sination known owing to his passions and bad habits it. A criminal, of an assasspeaking committed which fact was not by himself, at the time, said: "That will not escape and which he himself

seek to keep their prostitutes children from following their career. From these it is clear that the one great lack is feelexamples ing; the idea of what one ought to do and the willand the criminal power to do it are quite different, lacks the will-power. The expression, decidedly

the guillotine." Rich thieves




Honesty among thieves," shows in them the idea of justice; but the use of the justice to be unjust. There is vanity back of it also; they are proud to it. In a meeting of thieves in London, mention ' one of their number (condemned twenty-six times), was received with great applause; he was sent out to get some money changed, not returning soon it of the meeting that they would was the sentiment kill him if he did not bring the money back; to their great joy he returned; they were proud of him. This good side of the criminal's feelings enables society to correct them. It is not intellectual teaching that brings a good result so much as a rational direction of the passions. Lombroso mentions one of the most dangerous Anderson, who was transformed into a lamb when he criminals, was employed at subduing savage bulls; but when returned to prison in chains he was a terror to all. The division of the booty is generally done with strict justice. Some prisoners were left to themselves on an island; the leaders of two rival parties formed a code of laws which was barbarous and severe, but enforced with strictness. For instance, one had stolen a goat, and tried to get off on a fine, but the criminal, who was judge, cried: "The goat is not to be paid for with money, but with blood." Another to have aided was thought him, but he proved an alibi; he was excluded from the legislative of which he was a organization not wishing member, the tribunal any of its members to be suspected. But this kind of justice is forced and temporary.



are often very untrue to their comCriminals is a disand parents. A denunciation panions but they do grace, if it is made to their injury; this is the cause of not fail to denounce others; riots and vengeance among them. continual They inform on one another to help themselves along or each other when they are jealous, so to aggravate as not to be the only ones to suffer; they have acnot be the so that if caught they will complices, to death; they consider only ones condemned in good fortune to be consulted themselves by the zeal to have police, and often display the greatest the facts. a friend arrested, if they have to invent The chiefs of the brigands are despotic.







THE method of special criminology is to study a In a new few cases as thoroughly as possible. field of empirical of details study the investigation at if there is to be any attempt is indispensable, The reader may in addition scientific treatment. into typical cases, and gain an independent insight in our penal institutions. the method of treatment The value of a single case lies in the fact, that is the rule in crime. And for this reason repetition the best the stud}/ of single cases is probably of gaining a definite of the method knowledge The and remedies for crime. causes, difficulties, differmethod of gathering (he facts is by visiting and prisons. ent reformatories The superintendent or warden was asked to name the purest murderer, the most haDitual thief, and the meanest person the prisoners under his charge. among generally One aim is to study only those cases, about which enough is known, to place their real nature beyond a doubt. The cases selected, therefore, are among the worst, and are the most confirmed in their species of criminality. and other We have given in detail the complaints



case investigated, with the additional testimony, These gathered from the officers. than are of more value facts scientific those outside of prison, because they are not gathered only more prisoner of the but the environment trustworthy, Each comis more definitely known.




of the plaint generally represents many repetitions refrains from same offense ; for an officer naturally of as he may get the ill-will making complaints, the prisoner to the duties ; which adds difficulties of both. is: (ist) To decide upon Our order of procedure the cases to be investigated ; (2d) to copy all the all the ; (3d) to interview officers who had knowledge of the prisoner through to interview and examine the ; (4th) experience himself. prisoner familiar the records one becomes By copying with the facts, and is thus better able to question records of the institution After officers to the point. this the investibe well prepared to interview gator will probably He should not let the prisoner know the prisoner. the about him. beforehand that he knows anything This is the safest way to avoid errors and decepis easily caught in a lie, and tions, for the prisoner ' so that he conoften becomes bewildered, finally eludes to tell the truth as best he can. Some cases are so abnormal, and they falsify so easily from of it at times. Or habit, that they are unconscious to tell the they may be too lazy or indifferent truth. but It is not advisable to contradict a prisoner, to permit him to continue untii his own words





involve requests


prisoner, for the better

in additional that might it is advisable

In confessions. not be granted to defer them

making the by last;

to the

one knows a criminal, the criminal becomes, and is more otherwise one may get his ill-will, further

the more open to act ; willing which makes

if not useless. difficult, investigation The indulgence of the reader is asked in giving so many details, that in themselves may seem unbut the object has been to present each important, case fully and exactly as it is, so that the reader can be wholly independent It must ing his judgment. in formwriter be borne in mind, howin the "complaints," as indicate to relax of the

ewer, that a slight offense the leaving of a utensil out of place, can the exact time when the prisoner begins his will

to reform; while a good report a signifies new resolution of the will. Thus the series of record the moral pulse-heats of the priscomplaints It is also true, that what might seem a very oner. for slight offense outside of prison is not so within; in every well-regulated institution, reformatory there is a minimum of temptation to do wrong and a maximum of continuous restraint to do right, so the inmate may be gradually educated in the formation of good habits, which are his surest safeguard on release. has been to investigate the cases as thoroughly as possible, and we trust that this others that may may give some idea and suggest lead penal and reformatory institutions to take more care in gaining of the previous knowledge Our endeavor that



life of the criminal, his career especially concerning after leaving the prison, and also in carefully rehis daily life while under their care, thus cording useful to society at large. imparting knowledge For if there is to be any advancement in the of crime, it lies in the direction of the knowledge himself. Our institutions, study of the criminal afford facilities for such study, the then, should is to furnish a trustworthy very object of which basis for the prevention and repression of crime. A clear idea of the causes of criminality is the first And if the cure be step towards its cure. possible only to a certain degree, the approximate of this degree would "be of great determination" practical importance. Some of these cases may indicate in general the small amount of exact knowledge there is about human in society, since with a comparatively of data," one is unable to give more large than an opinion as to the real cause of the crime; but this should no one, as it is due discourage beings number mainly to our present need of more exact methods of investigation. It would for the present, that seem, then, studies should be directed towards criminological the investigation bers of society criminals as memand the race. And it is in the of the criminal that the most important psychology results can be reached. His feelings and thoughts in general and especially at the moment of his crime reveal to us most of all his true condition. After this individual one may pass to the study, of individual rational












pology. The thorough study of one single the social organism, be he criminal suggest a method, scientific sociology. for the beginning

individual in or not, may at least, of a


" A."

" THE term " Pure Murder refers to those cases in which the innate tendency to take human life is Murderers are more honest than predominant. other classes of criminals. They are not infrechaste in character; some will steal only quently when severely pressed, for they are not thieves by In the very essence of thieving nature. there is

an element of cowardice, but the murderer requires Whether a murquite the opposite characteristic. is a cannibal derer born into modern by nature as a rudimentary civilization, member, or a creature developed from his surroundings, is undecided. Yet it is difficult to comprehend how he could be wholly to be a creature is influenced one or the other; for if he is said of circumstances, how is it that he for the wrong unless there is somein him to be influenced. The question

thing already a criminal is so by nature or is, then, not whether but rather to which element his by circumstances, crime can be principally attributed. The cause of murder can lie not only in positive as courage and force of will, but in characteristics, the want of characteristics, such as a lack of rein injuring others or even one's self. pulsion



I 75

case of pure murder is where a fel-, killed his comrade while snoring too low-prisoner loud. The case of least provocation that we have seen was that of a man who pierced the abdomen of an intimate friend with a very small, slender kniferaising up his vest, said: "Why, With you stabbed me, John; there is blood there." that John made three or four more punctures, from the effects of which the man died. As they had no quarrel at all, it would seem that the murderer friend, merely thing. That had a curiosity pure murderers is evident to stick the knife into someblade. His

A classical

seem to be unconscious of from the following case: any repulsion A consumptive, of about sixty, who was on his was asked by the doctor why he killed death-bed, " " his mother with an ax. he Ah," said, My father died, and I thought I would take me place in the family." The idea was, that his father used to beat his mother, but that he had performed this function better still. Another case is that of a life prisoner, who had been in a dungeon for years. He had killed several men, and would not hesitate to take the life of prison-officers, all of whom were afraid of him. He had only one friend in the world, and that was the "doctor." It was safe to go into his cell when the doctor perfectly introduced one as his friend. At the time of the visit he happened to see a certain prison-officer, and a volume of epithets followed. Then he out the five or six bullet-wounds that he pointed " Rascals had received in a row with the officers.



he growled, his teeth. . and cowards," grinding where I had "I said: came from Ireland, killed some men, but in America punishment girl one evening, arrest me; he insulted him ' inside out' (killed away, I went to the ball." great ' me' deal harder. I was

He also is a

to a ball with going and a policemen tried to and but him), I knocked I did not run


very easily angered, he bled to death by wounds house, and was almost In the from handcuffs, etc., used to subdue him. I would course of conversation he said: " Doctor, have killed a man in the hospital had he not been your charge." This man was honest in character, and was chaste toward women. He would give his life up for the " doctor." he liked he would do Anyone for; anyone he hated he would kill withanything out the least repulsion. There was something heroic in" him, notwithstanding his ferocity. As already observed (Chapter I., Part I.), man in the savage state was forced to look upon the as an enemy, which generally to stranger proved But the little be true. child also seems to show For it would traces of this murderous tendency. hesitate mother nately should for its none the less to bite its nurse or strike its did these acts cause their death. Fortuis generally but this propensity corrected, it persist, and surroundings such a child could growth, we shall study favorable into a develop the case of "A," be under

his trial, being During cleared the courtnearly

murderer. As an illustration




who was twelve or thirteen years old when he committed the act that made him known. " we give verThat " A may speak for himself, batim his autobiography. Autobiography "According when I was of "A."

to my life I will write from about treated me right 7 or 8. My parents I went to school right till I was n years old. along for about 2 months, and then I ran away sent me to the So then my parents from school. There my course was not very Asylum. I had a great many black marks against me there. I staid for 2 years 2 weeks and 2 months. Then I was sent back home, and behaved myself Then again I did not go to school for 1 month. sent me back to the instias usual; so my parents well. a long time. Then I was of the place and called up by the superintendent I said asked if I would like to live in the country. let me go. I would, so he said he would " deed I done was to steal an My first wrong tution. There I staid stand. I went home with apple from an Italian's the apple, and my mother asked me where I got it. She asked me it for one cent. I said I bought I said from where I got my money; my saving's She asked how I got the money from the bank. bank. " I hung my head and did not want to tell then. I said nothing. She asked me what was the matter; She said why do you hang your head so; I said for nothing.



" Then they found

I went



and was lost.


me they took me back home. When I got inside the house my father asked me where I not tell him. so he said to me if I was; I would did not tell he would thrash me, and still I would not tell, so he went and got the boot-jack and said, 'Are gou going to tell ?' But I would not; and so that night I got a good sound thrashing. " I will now describe my parents in regard to their Just before I left home, my mother, brothdoings. ers, and sisters were good' to me, and I will mention them more than my father. He used to drink a when deal. he came home Every great night drunk of his way, or something would the room. But one go sailing throughI did not get out of his way; I was not night a-going to either, for I just was a-going to see what he was a-going to do. He came in the door and I -He just walked right wassitting by the window. I was and jerked over to where a hole right through my ear. me what was the bloody ear-lie I commenced matter. to cry. He asked As soon as he saw my we had to-get-out

got a piece of black 'sucking' and put it on the back of my ear. plaster My father was the cause of my mother's death. He came sitting home drunk one night, and my mother was in the parlor sewing at some one of the and hurled pants; he picked up a flat-iron it did not strike her; she looked not tell where it came from. She He left

boys' it at my mother; about and could then walked saw

my father pick up a stove-poker. up to my mother and hit her with it;




a severe

and she was in bed about one wound, month before she died. would drink My father but there was no more trouble in the continuously, sent from

house. " I was then

home to the Asylum. From there I went to , and received a good education in schooling. I went to school in summer and stayed at the farm in winter. I to try to be a better boy hereafter. I was in I did a great many that were wrong. The man I was with things used to send me to the field to work, and I used to I used to lay down in the field and go to sleep. sleep by the hour, and sometimes half a day, if he did not come to see if I was working. If I was and whip me not, he would pick up a corn-stock am going " When He would set me at I would at an early hour. pull for If hours steady and then iie down. lie down all day, if enough I would about the field. weeds pulling two or three I did not get he would let

me. " I was with of , and County, I used to go and tease the stayed for one month. sheep he had; then I would chase the hogs about about the barn-yard. I the pen and the chickens When he told me used to steal eggs of all kinds. " " to the Home out in the field and to go up Old not go; I would feed the cows I would lay down and go to sleep. I left that place because the man did not like me nor I him. " The next place I went to was County, . The man's name was He had a .



him very much. I liked nice farm, indeed. very one of his own boys, me as he would He treated white him as any ordinary and I treated person should. There was one fault between us, and that and that was was I would not do the work decent; the reason I left man. I liked " The next Mr. used for to run he was a very nice him, although him and he did me. in . I staid with was place I liked it first-rate. I at his place every day, The worst of full of water. I had to herd to watch it. and drive them; had

two months. the windmill

a big tank pumping it was I did not like from 15 to 20 head of cows to fetch

them from the pasture every morning and I had to tend 12 horses, feed and water night. them every morning, noon, and night. "The next place I went was in There I stayed with Mr. for I did a great deal of work steady. to plow, sow, reap, harrow, the harvest in, going County. three months there. I had

had to help drag, about a quarter of a gather mile before we reached the field. There was where I did so many things in killing his animals. As I told you what I killed I need not mention it I will try to behave myself hereafter. here. Then I went to , where for three good not staying like his treatment. In the winter time he would not let me have mittens on my hands; he would set me to clean the horse and cow stables when it was bitter cold, without on my hands to keep anything them warm or on my feet. Sometimes he would I took a place solid months. with I did ,





see me standing still, not he would ask me what I was doing; I working; would to warm say, trying my hands; then he would say, you clean out these stables or I'll thrash he would come again and catch me not then he would working; get the tugs or drivingrein and thrash me, and besides he would make me ' ' ' bed ' of corn without a on jerk wagon anything I would have to unload it and pick my hands. another times did not load three do before loads I got anythingbefore and after to eat; dinner. someIf I you. " Then


the barn


my share of work he would say, you to eat. He was a hard man can't have anything with me, when I hit his wife with my fist for me. If she had not been teasing me I plaguing I said to his wife, would her. not have struck ' or else there will be Now, just stop your fooling but she would her a not; so I struck trouble," good blow in the face, and she did stop; but she told her husband, place and that night I got a good , where it firstthe barn, thrashing. "The next I stayed with rate. and

I went to was at five months, and liked chores about

I used to do all the

help in the housework along with the other I don't remember work. doing anything wrongthere. His wife was a good lady, and I liked her very much indeed, she never gave me much trouble at all. "The next place I went was hired out to a man that kept a livery . There I did I stable.



and got my board and clothes. work, When I was there a week I got a new suit of time of it. clothes, and had a splendid " The next was . There I place I went ' blind for a few and a stayed days caught bagabout gage,' and rode on it till I reached a station I got on a freight train to Chicago. I right through I used to help to load stayed there about a week. for pretty , near six days. I steamships Finally stole a ride on a boat going from Chicago to MilThere I came nearly getting arrested for a ride on the boat. Then the mate said, stealing "'Get off" this boat."' I said, ' No I wont/not for such a thing as you, or anyone like you'; so he went and got a policeman. The policeman said, ' I will give you till one o'clock to get out of town.' for me to get out of town. I swore at the mate, and told him I would break his face for him if I caught him on land. He dare not set foot off the boat for fear of gethurt. I went back to Chicago and there ting stayed another for three days boat and went more. to Then Buffalo got on about three I But I was rowing -in one of the of the shore of Lake Michigan hours after the policeman told boats on the side at least two waukee. ten miles south of and held it -. Then


on a days; then took a freight train, and slept load of sheep for one night; when I got out of the car I was about fifty miles from Buffalo on one of the roads running I had through Pennsylvania. to work my way part of the time, and the conductor gave me a ride in his caboose for over 100




I had to keep out of sight for fear; if I was I might be arrested, and the conductor caught have been discharged. I walked for three might miles. then I only for resting and eating; days, stopping train, going very slow, about a half caught a freight and riding to a mile from Scranton, from there to Hoboken, a boat City, I walked taking the river, I walked down to Grand street, and started to find my folks, but after inquiring for them I stayed in New York city two hours; then taking a boat I went across the river to There I began my search with a gang Brooklyn. of Brooklyn boys to help me hunt up my parents. We went to a large drug-store and asked to take Jersey across to find a man's name and place where the directory We found a good many with the same he lived. name as my father. We went to these places, but the right one; but still we looked, but no traces could be found; but I remember of one in East Brooklyn, but I did not have time to go to over there, because I was taken by a minister the did I stayed Home. in the house. not work wood there The month. I work I did was one did not find

and helping in the engine-room. I not till got my dinner at i p. M. sharp, sometimes there; it was a very 1.30 p. M. I liked it first-rate I went to, Then :, where Mr. good place. came after me. I went to his place on ChristI got a good meal. The next mas noon, where when I got up, I went out to the barn morning, cutting and did all the chores the best I knew how; then went to the house and did what was needed there;




the yard and fed the chickens and Then came noon; I went out and fed turkeys. and watered the horses and cattle; then rumished around a while. think a little, When and I was doing something not doing anything once in I would

I went


of something I would something at the stayed school in winter. had lots of fine half a mile

to do. If I could not think of I go in the house and read. in summer house and went to We used to have fine times; we and sliding down a hill coasting

I would ride down on a sled. long. But one day was a sad one for one of the boys in the school-house. I stole his sled and ran off to town with it; I had a lot of fun with it, then gave it away, and had some fun with the boy I gave the sled to; then went down to the railroad I had a talk with Mr. , condepot. ductor of the road, and then with the man in the station or the telegraph then went out of operator; for to pay the I then went back boy for the sled I stole on him. with the sled I stole to town, and gave it to him. The boy's father came up to the barn where I was ' Where he said to is the sled chores; me, doing I told him I left it in you stole from my boy.'. ' You then he town; said, get the sled or you will I said all right. Then he asked me pay for it,! when I was going to get it; I said this afternoon; if I could not get the sled, I would get a new one. So I started for town right after dinner, and got in town by two o'clock; there^I stayed pretty late; as I was going up the hill with the sled in my the station and stole another sled




arms I went down the back way through the back I thought road. I would not be heard or seen, but I was mistaken. the barnAs I approached yard I saw the father of the boy I stole the sled from and his hired hands. Then I went up to the the house and went to bed in the hack under old came in The next morning wagon-shed. the he shed, and gave me a poke with a stick [the man he worked for] always carried when he went to milk the cows. When I woke up I made a groan and then turned I did the chores, out. then went into the house and got some breakfast, I went by the stove and got warm a little, then and dressed myself in my best suit went upstairs of clothes, good-bye. York. I walked of 25 miles. " As I was going then Then went downstairs and bid them I started on my journey for New from to , a distance

along the road I met two teams the road. After we passed the coming along teams I started snow-balling a lady of about 65 or 70 years old; then she said she would get me arrested; that got me mad, I did not like it, because she said she would have me arrested. I saw a few stones ahead of me on the ground; I picked up three or four stones. Then she caught up with and ran ahead about six rods, me; I then started then fired one of the stones at her; I then kept it I had bruised I her very badly. Then up until ran on to and caught a train to going I did not want to go on the train, but the Then when the constation-keeper put me on. .

J 86


came for my ticket, I said that I was a poor to go to New boy without any home, and wanted York city. But he gave a me ride to ; when I I slept in the 2d Precinct Stationgot in ductor that I was a poor boy police had been away from home for and had no home; and they four years, and had been all around; Then I for me and I got $1.50. made a collection and of Charities, went down to the State Board asked the head man of the house for a pass to New house. I told the York city. " He sent a man depot and I took the pass and got on the gave me the pass. When I train, and was going for New York city. what New York I was asked by a detective reached it was; he said I told him what my name was. with me to the that he father and mother were looking I said I will take there; you forme. said all Then right.


History Received May, Oyer and Terminer



Catholic; mother, about her in don't know or epilepsy family; " on Blackwell's father ; one brother imprisoned of mother has heard nothing Island. Step-parent, him six years since they surrendered his parents ag ! grandfather, German; longshoreman ; grandmother, and writes; reads American ; educa-

1st degree, Court 1889; assault Father, ; plead guilty. mother, dead; stepintemperate; No insanity unknown. Catholic; habits,




tion unknown, family father was arrested. Facts He has






as to "A."

known no residence; home wretched; no previous Protestant; arrest; home life till six and country were places years ago; Asylum he was at; very little moral sense. He was placed in six years ago by his parents. Asylum Two years later he was sent to Illinois and placed with with four dif; then placed successively the last one the ferent farmers; remained with was in Illinois about four longest (about a year); came away from last place and years altogether; in for New York, looked started rides; stealing vain for his people, and was after a few days taken and sent to' . up by the Society of He remained a month or more and then ran away, and on the same day he struck a woman with a stone, stealing up behind her. They had ridden toshe was an old woman; gether in a farmer's sleigh; the assault was unprovoked. They had chanced to on a country road. fall together Age, January, Health 1889, 15 years. good; blue eyes; quality comfair, light brown, medium; clothing good; fair. On admission: weight, 44.90 kilos.; plexion chest, 711-762 mm. February, height, 1,494mm.; height, 1,549 mm.; chest, 1890: weight, 48.07 kilos.; 48.97 kilos.; May, 1890: weight, 685-762 mm. height, 1,574 mm.; chest, 736-812 mm. Previous education, 3d Reader, long division; occuto 3d grade, 2d division; previous assigned



First shop. boy; assigned to tailor October 5, 1889; time, 21 weeks; badge earned Second 6 complaints. 22, 1889; badge, March total, n complaints. time, 24 weeks; 5 complaints; pation, farm Complaints June against "A," i88g.

Out of his dormitory 28, by Watchman: to make a disturbance; along crawling continually 1 the upper tier to other dormitories (3 weeks). Not doing his work, when July 20, by Tailor: other boys come and get their clothes fixed; plays (2 weeks). down on the Aug. 5, by Watchman: Lying to other floor outside of his dormitory; talking down differboys; also, Saturday night, throwing ent articles he brought from the tailor shop (3 weeks). Stole a book (" St. NichoSept. 1, by Hallman: and gave it to . las ") from the school-room or lying : Standing 8, by Watchman Sept. in a loud tone out of his door; talking partly . I have repeatedly to boy had to speak to this boy in regard to talking; have had him on the not obey the rules; talked floor; he will Friday and Saturday with a strap). night (punished : Report this boy for Sept. 24, by Watchman " nib a a stick short, throwing heavy (called ") from his dormitory door at me. I saw the stick coming, and the direction from his door; he denies it; boy



3 weeks added

to his time

of confinement

in institution.




to him; these boys surely threw Nov. 16, by Hallman: throws rags (at boys sleeps next Dec.


side is

; one of (1 week). in the hall, boy's after the

it; witnesses For disorder and

Found 4, by Watchman: under the bed; hiding dormitory first count was taken (3 weeks). 1 Dec.

). in another soon

to do as 12, by Superintendent: Refusing at me with a broken knife when I told; striking to punish him (punished with a strap). attempted around Instructor: Dec. 20, b}' Military Running in face, without and striking boy with a strap). (punished provocation conduct. March 8, 1890: Disorderly For not scrubbing May 5, 1890, by Hallman: sleeping-hall clean, and not taking a book from Mr. care of his , and stealing (2 weeks). Sept. 4: Caused trouble in his company by interwith the other boys. fering a dipper on the store-room Oct. 15: Throwing floor. Home and employMarch 3, 1891: Released. some ment were found for him with farmers, where away Since

"A" from




some them, taking this time he has not been heard

added to his time of confinement

11, when we ran of their property. from.

3 weeks

in institution.



Testimony. to other boys." Disagreeable " Makes unreasonable reYard-keeper says: strikes a boy; yet came quests; becomes angry, The Tailor says: had been given to a reading paper, which me to read it first; has heard hirn, and wanted around his finger to make it that he put a string black in order to get out of wrork." " " in hospital once (nothing Physician: Only with easy; does not care how he does his work; boys and some of the the I don't officers say he is a " little off"; report on boy, as it will do no good; has not improved his scrubbing work for nine months. I said he temper He ansuperintendent. swered: care; I will go down and tell him " I did my work good enough.' " Tried Mr. Teacher: to hang him, and with me; saw my watch-chain self; too familar This he said: 'I will have that watch and chain.' he did three or four times; but after a reprimand would go ceased to be familiar." Professor of Drawing says below the average in his work, Mr. , School Principal: sive; he will look at you with reproved; Mrs. best in ment). : " He is a little have to ' I don't to serious). Hallman: "Raises his "

and a good " Nervous,

dreamy way about " Good Teacher: , scholar; industrious; arithmetic in this depart(three months I never had any trouble with him; never

glaring him."

boy." impul-' eyes when




had to speak to him, to correct him; half of the ' turn I to at that is to never all, speak say: boys ' around and study etc.; he was a little behind, but the woman as though caught up; he told of killing he would not like to have us tell about it; but with no animation in his face; he said no air of vanity, he would Miss did fairly never do it again." " Teacher: , Very good boy in school; in all studies, but better in arithmetic; never got angry; perceives quickly; great boy to read papers ('Golden Days,' etc.); was six months under me." " No mechanical no natural Carpenter: ability; he he inflicts; affection or feeling for any injury struck a boy in the yard; the boy did not retort, ' but ' A simply if he is disorderly and grinned; he has not spoken to about it, he acts indifferent; as shown the least sign of anger or viciousness, he acts as if he his teeth; when disorderly gritting was not bright, just indifferent; never reported him When he him because he did not seem vicious. struck the boy, he said,' I was only fooling '; he said to me he had no reason at all for stoning the old he felt like it and stoned her; he did not woman; this feel bad about it at all, and had no remorse; he said when he first came here; never saw him much with the boys; ever since here, he playing has not varied from being indifferent, and doing never caught him in a lie; if things thoughtlessly; asked what he did wrong for, he will say, ' Well I don't little; know.' No hilarity does not talk loud, in the boy, he grins a seems uneasy; difficult



still. He tied a handkerchief he said so tight around his neck that he was purple; he wanted to choke himself to death, as the fellows I think he was trying to said, he told them so. ' ' them. show the boys what he could do, to scare When I call him up for disorder there are ' spells '; he has a staring look, and if I ask him a question he does not seem to notice it, then in an instant he look seems to come to himself (he has a vacant ' what was when in the ' spells ) and understands of said to him; this spell endured about a quarter a minute; those spells come on (glare, frequently when and looking) but not always hesitating, When reprimanded spoken to. sharply sometimes, lie did not have these spells, he first looks down, then into my eye (glaring) bends his head simply; a short reprimand no fear or scowl, but produced in every case a sameness, that is he looks up and down slowly as if he was planning but something; he confesses everything; most peculiar boy in this institution in his actionsthat is, a sameness in his is that actions, manner, motions, etc. My opinion the boy would not hesitate a moment to take his life, no idea of what is beyond the act." " His The Steward: at make-up is not first-rate; times, when I would correct him, he would stand and look down and turn his eyes, acting as a boy he would show fullness going to be insubordinate; of the face, that anger, temper, talk much he was angry, a peculiar form of the air of sullenness and rank having different from the other boys; he does not when angry. This spell would last as

for him to remain




him, long as you talked to him; once I corrected he showed a good disposition, but could not be called an obedient boy; towards the latter part of the time he was with me he told me his crime; said it was without on a highway, that provocation he did not appear sorry for it; he broke her wrist; told me her name and age; he is not a bright boy; not with the other boys much; a boy somewhat a little silly was with him some; the boys ' pumped ' him and after that dropped him, as they usually fellows were with him a do, and so the half-silly after a while he used to play ball a little. I little; think he would do injury; he is not a good boy in He had spells, so I did not trouble any sense. three or four times to me him; he was reported for striking boys; he denied it; he would come up good and cheery when called; once he was surly, and the more I talked to him the worse he became; he was not impudent, nor did he talk up quick; he muttered at that time." something " He was with Watchman: me about four at times he became excited and hardly months; knew what he did; he looked wild out of his eyes. He often wet his bed; I called him three times a he got better; at times he was cranky; hard night; boy to wake up, had to shake him; he would stare at me when I called him; he would act as if he were mad, and after an hour he would say I will he has asked me try and be a good boy hereafter; I to forgive him. He was not bad intentionally. He said he would be a think he has lied to me. good

boy, but


not want

to be reported.




a ran upstairs, I reprimanded him, and he threw stick (nib) at me." " He has been under Watchman (2d Division): me about a year; he is a little ' off '; he has thrown things around the hall quite often, but not so much now; have to call him three times every night, at he wakes 10, 12-15 and 2 to go to the water-closet; him up with difficulty ; have caught running around fooling with other boys; when reprimanded he promises he won't do it any more, but if he has a ' pout' he will not say he is sorry; (ill-tempered) he is no coward; sometimes talks back; he would he had done, and sometimes deny things long afterwards he would admit it, but did not want to his chum is , who is surely 'off'; get reported; the other boys call him a fool." at "His Chaplain: people are not attendants while in Home of was not at Sunchurch; instructhis is about all the religious day-school; in the tion he has had; here he has taken interest the pledge; he came to our has attended this; is a very close listener. prayer-meetings regularly, I want to He says ' I don't want to be a drunkard, " now.' sign " He has been a Instructor: Military good soldier, is an intelligent one; has made no mistake that I know of." " When in Superintendent: being reprimanded temperance me several work, times signing about he started he would be whipped; my room, thinking and to run into the sleeping-hall, then he stopped drew a knife out of his pocket. I said , call-




' Lock me and he his said, name; up, lock me ing I up, I will give knife up, if you will lock me up.' and got the knife away got him into a dormitory away from me into the him; he ran, breaking and getyard and up into the other sleeping-hall; The military ting a club, he chased the boys out. officer went to get the club away from him, but he taken at him; when, however, hold of, he struck from his eyes shone like a wild beast's. ceased resisting; him for that and he cried a little; I whipped has not been very disobedient since; this occurred after he had been here some time, when he ceased to be a quiet boy." The of another n institution, Superintendent " " He was a which " A was formerly, heedless, says: he showed no very disobedient here; boy while but simply little meanserious misconduct, petty to his teacher he was disagreeable and nesses; him from a others, no special traits distinguished We always have quite a other boys here. hundred conduct and large number of boys whose foolish a lack of good sense and a wanton acts indicate streak of meanness." " There was nothAnother says: Superintendent attention his ('A's ') during ing special to attract short stay." of the county in which The District Attorney " He is as " A " was tried as he is says: bright bad; he is bad only in one way, and that is in his desire sault the to hurt somebody; in the first degree; knocked he was indicted for ashe met an old, fat lady in with stones, then her down




jumped on her and pounded her head with stones; broke her wrist, etc.; he is a fair-looking boy as you ever saw; but seems to have spells. Every man in jail was afraid of him, for he would throw fits, and he wras things at them in unconquerable so small that they would not touch him; and, exfavorite. I cept in those spasms, was a general write you, because if that boy can be cured, he will make a very bright man." " " In a letter, A wrote fo another boy formerly in the institution he says: " Dear SirI now take the pleasure of writing I am in you a few lines. good health; I hope you are the same. The weather is very delightful up here; I believe that Mr. is going to leave us, but I hope he don't go, for if he would I would not like it. I am still in the ' Scrub' bing Gang (lowest grade), they could not hire me to go out of it for anything When you write to The first thing me, teli me what you have done. when you got home, did you start for the woods ? I " would like to know. From your friend No. . with whom "A" lived last (before his " A.s to the assault on the old lady: crime) says: They were riding on a sleigh and they both got off at ; and she went one way and he the other. Then he ran ahead of her and got a stone and threw it and knocked her down; then pounded her and broke one of her arms. Some one, I do not know who it was, came to her assistance; he ran and took the cars for , where he was arrested. She was under the Doctor's care for a I do not know whether she is alive or long time. The farmer




The boy is a bad boy; he was with me about and I was glad when he left. Before months, he went he had been going to school, and he acted so with the scholars that it was unendurable. He stole it, and he took a knife to my wife, but it was before anything else had happened; he was not angry; so we did not do about it. I am sorry he is such a boy, anything for he is a bright boy." The physician says he was called to see the old he treated her "for a broken arm and a lady; bruised back, which was about as bad as her arm; her face was somewhat cut and scratched." Examination of "A." one of their sleds and sold

not. four

" I began school when I was four years old, and went about six years. used One of my brothers to hit me with his fist; I would not touch him, for I hit him my mother. out of spite once. Another of my brothers treated another pretty well; did not like my me all right; she used to whip me too much. step-mother, My with father would mother, quarreled my real her with his fist; was always drunk then. pound not do it again, He would if I was home; did not hit her the three months I was there; if he have been a stick of wood flying had, th-jre would at him. I do not want to go home; would not step inside of the door, because I am afraid I would get I would not have left home off. my head knocked would run away and had my father not got drunk; then be afraid to return, so, in order to eat, some I was afraid he would tell






I would


and sleep near the foundries where it was warm; things and was sent to one or two out West; I wanted I left Mr. to

zinc, inside of some of the I would miss school,




country. around for nearly two years, I guess; me; tramped while at Chicago, broke into cars and got somecarried a knife with me to thing to eat; I always from I on to me. keep larger tramps pitching killed the horse of one farmer with a club; also at another a sheep, I wanted to get even with the farmer for whipping me; I would have killed the farmer, but he was too big; I don't like to see a cow killed, because it should live as I went through well as we. because Pennsylvania, I wanted to see the country; was interested in the coal mines. I went to New York and stayed about a month, and was sent out into the country again. I did not like the place; the man whipped me with a ratan, but not very hard; a boy teazed me at school by calling me names, so I stole his sled and another back in its place. The man I was brought with. I did not like, so I left him. Going along the road I met an old woman, and walked with her a half an hour; then we got into an empty sleigh and rode about fifteen the man with the minutes; off on another road, so we got off. sleigh turned I saw some large icicles in the trees and began to knock them down with snow-balls. Then I it would be fun to throw at the old lady.. thought I threw them pretty she called me names, swift; time a cow and

and then institutious, run around and see the , because he did not like




before night; I have me arrested said she would Two teams came along threw two more snow-balls. because they and I stopped snow-balls, throwing did not hurt her The snow-balls would catch me. I was getting for they only hit her shawl. angry; I threw three small stones; only the third one hit her have me arrested. on the arm; she said she would I saw a bare place where there were some stones, I ran ahead to it, crossing a road ; she ran down I ran across lots to get away from me. down on the ice; I threw after her; she slipped as I stones at her, threw them under-hand larger two of the stones were large, do it swifter, could I and two inches thick, five inches about long the kicked at her, but hit the bundle of clothes; stones made gashes on her head, the big stone this road I saw some one running up from the station, so I stopped and ran away." was brought the following On closer questioning out: Q. Why didn't you throw all the stones at her? A. Because I did not want to waste them on her broke her wrist. she screamed each time, and I kept on so quick; just to hear her scream for the fun of it, to get even with her. Q. Why didn't you jump on her with your feet, instead of your knees ? A. Because I did not want to go too fast. over her and Q. Why did you not get right throw the big-stones A. I could throw them. right them down on her harder? easier, jerk under-hand



Q. How did you feel all this time ? A. I felt dizzy all the time after I threw the first I kept to keep myself from snow-ball; a-going down and hitting some one or something falling else. When I ran away I had the same dizziness about ten minutes, and then fell down tired out; then in three minutes I was all commenced after I got stand angry in dizziness having I cannot control can angry; myself; some fun from the boys, but soon I get and mean to kill them. I threatened the I right again. the head right

with a knife because I thought he superintendent was going to punish me ; I meant to kill him. I had no dizziness while horse, cow, and killing I sheep to get even with the farmers ; sometimes without she get angry feeling dizzy. Saying would have me arrested made me angry; these When I drew the knife spells last about an hour. on the superintendent, and struck the club at the but officer, I did not have any dizziness, military When I become I try to kill, got mad. dizzy I say, it is just for the fun of it; but sometimes, I really want to kill. I just as leave die as not, and ' If I killed go and see my mother. anyone they would hang me, so I would I wanted die. to kill the old woman, but was not thinking of being killed at that time. I did not want to get myself the caught, or I would have killed her by throwing stones at her head. I wouldn't have cared if they had killed me at this time. I don't hardly feel I am to blame. I know I am to blame for killing the old woman. I began to feel I was to blame




after about

I came

to this

institution. say

I never how I got ?

read the

books idea,

I could not murder, it simply comes to me. Q. A. closet but I did black only the not Did I you try went into closet want was to kill the



in which

I knew

where there was rag-room there was a window-cord My I had no tried to mother friends. was

a ;


linen cut

to live, and thread

dead, I took a

I took a yarn my neck. till it was black in order my finger work. I did not like the work. Q. A. What I was you do after your in jail six months. did

it myself; hang and tied it around to trial get ? out of

did you do in jail ? Q. What A. I used to sing to them to amuse O. What did they do ? A. Q. A. want Q. A. used to play cards. They Did you play cards? to play No, it is wrong to become Where At one did a gambler. you learn places



I do


that? I was (by at. the physician normal; digestion, of thorax, of cirgood;

of the

A physiological institution): culation, anomalies,


functions, Vegetative normal ; respiration, 20; none; pulse,

80; girth 724 660 mm.; of waist, of thigh, 787 mm.; girth girth of calf of leg, 444 mm.; girth 317 mm.; weight, none. anomalies, 109 lbs. (49.44 kilos.); physical , M. D.



measurements are : Width of head, Craniological from to 128 mm.; length glabella occipital maximum of head, 190 mm.; length protuberance, above tragus, width width be134 mm.; 190 mm.; tween external outer inner malaria, distance chin zygomatic edges corners corners arches, of orbits, of eyes, 127 mm.; width distance distance between between between prot. mm.; from 96 mm.; 90 mm.;

width of eyes, 32 mm., between width between 96 119 mm.; gonia, distance from chin to hair, 158 mm.;

distance from chin of nose, 108 mm.; chin to to base of nose, 66 mm.; distance from distance from chin to tragus, mouth, 95 50 mm.; distance from to root of nose, 97 mm.; mm.; tragus to root of nose, 47 mm.; of ear, 61 mm.; length length elevation of nose, 49 mm.; width of nose, 31 mm.; thickness of lips, 15 mm.; width of mouth, 42 mm.; circumference of head, verhorizontal 540 mm.; tical mm. There circumference of head, 349 mm.; sagittal circumference of head, 368 mm.; of profile, 60 angle of eye, color of hair, Color light. gray; was an observed flatness to the eyelids. Conclusion. or ; his anomaly a lack of to repulsion abnormality nor wanting in will life. He is no coward, taking is above the average, ; his intelligence power yet he is at stubborn and and times lazy mean, pure in consists he although latter element. of justice be partly may He acts oddly to be "getting unconscious at times. even "with of His this idea every"A" is a case of murder





He is unaware of how his want of repulsion one. to killing to others. appears Many boys neglect their work and are whipped, but they do not kill cows and horses to "get even." The dizziness of " A " might suggest epilepsy, but the fact that he is and remembers unconscious is everything such a theory. where against Spells of anger, self-control is lost, are not uncommon, and one will strike with the hand or throw something, but seldom go further, unless there is a radical defect a boy who becomes angry who at the same time self-control, easily, losing to taking lacks repulsion life, and whose surroundto bring tnis element out, ings have been favorable and the case of "A" is a clear one. That such a his how It is is self-evident. boy is dangerous Considering it is questionable early and evil surroundings far he is to blame for his murderous acts. doubtful, somewhere. Given never

if he should be allowed to be free in the even under the most favorable condicommunity, for his training has been such that he is tions, To speak to him cross or to angered very easily. him is probably the worst punish thing that can be done. this murderous tenmay out-grow in the community ; but can dency by experience the community afford, or has it the right to make, such as expose its members to experiments danger ? "A" was at large when last heard of. He



THEFT is the most common difficult to correct.





The spirit that predominates in actual life is the and the strongest form of this is the utilitarian, or the love of possession. commercial impulse, The wide extent of this sentiment exnaturally ; and this is one of poses it more to infringement the chief reasons, perhaps, why theft is the most But theft, unlike most crimes, is common crime. and for this acquired very gradually, generally reason it is the most developed and the most perA thief sistent form of crime. is almost always for he is continually to incorrigible, exposed and even there, he temptation except in prison, will keep up his habit. The thief is almost always a liar, because this is the easiest and most practical method of defense. He is generally liberal by with the money of others, and nature, especially for this reason is always popular with fast women. The general idea that thieving is taking what does not belong to us, is a good definition. As cases of habitual following: or pure thieving, we give the










25, 1887; offense, petit larceny, July fair; resides with age, 11; eyes, brown; clothing never in the almshouse; at police court of parents; on complaint of ; weight, 34 kilos ; 2d brown; education, height, 1,371 mm., hair, Reader; arrests, two or three for stealing previous and staying out; never in orphan asylum, but in reform school; three months ago was in Catholic proand assigned to knitting 1st tectory department division. Parents: dock-laborfather, intemperate, er; he does not know whether any of them were no step-father or step-mother; arrested; father, Irish two Catholic; girls. family consisting of two boys and


in chest, 20, 1889, height, June 1,428 mm.; to the 2, 1890, he was intrusted 723 mm. April care of his mother. June 21, 1890, recommitted by police court for petit larceny. Weight, 41 kilos; height, 1,485 mm.; clothes, good.

Complaints. 1888May from chapel 14: Leaving last Sunday the line while returning

not going on morning; the yard (pleads guilty, case held open). around the yard with two May 21: Running and making all the noise they others, shouting would not come when called; refused to go could; on parade; until I caught and locked kept running them up. (Sunday, pleads guilty.)



in the yard, 22, by Watchman: Disorderly stones up against the shop windows while kicking on parade (punished with a strap 5 blows, 1 week, pleads guilty). with other boys entered May 23: In company machines a few shop; tampered with; knitting articles were missing (5 to 10 strokes with a strap, 8 weeks). 1 May his window-frame out of the May 31: Throwing door; spoken to many times about being disorderly (5 blows with a strap, 1 week, pleads guilty). in sleeping-hall while he supJuly 4: Disorderly 1 I was absent posed (1 week). after whistle was July 15: Loud and disorderly blown for parade; where there was no crowding room for him, and when asked to go to another place did not do it until I insisted on it, then he was also fought with another insolent; very boy (pleads guilty). in wash-room and trainingJuly 16: Disorderly room almost every day (5 blows with strap). and going to others; July 21: Leaving dormitory also generally to keep him disorderly; impossible in his dormitory (pleads guilty). in dining-room 26: Talking orders (1 week). repeated in dining-room; Aug. 5: Talking July he was in defiance of


it, says

asking a boy for some water. (Admonished to be more careful.) the plate of hash, and refusing Aug. 28: Taking
1 Added to time of stay in institution.




the rest of the boys to have any;




up (1 week). on parade; scuffling on the Sept. 6: Disorderly bench in the yard. with another Sept. 17: Burglarizing boy while on parade. another boy (excused with Sept. 18: Kicking reprimand). a hat about the sleeping-hall Sept. 19: Throwing and lying about it (reprimanded). at the table and giving Sept. 19: Talking impudence. in the yard, when in the Sept. 21: Swearing scrubbing gang. in the hall, threw water on Oct. 4:' Disorderly another boy. in the hall (reprimanded). Oct. 10: Disorderly and rankest impudence Oct. 15: Disorder (reprimanded). Oct. 17: Out of his dormitory (locked up). denies the Oct. 31: Throwing soap in lavatory; charge. Nov. 5: Making while the girls were week). Nov. 13: Talking Nov. 22: Talking remarks passing gestures using the yard (one through and

at supper-table (one week). in lavatory on parade (one

week). and insubordination; Nov. 25: Rank impudence in impudent demanded a ticket to hospital manner, he was told to wait and see Mr. K., was very with strap ; one week). impudent (punished



in school-room, after cautioned Dec. 15: Talking to stop kept talking (one week). loud and the whistle; Dec. 18. Not obeying with strap; noisy, disorderly generally (punished one week). at Dec. 20: Making water out of the window 6.30 A. M.; let him off once before; did not go to closet at all (one week). his clothes to bed with and Dec. 29: Going stockings on, (one week). and so kept dressed.) 1889Jan. 9: Talking mits (two weeks). I had which (In an interview admits it forbidden; he said he was cold adfrom admits

on parade in lavatory; pants on;

a pair of 2d badge Jan. 15: Stealing " S." boy (four weeks). Jan. 16: Going to bed with clothes

(two weeks). on parade (reprimanded). Jan. 22: Inattention offense (eight weeks). Jan. 23: School-room blankets in dormitory. Jan. 29: Tearing Feb. 1: School-room offense (one week). Feb. 11: Using in W. C. to another vulgarity boy (reprimanded). Feb. 16: Stealing books from Mr. L.'s with strap). room (punished March 30: Throwing bread at dining-room admits (punished with a strap). 12: Disorderly in W. C. April April April April 16: Fooling with another boy (held 22: Does not scrub clean. 28-29: Having four schooltable;

open). and

keys in his pocket




drawer in an officer's one key fitting has been opened several times and room, which articles taken out (punished with strap). May 2: Out of order on all parades; extremely to company commander. impudent his work without May 22: Leaving permission; the comes into hospital dining-room (repritobacco; when boys were out of his place, getting and insolent when spoken to about it (held open). admits it (held clean; June 17: Not scrubbing open). on parade when marching to June 25: Disorder school, fooling- with a ball (two weeks). June 26: Stealing money and food from painters in shop (punished with strap). for plunJune 27: Going into boys' dormitory der; got under the bed; I told him to come out, and he would not do so. Admits, except plunder ranks, (three weeks). about in the hall court intendOct. 5: Hanging this after I had driven ing to steal.; he repeated him out; he ran through the South house to escape, when detected second time (held open). Oct. 22: School disorder (held open). adOct. 24: In bathroom without permission; mits (held open). " addormitory; 1890Jan. 23: Going into "B.'s mits (held open). Jan. 30: Going to bed with his trousers on, I put him on the floor and he was very impudent and 14 manded). May 31: Disorderly to dormitory, marching in



abusive him;

refused and positively lock it (under admits



what key

I told for one whis-


weeK). Feb. 28: Very disorderly his hands. tling through Aug. 29: Talking and impudent. Sept. 2: Disorderly; Sept. 26: Refused at the

in his dormitory, table and


when requested; liar. him a g d' calling in taking Sept. 27: Detected freshly glazed windows.

at the table. talking to go to the superintendent a chair at the officer and throwing putty off of some telling recapdepot, in con-

to an officer; 1891Jan. 12: Impudent him to shut up and get out. He escaped by scaling the wall and was the slip at the he gave his guard tured; He was placed but was captured again.

finement, but succeeded in getting out; search high and low was made for him until he was found byinmates in the top of a tree late one of the-other After to escape day in the evening. attempting transferred to the peniafter day he was finally tentiary.
Testimo7iy of Officers.

" ' B ' is a Yardman: good boy; I let him wear a me very well. I Sunday for being a good boy. ' B ' has not a boys great deal;

gets aiong with tie of mine one have to trust the stolen but a fewhe does not feel like taking from me." things; " He Hallman: gets into a room and steals with-




out anyone seeing him; I seldom see him steal; he is a good boy to work; when bad, he wants to go here and there, he won't stay at his work, roves he has been under me six or eight months; around; he disobeyed at first, but afterwards with a little he likes to fight. pressure he would mind better; I saw him I never saw him cry; he learns quickly; stealing beans and caught him." " I had him one or two A Teacher: weeks; he was very lazy, tried to get out of his work the best he could; talked to the boys in school a great deal, did He got into my not talk back very much. desk and took some lead pencils." " He is a little Another Teacher: does villain; me much more than the other boys at not bother table; a vicious kind of a boy; he turned upon me one time, muttering; me when one hand." " He vvas under Another Officer: me, but never never stole anything from gave me any trouble, me." " He wrote a note to another A Teacher: boy about his teacher, and signed a boy's name whom the teacher liked very much. He tries to steal almost every day; I always find somesomething thing in his pockets that he has stolen." " He has tried A Teacher: my patience very he is bright and peculiar; very stubborn and and inclined in his to take anything self-willed, reach; he never broke into my desk; he would much; not stop his talking; he kept I took him by the collar, and he kicked I took him out, I had hold of him with he would



the boys and lie about it; he is from he lies, is sulky, how you no matter disagreeable, he is a fighter; he is perfectly treat him; lawless, one of the worst boys I had; he never struck any take things I have boy, he is quiet at times, never saw him cry. seen him very angry; his face becomes red; he is a good his return scholar. Since his conduct is better the three days he has been under me; he has talk been absent three or four weeks; he is a bright-appearing much; fellow." stubborn and is a daring "His behavior is generally Watchman: of the time, he won't boy, but he is

out of his running the yard and hallooing; around things throwing I do not suspect he has and saucy; he is impudent bad habits; with the other boys; he uses vulgarity he steals from the other boys; he has admitted it. I him punished and then he cried; have-seen never this time; he has the wildest saw him cry except I have seen him hit other look when he does cry. most of the boys do not hit boys with his hand; one another; he is not a coward; some boys are afraid of him, but he is not afraid of a boy, no matter how big he is. He was under me about a year and a half; he got into bed with his clothes on, because sometimes they have to wait a half an hour before he had more bed they go to water-closet; clothes than the other have boys, or he would stolen from the other He appears to boys' beds. have do some control over the other not hate him; he gets angry, but he fights them. see him angry, boys; the boys and they like to He got into

bad most and dormitory



2 13

one of the officers' rooms, cut open a satchel, and took out some things, but not everything." " I never Teacher in Painting and Graining: saw him take anything; he has admitted everyI have accused him of, at first he would thing say afterwards he would nothing; were off-handed, he did not that had then; everything tributed to him; he hates to him. When I talked to him admit want it; his actions to say anything been taken was athave anyone question he cried, probably be-

cause he did not want to leave the shop. He has been under me about eight months; he will make a good workman, is very accurate in mixing colin his answers after ors; has good taste; decided he knows a thing; he doesn't talk much; he thinks all about badness and malignity; he has in his work; if he is going to deny a improved he would do it at once; he never stole a thing from me, although it was easy for him; he thing never tried to escape." Instructor: "'B' is a good soldier Military and a bad soldier, because indifferent; nature, no enthusiasm for anything. I have punished two than or three times. He has more nerve by has him he knows

any other boy I ever saw; thought ment has no effect on him; he takes it indifferbut the iast time I gave him seven blows, ently; and he said, ' O, Mr. let me go, and I won't do it again'; he denied it up and down the first and second stroke; for the After fifth this or sixth month, time him he adhis guilt. mitted me not to steal I made promise and he ac-

and pluck of punish-

a straight



complished it, and was taken out of the scrubbing will and enthusiasm gang; he has an indomitable if you can get at him in the right I have way. trouble with never had any other particular him; to me. I have known he has not been impudent in order to shield another to take a whipping He is a boy boy; he never tells on other boys. " who would sacrifice to do you a favor " He is not his by nature; Chaplain. religious moral sense seems to be dead; he is well behaved for conin chapel; he gives his name regularly he was in the class which is voluntary; fession, him himself for his first communion deprivpreparing ing himself of spare time for two days in the week in the meantime he prefor three or four months; lessons; while with me he was pared his catechism correct, but would steal when away; he is not He began to even when locked up. very talkative ' when I said he cried the time My little fellow'; cry he tried his best; he the candidates; I separated studied his catechism earnestly, got a boy to help him as he could not read well; it was a great disvery to him not to succeed; there is no appointment in this." about his sincerity question " I have him four or whipped Superintendent: at first. denies the charge five times; he generally I I never punish a boy until he admits the charge; give him a few days to think it over; he has asked him up; after of locking me to whip him instead it over a day or two he generally admits thinking the charge; will always he acts very sour, he during whipping becry, which is from anger I think,




I sorry or surly him with a strap; it is no have given up punishing use. After he broke into the officer's room, he denied it for six days, and cried and was fighting mad; when mad, he shakes his head in a threatenI caught him running around, ing sort of way. cause afterwards he would and called and Mr. you and searched him, that Mr. D. had; found D. was called to see it, and ' B' said 'I hope don't think I took this bronze '; and he stood cried as if accused falsely; one night he stayed up to the office on him some bronze him and


out, he gave no reason for it (when a man is misshe stole ing it may keep the officers up all night); he said he did not want to this night; something true." escape, which is probably Interview "B" is not talkative. with "." drawn

He was gradually

He says. into a conversation. " I am fifteen five I When about years of age. went to The Sisters School, I had stole some liquorice, and five weeks after was arrested by the deI once caught a ride to Cleveland tectives. simply to take a ride, and stole a ride back; went to to ride on the water for that day. paid 15 cents schools. I went to the public for passage They school for talkused to whip me at the Catholic me for staying out late. ing My father whipped Father does not drink, my mother did not treat me As complained of by watchmen here, I did badly. look around, but I do not know why I like to look around, I like school and. paint-shop here. I steal



I because when I see a thing I want I like to get it. am more apt to get ten dollars in here than outside. on because it was I went to bed with my clothes I chew tobacco, I like it (cried and sobbed); they whip me here, I deserve it, but it did not do did not me any good, because he (superintendent) whip me hard enough; my father whips me hardcold. er and hurts me more, he whips me with a strap. They cannot make me do a thing unless I want to me do a thing by whipping me, and so whipping harder I am going to do as does me no good. well as I can here (cried again). I have a brother older than I; he never was arrested, he is better than I because he did not want to do bad things. I went into officer's room to get some tobaccoI got a cigar; not for to get into the room, but for to chew. After I get out of here I would like to go to work. I don't remember making jests at girls; I have a good memory. At home I used to come I would in at nine or ten o'clock at night, go out at six or seven in the morning. I would stay out in our shed; I did not go in the house because I times (doubtfear of being I never stole anything but candy (doubtwhipped. It is about the same to get along here as ful). outside. I slept in a car during When in Cleveland the summer. I No man ever hit me very hard. often feel good, certainly I do." : Vegetative norPhysical Examination functions, mal; circulation, 16; digesgood; respiration, was afraid of being whipped. ful) were all I ever stayed Three out for




tion, perfect; to 30 inches; thigh, weight, 16^

anomalies, of girth girth

same; waist


of thorax,

inches; 89 lbs.

inches; 25^ of calf of leg, 11^

27^ of girth inches;

, Physician Craniological mm.; Examinatio7i: glabella length Width to of occ.

of Institution. of head, 152

from length maximum 173 mm.; width above tragus, arches, orbits, eyes, eyes, width 128 mm.; no mm.; 91 mm.;


head, 173 mm.; width between 142 mm.; zyg. width between external edges of between between outer inner corners corners of of

distance distance

width of prot. malaria, 34 mm.; 98 from chin to of gonia, distance 95 mm.; distance from chin root to of 145 mm.; distance from chin to base of nose, 61 99 mm.; distance from tragus 64 mm.; 38 mm.; 29mm.; 17 mm.; mm.; sagittal nationality, chin to from to root chin to mouth, 113 tragus, of nose, 101 43 mm.; distance mm.;

mm.; hair, nose,

mm.; distance from of ear, nose, nose,

mm.; length of nose, 46 mm ; height length elevation of nose, 13 mm.; width of mouth, 42 mm.; horizontal circumference circumference of nationality of the thickness of head,

of of

width vertical

of lips, head, 330 533 mm.;

circumference Irish;

of nationality in can factory; dark. hair, Remarks: symmetrical;

mother, color

Irish; of eye, very head

head, 304 mm.; of father, Irish; worked occupation, brown; color of


projected side of right

head is not much; in parietal region



the is considerably larger than leftside; with fitting noticed this; he had trouble is slender in form.

boys had hats; he

admits after he is everything generally He is or talked to; and pleads guilty. whipped and indecent at times. not talkAlthough dirty ative, is given to swearing and and has manifested pride in his knowlimpudence He is sincere in his desire to be edge of evil. his passion for stealing is still but religious, He feels the desire for things he cannot stronger. have and so steals them, and especially from-perHe has ability, sons he does not like. and power, when but his passion for stealing determines tenacity, their direction. influences seem to be Hereditary at the basis of this stealing, yet his early surroundto account for much of it. The ings are adequate fact that lately he has been moved to the penitenwould indicate that there tiary for insubordination He seems to be is little hope of his reformation. a case of what might be called approximately pure theft. He should never be let out upon the comuntil there is reasonable that he munity certainty will not steal; for, as he grows stronger, his bravery and tenacity or burglar. can make There him a very is a possibility but little probability. ing his stealing impulse, he seems to be equal to, if not supePhysically rior to the average boy, and the anomaly is the lack in the posterior of symmetry part of his cranium. thief dangerous of his outgrowaroused he

" B"









" C " was received into a reformaSept. 5, 1885, at the age of 20. His crime was tory institution in the scond degree. grand larceny No insanity, epilepsy, nor dissipation; he had a good common-school and had education, been in the high school. His family were verywell to do. His father was a real-estate broker worth some 80,000. There were no papers found on " C." June 16, " " C had previously served 1886, it was found that " C " denied a term in another institution. it, but of the other institution the superintendent recognized his photograph, there he was under although " " another name. to this, C admitted he Owing had falsified, an but still denied under being " " assumed name. said he always lived at home C tili the date of his marriage a year He ago. claimed when in fractions only through school. He said, as to his work, that he was a Hall at $12.00 a week with & typewriter, copying Co. statement was found to be untrue.) (This As to religion, he had been under ordinary influthe church with a cousin and ences, had joined wife as a member. was excellent, as was also his He seemed to have no moral is not incorrigible; sensitivecondition Physical mental capability. to know Antecedents:

but susceptibility, and denies that he ness, 1; claimed innocence, confessed in court. He expects to inherit property, and has no idea of business; he was a stenographer.



Conduct Report. 10: Disturbing and books, library 1885Oct. when told of it using insulting language. made the report Oct. 10: Destroying against him by the librarian; it from Mr. N.'s desk. taking times to be three different Oct. 10: Neglecting at count. Oct. Oct. Oct. Oct. n: Not at door at door at door for count. for count. for count. continuously. 12: Not 13: Not

13; Talking Oet. 13: Talking Oct. 14: Talking Oct. Oct. Oct. Nov.

in shop. in school to

in line 19: Talking 29: Cup not inverted; tools from 29: Taking

in shop. . to dirty cup. the shop to his room.

to . pictures 19: Giving Dec. 3: Cup not in cupboard. Dec. 13: Out of step in line. Dec. 14: Throwing paper on gallery in in Dec. 16: Dilatory sending paper. Dec. walls. 17: Dusty 1886Jan. 2: Talking







permission. not in proper place. Jan. 4: Bucket not in proper place. Jan. n: Bucket Jan. 13: Bread in bucket. racks. Jan. 20: Carelessly emptying to in shop. Feb. n: Calling cases. Feb. 17: Carelessly stenciling




March March April June June himself

dirt on door stone. 3: Sweeping 11: Not at door for count. 21: Towel not in cupboard. 7: Doing poor work. 10: Going from closet without to table and seating

permission. to . June 21: TalkingJuly 29: Out of step in line. in line. Aug. 4: Inattention shoe on wrong last. Aug. 4: Lasting Aug. 6: Poor work. to coming out Aug. 12: Talking Sept. Sept. 1: Laughing 13: Talking hall. in line. in to

of dining-

room. line while passing

through and fooling in line. Sept. 15: Continually laughing man cell-door unlocked with Oct. 6: Leaving in it. ina note about work to Oct. 14. Sending of sending it to foreman. to men in rooms on gallery. Oct. 15: Talking Oct. 21: Communication by signs; laughing men in shop. stead


Nov. 7: Neglect of duty, as he went into his room to write a letter and stayed 25 minutes. contained bread. Nov. 26: Bucket (Canceled.) "C" Dec. 2: Towel not on cupboard. (When was on parole, he called on the family of one of the inmates and told a false story as to boys contributand "C" a play in reformatory; ing $1 to getting obtained a dollar in this way.)



on way from hall. 1887Jan. 3: Talking Feb. 2: Threatening to report . (Canceled.) in line when coming off. March 4: Failing March 24: Bucket not in proper place. March 26: Talking in shop. and to hinder the marker 29: Trying in doing their work by not trimming the floorman kind of screw-bodies when asked to do so by the marker. on line in the shop. April 4: Talking in shop. April 13: Talking March April 27: Poking pure meanness. another man in the ribs out about without in waste of

April 29: Lying to superintendent of June 27, 1887. to foreman 24: Talking August mission. a good brush Sept. 2: Leaving to go down fire-hole.

report perstock

in line while going to bucketSept. 26: Talking yard. and insolently Oct. 9: Continuously chewing some substance during service to-day. Nov. 26: Obtaining leave for purpose of improper correspondence. with a discharged 1888Jan. 21: Corresponding prisoner, who signed himself as brother. a magazine. Jan. 22: Borrowing from magazine, Jan. 22: Erasing the name and writing his own name thereon, intending to deceive. Feb. 29: Good record.




31: Good record. in reporting absentees. April 6: Negligence April 18: Going through department furnishing of brush-shop into varnishing-room. to floorman; no permit. May 16: Talking to furnish blocks May 26: Hesitating told to. to foreman; no permit. May 28: Talking note to on ruled June 26: Sending no permit. to floorman; July 17: Talking to floorman; no permit. July 20: Talking July when



21: Disturbing line by counting wrong; and fooling in line. laughing to floorman. Aug. 1: Talking Aug. 20: Disturbing dining-room by load talking at table. Sept. 22: Not filling out report properly. not in cupboard. Oct. 10: Trousers when going Oct. 26: Leaving light burning Dec.


of duty; band to 29: Neglect signaling cease playing before the companies were in hall, the other and marching his men ahead, causing captains to halt. 1889Jan. 9: Brooms not in cupboard. hall by loud talking in room. Jan. 12: Disturbing Jan. 16: Talking times; disturbing Jan. 20: Taking loud hall. a book in room from at unreasonable

the library without the librarian's or knowledge. permission May 24: Using closet paper to write to superintendent.





contrary June II: July Aug. Aug.

Writing to rule, Using

a personal




wrong paper to write before signal. 7: Rising to in shop. 7: Talking to . 15: Talking without


Record fair. Sept.: Oct. 10: Talking to while at work.


Oct. 12: Going to support arms when the command to carry arms was given. Nov. 4: Taking from shop when not at work a the newly tapped pair of 1st grade shoes, wearing same without Nov. Dec. 31: permission. 18: Dirty floor. Reduced

to 3d grade. 3d grade. 1890Jan.: Feb. 8: Fully out of ranks. Feb. 19: Wearing hat on side of head. Feb. 26: Talking . to Feb. 28: Gaping about the shop. March 31: Very good record. in drill; slow 9: Inattention a piece of ivory 15: Having in manual. soap in cup-

April April board. May

in school. 30: Inattention in drill; in manual. slow June 4: Inattention " did not Superintendent C," because it would whip be punishment, and not reformation. July3i: No reports. Aug. 31: No reports. to upper Sept. 1: Promoted

1st grade.




Sept. term.

24: Discharged

at expiration

of maximum

" C's" new in case; his 1891June 29: Nothing from July to the date of his rerecord was perfect He has been heard from lease Sept. 24, 1890. insince his release as having the appearance directly of one about the streets of a city, getting his living by his wits.


SCHOOL RECORD. 5 2 ~ 5 1886-S7 18S7-S8
1888-89 1889-93 87

i 2 "= I' 2.. ?S "o ..

5 t 5 H3 86

E -C < 74 100

? * >, t>


t 2 E


be c/j 62 83
86 ..

% = w

o -3 > j, " '= ti

Z 15 % '3-52 .E E j? a. S 97 88
.. ..

81 85

04 97
96 90

90 94
86 82

97 85 83 .. 84 98


















From Sept.


in 2d degree. 16, 1885: Grand larceny two coats, one vest, and Aug. 31, 1885: Stealing one pair of trousers, value, $45.00. Sept. 16, 1885: Sentenced. to reformatory. Sept. 25, 1885: Admitted wrote a letter to an old 11, r886: "C" July friend him to beware of bad company advising and doing to make anything drinking, (women), ashamed of him; had not written his parents before because he was almost discouraged. " C" Father back in his wants 24, 1887: April business. 15



talks about July 23, 1887: Step-father giving " C " a position. " writes a letter to his "C mother, Aug. 2, 1887: because he was not rethe authorities blaming out till leased before; giving up hope of getting 16, 1890 (maximum September term), when he will be 25; having then served nearly seven years penal inlie tells his mother he nevertheless servitude; He hopes tends to make his mark in the world. he has seen 500 men his mother will not worry; as reformed, who were no leave the reformatory, more reformed than he. He signs himself with his false name, and promises never to leave the path of duty here or elsewhere. and to be unfortunate Jan. 1, 1888: Claiming and accused wrongfully of writing misunderstood criminal Letter from of superintendent Jan. in which he was confined. another reformatory " C " was received here 18, 1882, from a September held in of Oyer and Terminer Court , for on the railroad obstructions track. Age placing 15, April 23, 1883; his history on the book says he Father was a telegraph boy. dead; step-father " C " was released from here living. February 9, I recognize him 1884, to the care of his mother. in the photograph. This is the boy who was said to be so cruelly treated by Mr. " X." during my ab" and for which he sence, (Mr. X.") was compelled to resign. He was in same kind of boys' home in before he came here. " C " 1888: his crookedJan. 21, acknowledges letters. , 1888:




to ness, promising in his grade remain has a brother, Will. Feb.

redeem one (A month lie.)

himself longer;


allowed he says

to he

to be paroled two 13, 1889: Letter asking days so as to find a position. " Feb. 15, 1889: " C writes a letter emseeking to be a good laster of ladies' ployment, claiming and men's the trade thoroughly, shoes, knowing and learned it previously to coming to reformatory; standing good. March 22, 1889: Paroled. ot reformatory, , officer May 9, 1889: Mr. order for arrest of paroled prisoner. given from "C" "I have 12, 1889: May Telegram been authorities for leaving by the State Mr. . Please telegraph the superintendent the circumstances before it is too late. We don't arrive true till 1.30 A. M. to-morrow." 15, 1889: "C" has never . (Signed his retaken

name.) claimed he was consent. gentle; did give conditional a letter of a kindly disposed took an interest in him.)


in employed is from (This man, May who 20,

by ployed ment I was want ised

writes: "Gone to be em1889: "C" In my former as reporter. employof the time for kept idle three-fourths advance his me as he He said employ. machines. promInstead of

of work; he did not he would when I entered to

me on lasting keep I told the forethat, he put me on all sorts of jobs. I could for the wages man not well work I was He answered that I was $8 per week. getting,



as much as I would receive for a getting probably long time, until I got into better standing." gentleMay 20, 1889: Letter from an interested man: "C" in a mean way, then left Mr. forged a check of $5 87; I found a piece of paper in his drawer, where he had practiced the name. I also accused him of knowing where a missing watch was. says he left his employMay, 1889: Foreman ment shamefully, a letter leaving saying he was going to work on some paper. The following is a copy June 4, 1889: Letter. of a check, signature, and indorsement by forged " C" while he was on the He forged parole. check and gave it to a restaurant-keeper; this gentleman it at the bank, and it was represented turned as worthless. Check. No. 129.

, May 11, 1880.



G. Jf. fat-i



S7?5.E7.oo, (?e/b. {another



Siafifaj-save-n Signed




As you 2, 1890: Letter to Superintendent. have put me in a higher grade it would seemingly go to show that you haven't even yet given up all hope of accomplishing my reformation, though If this is true, you have declared me incorrigible. it have been better to have left me in the wouldn't





3d grade five nearly

" C " has now years.


in the " "


Craniology: of age: Width bella head, tween nal

C was 23 years April 23, 1890: of head, 152 mm.; length from glato occ. prot., of 191 mm., maximum length of tragus, be191 mm.; width 139, mm.; width between exterzyg. arches, 130, mm.; width

of edges outer corners inner mm.; from chin to

distance between orbits, 115 mm.; of eyes, 91 mm.; distance between corners of eyes, 30 mm.; width of gonia, 96 distance from chin to hair, 179mm.; distance chin to root of nose, 108 mm.; distance from base of 42 distance of distance nose, 61 mm.; distance from chin mm.; from ear, tragus to root length elevation width of 60 mm.; 47 mm.; 32 mm.; from chin to tragus, of nose, 117 of nose, 55 of nose, 26 mouth, 52 circum-

to mouth,

141 mm.; mm.; mm.; mm.;

length height width

of nose, of nose,

of lips, 17 mm.; horizontal mm.; thickness ference of head, vertical circumference 570 mm.; of head, 360 mm.; circumference of head, sagittal father and mother, 360 mm.; American; nationality, American. Physical tion): father Examination {by

Occupation, and mother father "C" good, 23 years; mm.;


merchant; living; health age, 425

American; died of cerebral resembles jaundice

Physician of Instituborn April 23, 1867, father's occupation, apoplexy; his father, and skin height height mother general standing, knee, navel,

most has had weight, height height


55.5 kilos.; sitting,

1,692 mm.;


918 mm.; 812 mm.;




-993 mm.; 830 mm.; 878 mm.;

1,365 mm.; girth neck, chest, -830 mm.; girth girth chest, full, knee, right, 348 mm.; girth girth knee, left, .348 mm.; girth calf, right, 331 mm.; girth 210 mm.; calf, left, 328 mm.; ankle, right, girth ankle, left, 210 mm.; girth instep, right, girth 238 mm.; girth left, 238 mm.; instep, girth up. arm, right, -280 mm.; girth up. arm, left, 281 mm.; girth elbow,



right, 252 mm.; girth elbow, left, 253 mm.; ninth ninth rib, 775 mm..;- girth girth rib, 'full, 834 mm.- girth waist, 720 mm.; girth hips, 872 mm.; girth thigh, right, 472 mm.; girth thigh, left, breadth .472 mm.; breadth head, 153 mm.; neck, breadth 113* -mm.;' TDfeadth shoulders, 393 mm.; breadth waist, '247 mm.; hips 321 mm.; breadth shoulder-elbow, right, 360 ' mm.4 left, 354 mm.; elbow-tip, right, 456 mm.; elbow-tip, left, 455 mm.; length of foot, right, 256 mm.; length of footy left, 257 mm.-; 1,706 mm.; stretch of arms, 1,741 -length horizontal, mm.; capacity 3.7; strength lungs, lungs, 4.9; back, 156.0; strength strength legs, 195.0; strength chest, 34.0; girth fore-arm, right, 260 mm.; girth fore-arm, 162 left, 260 mm.; girth wrist, right, mm.; left, 163 mm.; girth wrist, depth chest, 171 188 mm.; b. strength mm.; depth abdomen, up. forearms, 8; r. strength fore-arm, 25.0; 1. strength arm, 24.0. Total: Development, fair; condition, good; vision, color hair, 20; hearing, good; pilosity, medium; brown; eyes, blue. The" physician" .says that there is little illness of nipples, 195 mm.; shoulder-elbow,



23 I

besides the affections marked, any description; there is gonorrhoea. There is absence of evidence, of disease in circulatory and respiratory systems. The pulse is 68, and respiration 18. There is nothin the abdominal viscera; ing to point to troubles no renal disease; no disease of the genito-urinary " is somewhat anasmic, but no more "C apparatus. so than would naturally appear in the case of an individual who has been indoors fora length of time. of a few acne spots on the body, With the exception the cutaneous system is in good condition. In brief, the physical examination yielded negaas far as discovery of pathological tive results, conditions. and volitional Organic (vegetative) " C " would functions are well performed. pass and if presented as a healthy individual, for life would be considered a good risk. insurance, Testimony of those having charge of "C."

took"a pair of shoes out An Officer says: "'C' I saw them of the shop about seven months ago. on his feet a few minutes after he took them; he was out in the yard at the time; he did the finishto the shoes; ing of shoes; I asked him in regard I followed him to his room to make sure. He was and said Mr. , the going to be a drum-major, this kind of hallman, always gave the drum-major He was previous in his action here. This shoes. is all have ever seen him do; his work is pretty me about a year; after good; he has been under he was returned from parole, he was absent three he has' no months, grade; being put in third I



He is previous, and a chums, as far as I know. little officious; this is a characteristic of a prisoner. while out I heard that he did a little bit of forgery on parole. I didn't know what he here for. That is one thing I pay no An Officer heard him says: "I called him over; his lips were livid; not necessary (to call him); he never brought attention to." I mumbling; he said it was paid any more was

attention all the evening. He is below the average; he will do anything some day. I would not trust him as to killing a man, from the way he acted. I was keeping that night it seemed difficult order; for him to control his temper." An Officer says: " I don't know as I have seen him do anything out of the way. He is a pretty 'slick' fellow. I have seen him provoked, but no exhibition months class." in of temper. brush-shop. I was over He did him his about work four first-

An Officer under me about says: "He worked four years ago; he was one of the best men I had, ' in school One night yet he had a sheepish way. he was all right he showed temper; in the band; he was a determined brains. man; has considerable convicts said he was sent to prison for a year; he has never attracted much attention here because his conduct was very good. I think he is a habitual he is not a coward. criminal; Toughest men are always in the foundry, because it is the hardest it develops work; have no confidence in "C" away if he could." a man at all; physically. he would I run Two




was in N.; he was Superintendent says : "'C' punished, but was 'cute enough to cause an invesand have, as a result, one of the keepers tigation, were full of it. ousted. The newspapers He denied being in N., but finally admitted it after a here addressed to his real name. He said because it might help him; he was on parole, and ingratiated given a good position himself into the confidence of his employer." Interview Q. How A. Four with " C". letter arrived he lied

long have you been here? years and ten months. Q. Do you like it here? A. (Laughs.) to coming Q. Where did you live previous A. In City. Q. What did they send you here for?


A. Grand larceny. Q. What was the special charge brought against you? A. Taking clothing. Q. How soon after it was taken was the theft discovered? A. Soon after; they caught me with the property on my person. at Y.? Q. Have you been to Reformatory A. Yes, sir. Q. How long? A. Eighteen months Q. How did you like it there? A, About the same as I like here.



Q. Why were you sent there? obstruction on railroad track. A. Putting Q. What made you do that? A. Because the devil was in me. Q. There must have been some other reason? A. Well, pany. you? Q. Did they discharge A. No; I was not in their employ. They off the cars up in the Adirondack region. put me I had a spite against the railroad com-

Q. Why? and the conductor A. Oh, I lost my ticket me off up there. Q. Were you in the employ of the railroad

put com-

pany? A. No; I was a passenger and lost my ticket. would not believe it? Q. And the conductor He had A. He would not or did not want to. and I told him punched my ticket twice previously, so, but he would not have it, and put me off twelve miles from any habitation. Q. That was the reason you did that? A. Yes, sir. up at Reformatory Q. How was your record at Y.? A. All right, except on one occasion. Q. How long wert you out of there? A. A year and a half. Q. Did you get into any other place? A. No, sir. Q. Were you ever in T.? A. No, sir.




O. What can you give as a reason for having taken those clothes? You were not poor, were you ? " A. No, I was " tight at the time. not your father or mother Q. Would give you money? A. I was not living at home. Q. Why not? would not have me live they way I was living and live at home. women? Q. How were you livingwith A. Yes, sir. Q. Was it a young woman about A. Yes, sir; a little younger. Q. You were not married? A. No; Q. Did A. No, O. Did A. Oh, your own A. Because the


was simply living with her. you ever live with any other sir. your family want wanted

woman? them? them, with

yes! They but wanted me to give that cost you somethingliving Q. Didn't the woman? A. Yes. Q. Had you, before going

you to live with me to live with up the woman.

to Y., ever taken


thing? A. Well, yes; I had stolen apples, etc. I had never been convicted of any crime though. but Q. Well, you might not have been convicted, did you ever steal anything? I want to see why A man doesn't learn to steal at one you do this. It is a gradual comes timeinstantly, processit



on gradually. your mother?







A. Oh, yes; out of the pantry, etc. Some people Q. Well, that is the beginning. Did stop there and others don't, but go on. your out of the mother tell you not to take things pantry? A. Yes, sir. Q. Did your father ever whip you? A. Not much. Q. When he did, how did he do it? as my mother did. Have you Q. Did he whip you with a stick? as to how you were treated any complaint by your parents? A. Oh, no. Q. Do you like the "girls"? all comes A. Yes; this thing tions. Q. How do you account for the other boys (your not doing the same? brothers) at home A. Well, lived and I they always haven't. Q. Why did you not live at home? A. Well, I had a roving disposition. O. You like to travel? A. Yes. Q. Have you been out West? A. A little ways. " " it ? Did ever tramp you Q. A. No, sir. Q. Have you any sisters ? A. Not so hard







No, sir. Q. How many brothers? A. One. 7? What is now he doing Q. A. He is in the navy. you not like to go into Q. Would A. I was in it, but got tired.


the navy?

Q. Do you get tired of things quickly ? I liked A. I do when they don't agree with me. but for one thing. The the navy well enough, rations they served were worse than prison rations. Q. Prison A. I don't rations are pretty good though ? think so. to better you have been accustomed

men that come here, have you not ? A. Yes, I guess I have. more you notice the difference Q. Consequently than Do you think they reform boys they do. I only want here, or don't your opinion; you? touches a man for his opinion. nobody I A. Well, I don't know. about you suggest reforming you were going to have an institution, If you had a fellow like how would you run it? " him and was to make trying yourself, straight" the track," so he would not "runoff how would you do it ? A. I should have the men that are put over the inmates different is the the from what the prison keepers are generally. Q. What A. All Q. What a boy? If would

Q. Well, food than most

? matter with keepers generally be keepers I have ever seen cannot



up to by the men under them as their supedo not feel that they are superior to riorsthey them. Most of the keepers here whom we associate with, ten chances to one we feel to be beneath us, or, at least, not above us. I think prisoners ought looked to come in contact keepers we have keepers because Q. If are hired of fitness better men than the prison here. I think the majority of more for political or anything else. reasons than with

you were going to give a reason for your " off the track once in awhile, you would "running But you need to be say it was your associations? pressed, don't you ? If you had not been pressed for money, would you have taken this clothing? A. No, sir. you first took these clothes what were your feelings ? A. Well, I took them when I was drunk. Could Q. How much had you been drinking? you walk straight? A. Oh, yes ; I was never so drunk I couldn't walk straight. Q. Were you drunk when you put obstructions on the track ? A. No. I was sorry but I knew them It was done in a moment of revenge. I did it after I got away from the spot, it was too late to get back and remove Q. When

before the train came on. Q. Was anyone with you ? A. No, sir. Q. You were not in the habit associates, were you ?

of having





No, Q. You have had one or two ? A. Not for any length of time. else besides this ? Q. Did you ever do anything and be Did you ever get into tight circumstances and for some reason or tempted, strongly pretty another did not do it ? Do you remember any of when you were pressed those circumstances, by to do something, whether you did it or temptation not ? A. I think there have been times in my life when I w-ould have done " little" things. fail Q. When you get pressed, you occasionally don't you. That always to tell things just straight, goes with the other ? A. Well, a person don't like to talk about some things too freely. about it; Q. Yes, but I would not say anything You get I just want to find the reason for it all. do you not? angry occasionally, A. Yes, sir. Does Q. What makes you angry? angry if a man calls you a name? A.





A fellow No, not in here it wouldn't. gets used to it in here and sees that it is only a sort of by-word. a man called you names outside, Q. Suppose what would you do? A. If it was a bad one I would make him take it him. back, but I would not go so far as killing red or do you turn you get angry Q. When white?



A. Red. Q. Your face feels warm, doesn't it? A. Yes, sir. Q. Are you sure you turn red? But rush to my face. A. Well, I feel the blood when I was guilty of any wrong act and was caught at it I turn wdiite. do you feel Q. When you are caught at anything mad? A. Well, no; I think I do afterwards, any time Q. Do you ever remember when your mother told you she would though. in your life

whip you if you did a certain act, and you did it and told a lie about it to get out of the whipping? I was A. I don't think I was whipped enough. often told I would thing, and after did a thing I would not have any reason for denying it as I was pretty sure not to be whipped. Q. What do you think is the cause of your telling once in a while ? things crookedly A. I think it commenced if I did a certain be whipped So if I doing it was not wdiipped.

at school. I used to be and we might with a lot of other school-boys, do one day, and when questioned about it something by the teacher would lie because afraid to tell the would not tell the truth, truth, and after a while not because afraid, but didn't want to. Q. You are going you not ? to get out of here soon, are

A. Yes, 64 more days. Q. Do you think you are going A. I hope so.

to stay out'




when you went out on parole you Q. Well, you were going to stay out, didn't you ? thought A. I think I would have done so if I Q. What was the trouble ? and had permisA. Well, I left my employment sion to do so from the gentleman who has charge of the paroled men in Z., and the superintendent heard about it, and I had not written to him about and brought me back. it, and he issued a warrant But that has not held me here. It was, however, what made me lose my parole. recorded here against P. There is a complaint What made you you about tearing up a report. do that? A. Well, a short time after I came here the The superintendent put me to work in the office. men were allowed to come up as soon asthey got through eating their dinner and could take a book from the library and read it. I was a new " " who was a fresh man, and we had a librarian I saw the other fellows go up and sort of a fellow. take a book and I did the same. He then came over and said "You want to leave them books I said " I don't want to do anything alone." of the kind; all the other fellows take them and I will." He said he would give me a report, and I said for him to do so and be . I got mad as well as he did. The other clerks tried to fix it up, and finally he said he would let it all go if I would apologize. He My temper was up, and I would not apologize. then went over, and made out a report for using I went over and tore it up. insulting language.




out of the way unless Q. You do not do anything you are pressed ? A. No, I am not a thief by heart or anything like that. for it Q. Well, how do you account another fellow is pressed he don't steal, you are pressed, you do? A. Well, than I. he may be a little more that and when when


Q. How does it come about that he has more conscience? A. I don't I never saw two know; men situated the same way and one do different from the other. O. There are many fellows who are tempted to steal, but never do. Why are you tempted though? A. Well, in this last case I saw no way of getting out of it. " " It was the that brought Q. girls you here, was it not? A. Oh, I would I had been with things beforelittle have come here whether probably the girls or not. I did crooked

things. Q. What were they? A. At school, for instance, and steal apples.

I' would



Q. Then your mother would ask you if you were at school, and you would say you had been? A. Yes, sir. Q. How long did you go to school? A. I went to school from the time I was six to sixteen years old.




Q. Where parents? A. To








Q. How where you treated there? A. I was allowed to do as I pleased. did you do there besides to Q. What going school? A. When I was about old I got 14 years with two other boys about my own acquainted I lived with would not let age, and the relatives me out at night, and as the places those fellows and wished to go to couldn't be visited in the myself I would after the daytime, get out of the window were asleep and go down to the city with family them till about 12 o'clock. Q. How would you get in? A. I had a back way that was not used. I could that way. go down in the cellar and up through Q. Where did you go with these fellows? A. To the theater or to saloons. Q. What did you do in saloons? A. Play pool and billiards. bother you then? Q. The girls didn't A. Not until I was about 15. Q. What else did you do besides going to saloons and theaters? A Go off down the river. Q. What did you do there? house and play A. Used to go down to friend's I got acquainted with girls there. cards there. kind of girls were they always Q. What " straight"?



about them. A. No, there was nothing straight Q. Did you go with those girls then ? to do with them then. A. No, I had nothing Q. Were they 3'oung factory girls ? A. They were simply country girls. " " ? loose Q. Were they A. Yes. Q. How did you come to go with A. I think that is rather delicate etc. women grounds ? now,

? Q. Who did the tempting A. I think she did. with other did you get going that, Q. After girls ? A. Oh, yes. I had been initiated then, and anywas always rather amorous. How many girls do you think you have been that way since ? About half a dozen. Q. When you went with girls did you pa3' them ? were they half prostitutes A. Well, I never took up a girl in the street for I got acquainted with one and sort of fell in this. love with her. Q. Would you stay in your room or in hers ? way O. with A. A. Neither ; we would go to a hotel. " X." ? in Is that the custom Q. A. Oh, yes. O. What was 3rou doing nights at this A. Going around with the boys.

time ?




. Q. What was the value of the when 3>-ouwere put off the train ?
A. $2.50.




Q. Were 3rou going home ? A. Yes. Q. Did 3'ou put the obstruction 3'ou were put off ? A. Yes, right after. ? Q. Did it obstruct a^'thing A. I did not intend to wreck






came into thought myr head to put it run and not on a curve. I wanted to straight catch the conductor. I on]y wanted to delay the train and put them to trouble. Q. What did 3'ou put on the track ? A. I put on two ties, wedge shape, and cobble stones and sand. in filling was your object it Q. What wa3^ ? A. So it would take a lot of time thus causing a dela3'. do 3'ou account for Q. How clothes ? a lot of

The on the

up that awa3f, these

to clear taking

A. I took them because I was short of mone3r, but don't think I would have done it if I had been have gotten all the mone3r sober, because I could I wanted from mother. Q. How did you get it; was it in a store ? A. No, it was in the house where I stopped. Q. How did the3r find out about it ? A. As soon as I did it I left the house. That what created suspicion.




Q. Had 3'ou paid your board bill ? said anything A. Oh, 3res; but I hadn't I left a note for the girl to meet leaving. place, and the3' saw her going out stopped her and wanted to know where I told them all. right enough, and then they She didn't to wait a minute. know I So the3r got an officer and came things. certain arrested me.

about me at a and they was. She told took her the

over and her

you and Q. Do 3rou think the3' suspected ? 3'our relations A. No, we lived as man and wife. Q. Did you live together long enough

not to be

spooney? A. Oh, I wasn't that sort of a fellow. was the value of those thingswhat Q. What did they claim the3' were worth ? somewhere about $50. know; were the3' ? A. A man who boarded there. Q. The idea was that you could get the money easier that wa3% and you did so, not thinking 3'ou would be caught ? A. I don't Q. Whose A. I had just the money Q. What been out on a drunk, pretty bad. and I wanted

did 3^ou want the mone3' for ? A. I wanted to give it to somebod3' up-town. Q. Was it a debt ? A." No; I wanted to aid a friend of mine measures


town. Q. Why did you go to such extreme get mone3r to lend him ?




had done things for me, party he never went to such extremes. I thought though at the time that this person who owned these things ever came down to the house from which I hardly took them. I thought I could get them back b3r the could next da3>"without his taken. I expected money have put them back knowing the next the}'' had been da3r or so, and I onty wanted




the use of the money Q. How long ago is this? A. Q. Five years How ? drinking A.. Ever Q. What A. Beer. Q. What ago. have long you

again. for the time.



the -.



since I went did

to live at

you drink?

else ? have you been drunk ? I went out in the evening did \'Ou

A. Whisky. Q. How often A. Only when these people. Q. How often


"off"not get a little " drunk necessarily, but just a little " off ? A. I don't know. I onty got drunk once so bad that I couldn't go home. Q. How often did 3'ou ever get. so that 3'ou would put the wrong end of a cigar in 3'our mouth ? I never got that bad. Q. How does it affect 3rou ? A. I cannot the feeling. explain good, that is all. O. What are \rou disposed A.


pretty, you are

to do when






of liquor? as usual.


you disposed

to go with girls ? A. Not so much

Q. Are you disposed to fight? A. No; only disposed to go around sights." Q. while Have you ever in this condition used ? anybody

and " see the else's name

do j'ou mean? A. Forgery I think one of the complaints against Q. Yes. I don't know the exact circumstances, 3'ou is that. remember them. but 3'ou will probabh' A-. Np,_ not that I can remember. Q. How did they prove this forgery ? A. Why, the superintendent wrote for the check, looked at it, and was convinced. " talk with him about it ? Did you Q. Yes, before he got the check. Q. Have you told him 3'ou did not write it ? A. Yes, I toldiiim He said my side of the story. he would look |t up, Q. You d.qri't know what he thinks ? he knows a man's character, A- Well, he thinks and he won't change his opinion. A. work down Q. What~wa the trouble^about.your there ? A. He was not paying me enough. Not near as much as I could make at stenography. He.kept me working about four days, and laid m.e off, two ever3' week, Q. He seems to think A. I don't know why, lie, was deceived by you ?




Q. Was that the main trouble about the emplo3rmentthat 3'ou did not get enough mone3r? He A. Yes, that and not keeping me at work. " me off." I could not averwas continual^' lajing age over $7 or $8 a week. Q. Did 3'ou get tired of the position? A. Oh, I liked it well enough. The onty trouble was about the mone3'. O. What did you do then? work. A. I left and went at newspaper didn't you? Q. You got a little impatient, A. Well, yes. Q. You like to rove about, don't you? A. Yes, but I don't mean that I like to change my emplo3'ment. Q. Have 3'ou wanted ment here? A. Yes, to something to change would 3'our employme.



The3' claim to teach 3'ou trades here, but the3'don't. I remember one instance. A man I was working for took a man from here, who had learned the machinist's trade. When he got there he told him to make out a list of tools he would require, and he would The fellow get them for him. couldn't do it, but sent up to the foreman here for a list, which the3' never sent him. Q. Well, 3'ou would sa3' the cause of 3'our being here is the circumstances you were placed in? A. Yes, sir. Q. What do you intend to do after A. I intend to go out of the United Q. You haven't any money ? 3'ou get States. out?



A. I can get some mone3' easy enough. to go where there are no prisons. Q. You can't find such a place.

I want

A. Well, you know if a fellow goes to work in a find he has been in shop and his fellow-workmen a prison they won't let him work. Q. Do 3'ou blame them? A. No, it is a natural feeling, but I want to get where I am not known. Q. You don't expect to get back in prison again? A. No; I think not.

in prison, himself of behaving capable He seems is voluntaiw. and most of his disorder of aii3' kind. He is to have no physical anomaly in an interesting case, and somewhat exceptional "C"is in good circumstances. he is not so As interview, as others, his anomaly is psy"conscientious" he has an innate tendenc3' to crooked chological; things, or we may sa3', he has less power of resistthat he has good he confesses parents, in the the average '003'. As is above the average intelligence. evident, The last report about He is probabl3' incorrigible. to live b3' his wits in a city, him, that he is trying in its outlook. is very unfavorable As he had served his maximum term, he could ance to temptation he is much not be kept longer. That his record was ven' good three months before his time of release during to do right; but it seems to be shows his capabilit3' b}' force of will rather than by his natural disposithan



25 I


While conditions always have their influence, the defect is in the man in this case rather than in the conditions. It seems to us that he should have been paroled and not released entirely, for this would be an inducement for him to keep straight, and additional which he certainty needs.


Officer escaped with a returned

" D." as to Testimony " When ' D' in a says: reformatory out several times; one time he walked as a child of a citizen; dinner-pail being for larceny, he behaved well and was disLater he was sent

charged. for three

to the penitentiary from freight cars; he 3rears for stealing he escaped from here in the guise of a workman; but under was returned to reformatory for burglary, to another name; being recognized he was obliged serve out his penitentiary sentence; after this he broke into a store, was caught, but escaped from the jail, was retaken, and almost escaped again; he set the jail on fire, and tried to escape, but was he held b3' the jailer's wife; afterwards, however, for stealing a escaped; was sent to the penitentiaiy and was the night watchman, horse; he stabbed sent to State prison for five 3'ears; but he escaped on the way there. " At the time he was indicted of for the burglary a horse he was 31 3'ears of age and with no occu' D ' declares that he will kill Detective pation. he was very 'E' should he live out his sentence;



way to public station. He lived once with Mrs. H., who left agood husband in order to live with him; and three or four children another time he entered a store and stole neckties, ' ' D is a Frenchman." charms, lockets, etc. ' " ' D is a stock-liar, an ingenious Dr. sa3rs: he wrote one or two and a good writer; inventor, in a large newspaper of a supposed intercolumns terms view with me: he had the facts and technical for me; he is genial he will do anything correct; demonstrative in hack on in prison; he has no and pleasant and well-behaved . I C~D' told me his wife lived near fear. believe he realty intends to quit his former ways." A lady sa3's: "'D' opstayed with his mother were orderly He us; his parents people. posite hid under a stoop in the town for a week or so, no He got into a stable and stole one could find him. furniture in the wagon, a horse, loaded a gentleman's and drove was afraid awa3' as fast as he could. of him in town." Interview "D" with "D." Ever3'bod3'

may do a 3'oung man good, says: "Whipping after he has grown up. but it is of little utility free from alcoholism do not set up "Old criminals I have made up 1x13'mind to the 3'oung to crime. to talk. I have and so have no objection quit, and had a passion for invention, money, as I could have, I borrowing This order to cany out my inventions. cause of all my stealing, for which I get always of twice the amount I have ever done. of instead stole it in is the real the credit After a




nobod3' will believe him gets a reputation so it is easy to convict when he tells the truth; a dollar him. I was accused falsety of stealing from a negro woman in the next cell ; she was afraid of being searched and asked me to keep a a flaw in 1113' indictment, dollar for her. Finding to get up a new one, and so the3r got the3' decided the negro woman to swear that I stole the dollar, fellow and on that months. " I never I went stole up to the penitentiary for six

veiy much mone3'; I did not have much money, never looked out an idea of earning . for that; was beaten out of a good patent at I am a fool for stealing money, and also for havthe feeling is outside many times; ing escaped for I was suspicious of ever3'ver3r disagreeable, not recognize an bod3', so much so that I would old friend whom I had fallen in love with when a me mam' things about try bo3', until after telling she finalty showed me her finger earty boyhood, down that she had broken when we were sliding that con-' That was the onty thing hill together. I do not enjoy stealing; vinced me. every time I to it; but the idea of getsteal, I have a repulsion to satisty idea overmeans my inventive ting I could get out of most any place." comes me. " here showed the writer the iron bars in his (" D that he had sawed almost through, cell window filled the spacemade by the sawwith having " I can brown bread, being the color of the bars). pick most any lock; I opened the Sheriff's safe the minutes after a so-called other day in twenty



lock all the expert had worked at the combination without success. afternoon " I alwa3's carried a pistol but never shot a man. shoot in the air to scare a man." I would (The " he never heard of "D officer said injuring prison " I would rather be hung than have a life an3'one.) I should like electricity as a method of sentence. I could have got out of prison an3' punishment. " D was at time of punishment time." deprived (" a conof knife and fork; a spoon was considered cession, for fear he might use it as a tool to escape. to return the spoon after each He was obliged " I have an invention to keep burglars meal.) I think from getting into stores at night. it will ten 3rears in prison, on being be a success. After I was no more than out of the gate, discharged, when I was presented with a number of old indictI hold Wines's ments, and so I am in jail now. idea of reformation as given in reprint; but I do not take much stock in theology, 3'et I respect a I detest thieves and detest nyself. sincere man. " Sometimes it takes me a week to get up courI might be called a age to steal; I need pressure; reason. I never dared enter a was in it, or if I was afraid of place if anyone there. I have been accused of meeting aiyone chickens, but never have fallen quite so stealing low as that. I sometimes would aid the prison I agreed to hide officers in making a reputation. in a hole under a flat stone in the prison 3'ard, I was fed like a king; eveiy officer said that I had escaped except this one officer who maintained coward for this




he had kept the men on the wall da3r and night so long that the3' had voted have been his plan to have dehim a fool; it would ceived me and get the glory, that he by showing after all in maintaining that I was in was right that prison; the prison, This officer through scheme. he did not arrange well enough. he might lose his position was afraid of hence his administration, change If an officer once has the ill will of it is very hard for him to gain it back. but

I was in the

prisoners, to have my head measured, I do not want I have in it; I admit it is prejudice, no interest I although I have never would oblige 3'ou as much as I can. I do not see I am ain' had a photograph taken. a thief than those outside of prison, and I more see why 3'ou have come to me. I have been and also a fool not to steal in other ways, unluck3', ' kidor like the paper man3' ways b}' forging ' thieves and as long as society' outside; glove those to parade our streets, I have very allows don't little than steal conscience a hundred their I never stole more stealing, at a time, but those fellows thousands. I do not want 1113'head the3' measured nw height once, and uy about dollars

measured; wife blamed

me for that. I cannot write ny biography just now, I do not want to write till I know If I am released I will write it for 3'ou. I am free. that of letters in I often change 1x13'name, giving A prisoner bet me once that I could m3' pocket. At dinner-table I took a not get out that night. to 1113' knife and a few cold potatoes cell, when it was late and the guards had come to the conclu-



sion iron


all was

slats of ny with the candle behind a screen and by the moisture from the cold potatoes, I gradually tempered the knife sufficient^' so I could saw the iron bars

on the safe, I nicked the knife bedstead to make teeth, and then,

and thus I escaped." of ni3' cell window, " D " has been Since this interview released, has at good wages, and is doing secured employment well. But he has failed to write has been written to, but no reply " D " is being (1892) burglar.

he his biography; has been received. tried on a charge

At present of being a professional

" D " is a sort of criminal ability tion.

to escape, and also is evident. He is His extreme cautiousness and modest in manner, but can be ver3' agreeable irritated, probably owing to the fact that his manner of life has been a severe strain upon his sensitive nervous S3'stem. the converquite frequently during for sation, and did not seem to like his reputation in crime. He has little being a genius vanity 7, in general. when compared with criminals He has a clear what as to the foolishness of crime; but insight it must be confessed that this idea has come somelate, as he is about fort3' 3'ears of age. While he has a veiy strong passion for invention, is an extreme feebleness in resisting there the to tying and crookedness. Environtemptation ment will not account for his criminality. He blushed

in his genius, especialty in his faculty for inven-



the very few who do not manifest either as an exquality' of meanness occasionalty, " of dislike or retaliation. The term pression pure meanness" is intended to be applied to those individuals who hate almost around them, eveiyone and who persist in displa3'ing it in the form of meanness. The relation of this condition to that of crime is very close, and the one is generalty followed by the other.



Received April sessions in

30, 1887, from a court of special a disorderly child: , for being 86 pounds; 1,066 Age, 15 3'ears; weight, height, blue e3'es; light brown sallow mm.; hair; light, reads in 2d Reader; complexion; clothed; poorty cannot write; has stepmother; own mother was a half-breed " E " lived Indian; at step-mother house until in penitentiaiy; 12 3'ears old; one

of her sisters lived there also; has two half-brothers in orphans' home somewhere: American Protestant; father works in saw-mill. parentage; Complaints. 1888Dec. 4, b3' a Teacher: in her Disorderly classes and impudent when reproved (locked out of school).



Dec. 14, by Dressmaker: Doing poor work; feignof all kinds of sewing, which she ing ignorance understands (isolation). Watchman: Dec. 28, by Night Quarreling, pullscratching another girl's hair out b3' the handful, her vile names (deprived ing her face, and calling of afternoon recreation). and dis1889Jan. 12, by Dressmaker: Talking order at table, during past week twice a da3' (1 week). She and Miss F. appropriJan. 25, by Laundress: to ating to their own use handkerchiefs belonging first-division in the breakfastgirls, also contention room (2 weeks). Feb. 9, by Teacher ner for the benefit in a vulgar manTalking of her class about the things she A.:

saw on her sleigh-ride (whipped). Feb. 21, by Laundress: Impudent every day (locked in her room till 23d Feb.). in chapel; when Feb. 24, by Teacher B.: Disorder to laugh motioned the to, continued throughout was spoken to, and replied in an insolent service; said she usually behaved much worse. manner; March 4: Disposition never good for more than half a day at a time; she apologized to teacher (offense overlooked). March n, by Dressmaker: and general disorder at table week). April at table April

talking, Laughing, twice every day (1 and disorder neg-

5, by Dressmaker: Talking twice every da3' (2 weeks). i2s by Laundress: Quarreling





pranks during insolence exasperating

temporaty' April (whipped, 15). in Ma3' 19, b3r Caretaker: Defiantty disorderly the dormitoty' and so disturblong after bedtime, ing evety' one (Ma3' 20, whipped). Juty 27, b3' Caretaker: Being veiy uneas3', althe water or tea and talking without ways spilling cessation (i week). with 8, b3' Laundress: Aug. Daity quarreling Miss H. on play-ground, impudent (1 week). conduct for Diabolical Aug. 17, by Dressmaker: in her room one three da3'S in succession (confined 6: Throwing kisses at the bo3'S as they the 3'ard. pass through Sept. 14: Using profane language (4 weeks). Defiance and impuSept. 19, b3' Dressmaker: "I will and I won't," dence. common expressions 1 (the Lodge). Poor work; impudence Sept. 20, by Dressmaker: before the whole division. Oct. 5, b3' Dressmaker: Al\va3'S read3' for a fight (2 weeks; just released from Lodge on parole, upon most earnest promises of good behavior, violated evety' da3'). Disorder at breakfast Oct. 6, by Laundress: (no and temper Oct. breakfast Sunda3' morning, Oct. 11, Caretaker: Impudent 12th). and tty'ing to exhibition of week). Sept.

iecting pla3'ing




meddle uy



others; absence, and


1 Place of confinement.



hour recreation of boys during attention for the week). (Oct. 14th, no more recreation her work when Oct. 19, Dressmaker: Tearing as usual it does not go to suit her; impudence attract (Oct. 19th, the Lodge). Dec. 5, Caretaker: Making noise with the dishes; at table (Dec. 14th, 1 week). talking Worst conpossible 1890Jan. 4, by Teacher: duct at school (Jan. 4th, expelled from school and put in the Lodge). Jan. 6, by Night-watch: Vulgar language at pla3'. Jan. 8, b3' by breaking work around by penalty of Dressmaker: her temper Exhibiting her machine her needle; slamming and dishes at meals (Jan. 10th, caused

Jan. 4th). and disturbJan. 31, b3' Housekeeper: Talking (Jan. 31st, 1 week). ing after locking Insubordination 11, b3' Dressmaker: April every da3' for the past week (she is a fit subject for the lunatic asylum). how to break May 3, b3' Dressmaker: Stud3'ing evety' room). May known rule; incorrigible (confined to her

22, b3' Dressmaker: Disorderty everywhere; in anger; articles and defiant, willful, throwing laz3' (rest cure). and disorderty June 11, b3'Dressmaker: Talking at dinner (2 weeks). Furious anger because June 16, b3' Dressmaker: and she could not go to A.'s funeral; disorderty in dining-room; insolent reckless perfectty and order in the department; a " tantum" of law lasting











description (4 weeks). Open rebellion June 20, by Dressmaker: during five days; breaking rule; sa3'ing every well-known she never " feared any one in her life, and she never " would (4 weeks). Since June 20 till Oct. 2, 1890, when Miss "E" there were verbal was discharged, complaints summed be under almost daily which, up, would insubordination with abusive the head of general etc. and profane language, " " E had been home with her father After Miss six that she was beyond eight weeks, he wrote that he had obtained his control; seven or eight but no one would keep places for her in families, " " E was of age, no quarterty her. As Miss reports or to the be required of her. She but one letter (soon after her discharge) to wrote the institution, the motive of which seemed to be of the festive life she was leadto give information ing in her own town, and, she would under her father's care. Testimony have it thought, institution could

as to Miss " E."

"She does not want to sit still; Superintendent: is restless; was seriousty sick with diphtheria and irritable after has that; wants to get mad; veiy ' cheek ' in contemptible way; she is always at war with the conditions; active; very speaks clearty, speech flows easity; swears just like boys, and uses does not care for bo3'S so much; obscene words; but acts openly and defiantly; she is not sneaky,



her actually stealshe is not a thief; never caught alwa3's pale when she is mad, she ing a thing; she has a trick of calling for wants to be noticed; else after she has eaten all she wants; it something a passion; she does she does not destoy her propanything, erty'; she never attacked aiy of the officers; but has she does this when excited by the girls; attacked she never tries to escape or talks about jealousy; is refused, not throw attacks it; she has grown worse in more frequent her sickness; and is better in and especially during cerHer medical some effort to be good. making as questionable; put down her character she was going to pray she has had one miscarriage; to God to help her to confess; she admits having the miscara man, but denies connection with tificate riage." Chaplain: an abanadmitted leading she was her mother was a prostitute; doned-life; , then b}' Mrs. L., then by adopted by Mrs. a year, then b3' Mrs. H., then by Mrs. S. remaining are morally bad; she ran away uncle; entire family from her aunt, and made bad people her companon inhas a fiety' disposition bordering in the religsanity.:; she became a little interested because she she was very angiy ious meetings; ions, she the girls to join the church. go with She cried when I talked with her about her temherself, but did per; she said she could not control ' I her histoty'. She said: not cry when relating seems can't even wear a badge, I tr}', but ever}'body but did not to be against me. I liked handiwork, could not " Miss'E' then she flies into




to sew, I want some nice eas3' place in a nice famity, where I will have little work and an eas3' " time.' want Interview " with Miss " E."

a she brought was a run-about; My mother with she went man, and said he was ny father, another man, also; ny father treated me well someI can't help it, times; my uncle used to whip me. I always tell the truth; the strap never takes anything I out of me. I feel ny face burn when I get angry. am my me six times; my mother whipped hit me with a big iron spoon when I was two 3'ears he threw' would slap me hard; old. My grandpa his boot at me once; he struck me across the back with a box ; 1113'Uncle J. used to tie me to the a strap, the and whip me with bedpost letting disobedient; work. M5' uncle patience hit me, buckle J.'s wife would man, what this talk made me vulgar. he was not a good man, he did to me, all the way spunk)'; my Uncle Charlie A., married I don't want to tell I have the most at

I can express it is his wife was a good that he spoilt my character; I I get angry When woman, they were poor. was don't know what I am saying, my sister because mother was not a nice woman adopted up children. M)r mother went with other men; they used to rent me out when I was thirteen; men into the house, charging 25 cents." bringing to bring of head, 146 Examination.Width Craniological from glabella to occ. prot., 173 mm.; mm.; length of head, 173 mm.; width above maximum length



width between 127 mm.; zyg. arches, tragus, between external 122 mm.; width edge of orbits, between outer corners of eyes, 90 mm.; distance 80 mm.; distance between inner corners of e3'es, mm.; width between prot. malaria, 97 mm.; width between from chin gonia, 80 mm.; distance to hair, 127 mm., distance from chin to root of from chin to base of nose, nose, 96 mm.; distance 62 mm.; distance from chin to mouth, 41 mm.; distance from chin to tragus, 104 mm.; distance to root of nose, 91 mm.; length from tragus of of nose, 41 mm.; height of ear, 57 mm.; length of nose, 15 mm.; width of nose, 38 mm.; elevation nose, '28 mm:; width of 'mouth, 45 mm.; thickness of lips, 10 ram.; horizontal circumference of head, of head, 329 mm.; vertical circumference circumference of head, mm.; sagittal angle of of father, American; nationprofile, 630; nationality ality of mother, American; occupation, none; color of eye, bluish gray ; color of hair, light. Remarks: head ; assimilation, fair. general S3'mmetrical Exatnination Physical of Institu[by Physician 533 mm.; functions, normal; circulation, good; normal; respiration, 17; pulse, 70; digestion, no anomalies; of thorax, perfect; 787 girth of waist, 609 trim.; of calf of mm.; girth girth anom42.18 kilos; physical leg, 310 mm.; weight, alies, none. tion): heart, A utobiography. "The first of my life I went to live with and she was not a good woman, my and All





was she taught me wrong things when my father not there, and she had a son that was very bad, and would insult me often, and if I would sa)'anywould whip me, and thing to him ny' grandmother I would not dare to tell ny father for fear of getand I lived like that for ting another whipping; about six years, when ny grandmother died, and then I lived with ny uncle; and he used to scold and whip me when his wife was there, and when she was gone he would insult me. He would sa3', If 3'ou dare to tell Martha, I will whip 3'ou till you stand on 3'our feet; and so 3'ou see I was small and did not dare to tell 1113' father, and then Aunt Mary wanted me to live with her, and 1113' take care of her baby; and I went there and she did not get me anything to wear, nor paid me a cent, and then it made me angiy, and then I said if I could not get paid for honest work I can be work, and so I did, and then I paid for dishonest went down to H., and sta3'ed to some houses and went wherever I wanted to, and when I got tired of that I went back to uy father's and told him I wanted a place to work and then I went to C, and with Mrs. B., and she was very kind to me; and in a short time Mr. and Mrs. S. from A. came after me to live with them, and after I had been there a short time my mother came after me and I would not go with her, and when she saw I would not go she tried to get some men to steal me when I would go to some of our night and then I wrote and told my father neighbors; and he came and took me to H. where he boarded at lived can't



and was there

and then I thought I could awhile; do as I pleased, and then I came to where I am That this. is all I can remember about writing Signed by Miss "E." myself now." " Mr. Mac DonaldYou sa3' you wanted to know what would help me, the only thing that will help me is to have ny father and mother live together and me live with them, now I have told 3'ou all I have done and what would make me a good girl. Please excuse ny writing for I have had a little this morning, so this is trouble 1 in ny department " E.*' Miss all." Signed by

of It is quite evident, that the earty surroundings to account for her meanness this girl are sufficient Had she had good bringing and criminality'. up, and she no doubt would have been a disagreeable spunky girl, but not a criminal. In her interview she was pleasant and is not unthat and one could hardly suspect prepossessing, It is not difficult to prophshe was what she was. esy her future.

22, 1890; offense, petit larceny; Father, plea, guilty. complainant, grandfather; no insanity or epileps)' in American; intemperate; he reads father was a lumberman; family; was and father arrested for getting writes;
1 The " trouble " was a fight.






and sent to State on a check, and convicted are sepamother is a hotel cook; parents prison; " F " resided with seven 3'ears; rated; grandparents with grandparents; never attended Sunda3'-school money his grandsent here for forging before; to name to a request for mone3' addressed four dollars; the bo3''s aunt; he obtained age, 15 3'ears Juty 12, 1889; blue eyes; strong and well; a dark comlittle coarse; brown hair; fair clothing; arrested father's on admission, 132 lbs.; Ma3', 1890, on admission, in.; May, 5ft. 4^ height, 33-35 in.; 1890, 5 ft. 5 in.; chest, on admission, education, 4th Reader; Ma\', 1890, 32-36 inches; canal in arithmetic; deficient occupation, previous plexion; 137 lbs.; weight, driver. Complaints. to a re24, by Teacher: Reptying 1890March and vulquest to keep still at table in an impudent at first he denied it; but said aftergar manner; what he said wards he might have misunderstood (admits, with other boys Scuffling April in the yard; very disorderty to-day; pa3's no attenheld open). tion to an3' warnings (admits, Scuffling and boxing with April 7, by Patrolman: him down and tearing the boy "K."; throwing afterhad to speak to him Sunday his clothes; noon. Disobedient, sauc3', 27, by Gardener: could not be corrected to his captain; unruly him, bad conduct all day (5 weeks). April and by reprimanded). 4, by Patrolman:



offense with School-room April 30, by Teacher: nine others (each one 1 week). of him in the the boy in front Ma3' 2: Striking neck (4 weeks). at the supper-table, Ma3' 7: Using vile language because the bread was not passed (admits; 3 weeks). Left the shop this mornMa3' 8, by Blacksmith: but went to the watering to go to 1st A. drill, closet, from where he had just come; I gave orders to go to drill. dormiGoing into R May 9, by Watchman: tory this May running May morning. 13, by Patrolman: on parade; Disorderty across the seats in water-closet (admits). in W. C. For disorder 19, by Carpenter:

(admits). across the hall Talking June 5-, by Watchman: told him to obey; he and fooling with boy "S."; refused (3 weeks). Testimony "F" Chaplain: was in school till is not as to " F." an attendant church; then he has at

12 years of age, since on canal in summer and been idle in winworked attendant at Methodist ter: he was a periodical was very poor; he forhis home training church; for a year; merly used tobacco, but has abstained He was idle when he uses profane language. arrested. His

don't attend his church; family " F's" father is a habitual do; grandparents is bad; the boy's record not arrested; drunkard;




did all they his grandparents but the characters up right; mother were said to be bad." Interview with

could of

to bring his father

him and

" P."

" F " " I wanted to to go says: get four dollars down to W. to get work, so I 'pulled' ny grandfather. used to whip me for lots of M3' father sometimes he would kick me all over; he things; would whip me three or four times a 3rear. M3' are poor, so the3' sent me here. I ingrandparents not bemyself, but the3' would lieve it. treated me all right. My grandparents My father and mother separated at the time I was nine 3'ears old; my father never hit my mother; I was and never hit me when she was around. about 6 3rears old when I was sent for the first time from ny parents. M3' father would whip me when I would not give him what money I had. I turn out like it did not think would ny forging did. I intended to pay it back. My father was in three years; another boy told me how to would not arrest me. forge; he said nty parents I never stole anything in ny life. I went to five or six different places and came awa3' of my own prison accord that they my grandparents sent me home for a little while; after that, I would go to other relatives and visit awhile and help them if the3' wanted me to. I got mad quite often. I don't get mad at the officers, but at the bo3's. I used to get mad at the boys before I came here. I was always getting mad, I was al\va3's liked (?) by and then told tended to behave



me to go with them. I never left my father because My mother got the he spent for drink. I would money sta3' at a month, and then each place about leave of ny I would tell relatives that I did own accord, my the boys, the3' mad first. not like it; did not like to work there." of prot, head, 142 Examination.Width to occ



from mm.; glabella length maximum of head, length

194 mm.; 120 width between 127 mm.; Z3'g. arches, tragus, 102 of orbits, width between external mm.; edge corners of e)'es, 89 between outer distance mm.; of e3'es, 32 distance between inner corners mm.; mm.; width to hair, width between 178 between protaria 85 mm.; gonia, distance from mm.; from chin malaria, distance chin 140 from to mm.; chin of

194 mm.; width above


distance nose, 120 mm.; 80 mm.; distance from tance tragus mm.; mm.; from chin


to base

to mouth,

to tragus, 125 mm.; to root of nose, 106 mm.; length of nose, 45 mm.; length height width elevation of nose, 15 mm.; 45 mm.; circumference of of head, distance

of nose, dis32 mm.; distance from of of ear, nose, 57 40

width of mouth, mm.; horizontal 16 mm.; mm.; sagittal vertical circumference

of nose, 29 of lips, thickness of head. head, 365 571 mm.; of angle


to back 648; maximum profile, forehead retreats of head, somewhat; 255 mm.; flat and thick-set proportioned; bod3'; fairly large nose. Physical tion): Examination functions, {by Physician normal; of I/isfit?i-

358 mm.; from chin






good; none; waist, of calf

respiration, 16; digestion, of thorax, girth 33^-36 29 inches; girth of thigh, of leg, 14 inches; weight, Conclusion.

good; anomalies, of inches; girth 20^ inches; girth 142 lbs.; pulse, 74.

made this boy a crimiSurroundings evidentty The nal, and drunkenness gave the initiatoty'. bo3' is rather dull and slow generaltyand very in appearance. unprepossessing

side of crime and its As to the directly practical the State has made and is making exprevention, But sociological of this periments. experience nature requires much time and numerous tests in and at order to warrant trustworthy conclusions; in nature, for social science best the3' are tentative Yet there is ground for is in its formative period. that ma3' be certain conclusions making practical called probable : First: It is detrimental as well as financialty, when and moralty, to release prisoners socialty there is probability' of their returning to crime; for in this case, the convict is less expensive than the ex-convict. Second: The determinate sentence permits man3' to be released, who are moralty certain prisoners The indeterminate to return to crime. sentence is the best method of affording the prisoner an to reform, without opportunity' exposing society' to unnecessary dangers.



Third: criminal society. may rest

The ground for the imprisonment of the is, first of all, because he is dangerous to This principle avoids the uncertainty' that

the decision as to the degree of upon for upon this last principle some of the freedom; most brutal crimes would receive a light punishment. Fourth: The

in the newspapers of publication criminal details and photographs is a positive evil to society, on account of the law of imitation; and, in addition, and record, people. it makes the criminal proud of his the morbid of the satisfies curiosity And it is especially the mentally and weak who are affected. It is admitted by some of the most intelli-

morally Fifth: officers in general, and b3' prison gent criminals, that the criminal himis a fool; for he is opposing self to the best, the largest, and the strongest por= tion of society, and is almost sure to fail.

As to the scientific study, cure, and prevention of crime, it ma3' be said, in brief, that the method is a thorough of the scientific study of criminals both psychoof the criminal himself, investigation and physically, so that the underlying logically out. cause of crime can be traced constant road to the prevention There is no other rational the remedy, Whatever of crime. and repression results the causes must be studied first. Negative If it to science. as positive, are as important and should be shown that some crime is incurable^


272 a


would of degree Lombroso tive tion, tion. and criminal

be valuable reformation crime thinks,

to know, especially can be expected. is a return to the

what If, as

barbarous state of our being a savage born into modern

primithe ancestors, civiliza-

then for such there is little hope of reformaBut these are criminals by nature and constitute a very small less than oneproportion, tenth. The French school of criminology has the greater part of crime arises out of social conditions, and hence is amenable to reforof these conditions. mation, by the changing Buechner says that defect of intelligence, poverty, and want of education are the three great factors in crime. of wide prison exMajor McClaughry, and perience, siders criminal chief of the parentage of children b3' their police, conChicago and associations, and parents, as first among shown that

neglect the causes of the criminal class. D'Olivererona, author of a French work on habitual criminality', asserts that three-fourths of those who enter prison have been conducted to crime from a neglected education. in the narrow Now, education, intellectual the results


is not instruction, children who spend one-fourth of the da3' in school, on the street or with criminal, and three-fourths But are there not Reor idle parents. drunken, has been form Schools? Yes; but no provision Not a few of the inmade for the little children. income there practically mates of reformatories corrigible, and the testimony of prison wardens

sense of mere sufficient to reform


272 ^







of the Reform graduates children not in the reform schools, but in allowing to live the first years of their life in surroundings that almost to crime. Reformatories predestine criminal imto erase the indelible are expected

hopeless Schools.

are prisoners The fault is

from made upon children birth, or bepressions of deserving Instead critfore, till the age of six. do as much icism, the wonder is that reformatories it "is useless to expect In brief, as they do. any habitual crime, great decrease in crime, especially are properly cared for; until very young children the moral and social that is, until they receive or home-like institution. education _ of a home of crime. of all prevention This is the foundation But much remains to be done after a child has had good start, for there are still dangers of falling of prevention, from this into crime. The method in moral, and physical mental, stage on, consists in other education in the true words, training; this sense. inclined are especially weak in criminally and below the average in intellect moral impulse, The education of the will is the and physique. The but the training of the intellect and factor, are necessary to this end. The remedy,. sentiments and for crime must be general, gradual, therefore, there is no specific. is constant; Every reformatory a school in which emphasis is laid upon moral and main habits, which in the young become, as it This is were, a part of their nervous organization. shown when moral.individuals, by the fact that industrial



resist evil suggestions. unconsciously hypnotized, When or temptation causes passion, perplexity', the loss of self-control, then it is that good habits in childhood and woven into the conimplanted overcome evil and criminal stitution, impulses. The force of habit is as strong for good as it is for evil. facts brought out at the One of the principal at Baltimore late National Prison was Congress that all prisons should be reformatories. All men, no matter proved how sa3', the best future will be reformatory prisons prisons, and the main means of reform will be the inculcation of good mental, and indusmoral, physical, trial habits ; in other words, education. and of the in crime, That benefited. old can at is to least be im-








Adshead, J. Prisons and Prisoners London, 1845. and the Adshead, J. Juvenile Criminais, Reformatories, Means of Rendering the Perishing and the Dangerous Classes Serviceable to the State. Manchester, 1856-80. Andrews, W. Punishments in the Olden Time, pp. 76. London, 1881. Illustrations for a Paper on Obsolete PunishAndrews, W. ments, pp. 8. Hull, 1881. Annual Reports of the Inspectors of the State Penitentiary for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. T. The Pauper, the Thief, and the Convict; Archer, Sketches of their Names, Haunts, and Habits. London, 1865. Bache, F. Observations on the Penitentiary System. Phila-

delphia, 1829. Bailey, J. B. The Condition of Gaols as Described by John Howard, pp. 48. London, 1884. War With Crime, pp. 299. London, 1889. Baker, T. Barwick. American Journal of Baldwin, S. E. Habitual Criminals. Social Science. 22. BarBarnard, Henry. Mettray ; Its Rise and Progress. nard's American Journal of Education. Vol. ill., pp. 667. 1857. Girl's The Red Lodge Barnard, Henry. Reformatory Barnard's American Journal School at Bristol, England. of Education, Vol. iii., pp. 785, 1857,



Education. Barnard's AmerBarnard, Henry. Reformatory Vol. iii., pp. 561. 1857. ican Journal of Education, Institution of Pastor Fliedner at KaisBarnard, Heny. American Barnard's erswerth, on the Rhine. Journal Vol. iii., pp. 487-494. 1857. ChilBarnard, Henry. Seminary for Orphan and Destitute Barnard's American dren and Teachers for the Poor. of Education, Journal of Education, Reform Barnard, Henry. Horn, near Hamburg. Education, Vol. Vol. iii., pp. 383-385. 1857. " at School of the " Rauhe-haus Barnard's American Journal of

iii., pp. 10. 1857. at Reform School, or Colonie Agricole, Barnard, Henry. Barnard's American Mettray, near Tours, in France. Vol. xxiv.. pp. 729. 1873. Journal of Education, Ban-ester. London, 1879. Capital Punishment. Barrow, T. P. A Month in Her Majesty's Prison, Leicester, pp. 16. Leicester, 1882. Beccaria, C. B., Marchese di. Essay on Crimes and PunishDepravity. Lonments, Beggs, T. London, 1770. Extent and Causes of Juvenile

don, 1849. Anatomical Studies Upon Brains of CrimBenedikt, M. inals, pp. 185. New York, 1881. or, The Inspection House. LonBentham, J. Panopticon!; don, 1791. Boston Prison Discipline Society Reports, 1826-53. Boston,

1855. London, 1817. Bowen, T. Compassion for the Prisoner. Classes of New York, Brace, Charles L. The Dangerous New York, 1880. Z. R. Reformation of Prisoners. American Brockway, Social Science Journal, Vol. vi., pp. 144. 1874. Z. R. Brockway, Liberation. Indeterminate Sentence of National Proceedings tion of the United States for 1887. and Conditional Prison Associa-






Warden. Prison The J. W. Convict J. Sir T. F.




of- Na-

tional Buel, Burt, Buxtur,

1884-85. Border Outlaws. St. Louis, 1881. in Ireland. London, Discipline 1865. Whether Are Crime and Misery Inquiry London, by the 1818. Present System of Prison


Produced Discipline. Thomas. Byrnes, 433. New

or Prevented

Professional York, 1886.


of America, Officer in the


J. Experience Campbell, lish Convict Service, Cane, Edm. F. du.

of a Medical


London, 1884. pp. 139. etc. Punishment, (Extract.) The Punishment to " The and

London, of

1838. Cane, Edm. Crime. Capital Carpenter, Carpenter, quents. Carpenter,




1885. Punishment: M. M.




1867. Schools. Reformatory and Treatment Condition London, 1851. Delinof Juvenile London,

London, 1853. Our Convicts. Mary. Individual Association

2 vols. System. of the

1864. of for

Warden. Cassidy, Prison National 1884. Cavendish, Charcot, Dr. Lady J. M. F.

Proceedings United States New The of Criminal R. 2.

Criminal Hypnotism

Classes, and

etc., Crime.

Forum, Law

1890. April, Reh. R. Cherry, in Ancient Circulars tion,

Lectures Communities.


the Growth London,

of Information No. 6, 1875, and

of United Statements Industrial

1891. Slates Bureau

of Educa-


Relating Schools of

to Reformatory, for the Young, the Cost of Her

8vo. Washington, 1875. Statement Clare, C. L. Comparative Majesty's Prisons, pp. 8. London,




The Prison Chaplain; 1861. Clay. Commons, House of. The Law of Homicide and of Capital Punishment. London, 1878. Commons, House of. Debate on Bill for Abolition of Capital Punishment, pp. 28. London, 1881. Commons, House of. Law of Homicide and Capital Punishment. London, 1881. Frauds Exposed, pp. 576. New York, 1880. Comstock, A. Comstock, A. Traps for the Young, pp. 252. New York, 1883. Convict Life. Man, pp. 248. London, By a Ticket-of-Leave 1880. Crawford. of the United States. Report on the Penitentiaries London, 1838. Crawford. of the Eastern for the Description Penitentiary of Pennsylvania. Eastern District 1872. Philadelphia, " Criminal Beacon to the Rising or. An Awful Recorder; Generation of Both Sexes. Collected by a Friend of Man. 1812. (Anon.) Philadelphia, To DeCurtis, Gen. M. N., United States Congressman. fine the Crime of Murder, Provide Penalty therefor, and to Abolish .the Punishment of Death. Speech \n House of Representatives, June 9, 1892. Pavitt, M, Leaves from a Prison Diary. 2 vols. London,

1885. , Detective. The Ways of Swindlers, pp. 87. London, 1879. Dix, D. L. Remarks on Prison and Prison Discipline in the United States. Boston, 1845, The London Prisons ; with a Description of Dixon, W. H. the Chief Provincial Prison^. London, 1850. Dodge, N. S. The Netherlands pose of Dangerous Juveniles land Monthly, Vol. viii., pp. Du Cane, Sir E. F. Account of - fences of Penal Servitude are don, 1882. How They DisMettray: in Holland, p. 511. Over511. 1872. the Manner in which SenCarried Out, pp. 174. Lopr ' .





Dumas, Ellis,

A. D. Havelock. Dr. Dr. for

Celebrated The Rclland Rolland

Crimes. pp.

London, 337. Statistics, Statistics New

1843. York, pp. 12. the 1890. United

Criminal, P. P. Criminal Prison

Falkner, Falkner,


1888, pp. 34. Philadelphia, 1889. a and Crimes Punishments, Farrer, including James A. " Dei delitti e delle of Beccarias's New Translation pene." Farrer, J. A. 1880. Francis to Vagrant of Second of Houses Penal B. 1880. Crimes and Punishments, pp. 251. London, in Respect Proceedings



True and

of Legislation Principles Criminal Children. (See

Convention of

and Superintendents of Managers of Reform in the and Schools Refuge pp. 196. the Causes in (9th Edition.) Late Lon-

United Five Years' don,

States, 1882.

1859.) Servitude,

Into H. Inquiry Fielding, of Robbers. London, Fletcher, S. W. Twelve Boston, Government Crime pp. C. 37. Prison

of the an


1751. Months




pp. 478. Elizabeth. ing, and A: W.

1884. on the Visiting, Prisoners. of Female Education. Journal in Superintend1827. Science Popular of Social Science,




Monthly, pp. 26. Gray, Francis



America. the and and Select

Boston, Com-

8vo. 1847. Parliament O-reat Britain. mittee 1827-28. Great Britain. of the Great on Criminal London, Extracts

from Report Commitments 1828. from the Fourth

Convictions, Fifth

Reports London,

of Prisons. London, 1841. Inspectors Her Majesty's Prisons. Britain. Prisons.


2 vols.



Prisons,.Correspondence 1-880. Prison; pp. 24. London, M. its Nature, Green, Sanford Crime, and Prevention, Griffiths, 1884. Grinevski, Odessa, Gurney, Hance, London, A. On the to Physical Prisons A. pp. Chronicles 346. of



on Association


Causes, 2

Treatment, London, Children.

Philadelphia, Newgate,

1889. vols. of and

Development of Scotland

1892. Visit J. J.


1819. E. M. Reformatories 1883. The Economy of




pp. 30.

Liverpool, A." Harris, 1879Hart,


Fleet, of




H. Hastings - - 1890. C. Some Henry, London, Her Majesty's

Reformation Records Their of

Criminals, 2

pp. 26, 8vo. pp.

Crime, and

vols., Defects,


1892. Prisons:

Effects 1881.

2 vols., or

(Anonymous.) Heysham, Hill, F. don,


An Account John. etc. Carcerum, London, Crime, its Amount,

of the Jail 1782. Causes, for the of and


Typhus Lon-

Remedies. of

Hill, Hill,

1853. M. D. Suggestions London, 1857. M. D. 1857. The Repression War with for

Repression pp. 704. R. 33. of


Crime, Unit.


Holland, Hood.

F. W.

Crime. the Future

Suggestions Lunatics. State J. J. 1789.



Howard. Howard, Howard, ton,

of Prisons.

1784. 1784. on-Prisons. Warring-

Prisons. Further

Warrington, Observations





and Congregate of Separate Systems Prison Boston, 1846. Discipline. William. Crime in England and Wales, Ho}'le, pp. 126. Howe, S. London, Hutchinson, India. 1876. W. Diss, Report ; the (Anon.) G, pp. 8. in Infanticide. on Prison Best London, 1821. Cal-



Coimcil cutta, 1838. Schools Crime. Robert Journal,

Discipline for 1853.

in India.

Industrial nile Ingersoll, Law International national -13,


Decreasing Criminals,


London, Crimes Feb.

Against 1, 1890.


Penitentiary Penitentiary 1872. By E.

on the InterReport of London, held July Congress C. Wines, United States CommisCongress. of and Congres 1526. the

8vo. sioner, etc., Washington. 1873. Edited Same. Pears, LL.B., by Edwin Secretary 8vo. London, Congress. 1872. International pression itentiaire 1878. Congress of Crime. International Comptes-rendus The of the Convict, Trials. for the Prevention Le Stockholm. de


Stockholm, des Sciences. 2 vols. London,


1879. James, G. P. R. Jardine, Jebb. D. Report Construction, Prison. Kelly Gang. pp. 20. London, Kitts, E. J. Record western 1889.


1847. on the


Surveyor-General and Details Ventilation, 1844. of the 1880. Months

1847. of Prisons of


London, History Melbourne,




Bushrangers, pp. 363. : Being a in the NorthBomba)',



Twelve Crime and

Imprisonment, Province to

1883. Serious

in an Indian Crimes Oudh,

of the Graver Provinces

Committed 1876




Lansdowne, London,


A Life's

Reminiscences and the 1892.

of Scotland of

Yard. Climate

Leffingwell, on Conduct. Letchworth, Training

1890. A. Illegitimacy New York, P. William of Children Schools,


Juvenile in Houses 44 pp. ad

Offenders. of Albany, Assab, Refuge 1883. pp. 23, pp. 18.

Industrial and Other

Reformatory Colonia Lioj'., A. 1884. H. W. Lord, Mich., Lyon, Mac T. India, Donald, Garofalo Columbian mary," Mac Donald, American Mac Mac Donald, of Mental Donald, view. B. pp.

8vo. Napoli,

Penitenziaria and Prison of

Penal 1880. A

Discipline, Medical

Lansing, for


Jurisprudence of .of Crime

London, 570. on Ideas A. of the Law new Times, N. Y.,

1889. the Repression Italian Oct. School 18972; also 13, 1892.


Criminology. in "The Sum-

Elmira, A.


Literature in of Criminological Digests of Psychology. 1890. Journal to Criminology. as Applied A. Ethics Journal Science. A, England, 1891. January,. and Yale New England A. Baer 1892. National Published -Review. by United D. C. 1893. London, With 1823. and on Re-

Criminology. Dr.

January, 1892. of A. Views Mac Donald, Review. The Andover Mac Mac Mac Donald, London, Donald, States Farlane, A. Criminal


March, Contagion. Man,"

1892. " Abnormal A. Bureau C. of Education, Lives and

Washington, of Banditti. Exploits Rules and

I837Massachusetts the Acts Mayhew Scenes



of the Legislature, and Binn}'. The Criminal of Prison Life,

Regulations; and Remarks. Boston, -Prisons London, of London 1862.

pp. 634,





M'Levy, burgh, Mogi,


Curiosities 1861.







ophically, Mich., 1890. Rev. W. D. Morrison, Morrison, Rev. W.

Punishment: Capital Historically, and Considered. Ann Practically Crime D. and its Causes. on the London,



1891. Theories of 1889. "Mind,"

Criminality. Rev. Morrison, Oct. Morse, Science New York 1892. E. S.

of Mental Journal The W. D. Study Natural Selection

Science, April, of Crime in and

Crime. of

Popular DelinRefuge, Dis-


Society Documents Relative quents. instituted New York, 1824. York State. Secretary the Mount

pp. 41. 1892. for the Reformation to the

Juvenile House of


1832. of State. List of Convicts Pleasant, Auburn, American or

from charged ton Prisons, 1848-50. W. The Criminal Noyes, Social

and Clinof

Type. of

Journal an Interme-

Science, pp. 24. The Purgatory Orby-Shipley. diate Stage. 1857. Ordronaux,


Problems to the DisJohn. Judicial Relating 1881. posal of Insane Criminals, pp. 161. Jersey City, F. A. into the Tendency of Separation to Packard, Inquiry Produce Paul, the Disease. Sir G. O. Philadelphia, 1849. Address on the Government of Prisons in

of Gloucester. 1808. Gloucester, County Camden. The Chronicles of Crime, 2 vols., pp. Pelham, 1886. London, 592 and pp. 636. Transactions of the Pears. London International Congress. Peice, B. K. the York, New A Half-century with Juvenile Delinquents York House of Refuge and its Times. ; or New




Criminal H. A. D. Comparative Phillips, Jurisprudence, 2 vols. Calcutta, 1889. International Province of OnExhibition, Philadelphia. Toronto, 1876. tario, Prisons, and Public Charities. A History of Crime in England, Pike, Luke. Owen, M. A. 2 vols., pp. 539 and pp. 719. London, 1873. Pinkerton, A. Criminal Reminiscences, pp. 324. New York, 1879. and Crime in England ; its Relation, Character, Plint, T. Extent as Developed from 1801 to 1848. London, 1851. the Auburn and Pennsylvania Prison Discipline; Systems New York, 1840. Compared. Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the National Prison Association of the United States. Proceedings on Reform of Prisons in the County of Gloucester. , Gloucester, 1808. of a Convict in the House of The; or, Cogitations Rat-trap, Correction. Boston, 1837. Redfield, H. V. Homicide, North and South, pp. 207. Philadelphia, 1880. The Prison Question, pp. 194. Chicago, Reeve,- C. H. 1890. The Prison Question, etc. Chicago, 1891. Reeve, C. H. on the Remarks on Criminal Law, etc., With Observations Prevention of Crime. London, 1834. R. Observations on the Jail, Hospital, etc. Robertson, London, 1789. Female Life in Prison, pp. 384. London. Robinson, F. W. Rolleston, T.W. Criminal Anthropology. Academy, pp. 38. The Wife-Beater's a Guide to H. Manual; Romeike, Husbands Connubial Corrections, pp. 32. London, 1884. Observations on Penal Jurisprudence and ReRoscoe, W. form of Criminals. London, 1819. on Penal JurispruAdditional Observations Roscoe, W. dence. London, 1823.





Rossa, New Round,

J. W.

O'D. York, M. 1888. L. G. . F.

Irish 1882. Our



English and and



442. New

Criminals its Causes


York, R)'lands, S 1889. , D London, Sample,





Months' of

Imprisonment, Forensic London, Medicine, 1890.


363. Toxi-

1S83. Essentials C. E. A.

and Hygiene, cology Sawin, Charles D., M. D. School and Prison. xxv.

pp. 210. "Criminals,"


pp. 30. Boston, of Education. Journal World 1889, pp. Boston, of 192. London, ; or, Prisons

1890. St. and


F. Scougal, Inmates. Their Sikes, Spear, W. C. Studies Voices E.

13. (1892), Scenes From a Silent Edinburgh, of Assassination, from Prison. Identification Illustrated,

1881. in

Spearman, France. Stephen, inal Stephen, "Summary tory,

R. English

1849. Criminals.


pp. 7. A History of the CrimSir James F., K. C. S. I. Law of England, London, 1883. 3 vols. of View of the Criminal Law A General J. F. London, pp. 79. Published (The)," N. Y. R. on Essay Preservation 1884. Prison Life the of John Experiences of the Health of Prisons, Prison Preventive Lon1890. in New York State Reforma-


Sweeting, Howard pp.

Eimira, R. D.

on the

Sykes, don, Tallack,

London, 96. M. {pseud.). 1881. William.



Penological 1889. Narratives from 1846.

and of the

Principles, Criminal Lady Duff

London, pp. 414. A. von. Teuerbach. Trials, Gordon. Translated London,

Remarkable by




The The




Medico-Legal T. G. Thomas,

Journal. Abortion and London,

and Reporter. New York. its Treatment.

Jersey From

City. Notes

by P. B. Porter. of the Transactions Boston. Treatise don, Tucker, on the 1829. W. J. Police Crime Brief

1890. Massachusetts Medico-Legal and and Crimes of the Metropolis. Classes.

Society. LonAnd. R.

the Criminal

13. 14Vaux, Richard. the State



of the Origin and History of for the Eastern District of Penn-

1872. sylvania. Philadelphia, R. The State and the Prison. 1886. Vaux, Philadelphia, " Inside Richard. Out." Present Prison Vaux, Systems and Their on Society Effects and the Criminal, pp. 3L 1888. Philadelphia, Vicars, Wesley, G. R. H. Notes Juvenile London, D., pp. Street 1880. School. Vol. xxxii, Barnard's pp. 589. on Prisons, Depravity; 1849. Svo. M. D. 14. p. 20. Cambridge, One Hundred Pound 1880. Prize

Essay. Wey, Hamilton, Criminals,

Physical Read Report

of Youthful Training Before National Prison Prison. Lon-

Association. Whitecross don,

Boston, Prison.

July 18, 1888. Life in a Debtor's

The German Reform Wickem, J. H. American of Education, Journal 1872. Wilkinson. Wilkinson, and The Robert, Wales. Law of Prisons. The 1878. Criminal of

M. A. London,

1878. Law of Prisons

in England SmithReforma-

LL.D. Wilson, Thomas, sonian Report for 1890. Wines and Dwight. Report tories of the United

Anthropology. the Prisons and










E. C. in the H. H.


of Prisons World,


tions 1880. F. Wines, Illinois Wines, F.

Civilized A The Reform

of Child-saving Institupp, 719, 8vo. Cambridge, not a Prison, Vol. School xiv. Re-



pp. 343, Nov., 1868. Missouri Criminal Class, on of Sentences the etc. Fourth

1872. port, pp. 89. F. H. Wines, Monograph F. H. Transactions Wines, 1876. gress. F. H. Prison Wines, Wines, Wines, pp. F. H. F. H. 22. formatories

for Crime. National

1885. Con-

Reform, of


1877. of Prison Officers



in Chicago. 1884-85. of the Criminal. The Restoration State

Sermon, at

Winter, Elmira. Wrigt.

111., 1888. Springfield, Alexander. The New York London, from 1891. to all the Penal 1841 to 1883.


Schedule of India


of the Government










ASSOCIATION 1893. Congress,


Proceedings 1870.' B.

Discussions Wichern's

of the

pp. 443-547Frank Ainsworth,


Wall is no Wall "Illustrated in the Indiana Strongest House of Refuge, 1870. pp. 322-327. of Prison The Free Labor W. Alexander, Theory Augustus Discipline, 1 This pp, 217-233. 1874. in which

and the following dates designate the years the Congresses of the Association were held.



M. Present State of the Prison Question in Alinquist, Sweden, pp. 488-493. 1874. on Discharged Samuel. Allinson, Report of Committee Prisoners, pp. 336-338. 1872. Scholastic and Industrial Education in Allinson/Samuel. Reform Schools, pp. 505-510; Discussion of; pp. 6091876. Altgeld. J. P. Unnecessary "Imprisonment, * - 1884-85. Ames, Rev. Marcus; Family and Congegrate Reform Schools. Considered and Compared, " On the Desirableness of Ames, Rev. Marcus. Number of- Juvenile Reformatories, etc., 612. pp. 408-418. for


pp. 489-493, an Increased pp. 337-349.

1870. of' Criminals to RejAnderson, Henry J. Susceptibilitity 1872. formatory Agencies, pp. 359-362. Annual Reports of the Commissioners of Prisons of Mas* sachusetts. ..Annual Reports of the Inspectors of the -State-Penitentiary for the Eastern
Perm: - - -


of Pennsylvania.


Work Done by the Home of (d'), Mrs. A. L. Industry for Discharged Prisoners, pp. 168-169. 1891. Prisons and Prison DisciArmingol y Cornet, Don Pedro. ' in 1874. pline Spain, pp. 520-528. B, F. Centralization Atherton, Necessarj' to Prison and Reform, pp. 270-279. 1891. of Prisons, pp. 382-388. Baker. T. B. Centralization ' 1884-85. Criminal. Treatment, Jpp. 457-467. Baker, T, B. 1876. . Prisoners. Treatment of Discharged T. B. Baker, Whether Their Accounts Should be Made. Known to Arcambal Employers, pp. 191-198.- 1874. Prison and Police Barney, Mrs. J. K. 309. 1S86. Matrons, pp. 301-










Chaplain, Historical


199-216; Sketch

Discussion and and


Beltrani-Scolia, International America, Beltrani-Scolia, Question Bittinger, Crime, Bowring,


of National in the Europe

Penitentiary pp. 267-277. Martino.

Conferences State of

1870. Actual

Penitentiary of

in Italy, pp. 498-502. 1874. of Society for the Causes Responsibility J. B. 1870. Proper Purpose of Prison

pp. 278-293, The Sir John.


1870. pline, pp. 75-94. of the Standing Committee on Brace, Rev. C. L. Report Preventive and Reformatory Works as Related to Children and Youths, pp. 95-106; by Dr. Peirce, 106-10S ; Discussion Brace, Rev. of, 109-119. 1874. C. L, The Industrial Day-School, C. L. 1874. Roeliff.' Roeliff. Economy County in Preventing

pp. 482-489. Crime, pp. 249-

1876. Brace, Rev. 252. Brinkerhoff, Brinkerhoff,

Report of, pp. 403-408. pp. 388-403 , Discussion 1884-85. Roeliff. U. S. Prisoners, Brinkerhoff, pp. 284-285. 1887. Roeliff. What to Do with Brinkerhoff, Recidivists, pp. 185 -197. Brockway, pp. 1889. Z. R. Discipline Remarks by Mr. Prison (Report of Committee), 1888.

Jails, pp. 80-92. 1884-85. on United States Prisoners,

122-138; Cassidy. Z. R. Is It and Brockway, Reformatory DisciplineWhat to be Attained ? pp. 205-216. by What Agency 1874. of the Executive Z. R. Committee of Report Brockway, the Brockway, View Brockway, State, National Z. R. to their Z. R. Prison The Association, Classification pp. 321-336. of Prisoners 1876. System for a 1872. with a

Reformation, pp. 417-422. The Ideal of a True Prison 1870.

pp. 38-65.



Brockway, tional sion

Z. R.


Indeterminate pp. 184-186,

Sentence and 188-196

and ;


1887. 196-199. The What is He, Z. R, Criminal, Incorrigible Brockway, and How Should He be Treated ? pp. 105-107 ; Discussion .Brooks, of, pp. 107-126. 1884-85. Our Duty to the Prisoner Rev. Phillips. (sermon), of Dis-

Liberation, of, 186 and

1888. pp. 30-42. T. LI. M. on the Formation Browne, Suggestions Prisoners' Aid Societies, pp. 1S5-190. charged Goodwin. Inter-State Brown, Extradition, pp. 1884-85, A. A. Brush, 85. Brush, A. A. Prison Diet, pp. 61-63 pp. in Are Religious > Discussion ; Prison Punishments, pp. 101-105.

1874. 18-34. 1884of,


l 886. 63-77. Prison Brush, A. A. of, pp. 201-215. Fr. Prison Bruiin, 1870. Buchanan, cies Burnett. Dr. for J. R. Moral pp.

Discipline, 1890. Discipline What and



Denmark, the Most

pp. Effective in of

117-158. AgenReform for



Joseph. Benj.

1876. 502-504. The Proper Construction Reformer, Under Offenses, in


Women, Butler,

1876. pp. 450-451. the Great F. Hope, A. G. District Prisons of Prison Minor

pp. 369-370. State Control

1872. Byers, Rev. 1S70. Caldwell,

for Persons

Convicted The

pp. 219-232. New Zealand,



1874. pp. 512-513. Carne, M. A. (France). nify the Citizen who 244-252. 1870.

On the Duty of Society to Indemhas been Unjustly Imprisoned, pp.





Miss Mary. Carpenter, the Maintenance and Certified Miss

On the Responsibility of their in Children Schools, the

of Parents Reformatories



Carpenter, tenced Carpenter, and

On Mary. and Life-Sentenced Mary.

1870. pp. 372-383. Treatment of Long-Senpp. 348-354. 1872. Schools pp.

Prisoners, etc.,

Miss Prison



on Reformatory in the United States,

157-173. 1874. The Prisons of Cassicly, M. J. and Ireland as I Saw Them, Chandler, Jos. R. The Question


Belgium, England, pp. 80-106. 1891. of a Prison Newspaper, and Reformatory of, pp. 305-313. Farm Prison

pp. 299-310. T. J. Charlton, Work, Childlaw,

1870. The Similarity


pp. 292-305 Rev. B. W. Methods, The 395-403. Freeman.

; Discussion The Ohio Reform and Death Results, Penalty Final

1890. SchoolIts

Principles, Albert. Clarke, ished Clarke, ? pp. James

1870. pp. 328-336. it be Abol; Should Cause of Criminal pp. 370of a Prison the Prisoner's

1876. The

as Affecting Legislation 1872. 373. Clarke, James Freeman. System, Clemmer, Right Coffin, Mrs.

Modes General

of Punishment,


1876. pp. 409-411. The State's Protection of J. W. to Reform, 1888. pp. 235-245. C. F. System

of Discipline Suited to a Female Discussion Prison, of, 570-572. 1876. pp. 422-426; Mrs. C. F. Women's Coffin, Prisons, pp. 186-196. 1884-85. C. F. British and American Coffin, Prisons, pp. 237-249. 1891. Charles Collins, A. Moral Education Remarks Penit. in Prisons, pp.

299-316, 1884-85. Sir Walter Crofton, (England). ics Considered don, pp. 354-358. in the Intern. 1872.

on Sundry Topof LonCongress




Sir Walter.





of Prison


Cunningham, Its Relation

pp. 66--74. 1870. Dr. R. M. The Convict to Health and

System Disease-,

of Alabama pp.



1889. in Its.Relation to Crime, Daly, C. P. Insanity pp. 386-395 ; Discussion of, pp. 565-567. 1876. Samuel S. Convict Desellem, Clothing, 1870. pp. 294-298. The Dr. Criminal Despine; Prosper. (translation), pp. 338-348. Discussion, 1874.. Discussion Discussions.on atory Discussion on Trades Papers Institutions on the in Prisons, 1876. pp. 583-584. to Preventive-and Reformpp. 585-553. .1876. in ReSystems 1872. on. Prison Discipline and Reform,



Relating, for Juveniles, and



Institutions, 1876. formatory pp. 593-597.-. Discussion on Prison Statistics, pp. 17.3-186. 1884-85. Discussion on Prison Labor, pp. 197-225-. 1884-85. Discussion, Discussion Discussion, Pnsons, Discussion.on on Prison Punishments, pp.. 259^2.75. 1884-85. in on County Jails, on Management pp. 345-354the- Relations

pp. 281-292. 1884-85. of- Prisons. Food, Education 18.84-85. of Christianity States to the. Criminal"

1886. pp. 40-42. of Report Discussions 112: 1886. Discussion Discussion of Prison of. the

on. United




PunishmentSj pp. Moral and Religious Officers,

1886. 181-1.87. Care of the Prisoner, under

1887. pp. 66-91. on Probation Discussions



Wife-Beaters, 1887. pp. 213-224. of Papers; Read, .pp. 140^160. 1888. Discussions on a: Reformatory W. Edmonds;, John Thoughts Discipline, pp. 165-168. 1870..






M. L. of the Eldridge, History Reform School, pp. 350-358. G. Construction Eliot, Rev. Wni. ment Falkner, of, of Prisoners R. P. Confined Criminal Statistics,

Massachusetts 1870. of Lockups pp. and

Nautical Treat-

in Them,

pp. 445-450. 1876. Discussion 48-60;

Bertillion and System, pp. 61-67; Registration Parole, pp. 68-79. 1890. R. P. Criminal Falkner, Statistics, pp. 71-79. 1891. Dr. Rolland P. on Criminal Statistics. Falkner, Report 1892. Fay, C. K. 268-270. C. E. Felton, cussion Felton, Prisons Chicago, 1S85. C. E. Felton, 227-238. C. E. Felton, Prisons, and 261-268; Discussion of, Disof at

English 1S87. Tramps




320-329; of Officers States

of 329-339. C. E., and Wines, and December Prison 1886. Labor

1884-85. F. H.

Conference of 1884. the

Reformatories 9-11, Labor,



Chicago, of,



; Discussion O'Nei! Bill,

Discussion 50-59; C. E. The Identification Felton, Discussion Felton, pp. Felton,

LegislationThe 1888. of, 59-67.

pp. ;

of Criminals,



of, 69-75. 1889. Police and Ch. E. Organization Discussion of, 214-220. 194-214; C. E. The Political Effort, Some Police Force of Intermeddling; pp. of the 125-137;

Administration, 1888. Protest Greater for


Against Preventive 1890. C. E. Felton,

a Plea Discussion

of, 137-132. Police

Impediments 1891. Industrial

of Efficient or ? etc.,

Management, Rev. Fessenden, Schools Discussion

pp. 107-116. Should T. K. State

Reformatory pp. 498-501 ;

be Wholly

Institutions 1876.

of, 597-605.



and Power of Religious Foote, Rev. C. C. The Importance Forces in Prisons, pp. 185-192. 1870. French, James W. Life-Prisoners, pp. 242-244. 1889. Dr. of Prison DisciGuillaume, Progress and Condition 1874. pline in Switzerland, pp. 485-487. Peniten. CommisDr. Guillaume, Report on the Internat. sion to the Federal Council of Switzerland, pp. 581-589. 1874. in Juvenile ReformaGrades and Honors Gower, C. A. tories, pp. 361-368; Discussion of, pp. 36S-382. 1884-85. The Right of the State to Separate ChilHaines, Deniel. dren from Parents Willfully or Culpably Neglectful of Parental Duties, pp. 476-482. 1876. Wm. G. How can a more Equitable DistribuHammond, tion of Punishment be Secured? pp. 355-358. 1876. Prison and Police Matrons, Remarks on, Harper, Mrs. PP- 309-3' 3- 1886. The Educational and Correctional Dr. Elisha. Harris, Treatment 1876. Harris, Dr. Wm.


of Juvenile T.


etc., pp. 535-550.

The Philosophy of Crime and Punishment, pp. 222-239: Remarks on, by Mr. Wines, pp. 240

Prison Discipline, 1887. Hartley. pp. 158-166. Prisoners' Aid Societies, pp. 270-288. Hart, H. H. 1889. Prison Discipline, Discussion Hatch, H. F. pp..164-175; of, pp. 175-184. 1889. The Chaplain, DiscusHickox, Rev. G. H. pp. 146-153; sion of, 153-163. 1890. On the Objections Incident to Sentences of ImHill, M. D. for Limited Periods, pp. 105-109. 1870, prisonment Criminal Capitalists, Hill, Edwin. 1870. pp. 110-116. Hill, Miss Joanna M. (England). The Boarding-Out of Pauper Children Considered as an Agent in the Diminution of Crime, pp. 394-405. 1870.





Hill, Hill, Hill,

Frederick. Miss Hon. -428. Florence. Frederick



pp. Prison


1874, 1874. pp. 419

Australian (London). or Open


pp. 529-543. Discipline,


J. C. pp.

1884-85; The Cottage 1884-85. Franz von.


in Reformatories, on the Prison


Holtzendorff, Question W. Howland. 1886. Howland, cussion Hubbell, W.


in Germany, 1874. pp. 509-510. H. The Prisoner, Discharged pp. H. of, pp, Prisoners

286-289. Dis-




Gaylord to Adult Criminals, Dr. John. The

1887. 297-30S. H, Reformatory pp. 169-179. Prisons of India,

Discipline 1870. pp.

as Applied 18S7. Dis-

Ince, I yah,


C. Sabapthi. Indian Prisons, '874. pp. 515-519. Dr. A. Brain Crime and Capital Punishment; Jacobi, cussion Opened by Dr. H. D. Wey. 1892. Ellen The Mrs. C. Massachusetts Prison Johnson, Women, Johnson, 1889. Johnson, Mrs. Ellen C. Discipline of in Female Prisons, on Opened in pp. 170-172; Mrs. Ellen C. Discussion Prison of, 172-180. pp. Recreation,


1887. 209-215.


137-143. 1891. Alexander. Johnson, and Storrs. Justin, Lee, W. Rev. tion, pp. D. Reformatory 1892, Brother.

Report Work; Kindness


Preventive by L. C. Reforma-


as a Factor of

1886. 205-215. The Lease System of, pp. 119-123. Care of Discharged H. pp. on 1874.




Discussion Little, John 1886. Alfred cipline, J.

1890. Prisoners, and pp. 290-297. Dis*


Thoughts 247-248.



296 Love, Alfred H. Our

CRIMINOLOGY. to the Duty 1886. Prisoner and the Com-

munity, pp. 92-97. H. W. The Press Mabie,

Marsangy (de), Bonneville. as a Means of Knowing the Antecedents of with Crime or Trespass (translation), Charged 243. 1870. Analytical Outlines Marsangy (de), Bonneville. . Penitentiary Reform, Massie, Massie, James. Discussion J. Moral

and Crime, Criminal

1886. 145-151. Considered Registers pp. Persons pp. 232and

of Penal

of, pp. Report of Committee

1874. pp. 643-673. Instruction in Prisons, pp. 1886. 105-109. on Prison


The R, W. McClaughry, Registration of Criminals, Discussion of; pp. 15-16; tem, pp. 18-31 and 92-113 and 121-125. McClaughry, McClaughry, Police Gourley. M'Garigle, 203; R. W. R. Forces W. in The Parole System, Report Cities,

Discipline. 1892. and Identification Bertillion 1887. Sys-

pp. 38-47. 1890. of Standing Committee on Discussion Opened by H. I.

Meredith, Continue

and the Criminal, pp. 198Discussion 1886. of, pp. 204-205. E. A. Our County and City Jails. Shall They to be a Disgrace to Civilization? 1887. Some pp. 242-256; Peculiarities of of, pp. 256-260. Mrs. S. (of London).

1892. Wm. J. The Policeman

Discussion Meredith,

Criminals, Mrs. Meredith, :2'32-234. Merreneld, Merrick, for

pp. 222-232. 1889. S. Punishment of Juvenile 1889.



Punishment, Joseph. Capital The Rev. Frederick. Christian Neglected and Criminal

1874. pp. 594-595of Caring Duty Children (sermon), pp.

429-442. Wm. Merrill, tory pp.,

1870. H. The

at- Warsaw, 180-184,

Volunteer Adult ReformaProposed New York; Its Origin, etc. History,






of Society to Discharged Rev. J. L. Duty Milligan, ; Discussion oners, pp. 469-476 of, pp. 579-583. Executive Rev. J. L. Pardons, pp. 422-428. Milligan, Merits of the H. A. Familv Monfort, Comparative Congregate PP- 493-498. William. Morgan, eers and Systems 1876. The of Treatment in Reform

Pris1876. 1870. and

Schools. ; Its Duties Pionand 1886. "Bum-


Principles, pp. 282-297. Dr. John. Prison Morris, Physicians Discussion Influences, pp. 77-84; Morris, mer" Moylan, Mullen, Dr. not Cure, John. and Chronic fnebriate,

Enterprise 1888. ; Their

of, pp. 84-92. for the Punishment, pp. 243-246. pp. 238-245. to Persons

Prison Labor, James G. Wm. J. Duty of Society not yet Brought to Trial, pp. Prison Association. Discussion,

1890. 1886. Arrested but a


362-364. 1872. Prison Work Generalhy, pp. 62-70.

Nicholson, 1891. Nordhoff, Oliver, sion Otterson,


pp. 246-257. 1889. of Criminals, On the Identification Alaska The as a Possible Penal 1887. pp. on 1891. pp. 415-421. pp. 43-46; 180-181;




270-278; Henry. Ira.


of, 278-283. Child in Prison, 1887. of Committee pp. 250-259.


of, 181-182. Report Work, Criminal D.


Reformatory Dr. A. J-. Ourt, Patterson, sion Patterson; 1887. Patterson, Patterson, J. H. J. H. W.

Statistics, Construction, 1886.

Prison New

1870. Discus! 13-121. 1888. 170-

of, pp. 46-61. The J. H. Prison The





pp. 298-302. Management, Parole Law in New Jersey, pp. View of Preventive States,

198. 1891. Peirce, Rev. B. K. atory Institutions


and Reform1870.

in the United

pp. 21-37.

298 Perry, J. S. 82-88. Prison

CRIMINOLOGY, Discussion of the Prison



55-82; State

of, pp. Ques-

in Norway, Allan. Pinkerton, Police Force, Robert. Pitman, for the Same How Pitman, able sion Pols, R. C. in their

Petersen, tion

1884-85. Richard. The


pp. 494-497. The Character

1874. and Duties

of a Detective

1876. pp. 241-246. Terms of Sentence: or Similar Offenses

Is Greater Desirable,

Equality and if so, is AdvisDiscusin

to be Secured Habitual Penal

? pp. 95-104. 1870. Criminals : What Change Treatment? 1876. of the 1874. Criminals pp. 351-364;

of, pp. 557-563. M. S. Actual State J. W. pp. 503-508. and Crimes 1891.


Question Army, 364-367. for

Holland, Pope, Powell, Randall,

of the American and


117-131. M. Aaron C. D.

Intemperance Policy



1S72. The of State Public Schools DeChildren, pendent The C. D. Randall, 1876. pp. 527-535. Fourth Internationa! Prison

Russia. Bureau at St. Petersburg, D. C. ington, 1891. of Reform, The True Theory C. H. Reeve, a Factor, Reeve, Reeve, Reeve, C. H. pp. 250-259. 1884-85.

Congress of Education, Washwith Labor as

1888. Children, Dependent pp. 101-112. the Public, C. H. Arousing 18S9. pp. 150-163. and Wayland. on Criminal Law Somerville, Report and Preventive Institu-

1890. pp. 20-33. on the Penal, Reformatory, Reports and Territories, tions of States sion, pp. 460-483; 1872. Standing 1874. Committee Resolutions


Discuspp. 375-460; of the Congress, pp. on Prison Discipline, pp.

483-484. of the Report 59-69.






of the

StandingCommittee on Criminal

on Discharged Law Reform,


1874. pp. 70-80. of Committee Report 147; Discussion of Committee Report Rockwell, School, Roepstorff British Rosenan, 1889. W. Round, the Round, W. Mrs. etc., (de), India, N. S. M. E.



of, pp. 148-156. on Discharged Modes of 1876. Blair

1874. Prisoners.

Commitment Penal

1892. to Reform Settlement in

pp. 510-521. Port Fr. Ad.

1870. pp. 159-164. The Union, Whitechapel of Organization 1886. 281-286. Prison


145-147. in

M. F. pp. M. F. pp. M.



mittee), W. Round, Shall be

Prisoners of ComDischarged (Report Discussion 1888. of, pp. 226-230. 221-226; Prisoner and What F. The Discharged with Him (Report of Committee), pp. of, 258-273. 1890. on of Committee Report Prison

Done M. F.

247-258; W. Round, Prisoners, Sanborn,


Discharged System 1870. a State Aphe

1891. pp. 160-167. F. B. How Far is the Irish

to American Prisons ? pp. 406-414. plicable the Prisons of F. B. How Should Sanborn, Graded? Sanborn, Scouller, 1888.

1876. pp. 411-417. F. B. State Visiting Agencies, pp. 521-527. 1876. Dr. J. D. Prevention and Reformation, pp. 86-101. Reforms are Needed in our System States,

What Seaman, E. C. of Trial by Jury? The Sims, Dr. P. D. pp. 130-145. Smead, Isaac D. Smith, Smith, Eugene. The

pp. 372-386. Prison System Ohio Parole

1876. of the Southern

1886. Law, 240-250. Sentence, pp. 76-89. 1884-85. pp. 199-209; 1889.

Eugene. Discussion

County Jails, pp. The Indeterminate of, 209-212. 1887.







and the Child


Prison, Russia,

pp. pp.

Discussion of 167-168. 166-167; 1887. Count W. The Prison Sollohub, Question 511. Spalding, Tufts, Spalding, 301. Spalding, 1892. Stevens, J. Construction 1874, of Cellular Prisons 1874. W. F. Biographical Sketch.




pp, 263-266. 1891. W. F. Prison Reformatory 1886. W. F. The Misdemeanant;

for Women,

pp. 297of.

Discussion in

Belgium, with Great

PP- 544-358. William. Tallack,

Special - - -Britain-and'the-

and Humanitarianism, Humanit3' to the Prison Reference of Systems -States, pp. 204-218.of the Great Prison Influence 1874. School, pp. 193-203. United

-1870. Congress 1870. 1884-85. Reforma1870.

William. Tallack, of 1872, pp. 174-184. H. S. The Prison Tarbell, Taylor, Teliow, Thomas, Transactions Cincinnati, Tucker, "Rev.

Convicts, J. C. - Discharged pp. 293-299. Confidence in the Inmates of Brother. as an Element John R. of Prison the-National Oct., H. H. 1870. Prison of Success, Architecture, Prison Albany, La'bor, pp. 311-321.


pp. 144-^159. 1891. Reform at Congress 1871. pp. 245-264; the Discussion "of the

rS86. of, pp. -264^269. Gardiner. Visitation of Tufts, Family in Massachusetts, State as Practiced Tufts, Gardiner. Moral and "Religious ; Discussion of, pp. 159-170; Convict 1889. Subjects, Discussion Before


1870. pp. 359-371. in PrisInstruction 101-103. pp. of, After 1886. Dis-

ons, pp. 98-101 Gardiner. Tufts, Reformatory cussion 1886. Tufts, -Gardiner: ment, pp. The 198^209. of, pp.

152-159; pp.








Tutwiler, 220. United Vaux, their 1888. Vaux,


J. S.



in Alabama,



1889. States Prisons, Inside on Effect



on, pp. 143-145. 1890. Prison and OutPresent Systems, and the Criminal, in Social pp. 161-181.

Society An


Penal: 1874. Prison




263-272. Richard. Vaux,


pp. 451-456;


of, pp. 572-5791876. Crime and Rev. F. M. Voigt, Walker, C. I. Needed 1876. PP- 365-372. & Co. (the Ward, Dewey tentiary, pp. Charles Warner, Reform, Warner, Washburn, 1876. Watkins, 1889. Watson, Wm. Whether E. C. Aid pp. Charles 235-240. Dudley. 232-240. Dudley. 1886.

1888. Criminals, pp. 246-250. in Criminal Amendments Procedure, The Texas State Peni-

Lessees). 1874. Education

as a Factor of

in Prison

1884-85. The Extirpation Law Reform, Prisoners,


pp. 270-280. Emory.




to Discharged Crime

pp. 261-269. Can be Ex-


to and


Wayland, Discussion Wayland, Wayland, mittee); Wayland, 229;

1874. by Society ? pp. 199-204. Francis. Child-Saving Legislation,



of, pp. 49-61. 1891. Francis. Criminal Law Reform, Francis. Francis. Discussion Criminal Law Discussion

1888. pp. 113-122. Reform of Com(Report pp. 225pp. Ju-

of, 1892. Misdemeanants, 229-236 ; of, pp. Dipsomaniacs, in Criminal


1887. 237-241. Francis. On Certain Wayland, risprudence, pp. 225-232.

Anomalies 1884-85.-








a Prism 18S7. Who

Warden, He Is, 1886. pp.

pp. and

Discussion 125-127; Francis. The Wavland, What Wayland, Shall be Done The The Francis.

of, 128-133. Incorrigible; with Him, pp. Pardoning

189-197. Power,


1884-85. Francis. Wayland,

Care of the Prisoner, Physical pp. Discussion of, pp. 138-154. 134-13S; 1887. Rev. H. L. The Obstacles to Prison Reform. Wayland, 1892. N. A. Industrial and Art Education in Prisons, Wells, pp. Discussion of, 97-101. 93-97; 1884-85. A Plea for Physical We)', Dr. H. D. Training 1888. Criminals, pp. 181-193. Wey, Wey, of Dr. Dr. H. D. Criminal Anthropology, cussion of. pp. 290-291. 1890. H. D. of the Committee Report Prison Mrs. Physician; Prison Discussion Work in 1892. L. P. of Youthful DisWork by pp. Dr.

pp. 274-290; on the



Causman. Williams,

Nashville, on


144. 1889. E. C. An Wines,

International Discipline,



and Reformatory E. C. Annual Wines, tory Institutions 1874.

Report of the Union of

1870. pp. 253-266. on the Penal and Reformafor the Y'ear 1873, PP358-361 ;

273-466. E. C. Wines, Discussion Wines, E. C.

Imprisonment of, pp. Report of London, Annual the

Witnesses, 1876. International


563-565. on the July,

Congress the Second ciation of

Report United States

1872; to which of the National for 1873.

Penitentiary is Appended Prison AssoGovernment Inpp.

D. C, 1873. Office, Washington, Printing on the Labors of the Permanent Wines, E. C. Report ternational in Brussels, Commission Penitentiary 574-581. 1874.





E. C. Wines, the Bible? 1876. E. C. Wines, the Wines, United E. C.


Is Penalty: Discussion pp. 403-408; Death Present Outlook


Commanded of, pp.


551-557. in


of Prison

Discipline Prison

pp. Transactions at New F. H. York.


1870. 15-20. of the Fourth 1876. Prisons


Congress Rev. Wines,


in the Tenth ; or the

Census, Parolof

1888. pp. 251-281. Rev. F. H. Conditional Wines, ing Wines, of Prisoners, Rev. F. H. pp. 114-130.

Liberation 18S6. Results of

Criminological Religious pp. 34-45. The County

in the Census the Prison

1890. 1892. Rev. F. H. Wines, tion Wines, Discussion Woodworth, Training (a sermon), Rev. F. H.

Aspect 1889.


of, pp. 567-570. Rev. On James. for the officers 1870. D.

Jail System, 1876. the Need and

pp. of

426-445 Special

of Prisons


pp. 384-393. Theodore Woolsey, on Police, pp. S.



of the Standing Committee Discussion of, pp. 148-156. 73-78. 1892. Work

1874. Edward Wright,

of Criminals, Registration pp. Discussion 1888. of, 78-81. E. S. Some Features of Prison Discipline. Wright, The of Prison Dr. D. F. Sanitary Aspect Wright, in Tennessee, 1889. pp. 235-241. The Relation of Economic Carroll D. Wright, to the Wadlin. Yvernes, Causes of Crime ; Discussion State of opened 1892. Emile. Present (translation),

Conditions by H. F.

Penitentiary 1874.


in Europe

pp, 467-484.








of Murder;


of Homicide. Crime.





30, 1892. 5000 words. Aids of Science in Detecting


Chamb. in Cities. North



Alexander, Rev. Allen, 79: J.

Crime J. W. 17: 606. H. Juvenile of

and Poverty Delinquency. State Crimes.

Princeton Amer. Rev.

406. Allen, J. H. Penalty 79: 282. Amos, Andrews, Month. Andrews, Christ. Andrews, Andrews, and S. Crime A. Crime

Christian Rev. 2:


and Civilization. in 18th

Fort. Century.

319. New Crime ? "

Colburn's Increase

Mag. 105: 78-175. Wm. P. Do Reformatories Register Wm. P. Forum Wm. P. Dec.

24., 1891. 750 words. " Increase of Crime Reformatory by Oct., 1891. The Prevention of Crime. Hartford Aug. Schools


Boston Methods. Transcript English 1200 words. 1892. Prisons as Wm. P. Andrews, Reformatory Crime. A Are Plea for Commercial Criminals words. Arnold, R, A. Prison Labor. Fraser's Great Penal A Study in Prisons; ald Aug. 29, 1892. 10,000 words. and Peculiarities At the Penitentiary, Employment nals. Brooklyn Eagle Aug. 14, 1892. Mag. Institutions. Forum Law April, (Against 1892. Mob Vengeance). 1,050 words. July

20, of

Memphis 1,000

July 17, 1892. Insane? Albany


24, 1892.

78 : 769. Boston Herof Crimi-

3,000 words.





The Treatment Author of " Scenes from a Silent World." in Modern Greece. of Criminals Blackw. Mag. July, 1892. Tortures for Children. Child Slavery in Bache, Rene. New York, etc. Hartford Times Aug. 27, 1892. 2,500 words. The Production of Crime. Liberty July Bailie, William. 1,300 words. 31,1892. in England. Results of Reformatories Baker, T. B. L. Journ. Statis. Soc. 23: 427. Baker, T. B. L. Statistics of Crime in England. Journ. Statis. Soc, 23 : 427. Balch, W. B. Police Problem. International Review for Women. 13: 507. Bangs, Wm. McKendree.

State Reformatories

Chautauquan June, 1892. Crimes Against Working-Girls. Our Day Banks, Louis A. Oct., 1891. 1,900 words. and ReforBarnard, C. F. Mary Carpenter on Treatment mation of Convicts. Christ. Exam. 78: 250. Lakeside Mo. Beardsley, J. J. Convicted by a Dream.
6: 10.

Good Words n : 595. Beaton, P. Crime in the Army. on Crime and Its Punishment. Beccaria Old and New
10: 245.

Irish and English H. Crime. Cath. World Bellingham, 34: IThe Prison System in Tennessee. Bemis, E. W. CongreNov. 10, 1892. 1,200 words. gationalist The Heads of Criminals. Boston Herald Berry, James. 2,000 words. May 22,.1892. Identification of Criminals. Bertillon, J. Anthropometric The Times April 23, 1890. Bertillon Bait. News System ; in Maryland Penitentiary. Aug. 21, 1892.

1,500 words.



New and Pathetic Side of the Famous Bigelow, Henry. Train Robber Sensation in Tulane County, etc. S. F. Examiner Sept. 25, 1892. 7,000 words. a Protectory Binsse, L. B. for Prodigal Reformatory Cath. World. 42 : 577. Bishop Sons.

on Lynching. Editorial in N. Y. IndeFitzgerald pendent June 2, 1892. 900 words. Labor System in New York State. Bishop, J. B. Contract Nation 40 : 194. Presb. J. B. Crime of Passion and Reflection. Bittinger,
Ouar 2 : 219.

and Crime. Luth. Ouar. 5 : 481. J. B. Education of Society for causes of J. B. Bittinger, Responsibility Princ. Rev. 43 : 18. Crime. Inlernat. Jour. Ethics Black, R. W. Vice and Immorality. Bittinger, July, 1891. Crime. Blake, E. V. Spontaneous and Imitative Pop. Sci. Mo. 15 : 656. Foster's Wk. Dem. Aug. Borden Murder Case. Editorial, 1,200 words. 19.1892. Borden Murders (Strange Crimes). 1892. 8,000 words. N. Y. Press Aug. 14,

Theol. Rev. 5: 415. Bowring, J. Prison Labor. Prison Discipline. North Amer. Rev. 66:145. Bowen, F. Editorial in Phila. Nor. American Boy Criminals. Sep. 10, 1892. 600 words. Life in the Pennsylvania Industrial Boys Behind the Bars. N. Y. Press June 25, 1892. 2,100 words. Reformatory. Lord. Crime and Insanity. Bramwell, 19th Cent. 18: 893. in Italy. N, Y. Sun Oct. 2, 1891. Editorial, Brigandage 900 words. Prison Reform. Unita. Rev. 5 : 422. Brigham, C. H. British and Germans Stealing Natives in Australia. N. Y. People Sep. 25, 1892. 800 words. Brockway, Z. R. Criminal and the State. Forum 2 : 262.





Brockway, Amer. Brockway, North Brockway's Science



Indeterminate Soc. Sci. Needed Rev.





Journ. Z. R. Amer.

13 : 156. in Prison Reforms of Elmira of

Management. Reformatory. Amer. Soc.

137 : 40.

on Management Report 7 : 207.

Reformation Z. R. Brockway, Sci. Jour. 6 : 144. Z. R. The Elmira Brockway, May, Brooks, Browne, July, Brush, 1892. B. S. Detective E. C. Police. of to


Reformatory. Dublin



A Colony A. How

Rev. 50 : 150. Calcut. Rev. Murderers, Prevent Crime. Trade. Lend-AFall


Augustus Hand Feb., Jos. Aug. Z. Globe


1891. Prison R. 11, 1891. B. The into




Buddington, Mag. Burnet, Burnet, Bury

1,900 words. Prisoner, (A Prisons of

Poem.) Good

Harper's Words

49 : 36. W. Peeps Prisons

Paris. Words

15 : 601.


of Paris.


Problem of Crime The (de), S. B. tern. Rev. Aug., 1892. of Convict N. M. Butler, Competition 7 : 68, N. Butler, 117, 143. M. Problem of Convict

15 : 601. in France. Labor.


Science Science


7 : 28. Thomas. Byrnes,

for Country City Traps Boys. Nov. 3, 1892. 1,000 words. Companion Convict Lease System in the Southern Cable, G. W. 5 : 582. Century Call, S. F. Juvenile Crime. Month (Editorial.) 37 : 239. Oct. 750 words. Cameos from Prison









Reform. Sanitarian Prison Tancred. Aug., 1892. 1,000 words. Seattle Post-Intelligencer Punishment. Editorial, Capital Aug. 13, 1892. 1,050 words. Once a Visit to Prisons of Ireland. Mary. Carpenter, 5 : 656. Women as Prisoners. Case, Mrs. L. 0. Sept. 11, 1892. 1,000 words. Causes of Crime in New Jersey. Editorial, Sep. 20, 1892. 1,000 words. Week Census of Homicide. Seattle Topeka Phila. Capital Inquirer Nov. 2,


1892. of Crime. Force and Prevention E. Police Chadwick, Fraser's Mag. 77 : 1. How Crime in Scotland; W. Chambers, Investigated. Forth. Rev. 2:79/ Chamb. Journ. W. Chambers, Dealing with Criminals. 56: 273. Chandler, Joseph R. Outlines of Penology. Reprinted from Penn. Monthly, pp. 25. Philadelphia, 1875. Chicago Times Oct. 2, 1892. Thugs. Chicago Female 1,000 words. Lincoln Call Chinese Murder Societies in San Francisco. Sept. 4, 1892. 1,700 words. Desert News Christine, Geoffrey W. Mysterious Murders. Aug. 29, 1892. 2,600 words. Nature 19: 387. Church, A. A. Prison Bread. and Responsibility. Dr. Daniel. Crime Clark,


-Journ. Insanity April, 1891. and Crime and Church-Going, Intemperance Clay, J. Crime. Journ. Statis. Soc. 20: 22. by Good and Bad Times. Clay, J. Crime as Affected Journ. Statis. Soc. 20: 378. for Crime. Amer. Journ. Colby, J. F. Disfranchisement Soc. Sci. 17; 71.





C. Collin, ender



Education Editorial


Prisons. in Deseret

New News

EngAug. 18,

45 : 473. Contract Convict System. 800 words. 22, 1892. Convict Labor. Editorial, 1892. 1,150 words. Labor Problem. Convict

N. O. Times-Democrat Editorial in Mobile


Register 1893. 1892, 1,000

Aug. 19, 1892. 700 words. Labor. Providence Convict Journal words. Convict words. Outlaw Cooley words. J. Corning, Recent 1,600 Correction West Crapsey, Crapsey, W. Gang. N, Y. Sun Labor. Youth's Companion

Aug. Jan.

23, 7,

750 7,000 at 1892. 383


14, 1892. (Discussions Sept, R. 15, 101:


Congress). words. of Juvenile

Anthropology Christ. Regis. Criminals. Edin.

Words. 22: 458. R. 30: 137Good 11: 827. Criminals. E. Casual Galaxy Criminal Case in Russia. E. Galaxy 8: Detectives. on the in Galaxy Continent. France. 11 : 188. Dub. London Univ.

345. Mag.

Private E. Crapsey, Crime and Credulity 45 : 27. Crime 8: Crime Crime Crime Crime and Criminal



92. and English Law. Victoria Mag. 23 : 68-240. Dub. Univ. Mag. 34: and Its Consequences. London and Its Prevention. Mag. 23: 246. and Nationality. words. Socialism. in Editorial, Editorial, in N. Y. Post July


28, 1802. 27,

1,300 Crime and




1,100 words. Crime and Suicide Crime in Fiction.

England. Blackw. Mag.

Spect. Aug.,

64 : 585. 1890.




Crime Crime

and Oct.




in London



1,200 words. 29, 1892. and the Police. in Cities Feb. 16, 1892. New. A





A Criminality, St. Louis Globe-Dem. Crime and Criminal


by E. P. P. Feb. 21, 1892. 3,700 words. Rev. in the United States. Edin. Fraser's Punishment. Editorial Mag. 20 : 689. Bradstreet's July in N. O. Times-Dem.

1,200 words. Study of Alcoholism

Jul)', 1892. and Its Punishment. Crime Crime, Its Causes and 1,800 words. Its Causes.


1892. and Crime Aug.

1,000 words. 28,1892. Sat. Literature. Criminological Criminal Criminal Croft, H. of the Law Future.


70 : 265.


54 : 232. 1890. Spect. of the Future. Jour. Sci. 16 : 591. on Prisons. of Crime Fraser's Canad. by the Jour. State. (New Good

Treaties Taylor's 4 : 286. Series) Sir. W. Prevention Words 16 : 204. Prisons. Sir'W. Sir W. and of . Supervision


Crofton; Crofton, Cruel

Mag. of Habitual -

87 : 101. Criminals. of O'Neil

Good vs. State


16 : 433. Punishment. Unusual Editorial 2,700 in words.


(Case Seattle

Post-Intelligencer Nor; Amer.

16, 1892. C. A. Cummings, Rev. 86 : 60. May Curiosities of

Reformatory Law.

Institutions. Leis. Methodist Hour


50 : 58 ; 31 : 45 :609. a Model

282, 533. D. Increase Curry, Dana, Rev. School. M. M. York Aug.

of Crime. G.


Q. Rev. Work and


in New Danger N. Y. Press

April, 1891. - Gangs of Young Streets. 7. 2,500 words.






on Imprisonment. Spect. 58 : 82. Monist, April, 1892. Delboef, J. On Criminal Suggestion. Overland Mo. (new series) Prison Labor, Delvin, R. T. 7 : 504Overof Juvenile Delinquents. Treatment Dooley, E. T. land Mo. (New Series) 1 : 211. Nor. Frederick. Lynch Law in the South. Douglass, Amer. Rev. July, 1892. Prison Life, Adventurous Drake, J. M. Escape from. Davit Mag. Am. Hist. 14 Dudley, Oscar L. The Lend-A-Hand May, Dugdale, R. L. Origin : 404. Illinois 1891. of Crime Training-School in Society. for Boys Atlan. Mo.

48 : 452, 735 ; 49 : 243. Vol. xi, Larkin. Moral Education. Education, Dunton, Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10. 1891. Knickerbocker Convict's Tale. Mag. 37 : Dupuy, E. A.

Increase of Crimes Against Life. Dutton, H. lander 2 : 346. Female Convicts, O. H. Dutton, Harper's 193-

New EngMag. 28 :

Juvenile Crime and the 19th Century Ishmael. Egerton, H. National Rev. 5 : 589. Prison Discipline. Christ. Exm. 10 : 15. Eliot, S. A. of Criminals. Amer. Soc. Sci. Eliot, W. G. Treatment Jour. 8 : 79. and Crime. Increase of Material Elliott, J. H. Prosperity Hunt's Merchant's Magazine 61 : 239. Lend-A-Hand Elmira Journ. April, 1892. Reformatory. Mrs. E. C. The Prisoner. Godey's Ladies' Bk. Embeiy,
21 : 146.

Spect. 56 : 894. Escape of Criminals. Evans, H. R. Study of Criminals ; Interview Balti. Sun. News July 17, 1892. cialist.

a Spe1,200 words.




Crime R. Everest, Rev. 19: 268. E. Prison Everett, Every Lynching Louis Republic


Pauperism. North Murders.


Bow's Rev.


Discipline. Makes More March Crime.

Amer. 800 words. May


37: 117. in St.

5, 1892. To-Day of

(The) Factory words. Fairfield, 15: Falkner, Fletcher, Statis. Fletcher, 10: Fletcher, 15: F. 15. R. P. Acad. J. G.




550 Journ. Ann.

Philosophy Internat. Pol. Sci.

Crime. Law in

Appleton's Association. Britain. Statis. Statis.

Criminal 1:159. Crime and


of Progress Soc. 6: 218. Education


Journ. Soc. Soc.

J. 193. J. 1.


Journ. Journ.



of Criminal R. The New School Fletcher, Anthropology. Amer. iv., 201-236. Anthrop. 1891. Sheriff. Done. Fortin, Hanging Scientifically Ex-Deputy St. Louis Fortune, of T. Globe-Democrat Thomas. N.' Oct. Slaughter Y. Herald 16, 1892. in the South Aug. 21, 2,000 words. ; Treatment 1892. 3,200

Negroes, words. C, Elijah Forum ment.


Fqster, Mary F. ' 1,600 words. ington June 1, 1892. Homes for Miss. Fowke, (London.) Lend-A-Hand Aug.-Sept., 1890. Frank, The Henry. 2,200 words. Senate Prisons and Crime of War. Criminals.

or Punitive Prison ManageReformatory Dec, 1891. The Death Penalty. Kate Field's WashCriminal 20th Cent. Children. Feb.


French French

on Habilual Convict



57 : 1,132. Cornhill Mag.

46 : 74.





Fyfe, Gale,

Crime J. H. C. E. N. Humor. Frank for

and At the

Criminals. Police Wk.




Headquarters; Oct. 13, 1892. of 4,000 Plea Cruelty words. for.

4 : 97. Pathos and 2,600 to words.

Gerry's Society N. Y. World Gilbert, W.


Children, Words 8 : 622. Rev. Jan.,

July 19, 1892. as Criminals, Boys Discharged The Police


7 : 279W. Gilbert, Giles, A. H.

Convicts. of Calcutta. and




1889. N. P. Gilman, Lend-A-Hand Gilmour, John

Humane H. April, Indian

Education 1890. Justice.


of Crime.

S. F. Chronicle Nation Law. Briider



1,900 words. 1892. E. L. Prison Godkin, Discipline. and the E. L. Criminals Godkin, Gould, S. B. The Murder in the 61 : 41. Green, Anna

9 : 206. Nation 8 : 106. Strasse. Belgravia N. Y. World Christ.






Aug. 21, 1892. F. W. Greenwood, 16 : 25. R. Gregory, 772. W. Griffis, Hacker, E. Crime

2,500 words. Prison P. and


Exm. Rev. 6 :



J. 700 words. E. Hale, Edward

Prisons. Japanese Truth Land Robbery. Increase of Crime.

Overland Seeker

Mo. Dec.

15 : 289. 12, 1891. June,


1890. E. Moral Education in the Schools. Lend-AHale, Edward Hand June. 1890. E. Rev. Oscar C. McCullock, Lend-A-Hand Hale, Edward Jan., 1892. Hall, Mrs. M. R. ian 9 : 430. Reform Schools. West. and Civil-




How G. Halley, Rev. 7 : 67. Hammick, J. T. Jour. Hamilton, ton's Hamilton, that

to Treat


and Criminals. Crime in


Statistics of Judicial Statis. Soc. 30 : 375. Detection A. Mc L. Scientific 15 : 825. Comparison Maybrick. Maybrick 3,400 words. A. Involuntary Louis The

England. Applewith 1892. Oct. No.

of Crime.

Jour. Gail. of Mrs.

of Case of Lizzie Boston Case. Journ.

Borden 30,


1,100 words. Gail. Hamilton, 28, 1892. W. Hammond, Amer. Hands of Rev.

N. Y. Tribune to Crime.


135 : 422. Murderers. St. 2,600 words. E. Gathorne. Rev. 3 : 591. Prison.

Globe-Democrat of Prisoners.


10, Na-

1892. A. Hardy, tional

Examination N. Y. Times of Prison and

Horrible Hayti's words. Hazlitt, pher Hibbard, May Hibbard, W. C. 6 : 70. George

July 20, 1891.


Catalogue S.

Literature. Crimes. Nor. Contem. of Crime.

Bibliogra20th Amer. Cent. Rev.


26, 1892. George

1,400 words. S. Prison Discipline. Industrial Schools.

47 : 452Hill, A. English Scheme Hill, E. Sci. Hill, Hill, E.

for Extinguishment of Crime.

Rev. 41 : 106. Am. J. Soc.

17 : 99. Prevention The

Governor. Jan., 1892. W. Mary


Jour. Statis. Soc. 25 : 497. Power. Nor. Amer. Rev. and Reforma10 : 412. series) National Rev.

Hincks, tion

Hoare, I. : 824.

on Treatment Carpenter of Convicts. Canad. Jour, (new H. E. Homes of Criminal Classes.





in England. F. W. Prison Christ. Holland, Discipline Exm. 74 :" 232. and Crime. O. W. Automatism Allan. Mo. Holmes, 35 : 466. Fall River Globe Lizzie M. Cradle of Crime. Holmes, 1,300 words. June 7, 1892. T. Visit to the House of Correction. Hopkins, Mag. 90 : 550. Florence M. Kansas Prison Life. Hopkins, Ocean Nov. 6, 1892. 2.700 words. A Month's Prison Notes. Horsley, J. W.
15 : 321.

Dub. Chicago Sunday

Univ. InterMag.

from Walls of Prisons. SunHorsley, J. W. Inscriptions day Mag. 15 : 170. M. Dinner in a State Prison. Hosmer, Lippinc Mag. 17 : 497. the Youthful How Society is Protected by Reforming Criminal. Boys at St. Cloud Reformatory, by G. St. Paul Pioneer Press Sept. 11, 1892. 4,000 words. Atlan. Mo. 49 : 1. W. D. Visit to a Police Court. Howells, in the United Crime Stales, Increase of; Hutter, E. W. Its Cause and Cure. Evang. Rev. 11 : 61. and Crime. Editorial in Argonaut Immigration Sept. 26. 1,000 words. 1892. in N. O. Picayune, Relation of Crime to. Editorial Insanity, Jan. 17, 1892. 650 words. and Criminal Medical Editorial, Insanity Responsibility. and Surgical Reporter Aug. 20, 1892. 1,000 words. and Crime. Editorial in Brooklyn Times Aug. 31, Insanity 1892. 1,000 words. In the Museum of Crime. New York street, (Mulberry Police N. Y. World Headquarters.) Sept. 25, 1892. 1,300 words. Is Criminal Anthropology Ireland, Dr. Wm. W. (Scotland). a Science ? Medico-Legal Journ. June, 1891.

316 C. A. Sci. and









18 : 306.

B.' F. PunishA., Wey Wm. C, Sherman, Jacobi, Capital ment (Report). Sanitarian July, 1892. F. Criminals Imperfect. Jacox, Bentley's 54: Miscellany 486. H. Jakes, Reparation Mo. 25 : 508. Prisons Jarves, J. J. to of Innocent and Convicts. their Prisoners. Pop. Sci. Har-


per's Mag. 7 : 599. Prison Jeffrey F. Discipline. B. BM Supremacy Johnson,

Edin. of Law.


30 : 463. Lend-A-Hand


1,800 words. 1892. in Jail; His Fare in Model Prison of America. John Smith Bost. Herald Oct. 2, 1892. 4,000 words. Omaha Convicts. Bee Oct. 23, 1892. Editorial, Juvenile 2,500 words. Juvenile Crime and Destitution. Eclect. 0. 5: Chamb. Jour. 12 : 281, 247. 385Edin. R. 2: 297; of Juvenile Delinquency. R. 94: 403Irish 10: 69. Delinquents. Juvenile Irish 0. 4: 1. Juvenile C. Delinquents, E. T. Jones, Indus. 14,000 Depravity. 9: R. 91 : 200; 99: 773Prospective Obs. of. 54: A

Christ. Treatment


F. Barnard, of Wilson 1892. Juvenile Mag. Juvenile J. 9: W.

Gerry, C. T. Lewis, Sch. words. Eclect.

C. L. Brare, Samuel Colgate, N. Y, R.

Symposium by I. R. H. Clarke, W. and Matron 3, March


223Hogg's for. 330Remedies Society 165. The in Danger Secret of

Lon. 91 : 200Sharpe's Instructor 2: 148-398; 3: 40Instructor 4: 300. Hogg's from Children. Prospective Calcut. Rev. Rev.









J. W.

M. Post

Crime Nov. O.

in Italy;

Connection 2,400 words.


Politics. Waifs. 11 : 22.

N. Y. Cath.

12, 1892.

Keatinge, World Kellogg, Kennard,

Schools Reformatory 37 : 408. Prison D. O. Discipline. Caroline A.

English American

of in Employment Progress Lend-A-Hand Matrons. Sep., 1892. of Pardon on Populace). Editorial, King Case (Effect 800 words. Aug. 14, 1892. phis Sun. Times Kleptomaniacs. 3,200 words. Knight, Knight, 37: A. G. A. G. 22. Dimitri. Prison The Horrors. " Naked Command." Chronicle in Prisons. Its N. Y. Commer. Flaw Prisons in Convict of Paris Advertiser July



18, 1891.

Month 39: 548. System. Month under the Commune. Some June of 18,

Konoplitski, Russia's 1892. Krapotkin, Cent. Lambert, Boston Lanciani, Rome. Langerfeld, 168. Lanin, Lathrop, E. B. R.

St. Louis

2,500 words. Prince. French 19 : 407. Henry. The Study Aug.

Experience of Crime.

19th etc.


Transcript Rodolfo. Nor. E.

4,000 words. 13, .1892. and Cheating in Ancient Gambling Amer. Rev. July, 1892. of Convict The Labor. Truth. Science Fortn. Mag. no Bars, 1892. 7: R. 67 : no

Competition Prisons:

Russian H.


Prisoners, The Whittier F.

a Story. Reform

Harper's School, Sept. in 25,

503Annie. Laurie, Locks, words. Lea, H. 19: C. 60. A. R. etc.


Examiner of Crime

4,000 Nation


History Prison 14: 353.

England. of Our

Leffingwell, Internat.




318 L. Crime A.



in England Abolition A Study Illustrative Jan. The

in 1857-76. of Prisons.

Journ. Unitar.

Statis. R.


43 : 423A. Livermore, 237. Lombroso, 1892. Lombroso, pology. Lombroso, Monist London Lossing,

34: June,

(S.) Cesare. Cesare. Monist Cesare.

of Mobs. Studies

Chautauquan in Criminal of the


1891. Physiognomy Sat. Anarchists.

1S91. April, and French Police. Prison Negro Shops.

B. J. A. Lundeborg, 20th Cent. in Lynching, words. Lynching script Lynching Cent. Lynch Law of

R. 54: 47. Patter. Amer. a Foreigner's 1,300 words. Sun the June South.


6 : 1. of It, 1,400 Tran20th



Sept. 8, 1892. New York. N.

Y. in

11, 1892. Boston



June 24, 1891. the Southern Aug. 4, 1892. in the South.

1,000 words. Negro. Editorial by J. F. 950 words. Editorial in

Columbia Course Crime.

Register in CrimLend-A-

1,000 words. June 9, 1892. Mac Donald, Clark Arthur. University; inology, Mac Mac Donald, Hand Feb., Donald, Congress 1892. Maconochie, Journ. Mafiosi, 2,100 pp. 154. Arthur. 1892. Arthur. words. on Norfolk Monist The The 1892. Oct., 1890. Science of International Seminary,

at Brussels, 3,400

Criminological Oct. Elmira, Island,


Convicts Captain. Statis. Soc. 8 : 1. The. words. St. Louis

1843. 1892.

Globe-Democrat and

July Results


Mallalieu, Aims, Methods, John I. School Training. Lend-A-Hand

of Reform-






319 Punishment. No Amer.

Lord. Manley (De), Macml. Magazine


Criminals, Inhuman. and ? of Diseased Editorial, Prison

H. C. Manning, R. 141: 301. of Criminals, Drunkards, Marriage Shall it be Restricted by Law Nov. Marshall, World Martin, Mag. Martin, 1892. A. Matet, McCallum, Plan 1,000 words. 1892. View A. F. Catholic 44: 42. Caroline. Nov. The Tombs

29 : 145. Crime in England

Persons; Argonaut Life. Cath.

J. B.

12, 1892. Civilization

1,500 and Crime. and Crime.

(New words.

York). Humanitarian



Intoxication AR-


and Delinquency of Cure. Statis. Soc. iS : 356. Journ. The Male and Female McCann, J. E. Gallery, Rogues' Frank Criminals. Les. Wk. n, 1,200 Aug. 1892. words. Juvenile M'Clean, 20th M'Clean, Century McClelland, Wm. Cent. Win. Jan. Arch. Nov. How Crimes 1,200 are words. are of Made. 20th Created. N. Y.

Sep., 1892. the Glasgow

5, 1891. Arch. How


1,100 words. 7, 1892. Criminals the Product Sophia. Med. H. Record 42 : 96-100. Crime and Against Macmil. Cure of


Degeneracy. D. McFarlane, Inequality McGee, J. G. 18:55. McKee, John M.

of Sentence. Origin

1892. and Person, Property Mag. 45 : 404. Crime. Cath. World ?

Is Crime



Opinion Cumb. Cath. 0.

Oct. 4 :

29, 1892. McKee, J. M.

700 words. Where Reform F. What Fills

is Needed. our

353. 445F. A. McKenna, May, 1892,





McKnight, June Meason, Meason,





Penalty. 19th Cent. Detectives. Macmil. Macmil. N. Y.

Churchman 13 : 765. Belgravia Mag. Mag. Herald in 45 : 296. 46 : 192. May Crime 22, in

1,700 words. 25, 1892. Detective Police. M. L. M. L. Experience French Police on with

19 : 490. M. L. Meason, Meason, Medical 1892. Meredith, Prisons. M. L. Experts 4,500 E. A.

Detectives. of London.

Criminality. words.

Compulsory Andov. Rev. 4:


A. S. Difficulties Meyrick, Rev. 11 : 234. A. S. Meyrick, Improvements nat.

125. of Prison

Discipline. Discipline.

Internat. Inter-

in Prison

Rev. 10 :~3o6. - Statistics of-Crime M-ichellrT. Soc. 27 : 369. Industrial W. Mitchell, Good Modern Words


-Journ-. and


Training Journal Act.

Ships Oct.


Brigands. words. Lord.

27 : 766. N. Y. Crimes


1892. . . 19th

2,000 Cent.

Monteagle, Morrison, Morse,,E. August, E. Mosher, Soc. Sci. Mouat, Mouat, F. J. Soc. 39: F. J.

English. Christ. Crime. Women. Statistics. Discourse Criminals. Prison

17 : 1,072.

Prison J. H. Discipline. and S. Natural Selection 1892. M. Health 16 : 46. International 311. Notes of Criminal Prison

Exm. Pop. Amer.

44 : 273. Sci. Mo.

Journ. Statis.


on M. Bertillon's of 1890. and

on the AnJourn. An-

182-198. Ethics F. J. Mouat, On Prison Statis. Soc. Sci. liv.: Royal

thropometric Inst, throp.

Measurement xx.:

Labor. 1891.







and Statistics of Lower Discipline Journ. Statis. Soc. 35 : 57. Bengal. Prison Statistics and Discipline in Lower Mouat, F. J. Bengal. Journ. Statis. Soc. 25 : 175; 30: 21. Good Words 19: Munro, J. Visit to Prisons of Cayenne. 746. Murderer's Hand. Boston Beacon, Sep. 3, 1892. 800 words. Murder Problem. Editorial in (on A. D. White's Lecture) Seattle 24, Post-Intelligencer Aug. 1892. 850 Mouat, words. Murder: Statistics. N. Y., N. O. Times-DemoEditorial, crat July 24, 1892. 1,000 words. Murder Will Out; Crimes of Cave Dwellers. Wash. Star Nov. 9, 1892. 1,500 words. Murder Editorial in Seattle Post-Intelligencer Will Out. July 29, 1892. 1,500 words. Myrick, A. S. Convict Labor and the Labor Reformers. Princ. R. (new series) 11 : 196. The Parisian Street Urchin. West. Negreponte, Mary. R. Nov., 1892. Neison, F. G. P. Statistics of Crime in England. Journ. Statis. Soc. 9 : 223. W. W. Rats. Amer. FolkNewell, Conjuring Journ. Lore Vols. 23-32. 1892. St. Louis Globe-Dem. Newgate Prison (History). July 12, 1891. 6,500 words. Lord. Crime, How- to be Treated. Nugent, People's Journal 3: 233, 302, 362; 4: 62-308; 5 : 107. G. of Criminals. R. Odger, Employment Contemp. 15 = 463and Their Treatment. Cath. O'Leary, C. M. Criminals World 26: 56. S. F. ChronOswald, Felix L. Legal Methods of Torture. icle July 31, 1892. 1,300 words.

F. J.




Felix Oswald, Dem. Nov. Oswald, Felix







2, 1892. Felix Oswald,

6, 1892. 1,500 words. L. Modern Brigands. 1,500 words. L. Prison Problems.

S. F. Chronicle Court




2,600 words. 1892. St. Louis Paris Police. words. Parkhurst's Plan.

Post-Dispatch by a

Sep. 25, 1892. European Exm. St. Louis




Oct. 30, 1892. N. Y. Journal F. Prison Parkman, Discipline. Paroling Aug. First Offenders. Editorial

2,500. Christ. in

27:381. Republic Journ. Amer. ConCrime.

Pascoe, 12 :457-584Peckard, J. L. Rev.

13, 1891. 850 words. of England. Prisons C. E. Why Crime is Increasing. Concerning Reform

Appleton's North Prisons. of Juvenile

140: 466. Peck F. Official Optionism temp. Rev. 46 : 72. Prevention and Peirce, B. K. Meth. O. 32 :6oi. Pennsylvania 1847-1893. Pentecost, Cent. Pentecost, mora Hugh July O. Legal Journal of Prison

Discipline at

and Philanthropy. Sing Sing-. 20th


16, 1891. 1,700 words. Tortures Nineteenth Hugh O. Century Editorial in 20th Cent. Feb. Prison). Rights of Life. Convicts. Leis. Old Flour and

(Danne18, 1892. New 9 :

700 words. F. B. Perkins, 495Phenomenon

of Criminal D.

6 : 377-639. Calcut.jRev. Meth. Ouar.

H. H. Phillips, Oct. 1887; B. K. Pierce, 28: 387.

Penal Law. Comparative Jan. and Oct. 1888. Reformation of Criminals.





Pierce. Mag. Plummer,


School and

at Its

Westborongh, Prevention. 6 : 690. Hour 6:11. Crime. the Journ.

Mass. Lon.


5 : 165. Crime J.



432. Police Detectives. Policeman Porter, 10: Powderly, in London. G. R. 316. T.

Leis. Education

Hour Leis. and



V. of

Criminals Knights of

and Labor

Journal words. Prison

Competitive System. Oct.' 1,800 15, 1891. 12: 313. Editorial

The New. American Discipline, Prison Labor on Roads, of. Question Press Feb. 22, 1892. 1,000 words. Prisons Prisons Prison Prison in France. on the Pets. Cornh. Mag. Continent. Cham.



Proper Bost.

Journ. Leis. Hour 2 : 678. Scenes in 1833. " To and For" Criminals, Treatment Com. for of Wealth Criminal Nov. 5, 1892. Blunders. New G. H. Is it

46 : 74. Bar 89 : 87. Temp. 60: 421.


Editorial, 1,000 words. of 10, N. Y.

Punishment Board

Criticism Sep.



Yorker Detroit

1892. Dec,

1,700 words. of Crime, Punishment by E. 13, 1891. 850 words. Punitive Action of Society, Summary R. Quiddam, St. James Rantoul,


? Editorial Justifiable Oct. 9, 1892. 1,200 words. Recruits for the Ranks of Crime. Criminals, to Crime. of North

Jr., Amer. R. 47: 311. Rev. Rashdall, Hastings. Internat. Journ. Ethics Rawson, Soc. R. W. 3: 331.

Mag. 37 : 380. of R. Relation

Ignorance The Theory




1891. and Criminals.





Mrs. Prisoner of Cath. Chillon. Raymond, 23 : 857. D. B. Correction of Juvenile Criminals. Read, Mo. 18: 548. Record of Crime. Banking Chamb. in America. Editorial L. Journ. Oct. 1, 1892. words. Reformatories. Reformatories Reform Work. Journ. 51 : 744. Irish Q. 7 : 1092. S. Twentieth by J. W.





Aug. C. Reeve, ' 1,600 C. Reeve, Ann. Reeve,

700 words. 25, 1892. to the Prisoner. H. A Word words. H. Amer. Preventive Acad. Society Legislation

Summary in Relation



to Crime.

C. H.

Sep., 1892. and the Criminal. words. Miners Against 6,200 words. Convict for in

Summary Labor.

Sep. N. Y.

1,000 11,1892: of Tennessee Revolt Sun July Richmond, Meth. Roberts,

23, 1891. Reformatories J. F.

Dangerous Road Making; Convict

Classes. En-

Q. 33 : 455. Albert. Convict

Labor of

Mag. July, 1892. gineering The Iniquity Albert. Roberts, Engineering Wm. Roberts, Fortn. Robinson, series) Robinson, Christ. Rogers, H.



Mag. Sep., 1891. The Administration 1892. Prison

3,900 words. of Justice in Gent.


R. Jan., F. W. 28: 656.




G. What to do with Mary Incorrigibles. Wk. Feb. 13, 1892. 1,400 words. Education and Crime. Edin. Rev. 86 : 512. be Done and with Our Criminals ?

is to H. What Rogers, Edin. Rev. 86 : 214. Roscoe, 21: E. 561. Crime, Capital,








Round, Roux,


M. L.


Experience Phases of Crime in Prisons. of Crime


Criminals. Paris. Cath. Fortn. World

Forum, Dec.

1 : 434Hugues 1891. Rubory, Russell, Journ. Sanborn, F. A. W. Religion Statistics Soc. 10 : 114. 1839-43. Amer. Rev. in England North in

Statis. F. B.

10 : 38. Prisons. American Reformatories in

103 : 383. F. B. Sanborn, Radical Sanborn, Amer. Sanborn, Amer. Scaffold

Massachusetts, in America.

1866. North

1 : 480. Prison F. B. Rev. F. 105 : 555. B. Reforms 102 : 210. of

Discipline in Prison

Discipline. St. Louis

North Post-Dis-

Rev. Sign



1,200. Sept. 18, 1892. patch Scientific Detection of Crime. Journ. Sci. 3 : 347. and Our E. I. Our Criminals Sears, Judiciary. Rev. 20 : 374. A. Sedgwick, 38 : 206. Sedgwick, 659. Sedgwick, A. G. W. Treatment of Habitual Criminals. A. G. Main Obstacle to Prison of Reform.









1 :


25 : 23. Rev. Selleck, Sermon). N. W. Senior, Edin. Service, J.



Mt. Rocky Remarkable

of (Abstract News Oct. 24, 1892. 900 words. and Trials in Germany. Crimes of Criminals Good Words 19 : 197,


82 : 318. and Convicts Causes


378,541H. Seymour, Shand, 594A. I.

of Crime. System


Pop. Sci. Mo. 2 : 589. of London. Blackw. 140;




C. D.



of and of



Atlant. of

Mo. Prisons. 51 :

235 : 279. A. Shuman, Lakeside Simmons. 98. Simulated B.

Management Mo. 1 : 225. The Prisoner

Discipline Blackw.



Criminals. Leis. Insanity Among Sixty Years of Crime (15,000 Cases Analyzed). 3,200 words. Ledger July 26, 1892. Skene, Skene, F. M. F. F. M. F. Prison Visiting. Fraser's of St. Michel. Cornhill


6 : 581. Phila. Pub.


102 ; 762. Mag. Good Words 61 : 34, 377.

11 : 65 ; 14 : 144. Sketches of Criminals in Court. 1890. W. Slater, B. of


Catalogue The


Literature, vs. Rev. Crime.


6 : 183. rapher A. Tolman. Smith, pendent E.Smith, Nov.



17, 1892. Prison Labor.




5 : 225. T. Eastern Smith, Smith, Smith, Sydney.





-for Prisoners. Untried

2 : 175. Edin. Rev. Prisoners. Edin. Rev. Y.

Punishment of Sydney. Rev. 39 : 229. State of Prisons Smith, Sydney. 35: Smith, 286. Suppression in Smuggling 1,900 words. in the Sydney. and Smugglers " 14,1892. Sociology Periodical "

45 : 74. Edin. Rev.


England, Edin. N.

of Crime. the North.

13 :333. Sun Aug. and Massa-

Bulletin of Weekly Literature. Mass. Boston, Has Crime

Newspaper in

Warren F. Spalding, chusetts ? Forum Warren Spalding, Lend-A-Hand F. Sep.,


Jour. 1892. The Hopeful 1892.

Side of Prison






Spalding, ers.





of Discharged


Oct. 20, 1892. 1,500 words. Congregationalist Statistics of Crime and Creed. Cong. Mag. 26 : 995. to be Tortured W. T. Stead, Mary Maybrick Ought Death Stephen, 755Stephen, ii.: Stephen, 453Stetson, And. Strade, G. R. R. Crime and Literacy in Massachusetts. 2 : 271. B. Heredity J. 626. J. F. Criminal Law of England. 19th 19th Cent. J. ? Review F. of Reviews of Nov., Crime. 1892. 19th 7,000 Punishment Cent.


words. 17: Cent.



as Witnesses.

20 :

and Vice in Society). (Crime Julia Science 1,100 words. Sep. 30, 1892. S. H. K. Instinctive Its Character Strahan, Criminality; and i-xi.: Streng, National 811-813. Samuel. Treatment. 1892. Charities Rept. and words. and Attempts at Character Aug. 19, 1802. Christ. Ref2,200 E.xam. Brit. Assoc. Ad. Sci.


N. Y.


2,400 July 21, 1892. Prisons Study of Crime. ormations. words. Sumner,



Transcript Prison




Discipline. Christ. Exm.

Sumner, Suppression Meth. Surr, Mrs.


Prison of Crime Adv. Aug.

Discipline. (Not 11, 1892.

a Disease).

40: Editorial

122. in Pacific

800 words. 9 : 649. Affected

Sweeting, Structural Tainsch, E.

Juvenile Delinquency. 19th Cent. 01 Prisons R. D. R. Health as Arrangements. C. Education Journ. and Crime. We Statis. Amer.


Soc. 47 : 125. Journ. Educ.

11 : 77. T. Talmage, ishment?

De Witt. N.


Shall Feb.


Y. Voice

18, 1892.

PunCapital 1,400 words.







Prison and

Discipline. Crime. West. West.


Exam. and 9 :

3 : 203.

M. Tarver, Civilian Tarver, M.

Education 8; 297. Reform C.

Journ. and Civil.



75.218. W. Taylor, Rev.


and its Punishment.

Bentley's Bentley's

Quar. Miscel8 ;

6 : 476. W. C. Taylor, Juvenile lany 7 : 470. W. C. Taylor, Juvenile 355Templer, April Tiedeman, other George. 17, 1892. G. G. than Borneo

Delinquency. Labor. Head

Bentley's Hunters. of

Miscellany S. F. Chronicle

3,000 words. Police Control

by Criminal Odd Star Ways,

Classes Dangerous Prosecutions. Am. Law Rev.. Oriental Ethics of Murder. 2 ,

195 : 47and Their Thugs Washington C. F. Thwing, 547W. Todd, G.

June 25, 1892. 1,900 words. Moral Instruction in Prisons. Educat.

Reformatories and Industrial English Month 13 : 319. Tonnies of Kiel), Dr. F. The Prevention (Univ. Internat. D. Torrey, Hand Feb. Ethics. Journ. C. Education 1890, C. Is Crime H. Oct. in a 1891. Reformatory. in at

Schools. of Crime.


D. Torrey, Lend-A-Hand Townsend, I3;4I9Townsend, rence. Treatment Eclect. C.


Massachusetts. Munich. Colorado Brit. Rev. Zoist Occur10:

Jan. 1890. Prison Discipline Trial by Lynch Law, North

R. B.

19th Cent. of Juvenile Mag.

1892. Aug. Criminals.


2 : 350.




Undiscovered E. Vincent, Comlem.

Crimes. C. H. Rev.

All How

the Year, 67 : 321. to Aid Discharged

1890. Prisoners. of (Criticism N. Y. JourBelgravia July 15,

43 : 325. and His A. P. Mr. Gerry Society Wagener, to Children). Soc. for Preven. of Cruelty nal Walters, 800 words. Aug. 21, 1892. Detective's F. G. A Private E. The Crime of in Law. Chili. Story.

60 : 347. Anna Walton,

Lucifer St. to Louis Crime.

1,300 words. 1892. Fannie B. Criminals Ward, Demoerat Warker, Sci. Warner, Van Mo. C. D. Oct.


30, 1892. 3,000 words. Relations of Women de, E. 8:1, 334, 727. Education as a Factor of in

Pop. Reform. Amer. Exam. 26 : 54. by the 5,000

Prison North Christ. Exm. Recalled

Harper's C. Warner, Rev. Waterston, 52:

Mag. 72 : 444. D. Management Juvenile


140 : 291. R. C.

Depravity. Christ. Crime Aug.

39'R. C. Waterson, A. E. Watrous, Fall River F. A. words. Wayland, Webb, Webster, Journ. Wechsler, words. Weiss, 52; Welch, Sep., S. A.

Prison Prof.

Discipline. Webster's

Mystery. Prison

N. Y. Press

28, 1892.

Nor. Discipline. Reformatories in Ireland, Visit to Our State

Amer. Nation Prison.

R. 49 : I. 37 : 159. Appleton's

Jr., A. David.


Talk About Superintendent Byrnes's Grand Rapids Herald Sep, 11, 1892. 1,300 of Abigail as a Cure Tempest. for Harper's Mag. Forum


490. H. Publicity 1S92.




Welling, James C. The Law of Torture. July, 1892. Wells, Ida B. Lynch Law in the South Its Phases. New York Age June words. Wells, J. T. Prison


Anthrop. in all 6,000

Discussed 25, 1892.

the Civil War Experience During Soth. Hist. Soc. Papers 7 : 324, 393, 487. 1861-1865. O. Chinese Prisons. Overland Mo. 11 : 314. Wermuth, Western Counterfeiters ; Types of. St. Louis Globe-Democrat Aug. 14, 1892. 3,000 words. Wheatley, R. Thieves of New York. Cosmopolitan 9: 22. When Shall a Prisoner be Discharged ? Editorial in Summary, Elmira, Sep. 25, 1892. 1,500 words. White, Andrew D. Boston Commonwealth. Sept. 17, 1892. 3,000 words. The Murder Problem in the United White, Andrew D. Herald States. 17, 1892. Chautq. Assembly Aug. 3,000 words. Who. is to Blame (Treatment of Lizzie Borden) ? Boston Home Journal Oct., 1892. 1,600 words. German Reform School. Amer. Wichern, J. H. Journ. Educa. 22 : 589. iii.: 303-310. Wilde, W. C. Notes on Thief-Lore, 1890. in London. Old and New Williams, J. Prison Mission 7 : 243.- 365Should They be Examined ? 19th Prisoners: Wills, -A. Cent. 3 : 169. Princeton Wines, E. C. Cause and Cure of Crime. Rev. (new series) 1 : 784. . Prison Reform. Internat. Rev. Wines, E. C. International 3 : 368. of New York. Meth. O. Wines, E. C. Prison Association
24 : 90.

Wines, E. C. Prison Reform at Home 8 : 539.

in the United






331 Presb. Rev.

Wines, 558. Wines,













Principles 1,800 Good of




Christ. Winkvvorth, Woodbridge, Spec. Woodbury,

Dec. 24, 1891. Regis. C. Convicts. English W. C. Prevention 8 : 192. A. Prison 32 : 70. Prison Life in

words. Words 6 : 446. Mo.



Discipline Reform. Reformatory, Old




Englander Woodbury, Woods, dov. Wreford, Young, 1890. Zediker, N. R. A. A.



3 : 755. An-


Rev. H. Joshua.

13 : 31. Prisons

of Naples. Moral Education.


9 ; 485. Lend-A-Hand May Mob Law. Boston


Capital Helen.



Investigator Zimmern, Political

1,600 words. Jan. 20, 1892. Professor Lombroso's New Black, Mag. Feb. 1891.







Congres 1885, Premier

Penitentiaire 5 vols. Rome,

International Rome, 1887.



Novembre, Acts du

Congres p. 549.

International Novembre,

d'Anthropologie 1885.

Criminelle, Alinquist. Alinquist.

La Suede. Reforme Penitentiaires en Suede. 1872. Penitentiaire

de la Reforme Resume Alinquist. Historique en Suede Depuis 1800. 1885. Annales et de Medecine de'Hygiene Legale. La Recidive, Louis. Paris, Andre, 1892. Annuaire onies, de la Gendarmerie de la Garde d'lnterieur


Maritime, Arboux, Archives J. de

June, Les Prisons

Republicaine Paris. 1890. de Paris,

de l'Algerie, des Colet de la Gendarmerie

1890. Paris, et des 1881. Sciences

Penales, Aubry, Bataille, Dr. 1888.

L'Anthropologie Paris. Lyon

pp. 388. Criminelle

et Bruxelles. du Meutre, pp. 184. Paris, de 1888, i8mo.


La Contagion Causes

Albert. Causes


et Mondaines

pp.386. A. Bataille, Paris, Bataille, 307. Beccaria. Beltrami, ale, Breaud,


1889. Criminelles

et Mondaines

de 1891,

1892. A. Causes Paris, Des Scalia 1 Annee,


et Mondaines

de 1890, Paris,


1892. et des Peines, Deiits M. Statislique Rome, E. 1879.

pp. 251. Penitentiaire




J., et Chaude, Paris,

1875. Manuel Complete






333 des Con-







damues. Beranger.

Paris, 1821. De la Repression

Penale. Re-

le Professeur. Criminelles. Bernheim.M. Suggestions vue de 1'Hypnotisme, ier Mars, 1890. Bernheim. Psychotherapie. Hypnotisme, Suggestions 1890. Bertheau. ble. De la Transportation 1881. des Recidivistes



Paul. Code Berton, Paris, 1886. Bertillon, Alphonse.

de la Relegation

et des Recidivistes. du Service des

Sur le Fouctionnement

Signalements Reichenwald. Birch, Norvege. Le Boechi. Mendiantes. Boechi. Des

1888. Anthropometriques, Lyon, pp. 22. sur l'Histoire Notice de Penitentiaire at Rome.) de Correction les Petites

(Congress Grand Asile

pour Asiles

Moscow, 1877. et des Colonies Agricoles


St. Petersbourg, 1868. L. Communication Bodio, tique Bonneville.

de la Statissur 1'Organisation Penale en Italie, Rome, 1890. pp. 22. de Diverses Institutions Traite Penitentiaire. De l'Amelioration De la Criminalile en de la loi Cuim. France et en

1857 (monograph). Bonneville de Marsagny. 1864.Bournet, Italie, Brugghen, Dr. Albert. Etude Van

Medico-Legale, Der. Etudes sur Penitentiaire du

Paris, 1884. pp. 140. la Systeme Penitentiaire. et Peiiale Siecle jusqu' en Italie a nos DuJours.

Irlandais, 1864. Brusa. Bibliographie puis 1888. Turin, Brunn et Goos. Notice mark Bulletin 19

le Commencement

sur l'Histoire Penitentiaire


du Dane-

1800. Depuis de la Commission




Bulletin Bulletin

de la Societe de l'Union

Generate Internationale

des Prisons. de Droit Fevrier Penal, Brussels. Moral pp. de 712.

et Juillet Berlin. 1890, et Fevrier, 1891. du Physique et du P. J. G. Cabanis, Rapports l'Homme et Lettre sur les Causes Premieres, Paris, Carlier, Carters Cerfberr 1844. Les Deux F.

Paris, 1887. Prostitutions, pp. 514. Crimes d'Orgueil, Paris, 1891. (de) Louis. pp.405. de Medelsheim, Des Condamnes A. E. Liberes. 1844. R. Jitudes les Maisons Lucien. De la sur la Mortalite dans les et

Paris, Chassinat, dans Chipier, Clolus. etc. Corre,


etc. Centrales, Paris, 1844. De la Cachexie des Prisons. Paris, 1879. Preventive. Detention Etude Comparee, Characteres et Psy-

1865. Dr. A. Les Criminels pp. 412. Le Crime


chologiques, Dr. A. Corre, Paris, Corre, Corre, Dr. Dr.

Paris, 1889. en Pays Creoles,

pp. 314. Lyon.

1889. A. Crime A,

et Suicide, Paris, 1891. pp. 654. Le delit et le Suicide Archives a Brest, Criminelle. A.pergu General 1890. de la Criminalite de la Militaire


l'Anthropol. Corre, Dr. A.

en France, Lyon, pp. 34. 1891. General de l'Admineslration Compte nelle, Courmeiles Paris, Crozes, 1887. (de), Revue F. Scientifique, Le Magnetisme de de la la



8 Mars, Devant Petite et

1890, Paris. la Loi, pp.40. de la Grande des 1820. 1828.

1890. L'Abbe\ F.

Souvenirs Paris. Prisons

Roquette, Cunningham, Prisons Cunningham, Desjardins, tions

2 vols.

Ameliorees, Notes F. A. Trate de 1'Antiquite,

Description Geneve, par T. F. Buxton. sur les Prisons de la Suisse, dans Principales Paris, 1881. les


du Vol


pp. 368.





Desjardins, Desmaze,

A. Charles.


Prisons Supplices,

de l'Ancienne Prisons

France. en France, en ii. France. and au iii.

et Grace Anciennes Vols.

Paris, pp. 460. Charles. Desmaze, 1866. Despine, Prosper, Paris, 1868.

1846. Les Penalites

Psychologie La Prison Des

Naturelle, Science 1880.

Desportes gres Desportes, Paris,

et Lefebvre. de Stockholm. F. 1880. K. La




de Wormwood-Scrubs, de la Recedive Effets, pp, et la et 218.

pp. des


D'Olivecrona, ens d'en Stockholm. Dortel, E.

Causes les


MoyParis et




Medico-Legate, Armand. Dubarry, Ducpetiaux. Prisons. Ducpetiaux.

Paris, 1891. pp. 179. en Italie. Le Brigandage Paris, 1875. de Loi sur les Memoire du Projet a 1'appui 1845. Des Conditions d'A.pplication Separe ou Cellulaire. sur l'Organisation des 1848. Prisons par du Systeme de de

l'Emprisonnement Memoire Ducpetiaux, Reforme, Ducpetiaux. laire. Ducpetiaux, France, Brux. Duponchel, 683. Duras etc. Reforme

1854. des Ecoles le Systeme



1865. E. Statistique en Belgique 1835. E. Traite Paris, 1890. de

en de la Criminalite Comparee et en Allmagne en Angleterre M6decine Legale Militaire, pp,

des Prisons de mon Pere de ma Mere, Journal (De). et des Miennes, Paris, 1889. pp. 322. en France, Criminelle de la Procedure Histoire A.Esmein, pp. Esquirol. Paris, 1882. 596. Monomanie Homicide,



Faure Fere.

(Le). Ch.

logique. Des Ferrus. Franc, France, tion Francotte, Paris, Franklin, Paris, Fregier, dans Garraud, Ad. 18S8. Min.

Paris, et Degenerescence Paris, 1888. Prisoniers, Philosophie de la Justice 1859-1861. L'Anthropologie La Des Vie etc. du

La Maffia.

1892. Criminalite, essai Physio-

1850. Droit





Compt. Paris,


de l'Administra-

Criminelle Xavier. 1891. Alfred. 1890. H. A.

1861-63. Criminelle, pp. pp. 368. 244.



Classes Villes.

les Grandes sur les

de la Dangereuses Brux., 1840. Des pp. Attentats 40. a la Lyon,

Population Pudeur Paris, et

R., et P. Bernard. Enfants,

des Viols 1884. Garofalo, I882. Gautier, Grellet, Guenoud, Siecle. Guillaume. Guillaume. M. A. R. Gouvaincourt,


La Criminologie, Paris, pp. 434. 1890. Traite du Droit de Grace (monograph). Rapport Present^ a M. le Ministre de la


Bruxelles, 1884. (Belgium). Manuel des Prisons. Wammy. John. Geneve, La Criminalite a

Paris, Geneve

1838. au


1891. Le Congr. International de Stockholm, 1879. Scolaire dans les Penitenciers L'Enseignement 1886. Notice 1879. Principes Les Generaux du Droit Penal, 2 vols. en France i860. 1889. Etablissements Paris, Penitentiaires de Rossi. 1875. a la Deuxieme Edit, Historique sur les Congres Penitent.

de la Suisse. Hagstroemer. Intern. Haus, J. J. Paris, Haussonville. Helie. Introd.

et aux Colonies.






Hoffmann, Medecine Hoorbecke.








Paris, 1881. Legale, pp. 832. Etudes sur le Systeme Penitentiaire 1843,

en France

et en Belgique. Hungary. Crimes

Code Penale Hongrois des Reichstag (1878-79), et des Delits et Code Penal Hongrois des Contraduites et annotes et P. traventions, per C. Martinet Dareste. Paris, La Tract, A. 1886. A. 1887. A. Les Du Actes de I'Efat Civil, Archives 1888. Matrice pp. consecu12. Lyon, (1887) pp. 223. 1885. France Criminelle, de Miracul. Precis de Paris, 1889. pp. 431. et Ergaster. St. Raspini, 1698. Medecine Judiciaire, pp, 592.

Joly, Henri. Kransold. Lacassagne, Paris, Lacassagne, Paris, Lacassagne, throp.

Criminelle A. des

Criminel, Depecage Tome troiseme.

de l'An-

Lacassagne, tives a. Paris, Lanessan, Cap, 1801. Laurent. Laurent, Paris. Laurent, Laurent, Etude Paris, Legrand, Legrand tiques. Legrand prudence


de -la Ruptures manoeuvres abortives,

1889. De. Coloniale L'Expansion Penale. 9. Colonisation Liancourt. sur Des

de la France

Larochefaucould, )tude Emile.


de Philadelphia. 1866. pp. 374. 1890. Paris,

la Simulation Criminelle

de la Folic (1889-1890),

L'Annee Les

Ismile. Emile.

Suggestions Les Habitues

Criminelles. des Prisons

Paris, de

d'Anthropologie, 1890. Charles. du Saulle. Paris, du Saulle. Assassin, Etude 1877. Traite

etc., de Psychologie pp, 284. sur Medico-Legate de Medecine Roman,

Criminelles. Paris. les Epilepde Juris1886.

Legale, Paris,


et de Toxicologic



Des Institutions Lentz. de Bienfaisance et de Prevoyance en Belgique. 1866. Enrile. Criminelle et les NouLaurent, L'Anthropologie velles Theories du Crime, pp. 156. Paris, 1891. Emile. Les Suggestions Criminelles. Paris et Laurent, Lyons, pp. 54. 1891. Les Forcats, pp. 464. Paris, 1841. Lauvergne, H. Le Type Criminel d'apres les Savants Lefort, Dr. Edouard. et les Artistes. Lyon, 1892. Paris, 1857. Systeme Penitentiaire. Lepelletier. La Guyane et la Question Coloniale 1886. Leveille. De la Suggestion e du Somnambulisme Liegeois, Jules. dans leurs Rapports avec la Jurisprudence et la Medecine Legale, Paris, 1889. Cesare. L'Homme Lombroso, Turin, Lombroso, 1887. C. L'Anthropologie Criminel, Criminelle pp. 682. Paris.

et ses Recents

Progres, pp. 180. Paris, 1890. Cesare. Le Crime Politique et le Misoneisme, Lombroso, Nouvelle Revue, 15 Feb. et ier Mars, 1890. Paris. de Psychiatrie Cesare. Nouvelles.Recherches Lombroso, et d'Anthropologic Criminelle, pp. 180. Paris, 1892. L. La Justice Criminelle en France, Loubet, pp. 258. Paris, 1890. Lucas, C. Du Systeme Penal et du Systeme Repressif en General. 1827. Penale ou la Politique Lucas, Ch. De la Transportation du debarras. 1878. Loupeac, Paul. La Criminalite et le Criminel. Toulouse, 1891. en Europe et aux Lucas, Ch. Le Systeme Penitentiaire Etats Unis. 1830. Manuel de Medecine Legale. Lutaud. -Paris. La Sexualite Mac Donald, Arthur. Patho-Criminelle. Archives de TAnthropologie CTiminelle. Paris, 1892. Mace, G. Gibier de Saint-.Lazare, pp. 320. Paris, 1888.





Mon Musee Criminel, pp. 255. Paris, 1890. Fr. Les vers Congeurs: Etudes Histrique Mastriani, sur les Classes Dangereuses a Naples; Traduction de Strudes et de Grandi. Torino, 1885. De la Justice P6nale, Etude Philosophique sur Maus, F. le Droit de Punir. Paris, 1891. Mayer, S. Souvenirs d'un Deporte, pp. 460. Paris, 1880. Traite Theorique et Practique de la Reversion Menin, T. Entr' Ispoux, pp. 179. Paris, 1890. Resume du Systeme Penit. Metz, De. Paris, 1844. Montepin, Xavier de. La Reine des Voleurs, 2 vols. Paris, 1890. Le Devoir de Punir, pp. 330. Paris, 1887. Mouton, Eugene. Moncelon. Le Bagne et la Colonisation Penale a la Nouv, Caledonie. 1886. La Bagne et la Colonisation Penale. Moncelon. r886. Dr. Paul. De L'Homicicle Commis par les EnMoreau, fants. Paris, 1882. Moreau. Christophe. Rapport des Prisons de I'Ecosse de la Hollande et Belgique, 1839. De la Discipline des Cours et Tribunaux Morin, Axh. du Barreau 1868. Mouton, E. et des Corporations d'Officiers Publics. Paris,

Mac, G.

Nougaret, 1797Ortolan. Cours de Legislat. Penale. 1838. Pauli. Zacchiae. Questions Medico-Legates, pp. (three vols, in one). Lugduni, 1726. Ferret, P. Apres le Crime, pp. 259, Paris, 1889. Petra, Santa P. Marzas, Etudes sur l'Emprisonnement luaire et la folie Penitentiaire. Paris, 1858.

Le Devoir de Punir. Paris, 1887. P. J. B. Histoire des Prisons de Paris.




Peuchet, J. Memoires Tires des Archives de la Police de Paris, Dupuis Louis XfV. Paris, jusqu' a nos Jours.

34 P.



Topographie 1890. Criminelle. Criminalite La 1890.

Cranio-Encepalique, Paris, 1890.


Paris, Pontsevrez. Prins, Prins, Prins

Adolphe. Adolphe. Bruxelles, et Pergameni. en Belgique. Louis. 1892.

et Repression. et l'Etat Criminalite de ITnstruction

Bruxellesj Social,

1886. pp. 27.

Reforme Paris,

Preparatoire Paris,



1871. et la Crime de Mort, Les


pp. 10.

544. Geneve, pp. 97.

Raclus, Regis, Reibach, Reinach, Revue

La Peine J. J. E, Le TJr. Emmanuel. 1890. Jean, Joseph. La Vie Les


1879. Lyon,

Regicides, 338. pp.


Brutale, Recidivistes,


Paris, 388. et au la

1892. Paris, 1882. Mesures etc.

Paris. de 1'Hypnotisme. Des Delinquents Ristianowsky. Jeunes 1878. pour leur Reforme. Robert, Robin. Ulysse, Les Signes dTnfamie et Paris, 1891. Des Ecoles Paris,








Enfants. Roussel.

1.879Correctionelle De 1'Education Paris, Notice Penitentiaire 1885. et le Esar A. 1879. sur l'Histoire en Russie, Les 1881. Langage Delits dans des pp.




Preventive. . Salomon, Reforme bourg, Schoumacker

Prisons 114.




St. Petersdevant

Etienne. Lille, du


la Transportation. Des Troubles Seglas, I. Paris, Simon, Stevens. P. 1892. Max. 1886. De la Crimes





la Folie,


285. en


Construction 1874.












Etablissements des Prisons

Penitentiaires Cellulaires.


1875. Belgique. Stevens. De la Construction elles. Suringar. Tarde, G. G. G. Nov., Tarde, Tarde, Tardieu, Tardieu, pp. Tardieu, Paris, Tardieu, 1875. Le Systeme Le Crime


Cellulaire. et l'Epilepsic Comparee, Penale,

Leeuwarden, Revue

i860. Philosophique. Paris, Lyon,

1889. La Criminalite La Philosophic

pp. pp.

215. 566.

1890. Paris,

1890. A. A. 80. A. Medecine Relation 1864. Question Medico-Legate de ITdentite, et 1875. Paris, pp. 296. Paris, 1879. et La 1878. Suffopp. 176. sur l'EmLegate. Medico-Legate Paris. de 1'Affaire Armand,

1874. A. Etude

Medico-Legate 1072. aux Paris, Moeurs,


pp. poisinnement, A. Attentats Tardieu, Tardieu, Tardieu, cation, Tardieu, 370. Tarnowski, tituees Tessier. A. A. Les La

Blessures, Pendaison, Paris,

pp. 474. La Strangulation 1879. sur

pp. 364. A. Etude Paris, 1880. Pauline. Instruction 1871. Etudes Anciens. I. I. Le Droit et

Medico-Legate Etude

LTnfanlicide, sur

pp. lesPros-

et les Voleuses,

Anthropometrique Paris, pp. 226. et

Criminelle sur l'Histoire

1889. Liberie Individuelle. Droit Criminel des Athen-

Louvain, Thouissen. Peuples Thouissen, ienne, Tissot. i860. Tomel, G.,

du 1869 de la

Bruxelles, Penal Le Droit pp. 490. Penal Etudie H. Les



Paris, dans

1875. ses Principes. en Prison.
















1869. A. Reclusion -dans le Canton de Vaud. LauVerdeil, sanne, 1842. Vermersch, E. LTnfamie Humaine, pp. 197. Paris, 1889. Du Plus Grand Crime an Plus Petit DeVibert, Georges. lit. Pans, 1888. Memoire sur les Moyens de Cossiger les MalVicompte. faiteurs (new edition). Bruxelles, 1841. Des Prisons telles, Villerme. sont et telles qu'elles qu'elles devraient etre, etc. Paris, 1820. De la Recidive et du Regime PenitenYvernes, Emile. tiaire en Europe, pp. 63. Paris, 1874. * Zaccone, P. Le Crime de Ja Rue Monge, pp. 423. Paris, 1890, Zaccone, P; Histoire des Bagnes, pp. 448. Paris, 1877. Zola, E. La Bete Humaine, pp. 415. Paris, 1890.


Ueber die Bedeutung der sogenannten CriminalAbegg. statistik fur die Wissenschaft, etc. Wien, 1865. Alinge, De. Besserung auf dem Wege der Individualisirung. 1865. befindHoltzenFranki860. zu dem in Vorbereitung Alinge, De. Vorschlage lichen Strafvollzugsgesetz. 1877. von v. deutsche Allgemeine Strafrechtszeitung dorff. Arnim. furt Arnold, Bruchstiicke und Leipzig, V. Umfang iiber Verbrechen 1803. etc. des und Strafe.


(Monograph.) Aus dem Strafenund Gefangnisswesen P. F. Aschrott, Nord-A.rnerikas. 1889. Hamburg, statist. Daten P. F. und Verwerthung Aschrott, Erhebung auf dem Gebiete der Strafrechtspflege sicht auf Deutschland. Bar. Die mit bes. Riick-

in Strafanstalten, Strafsysteme Gefangnisse, 1871. Hygienischer Beziehung. Die Misshandlung der politischen Verbrecher. Bar, von. 1850. Der Gewerbebetrieb, etc. 1861. (Monograph.) Bauer. 1882. Ziemsse.n's HandBaer, A. Gefaiigniss-Kygiene, buch der Pathologie, Bd. i., Th. ii. Amerika's iiberBesserungssystem, Beaumont-Tocqueville. setzt mit Zusatzen Geschichte Behrend. einigten Staaten, von Dr. Julius. Berlin, 1833. in den Verder Gefangnissreform England und Irland. 1859,

344 Moriz. fur



Anatomische Anlhropologen,

Studien Mediziner,


VerbrecherJuristen und

Gehirnen, Psychologen, Moriz. Benedikt, Med.

Wien, pp. 151. 1879. Der Schadel des Raubmorders


v. Heft. 1888. Wien, Jahrbiicher, Die Sachs. Strafanstalten, etc. Bergstrasser. Berichte iiber die Verhandlungen der Congresse furt, Berthold. Brauer. Bresgen. Briissel, Die Stockholm, der Entwickelung London, und Rom. deutschen

1844. von FrankArbeiter1872. Haut-


1887. Handbuch des Deutsch-Militar, Einfluss und Bedeutung der

Strafrecht. Diatetischen

pfiege. Leipzig, 1871. Bruun. Ueber die Vollziehung der Strafarbeit. 1869. Bruun. der Strafarbeit, mit VorWort von Vollziehung vers. 1870. von. Holland. Armencolon. und Buol-Bernburg, St. Jacob,


Strafanst. und Genf und Er-

bei St. Gallen.

Die Buel-Bernberg. die Strafanstalten die Oesterreichische Buri, M. von. langen, Burkhardt, 1827. Die Corvin. Dalcke Damerow. Delbriick, und Preussen. Einheit 1879. Bericht

1851. Hollandischen von Berlin, Gent,

Armenanstalten Bruchsal,

Gefangniss-Reform. 1853. der Verbrechen. und Mehrheit iiber die Strafanstalten in derSchweiz.

Einzelhaft. Genzmer. 1881.

1857. Handbuch eine Die

der Strafvollsrechnung 1853. und Liige 131.


Seelsorge, Dr. Anton. abnormen die Vorziige

Wahnsinn-Studie. Pathologische pp.


psychisch 1891. Ueber Diez. Diez. Ueber stalten.

Schwindler, der einsarnen und

Stuttgart, 1842. Strafan-

Einkerkerung. der

Verwaltung 1857,







Jakob. 1697.


der.Leib-und der und und

Lebens-Strafen, Verhaltnisse 1880, in den


Vergleichende Dragic. oesterreichischen Drobisch. freiheit. Duhn, vcn. Liibeck, Eberty, Die

Statistik Strafanstalten.


die menschl. die in der


1867. Die Gefangnissfrage 1862. Das mit der

Zeitentwicklung. seinem Zusam-


Gefangnisswesen Entwickelung-


Strafrechtspfiege und die Zeitent-

iiberhaupt. Geschichte Eberty.


Liibeck, wickelung. Blatter fur Gefangnisskunde. G. Ekerts, zu dem Modell G. Ekerts, Erlauterungen des Strafgefangnisses lin, 1882. Evler, Felisch. lin, Ferri, Carl. Berlin, Ueber zu Plotzensee

Gefangnissfrage 1862.

und bei

den Berlin.

Planen Ber-

Schadelvertetzungen. und Strafprocess in im

Inaug. Jahre

Dissert. Bervon Berlin, GeHam-

1891. Strafrecht


1892. Das E.



Abhangigkeit p. 44.


Jahrlichen Dr. Max. 103. Die

Temperaturwechsel, Untersuchungen iiber


Verbrecher in

hirne, Foehring, burg,

pp. H.

1882. Wiirzburg, des Gefangnisswesens Reform der heutige Stand

Foehring. nisswesens

1883. pp. 150. Die Reform und in Hamburg. und Reform in Italien.

des Gefang-

Die Foehring. nisswesens Forel, Aug.

Hamburg, der heutige 1885.

1883. Stand des Falle.



kriminal-psychologische pp. 92.

1889. H. Freuler,






Frommel, Friedreich, pologic Friedreich. Fuld, Fulda. Fiisslin. setzes Fiisslin. Fiisslin. 1861. Fiisslin. Geyer Good, und Dr.


von Sarnmlung J. B. Compendium Regensburg, Handb. der gericht.

Bd. 9. Vortragen, der gerichtlichen Psychologie, Verbrecherthum. 1842.



L. Gef. Die zum Die Die



Verb;sserung, Beziehungen

1880. des neuen badischen Strafge-

Penitentiairsystem. Einzelhaft. 1855. neuesten

1853. der Einzelhaft.

Verunglimpfungen Skizze.




Grundriss Binding. Strafrecht. 1884. John 1798. Mason. Ueber

zu Vorlesungen Krankheiten der

1855. iiber



Granichstadten, pp. 281.

O. Wien,


internationale der


Grellet-Warnmy. setzt), Gretener, burt, Gross, Dr. X.

1892. Handbuch

Gefangnisse. Verbrecher

(Uebervon Ge-


1833. Cesare Lombroso's

Berlin, pp. 35. H. Die Ehrenfolge Graz, Eine 1875.

1890. bei strafgerichtlichen durch Irlandische


lungen. Gross, von. nisse. Gross, Gruner, von.



Strafrechtspftege. Versuche Justus. -Einrichtung a. M., 1801. Warum gebessert?

1861. iiber der die offentl. so und zweckrichtige Sicherheits-Instit.

massige Frankfurt Gruner, Justus. Zuchthause



wenige 1802. 1866.



Haenell. Halschner. Haushofer.

Gefangnisskunde. Gem. deutsches Lehrund

Gdttingen, Strafrecht. der

Bonn, Statistik.







. Verbrechen und Strafen in England, wahHenderson, rend der Zeit von Wilhelm I. (1066-1087) bis Eduard I. (1272-1307), pp. 74. Berlin, 1890. Die Berufsthatigkeit des Gefangnissgeistlichen. Hindberg. Deutsche Ausgabe. Leipzig, 1866. Dr. von. Ueber die kdrperlichen Holder, der Verbrecher. Eigtnthiimlichkeiten und geistigen Archiv fiir

Anthropologie. Januar, 1889. Dr. Franz von. Die Deportation als StrafHoltzendorff, in alter und neuer Zeit und die Verbrechermittel colonien und Franzosen. der Englan-der Leipzig, 1859. Dr. Franz von. Kritische Untersuchung iiber Holtzendorff, den Irischen Strafvolizug, Berlin, 1865. Dr. Franz von. Gesetz oder VerwaltungsHoltzendorff, maxime. Berlin, 1867. Holtzendorff, Dr. Franz von. Die Psychologie des Mordes, des pp. 48. Berlin, 1875. Dr. Franz von. Ueber das Holtzendorff, Rechts zur Politik. 1876. Handbuch Dr. Franz von. Holtzendorff, (4 vols.) Dr. Franz von, Holtzendorff, und die Todesstrafe. Holtzendorff, Dr, Franz von. Hauses. Dr. Franz von. Holtzendorff, maxime. Dr. Franz von. Kritische Holtzendorff, Untersuchungen iiber die Grundsatze und Ergebnisse des Irischen Strafvollzugs, Die Auslieferung Dr. Franz von. der VerHoltzendorff, brecher und das Asylrecht. Holtzendorff und von Jagemann. Handbuch des Gefang2 vols., pp. 511, pp. 543. nisswesens, Strafrechts.


des deutschen des Mordes des Rauhen Verwaltungs-

Das Verbrechen Die Briiderschaft Gesetzoder



Hopfauer. Internationale

Strafhauser. kriminalistische


1814. Vereinigung. Deutsches kirchliche Konigsberg, und der und Erste Reich, Element 1842. BesserungsanEinzelhaft. VerwirkLandespp. in 88. der

der Gruppe versammlung Berlin, 1890. Das religiose und Jablonowski. gegenwartigen Bestrafung. der Gefangnisskunde Jahrbiicher stalten von Julius, Nollner L. von. Zur Jegemann, Frankfurt, 1844. L. von. Zur Jegemann, lichung John, Dr. Richard Julius. Kraepelin, maasses, Dr. E. Med. pp. 78. Dr. R.

Varrentrapp. der Rechtsbegriindung und

Rechtsbegriindung des Grundsatzes der Einzelhaft. Ueber die Todesstrafe. Zustande. sittliche



Kvafft-Ebing, dem Gebiete Krafft-Ebing, sonderer pfindung. Krafft-Ebing, Gebiete 1891. Dr. Krauss,

Leipzig, 1839. Emil. des StrafDie Abschaffung 1880. Stuttgart, auf von. Eine experimentelle Studie Sexualis mit be-

des Hypnotismus. Dr. R. von. Psychopathia Beriicksichtigung Dr. R. von. der Neue


Sexualemauf dem

der A.

Psychopathia Die Psychologie Die

Forschungen Sexualis, pp. 131. des Verbrechens,

Stuttgart, pp. 421. Verbrecher geschichtsiebenzehn

1884. Tubingen, F. A. Karl. Krauss, unter licher dem Ueberblick


und die Gefangenen des Christenthums; die ersten


1889. Jahrhunderte. Heidelberg, Krohne. Die gesetzliche des Strafvollzugs. Regslung Krohne. Gesetzliche des Strafvollzugs. Regelung Kinkel, Kleinfeller, zug der J. G.

1876. 1877. 1879. Voll-

Zurich, pp. 22. Gegen die Todesstrafe, Die Baierische Literatur iiber Dr. den Freiheitsstrafe, etc. 1886.











Strafrecht, und fur die



Mannheim, G. S. Koster, nach Kiihne. Entwurf

1890. W. Ueber


Zuch.tha.user Strafanstalt


1780. Leipzig, einer Hausordnung Strafprocess. gerichtlichen 1874.

St. Jacob. 1884. Der Serbische Leitmaier. Lesser, Adf. Atlas der

1884. Medicir..


1890. Lichtenberg. Liszt, von. der Liszt, Lob. Locher. 1879. Rrh. Loening-, wortlichen Lombroso, und C, Die und strafrechtliche pp. 304. Der R. Haftung Jena, des vei-antRedakteurs, Laschi, 1889. Verbrecher politische v. Das Zuchthausstrafe, Lehrbuch, Berlin Strafe. Lehrbuch 1884, Criminalsociologie, und Leipzig, 1884. des Strafrechts. (Monograph). Institutionen der das Maass

Begnadigungsrecht strafrechtlichen Die

1881. Schweiz.

die Revolutionen, 2 vols. Hamburg, 1892. Das Souveranitastsrecht i860. Luder. (Monograph), Ueber Atavismus des Verbrechens. Lutz. Zeitschr. Allg. xlvi. (1889), S. 257-285. f. Psychiatrie, Maschka.




Medicin, Berlin, 1885.

4 Bd. 1886.

Medem. Meinert. Mering,

und Strafvollzug. Strafzumessung Ueber Massenernahrung, Berlin, v. Die von Gefangnisse in der 1885. Sirassburg. Lehrbuch des deutschen des Strafrechts. des Gef.

hygienischen Strafrechts,

Topopp. 427.

graphie A. Merkel,

1889. Stuttgart, Lehrbuch H. Meyer, Michel. Handbuch wesens 1858.

bei den Gerichten

Strafvollstreckungsin Preussen, Berlin. Grieben,




Mittheilungen nigung. Berlin. Mittelstadt. Mittermaier. nisse. Mittermaier. Mittermaier. Modderman, 1882. Moller.


internationaien und Juli,

kriminalistischen 1890, und Februar,



Gegen Der

die Freiheitsstrafe. neueste Zustand

Leipzig, englischer

1879. Gefang1858. Bern,

1850. Heidelberg, Die Gefangnissverbesserung. Gefangnissfrage. A. E. J. Gegen i860. die Todesstrafe,

Erlangen, pp. 44.

Das Volksrechtsbewusstsein,

etc., iiber


der Verbrecher.

von. Die Oettingen, Die BeschaftigungderGefangnissstraflinge. Ortloff. 1862. Plochmann. Pratobevera, 1845. Preussische Das v. Begnadigungsrecht. iiber Worte Einige

1865. (Monograph.) Moral-Statistik. 1874. Jena,

1845. (Monograph.) die Gefangnissfrage.

Beschreibende Uebersicht der Gefangnisse. des Mmisteriums zum Resort des Innern gehorenden Straf- und Gefangen-Anstalten. Berlin, 1870. Die Geschichte,. die des Gefangnisswesens, ihre Ursache und und

und Tauffer, Emil. Pulszky, August, und der heutige Zustand Theorie, etc., in Ungarn. 1867. Reich, E. Die Entartung Verhiitung. Stuttgart, Roeder. Besserungsslrafe 1868. und

des Menschen, Anstalten. des Rechts.

Leipzig Leipzig, 1870. pp.

1855. Heidelberg, im Geiste Rdder. Strafvollzug Rbder. Roenne. Rommel. Schilling, Besserungsstrafe. Die criminalist. Strafanstaltsarbeit. J. A. Der


1864. Zurechnungsfahigkeit. Kindermord, 1856.

1870. civilisatorische der Einzelhaft.


1878. Augsburg, Das System Schlatter.




3 3'


Dr. T.

Emil. 1888. Das

Anthropologische Verbrecherthura in Bruchsal 1842. Freiheitsstrafe. an 1882. in


pp. pp. 1862.

336. 41.

Leipzig, Schrader,

Hamburg, Moabit.

Hamburg, Die Schiick. Schiick. Schwarze, Die v.

1879. Einzelhaft Einzelhaft. Fiir E. die


Schwekendiek, Verbrechern. Sichart. Simonson, Solbrig. Sontag. Starke. Starke. 1884. Streng. Ueber A. Die Das

Untersuchung Wiirzburg,

1880. Leipzig, zehn Gehirnen 1881. Berlin,


Riickfalligkeit. Fiir die bedingte und



Verurtheilung. Wahnsinn. 1867. 1872.



Gefangnisswesen. 1S77. belgische in Preussen. Verbrecher und Verbrechen fiir von


Grundsatze 1885.

den Bau


Freiburg, Das Streng. Streng, Adolf.

Zellengefangniss, Sludien iiber



Gestaltungdes Vollzuges land. 1886, Stuttgart, fiber A. Studien Streng, Stuttgart, A. Streng, Strosser. Strosser. dorf, Strosser Tarnowsky, 1886. Studien iiber

und Erg-ebnisse Entwicklung, der Freiheitsstrafe in Deutschder


Freiheitsstrafen. 1886. Diissel1880. pp. 222, 1883. des Ge(1883-

Gefangniss Nothwendigkeit 1877. und Stursburg. B.

Strafvollzug. Arbeit. 1877. der

Gefangnissarbeit. Strafcolonien. und Abolitionismus,



Hamburg, 1890. Tauffer. des progressiven Erfolg Strafvollzugs. Err.il. zur neuesten Geschichte Tauffer, Beitrage fangnisswesens 1884), pp. 104. in den europaischen 1885. Staaten Stuttgart,



in Ueber Tellkampf. Besserungsgefangnisse rika und England. Berlin, 1844. Thummel. Conrad. Sittenlehre und Strafrecht. 1889. Thun



Hamburg, Reform Preuss. Vor-

Die Nothwendigkeit dermoralischen (Graf.). der Gefangnisse. 1836. von. Das Verbrecherthum in den Valentini, Staaten. Voit, C. Leipzig, 1869. die Kost in Ueber offentlichen Anstalten.

Miinchen bei Oldenburg, 1876. trag. Adf. Die Reform der Freiheitsstrafe, Wach, sig, Wachter, 1890. C. G. Strafarten und Strafanstalten und

pp. 81,


WfirttemStrafe. Stuttund

Tubingen, bergs. K. Eberhard. Wachter, 1786. Dr. Wahrenfeld, gart, Todtschlag-, H. Wagnitz, iiber Halle, Wagnitz. 1870. Wagner. kiirl. tistik. Wahlberg-. Friedrich. pp. B.

1832. Zuchthauser Die


von und in


295. Marburg, 1890. Histor. Nachrichten Zuchthauser


merkwiirdige 1791. Die preussischen

Deutchland. etc.

Gefangnisse, in vom den

Berlin, willder Sta-

Gesetzulassigkeit menschl. Handlungen 1864. Das Prinzip der




Individualisirung von der und Recht, Schweiz.

in der StrafStaat und

rechtpflege. R. Weckler, Strafe. Wegmann. von. Wick, Wulff. Die pp. 712.

Wien, 1869. Die letzten Griinde die Gefangnisse Ehrenstrafen R.ostock, der 1890. 1845.

1813, Ueber Ueber

1863. der



Gefangnisse Hamburg,


in Preussen,










des Gefangnisswesens in FrankSchottland, Wien, Belgien, Schweiz. Fortschritte des Die des GefangnissweStrafAlten.

1844. Wfirth, von.

Die neuesten

sens, etc., 1844. Zacharia. Aufangsgriinde rechts. 1805. A. C. A. Zestermann, (Academie 1868. Zeitschrift fiir Dochow thal. Zugschwerdt. 1865. Zugschwerdt.

philosophischen den


bei Kreuzigung de Belgique).


die gesammte von Strafrechtswissenschaft, und v. Liszt, now by von Liszt und v. LilienScharfungen Vollzug der Freiheitsstrafen. 1867. Wien,

der Freiheitsstr.


dell Azione LTmpotenza RepresIntalia e Sue Cause, pp. 60. Frascati, 1884. Alimena. La premeditazione in rapporto alia psicologia, al diritto ed alia Torino, legislazione comparata. Aguglia, sive 1887. Alimena, Dott. Bernardino. II giudizio d'accusa nella Torino, legislazione inglese, pp. 23. 1890. G. La Camorra, Torino, Alongi, pp. 256. 1890. Alessandro. Parte che Amora, Speciale. (I reati dono Andreotti, avanti Andreoli. il diritto A. II dell individuo. penale Torino, 1882. nei guidizi Torino, sull'codice applicato 1890. scritture.



i pretori, pp. 389. Sulla falsificazione

Bergamo, delle

1891. Anfosso Carlo. (dott.), art, 538 del cod pen. Atlante Anfosso, Luigi. Torino. Appunti Arabia, Archivio Arnio, Balestrini le al nuovo F. S. codice I principi pp.

Osservazioni Torino, 1886.

medico-legali della



Torino, penale, 1889. del diritto penale, applicati 502. Napoli, 1891. e la etnologia. Firenze. annotate Torino,




per l'anthropologia C. Onore ed inguria. e le Anaueri. disposizioni Raffaello. pp. 345. per II

Torino, 1890. nuovo codice penale Attuazione, Infanticidio 1888. ed etc.

la sua

1890. Balestrini, Aborto, Torino, Esposizione d'lnfante,




355 e suoi effetti corre-


pentimento 1886. Torino, giuridici. Salvatore. Correzione Barzilai, zionali. Battaglia 1886., Beccaria, Beccaria, ceri Cesare. Cesare. in ItaUa. Dei Sul delitti Torino, (dott.),






ed del

instituti delilto.

1883. Bruno. La dinamica e delle


governo Saggio Critico. Sul governo reforma e

Torino, pene. 1891. e sulla riforma delle car1868. Torino, sulla delle riforma car-

Beltrani-Scalia. ceri. Beltrani-Scalia. Benevolo, nella Benevolo, Beni E. II 1867.



penitenzaria nella dottrina, 1887. e classica Torino, violento nella la


Italia. nella

1879. legge, scuola

giurisprudenza. La scuola F. (di diritto Carlo. nel


nuova 1886.


(dott.), dalla rapina

criminate). Del furto diritto

e sua

differenza e nei


pratica pp. 171.

moderni. Torino, 1874, tempi Berenini Offese e Difese, (Avo.), Agostino. 1886. Berenini


DeH'ubbriachezza considerata (Avo.), Agostino. sotto il di causa contraovenzione, triplice aspetto diminuenti e causa 1888. Milano, de' 1870. minorenni traviati dirimente la responsabilita peTorino,

nale. Biffi.

Sui riformatorj pei Giovanni, La Boechi. Correzzione coatta delinquenti. Bono. Acutezza Bono. Borciani, blica. Borelli, Bovio, Alberto. Torino, G. B. Giovanni. Parma, vessiva 1882.

nei criminali.

I! daltonismo

nei delinquenti. Torino. reati di ribellione e violenza Dei 1887.


fnfanticiciio, Saggio unico.

Roma, 1884, pp. 62. critico del diritto pen. e del nuovo Torino, 1883.


356 Brusa. Brusa. Buccellati. Torino, Buccellati La detenzione Bassi. Del reato II



0 cosidetta 1880. ertero. ragione



esta ai Paesi

Torino, commesso all' e la


1886. Torino, del diritto penale.


Antonio. di diritto e precedura Instuz. (dott.), la ragione e il diritto romano. Torino, penale secondo 1884. Francesco. Torino, 18S6. II fondamento Del delitto di violato sepolero, dis-

Buonamici, Caluci, G.


1873. del diritto

di punizione,


Torino, Campili.

II grand e la suggestione nei ipnotismo ipnotica col diritto 1886. Torino, rapporti penale et civile. sul rinnovamento F. Studio della (dott.), Campolongo scienza Canonico diritto Canonico Torino, Cantalupi, criminate. (Prof.), penale. (Prof.), Vol. Torino, Tancredi. 1885. Introduzione alio studio del

i., del giudizio penale. Tancredi. Vol. ii. Del reato per la costruzione

1871. e della pena. cellulare

1871. A. II lavori

del carcere 1880. penale.

in Milano, Milano, pp. 178. guidiziario e il diritto Cesare. Beccaria Cantu, Torino, 1862.


M. Studio teorico su la difcomparativo practico Capello, famazione e l'inguiria, Torino, pp. 206. 1890. Francesco Dei concorso di piu persone Saverio. Carazzo, Torino. in uno stesso reato. Carcani (aw.). sinottiche. Leugi. Codice Torino, Ireati penale 1890. politi ci reato storia inediti. italiano esposto deilo in 20 tavole


nei progetto di adulterio. del diritto



Torino, 1889. Francesco. Carfosa, Carmignani tratte e Manzi da document!

Del nella

Torino, penale, 1889.

1887. notizie





357 Pena 1888. del delitto. di morte

Carnevale, nella Carrara. Carrara. Torino, Carrara. Carrara. Carrara, 1875. Carrara, penale. Carrara,

Emanuele. fiiosofia Del


Questione pp. 96.

della Torino,

scientifica, punibile. grado sul


Lezioni 1870.

1883. e sulla forza


di diritto criminate. Opuscoli Sul delitto 1887. perfetto. Codice Francesco, penale Francesco. Torino. Francesco. Lineamenti di Lineamenti di



pratica pratica

legislativa legislativa Crimi-

Torino, 1891. penale. del Corso di Dirittn Francesco. Carrara, Programma di Pisa, 7 vols. nella R. Universita nate, dettato Castagna. Catastini litti Ceneri. nale. Cianci, N. 1886. Colajanni (dptt.),, Di (dott.), mediante una ragione Federigo. la scrittura. Torino, 1891. penale. Delia consumazione Torino, e 1'articolo 1883. 426 del



Gl'uSterrazionalisti Torino, Reati 1879.





ciologia Novembre, Colajanni vols. Cola, Cola,

Concetto e limiti della soNapoleone. Rivista di filosofice scientifica, criminate, 1888. Napoleone. .1889. L' Infanticidio, II reato La Sociologia Criminate, Messina, personate. 2


Catania, Proto F. de. Proto


pp. 70. di lesione avvocati dottrine pena di

1878. To-

rino, 1883. Contino G. (aw.), Torino, Conti, con 1884. Interno U. U.



e procuratori. di diritto penale Torino,

alle nuove riguardo alia

particolare 1886.


358 G. B. Ces.


Cortina, tiviste Crivellari,



e le nuove

dottrine 1888.


in rapporto al deritto penale. Dei reati contro la Giulio. Torino, Dei Torino, I 1888. I! duello nella dottrina il diritto reati 1886. fondamentali 1887. contro la

Torino, propieta: vita

teorico-pralico. Giulio. Crivellari, personate Giulio. Crivellari, nale. Crivellari, Torino, D'Amora. Torino, De Cola, pubblica. De Foresta, De De Foresta, bolo Notter, condo rino. De Manro, De Marinis, studi 1885. De Pedyo, N. di Torino, Giulio. 1884. I reati 1882. Proto Adolfo. Adolfo. Giulio. la scuola 1886. Mario. Enrico. storia

e la integrita del diritto pe-


e geurisprudenza. dell' individuo.



Francesco. Torino. 1885.





La deportazione. Roma, La riforma penitenziaria. Torino, Della 1880. uccisioni del

1876. Ne


ne carcerc

consenziente Discorso.

antropologica-criminale, Del furto. Catania,

critico Saggio del e fiiosofia

1885. sulla causa penale. sul

criminosa Torino', nuovo _ co-


dice-penale. De Pilla, D. Dei Parte De

Osservazioni medieo-legali ' ' Torino, 1889. reati contro Torino, Dei la securezza 1888. . .' considerati illustrativi dello




1, Storia;" Alberto. Simoni, con ed attentati, rotti.



solo effelto Tumedi1890. prin1890.


di Felice ed alia


Torino, 1854. La pazzia in rapporto al delitto Mattos. Tradotto dal Portoghese. cina legate. Mattos. cipal!



alle studio olinico in rapporto La pazzia: di diritto civile e penale. Torino, questioni




359 To-

Drago. rino, Ellero. Fabsizi, forza ' 1888. Facchinetti. Faranda, rino, Ferriani,


(tradotto Torino, innovazione. progetto



1890. Trattati Alfr.

criminali. Contro un'

1891. L'abolizione Zanardelli. della Torino,

irresistible Duello F. 1886. Lino. La Torino, DelitLi conferenza.

nei nuovo

e legge. Torino, I8QO. II titolo del reato, Parte I*.; L'azione. infanticida 1886. e delequenti 1889. ambiente del nella scienza e nei cod. e nella

Tovita nella


socialc Ferri, Enrico. vita: Ferri, Enrico.


Educazioni, f nuovi Torino, La

e criminalita. diritto e della


1883. Enrico, Ferri, penale. Enrico. Ferri, Torino, Ferri, Ferri,. Ferri,



1891. scuola criminate e celle


conferenza. conferenza.

1885. Enrico. Lavoro 1886. Enrico.

dei condannati:

Torino, dica.

L'omicidio-suicidio. 1884. Socialismo E Criminalita, criminate, . del

Responsabilita pp. .pp. 224. 848.

giuriTorino, Torino, Torino



1883. Enrico. Ferri-, 1892 Enrico. Ferri, 1887. A. Fiiippi, 1889. Fioretti, G.

Sociologia Uno spiritista


penale. pp. 330.


di medicina



Su la legittima difesa. 1866. Torino, su la nuova scuola G. I pregiudizi Fioretti, popolari penale di fron.le ai risultati del congresso antropologico. Torino, 1887.



in penale spiegato relazione al nuovo codice penale. Torino, 1890. La riforma carceraria secondo il sistema Fornasini, Leigi. Torino, 1878. penitenzialc Framarino dei Malatesta, N. Studio sulla comunicazione delle circonstanze nei delitto. Torino, 1887. Diritto penale o sociologia criminate? Frassati, A. pp. 76. Torino, 1892. Delle ingiurie e diffamazioni in Frola, P. E. specialmente tenia di stampa, secondo il cod. penale italiano. Torino, 1890. Fulci L'evoluzione nei diritto Lodovico, deputato. (aw.), La forza irresistibile. Torino, 1882. penale. Fulci L'intenzione nei singoli Lodovico, deputato. (aw.), reati. Torino, 1884. Garbasso (aw.), C. L. Nozioni generali suite contravvenzioni e della contravvenzioni nei libro III. contemplate del nuovo codice penale. Torino, 1890. Delle colonie di beneficenza e di pena; Garelli, Vincenzo. lettere sull' arcepelago toscano. Torino, 1870. Delia pena e dell' emenda, studi e proGarelli, Vincenzo. PeReforma^ della Procedura Torino, 1889. Garofalo, R. Di -Un Criterio. Positivo della Penalita, pp. 93. Napoli, 1880. alle Vittime Garofalo, R. del Delitto, pp. 98. Riparazione Torino, 1887. Garofalo. Studio sul delitto, suite sue Criminologia. cause, e sui mezzi di repressione. Torino, 1890. II cod. pen. del regno d'ltalio annotato. ToGherelli,. L. rino, 1890. poste. Opera premiata Garofalo, R., e Carelli, L. nale in Italia, pp. 380. al concorso Rovizza.

Focacci, Luciano. dei deliquenti rino, 1883. Fonseca Pimentel

La medicina carceraria. Cause e rimedi in Italia Osservazioni e proposte. Toe Guacci. II diritto



361 e


I diritti




Legeslazione 1890. e nella

giurisprudenza patria e straniera. II cluello nella storia della Gilli, Jac. Torino italiano. 1886. pratica Gilli, Jac. codice Responsabilita cavalleresco. Francesco. penale Torino, Della



dei duellanti: 1888. difesa 162. legittirna. Torino,

aggiunte Napoli, 1886. secondo




1884. Giuseppe, Grachetti, codice Grachetti, codice Gregoracci, 1890. Holtzendorff Morte. del barone Impallomeni, premeditate G. Impallomeni, Vol. 1: Parle Lacassagne. Lanza (aw.), azioni Lavori Alongi. Dei C. La Maffia, reati e delle pp. in generate, 18S9. in generate il

penale italiano. C. Dei reati e delle penale italiano. G. di Saggi (di), Studi Francesco.

pene Firenze,

secondo il pene Torino, 1890. 3 vols. letteratura criminate. Torino, L'assassinio e la di pena Traduz omicido illustrate"

politico-criminali R. Garofalo. Torino, II carrattere Torino, B. 1888. Codice

e psicologici. nell'

G. B.

1877. de moventi

generate. Sulla statura Pietro.

italiano penale Torino, 1890.

dei delinquenti. Torino. del Effetti delitto giuridici Torino, codice nei 1886. pen. codice ital. nuovo


che nascono

da reato. del

parlamentari 1888. A. II sistema







434. Lessona, etc. Leti,

Torino, 1891. Elementi di S. Torino, Tl

diritto sua


positive storica, 1888.

italiano, nella

Guis. filosofia

1887. duello nella

evoluzione Torino, Saggio

e nella

La causale Long. nale. 1800. Torino,

giurisprudenza. a delinquere.

di psicologia




Lombardi, illustrate Lombroso, sui Lombroso, (dall' Lombroso, muto Lombroso, Virgilio, Lombroso, 192. Lombroso, quente rino, Lombroso, denza nato Lombroso, Lombroso, getto Lombroso,

F. G. S.

II codice





d' Italia,

ad uso della Cesare. Sul!'

Siracusa, pratica, pp. 772. 1890. incremento del delitto in Italia e Torino, e furto etc., 1879. per amore Vol. iv.,


per arrestarlo. Cesare. Omicidio di

Archivio Cesare.

psichiatria, II delirio di casti.

pazzesco. f. iii. 1883. sull' amore da

persecuzione legale

dei monomaniaci Cesare. Rossi. Cesare. Torino, Cesare. epilettico, 1889. Cesare. e alle L' Lezioni

1883. di medicina


1886. Torino, Sulla medicina 1889. L' nomo


del cadavere,

pp. DelinTo-

Vol. ii. delinquente, pazzo e criminaloide. d'impeto, unto delinquente in alia


Vol. i.: delinquentecarcerarie, discipline e pazzo morale. Torino, 1889. Cesare. Su Passanante. Torino, 1891. Cesare. Presto. al nuovo Apunti proTropo di codice Cesare. penale. Studio an recerhe ipnotismo Torino. Reymond. e la nuova scuola e le sull' oftal-

del Prof. moscopiche Lombroso e Bianchi. Misdea Torino, Lombroso, zioni alia Lombroso Lombroso 1887. Lucchini, Lucchini, 1881. Luigi. Luigi. II carcere Gli istituti 1884. C, e R. Laschi.

penale. rivolued

I! delitto


in rapporto al diritto dell' antropologia scienz-a di governo, Torino, pp.-556; e Marro. ultimi studi d' Sugl'i in Europa. e Marro. Tre Torino, tribuni 1886. studiati da

criminate 1890. antropologia un alienista.


preventive di polzia

Venezia, preventiva

1873. in Italia.




363 e carnefici. e Na-

Lucchini, Torino, Lucchini,

Luigi. 1884. Luigi.

Soldati I



Sociologi) Madia, E. Compendio poli, 1889. (aw.), Maggio P. Manfredi, miata Mantegazza, 1889. Marciano, De' Marini, G.

semplicisti del diritto penale. di

(Antropologi, Psicologi 1886. Torino, legale, pp. 255.

medicina L' infanticidio.

Lorenzo. II diritto

al concorso Paolo. II titolo contro

1888. Torino, Memoria penale della stampa. preRavizza. 1881. Torino, Dell'Odio, del codice pp. 480. pp. 407. penaie Milano, italiano :

Fisiologia decimo la proprieta,

delitti Serra

guridiche editi. Torino, Marini. Marro, Marro,

Guiseppe. in materia

Allegazioni penale ed altri penale. I carcerati: I Caratteri

Napoli, 1890. scelte, dissertazioni scritti editi e in-

La colpa Dott. Antonio. Torino, Dott.

1871. nei diritto 1886.

Torino, 1890. studio psicologico




anthropologio-sociologico, Delle teorie Mattianda. Torino, Mattianda. tenziari. Mecacci. 1879. Memoire Firenze. II diritto delle

dei Delinquenti, studio Torino, 1887. pp. 472, e dei sistemi penali penitenziari. teorie penali e dei sistemi peni-

1879. penaie nei suoi

dei condannati. giuridica Ferdinando. Mecacci (aw.), 1879. Messedaglia triacon Milano, Monaco Alf. (Prof.), A. Le

colla rapporti Torino", 1873. Dei reati politici. criminal! Torino,

capacita Torino, clell' aus-


al Lombardo-Veneto. riguardo Del falso documentato.


(c'ott.), Garribaldi. .datto secondo le teorie Torino, 1887.

1888. Torino, di medicina Manuale legate redei piu illustri autori moderni.



Moncada, 140. Moncada,

Ruggero. Catania,

II 1882.




penale, nei

pp. diritto

Ruggero. Torino, penale. Murra-Succa (aw.), e nella Murra-Succa penale Nawimento medicina

II regicidio 1882. Tommaso.

ed il parricidio L'aborto

nei diritto nei

penale diritto

Sassari, 1884. legale. della secondo le statistiche delinquenza anni 1873-1883: con l'aggiunta dei dati dell' anno 1886. Torino, II professore Cesare Lombroso delle sue opere. Torino. 1887. tradimento. Davide Tavole (in corso Lazzaretti. di stampa). Torino.

(aw.), e nella medicina

Torino, 1884. legale. Tommaso. L'infanticidio

degli 1884.

Giulio. Nazari, scientifico Nocito. Alto

e il valore


1891. e Lombroso. Nocito Nosi (aw.), Torino, Carlo.

dei delitti

e controvsenzioni,


1890. Oliveti Francesco. (dott.), sessuali sugli organi

La verginita della donna. Studi muliebri in rapporto colla medicina nei Reati, di diritto pp. 298. Roma

Torino, 1887. legale. La Recidiva Orano, Guiseppe. 1883. Nozioni Paoli. 1885. Pappagallo propria, Torino, Pellegrino. Sulla Peri. E. Pessina, sizione (aw.), studio Sev. elementari


Torino, in causa pen. 1878. ital.

Lo spergiurio


guidiziale della legge

1889. Le casa di custodia riforma II nuova transitorie delle

prigioni codice penale e di

e i riformatorj. di Toscona. italiano, con e


dispobrevi note


dilucidative. Pincherli, Torino, E,

Torino, 1890. II codice penale italiano


pp. 694.




365 toPenale in

La Nuova Scuola Settimio. Piperno, 1886. Italia, Roma, pp. 102. G. B. Carceri. Piranesi, Polemica in Difesa della Scuola Lombroso, E. Ferri, 1886. R, Garofalo, Tutela

di Diritto





G. Fioretti, pp. 84,

pp. 290. Torino, To-

Bologna, La Teoria F. Poletti, 1878. F. Poletti, rino, Poletti, F. Di 1882. II una


Penale, della


empirica nella

criminalita. del diritto


scienza Torino, come

penale. responsae le leggi

Appunto F. Poletti, bilita Porto Porto

psicologico-critico. L'Azione normale,

1S87. base della 1S89. pen.

dei delinquenti, Udine, pp. 143. II progetto del codice Vito. (aw.), 1889. Vito. II progretto del codice Torino, 1889. penale classico, storica Torino. alio di diritto studio


(aw.), dei deputati.

pen. alia Camera pp. 28. Bologna, del reil




1891. Puglia, Ferdinando. diritto Puglia,

L' evoluzione

e scantifica del diritto secondo

e procedura penale. Ferdinando. Prolegomini 1883. Manuale Vol.

Torino, pressive. Ferdinando. Puglia, nuovo Napoli, codice 1890. L. (Prof.),

penale generale,

penale, Del etc.,

1, Parte

pp. 392. archivio

Puglia di psichiatria, Guido. Ribera, Ribera rino, Ribera (aw.), 1884. (aw.),

duello Vol. Dei

(Estratto v., f. iv.).

N. 28 dull'


Guido. Guido.

Torino, 1884. reati contro la proprieta. e punibilita.


Delin'quenza carcerarie

1888, Rivista di discipline

di Beltrani-Scalia.



Rizzone-Navarra 1888. rino, Rizzuti (L'aw.), pp. Rosmini, 177. E.

(aw.), Vito.



e punibilita, codice


compilato sicurezza, in materia Rossi luzioni. Rossi, Virgilio.

Palermo, Codice metodico, (nuovo) penale, con l'indice con le disposizioni; nuovo legge di publica col regolamento; unica legge sulla cussazione sulle di rivo-

Impressioni 1888.

sul nuovo


Torino, penale. 1890, e Lombroso. Influenza della temperatura Torino, Studi 1887. sopra 1888. Una Centuria


Torino, Glossario Rossi, Virgilio. Alphabet'co et la Medicina gia Criminale Legale, pp. 53. Roma, pp. 81. 1889. Rossi. Virgilio. Glossario Torino, Sammito, natura Scalvanti, giure Schanzer, 1889. M. Aldisio. e colla O. Francesco Del di antropolgia diritto penale

per la Anthropoload usodei Giuristi, e medicina nei

legale. colla del a e G.


pp. 80. Carrara

Terranova, nella storia

rapporti 1888. politica negli

1888. Torino, penale. C. II diritto di guerra e dei trattati Torino, civile


pp. 267. governo rappresentativo, Positiva nella Scuola Giurisprudenza nella Fioretti, vita ; Direttori e C. Lombroso. sociale

1891. e penale

E. Ferri,

R. Garofalo,

Gius. La censura liberi ordinamenti Semmola, pubb. nei e la prepress, delle Con appendice sulle disingiurie. del nuovo cod. pen. Torino, posizioni 1889. Sergi, G. Antropologia e Scienze umane. Torino, prima antropologiche. Torino, 1884. internazionale 1889. Torino, 1889. Sergi, G. Setti. Severi

Le degenerazioni La forza irresistibile. La crim.

e Lombroso.

di antropol.


esposizione 1886.





Sighele, 1891.



folia Martino.

de/inquente, Del furto.



Torino, del pel

Constabelli, Specialc lazioni europee d'ltalia. Speciale Torino, Constabelli, penale del regno

Studio penale


comparate 1870. Martino.

al codice

Alessandro. Stoppato Torino, 1887. Tamburini e Seppilli. sopra un caso di

Progetti comparati d'ltalia. Torino, 1879. Infanticidio e procurato Studio imbecillita di

del codice aborto.

criminale picopatologia morale con idee fisse im-

Torino, pulsive. 18S3. Taranto Del grado del delitto nella sua, (aw.), Giuseppe. forza morale. 1882, Torino, Taranto Del tentative e sue (aw.), Giuseppe. punibile relazioni colla complicita nei read. Torino, 1876. L. Prof. Cervelli di Delinquenti metoTenchini, (superficii di anatomia, pp. 118. pica) ; recherche Corso di diritto P. Ticozzi, penale secondo d'ltalia, Tramonte, colla getto Travaglia, Parma, 1885. il nuovo codice

pp. 542. Napoli, 1890. Materia G. controversa, penale e giurisprudenza legislazione Zamardelli-Save'.li. Torino, Carlo. II Nuovo Codice straniera

comparata e col proVol. i.,

1887. Penale Italiano,

Roma, pp. 490. 1889. I reati contro gli averi con fine di lucro Tuozzi, Pasquale. studiato nelle legislazioni. Torino, 1887. sulla nuova scuola Due saggi critici Tuozzi, Pasquale. penale. 18S8. Torino, delitto e della delinquenza, M. A. Sulla generidel Vaccaro, Milano-Torino, pp. 16. Genesi M. A. Vaccaro, ricerche sociologiche. L' utilita M. A. Vaccaro, Trani, 1891. 1888. e funzione delle leggi classico, penali: pp. 30. Torino, 1889-. nei diritto penale

368 V. II 1888. S., e Silva,


Valletti, Torino, Varaglia,




e la

psichiatria ed


B. cram



60, sopi'a giche italiane. Torino, Virgilio, G.. 1888.

e 42, encefali la natura natura

antropolodi donne criminali

1885. e Passanante




Torino, G. Virgilio, studio. Viti (aw.), duellanti, Weiss studio Zei,

Passanante Torino, G. B.

e la



de-.itto, uso dei

1889, Codice del




e magistrati. Torino, legali 1884. padrini, U reato di falsa de Welden testimonianza: Ettore, 1882. dello Torino, psicologismo 1884. saggi di in

Torino, storico-guiridico. Dell' e Arnolfo. ontologismo penale, Angelo. Parte filosofica.

materia Zuccarelli,


e delinquenza Napoli, legale Torino, del 1891.

criminale, pp. 64. antropologia di medicina G. Ziino, Compendio medica, Ziino, per niedici La e giuristi. fisio-patologia di diritto delle

e giurisprudenza 1890. delitto. Parte Torino,

Guiseppe. 1881.

Corso completo Zuppetta. metafisica della scienza rino, 1871.

penale. penale,


prima: To3 vols.

Arambubu Felix De. La Nueva Ciencia Penal, y Zuloaga, Madrid, Sevilla, 1887. pp. 373. Ioao Vieira Discurso no Dr. de. pronunciado Aranjo, na sessao de 28 de Janeiro de Nacional, Congresso Rio de Janeiro, 1891, pp. 28. Estudios Beeche, O. penitenciarios, 1891. Madrid, pp. 223. 1891. Estudos Castello. Peniten-

Antonio D'Azevedo Branco, ciarios e Criminaes, 1888. Lisboa, p. 240. e criminales. CastelloBranco. Estudos penitenciarios La cuestion Nueva Cortes, E. York, 1871. penal. Covian y Junco, V. Legislacion

El procedimiento espaiiola. ordinaria, penal teorico-practico para la jurisdiccion concordado Madrid. y comentado, pp. 473. 1889. La 1873penitenciaria M. Historia y el tratamento de !os criminales.


Lafuente, pos

prirnitivos Barcelona, 393. 1890. Lastres y Juiz, Francesco. de las Marianas Letamendi. MacDonald, logia. La

de Espafia, df*s de los tiemgeneral la meurte hasta de Fernando VII., pp. La colonisacion penitenciaria 1875.

Poo. Madrid, y Fernando Criminalidad ante la Ciencia.

Arthur. Revista

de la etica a la criminoAplicaciones General de Legislacion y Jurisprudencia. La 1886. crisis del derecho penal, pp. 320. Criminalidad en Barcelona,

Mayo y Junio, 1892. D. Manuel Gil. Maestre, pp. 215. Silio y Madrid, Barcelona, Cs. La Cortes, El 1891. derecho

Silvela. Valenriti

y j iridica, 24

penal 1874-1880. S. Tratado de antropologia Vivo, Barcelona, pp. 243. 1889.




Bruun. huse. Camder,

Beretning 1871. Over P.

om Tilstanden de tekenen van

i Landets ieven

samtlige in

arrestnieuwvan van

en dood

kinderen. Leeuwarden, 1774. geborene over de misdaad P. (Infanticide.) Camper, Gedagten antwoord kindermoord; op de Aanmerkingen Stock. Leeuwarden, 1774. Duyl, Goos. De voorwardelyke on Kritisch beschouwd. Van. Den Nordiske Strafferet Invrijheidstelling, 1881. Leiden, allmindeiig 1882. over den del norske

bistorisch i Nordisk

Retsencylopadi. 5 Haefte. F. Forelaesninger Hagerup, cess,


Christiania, pp. So. 1892. Om Frihetsstraffen. Hagstroemer.

L. M. De exilio Hartmann, apud bellosum civilum usque ad Severi tum. Berolini, 1S87. Observationes de aere et Huxham. London, 1852. Sofus Chr. Larsen, pp. 151. Von. Mentzer, 1872. Nieuwcnhuis, sluiting. Nieuwenhuis, Oscar Hauniae, Studia 1889. ofver De De straff straf critica

Upsala, Romanos

1875. nide ab


Alexandri morbis Plutarchi

principacontagiosis. Moralia, Stockholm, op-


Anteckningar T. Domela.. 1859. J. Domela. Om

Faengelser. der

afzonderlijke 1884.


Gefangenisstraf. och straffanstalter,






Leonard E. van. Petersom, Ramring, van den samenloop van strafbare schrift.

tot de leer Proefhandelingen. Beijdrage

Utrecht, 1885. De cellulaire in Nederland Quintus, J. J. Gevangenisstraf sinds hare invoering, etc. 1887. Simon, G. De ergasteriis disciplinar. Jena, 1670. van Kamper. Bescheide beantwoording LeeuSterk, A. warden, 1774. in het beteugelen Het belang der maatschappij Sterk, A. van den kindermoord. Leeuwarden, 1774. Gedachten over de eenzame opsluiting, 1842. Suringar. I. J. Ucenie o nakaz anii v s\jazi s tjurmovjToinitzky, of punishment (Theory edenijenr pp. 504. St. Petersbourg, 1889. zavodima Okaznenim 1884 Zujovig. forma kanznenich zawoda. 1887. and penal and Prilozi science), za re-



Albrecht. Arch, Amadei. Amadei. Ardouin. Anthr. Arduin. Anthr.



occipitale Arch,



psich. ecc. 1884. Crani d'assassini. Cranio Sur II. Sur IV. la di un ladro. les cranes 1879.


Riv..sperm, des malfaiteurs. des 1881. criminels.

1883. fren.

I. Bull. Bull.

1886. Soc. Soc.


craniologie Paris, 709.

Etudes sur cephalometriques Bajenoff. sins et 19 personnages distingues. Paris, Benedikt. Wien, Benedikt. Benedikt. Wien, Benedikt. anthr. Bono. 1884. Schadelmessung-Kranio 1882. Kraniometrie Der 1888. Des crim. Schadel und des

d'assas55 bustes Bull. Soc. Anthr. und Kefalometrie. 1888. Wien, Schimatk. Archives e

Kefalometrie. Raubmorders

Capacita Arch. delinq. Etude Revue

criminels de Vienne, grands Mai 1891. orbitale e cranica nei normali Psich. Ecc, 1880. de 36 cranes crane et


Bordier. Chudzinski. cranien 1880.

sur un serie

d'assassins le moule iii.

nella intraParis, and vi.

d'Anthrop. Sur la de

1879. voute du

Menesclou, The Rid.

Bull. Cranial Lun.

Soc. Anthr. Outline Asil.

and Clarke. Clapham Criminal. Wess. 150. Corrc, A. London,

of the Insane Med. Reports, 18S1.

1876. cranes des criminels,

Sur quelques



373 Revue Anthr. du de ii.

Corre Dumont.

e Roussel. Anthr.





criminels, Bull. Soc.

1883. Sur la fossette 1884. Observations

occipitale, sur l'etat

Bruxelles, Dumontre. Paris, Hegeret,




Etude sur les caracteres Dallemagne. craniologen Belgique. d'une serie d'assassins executes iques 1881. Bruxelles, des criminels, Sur les caracteres Bull. physiques Heger. Soc. Anthr. Hospital. Arch. Hudler. Roller. Lesion i. 113. Bruxelles, grave du crane Psich. v. ii. Paris, 18S5. Ueber Capacitat und Gewicht Anstalt Ueber 1883. sur la tete d'un supplicie, in der

der Schadcl


in Miinchen, 1877. Lombroso Impression, 1890. delin. ruineni, Psich. cerebrale


1887; in

also, Arch. Psich., Lenhossek. Crani di Orvosi Lombroso. Hetilap Della

e Arch. fossetta

ungheresi Ecc. 1880.

e croati

in un criminale, Arch. Psich.

Arch. Ecc.

Firenze, 1872. per l'Antr. Lombroso. e pazzia da trauma, Delitto 1882. Lombroso. Arch. Lombroso. Psich., Cranio Psich. Anomalie criminale 1888. nei cranio medio

col metodo

Galtoniano, Arch. ArSoc. Bull. Soc.

di Carlotta e del 1871.

Corday, brigante Bull.

1889. Crani del beato Lorenzi Valfre (de). tusio Giom. Accad. Med. Torino, Manouvrier. Zoll. Manouvrier. Soc. Anthr. Manouvrier. Anthr. Recherches de France. Sur d'anatomie 1882. Melun, l'etude des cranes


des assassins, Bull.

Paris, 1883. Sur le crane, d' un. Fevr., 1886.



374 Manouvrier. Actes cranes Manuelii psich. Marimei. normali. 1887. Minzazzini. sperim. Montalti. 1887. Monti. Studio Sopra fren. Cranio e du des Sur


la capacite du crane Anthr. Crim., Congres Archives Craniometri

chez Rome,


assassins. 1886. Les 1886. Arch. in

supplicies. Lombroso. 1881. alio



a di 39 delinq. della fossetta Arch, di


Contributo pazzi


occipitale per l'Antrop.,

rei e razze

inferori. encefali

30 1888. di un






nello sui

Sperimentale. cranii dei


anthropologico 1884. d'assassins.

delinquenti. pg. 764 criminali

Bologna, Orchanski. Paris, Ottolenghi. pazzi

Cranes 1882. Lo

Bull. del

Soc. naso

Anthr., ne' 1888. Arch,


e la forma

e cretini. Arch, psich. epilettici di delinquenti. Paloli Ouattro crani (de). 1880. Paoli (de) Arch, e Cougnet. ecc. psich. Arch, anomalie Studio 1882. Indice cranio-mandibolare XII. de di 26 crani

psich. criminali





e Lombroso.

nei 1883.

pazzi Riv.

delinquenti. Rare Penta. Care. Rancke.

per l'anthrop. di un cranio


1889. Beitrage zur physischen fosse Anthrop. Miinchen,

1883. Severi. Capacitadelle suicidi Tamassia. per Tenchini. Tenchini. nali. e delinquenti.

ecc. nei pazzi temporosfenoidali Arch, 1886. psich. aliersati e deiiiiquenli. Parma, pazzi e Arch.

CraniometriadegH l'antr. Firenze. Sulla Sulla Parma, cresta cresta 1887,

1874. ne'criminali. ne' normali, 1886. crimi-

frontale frontale





Tenchini. La fossa olecranica ne' criminali. Arch, psich. 1888. Ten Kate e Paolovski. Sur quelques cranes de criminels. Revue d'Anthr. 1881. e Silva. Varaglia Sopra 60 crani e 42 encefali di donne criminali Varaglia. Arch psich. italiane. 1885. Sulla cresta frontale interna e sulla fossetta

mediana. Arch, psich. ecc. 1886. occipitale Weisbach. zur Kenntniss der Schadelfomen Beitrage Wiener Med. Jahrb. oesterreich. Volker. 1864. Teste d'assassini e teste di galantuomini. Arch. Zampa. Psich. 1889. Zuckerkand. Morphol. des Gesichtsschadels. 1877.



dispena in Inghilterra, corso a Brighton vi. 3. 1875, nella Riv. career, La criminalidad en Espana in Revista de Espana, Agius. Oct. 1885. Febbr. 1886. Allard. De l'influence de l'instruction sur la moralite des delinquenza des econ. Oct., 1849. populations, Journal Amati. L'instruzione e la delinquenza in Italia del 1871 al 1881 nei Rendiconti dell' Istit. Lomb. 1886, xi. Anfosso. Atlante della criminalita. geografico Torino, 18S7. Barzilai. La della Riv. criminalita in Italia. Roma, statistica 1S86.



e la


Care.) Scalia. La delinquenza e la Beltrani, 1888. Roma, penale in Italia. Beltrani, 1879. Beltrani, Scalia. Rivista di discipline Scalia. La riforma penitenziaria

giudiziaria Roma, Roma,

in Italia. carcerarie.

1871 in poi. Scalia. Beltrani, Bennecke. tionen 1887. Bennecke. Hessen. Berard, dans Mars, Berard. La les Die in Zur


wichtigsten 1886, in Zeitschr, Kriminalstatistik

Rome, penitentiaire. Kriminalistatistischen f. die des ges.

1872. Publica-


Zeitsch. criminalite depart,

f. die ges. de Lyon circonvoisins. en France.

Grossherzogthums Strafrechtsw., 1890, x. a. la criminalite comparee Archives Anthr. Crim.

1887. La criminalite








la criminalite etrangerset iv. 116. Anthr., Lyon, 1885. De la criminalite Bernard. en France repression prisonniers, La Bertholozi. Crim. Bertrand. classes Paris. au point penale net Journ. des econ. criminalite en


a Lyon

in Bull.


1826 et de la depuis de rue de 1' amendement des Juin, 1867. Archives



Juillet, 1889. Essai sur la moralite de la population.

comparative de Journ.

des la

diverses de

Soc. Stat, Krimiviii.

1871-72. der osterreichischen Ergebnisse Zeitsch. f. die ges. Strafrechtsw.,


Einige . nalstatistik. 1887.


Block. Block. pays Bdckle. Bodio.

L'Europe Statistique d'Europe. Der Juden De

et sociale. Paris, politique 1859. de la France avec les comparee II. edit. 1S75. i860.. Paris, Anted am Verbrechen. en Italic. Berlin, criminelle


1881. d'

Anthrop. Bodio. Note Actesdu Rome, -Bodio. Ann. Bodio.

la statistique criminelle. sur le


Lyon, mouvement Congres

Sept., 1886. de la criminalite intern. d'Anthrop.





18S7. Profili di statistica di stat.


internazionale, omicidii Ann., di

negli. in 1877, Italia 18S5. Instil.

Relazione confronto Vol. 9. Relazioni atti della

1879, Vol. 9. sulla statistica atri stati,


in Italia, stat., in Bull.


negli. della

Bodio. negli Bodio.

sul movimento Commiss. judiciaire Rome,


di Stastic. penale

Statistique Inter. Stat. Die

Jiudiz. en Italic



1890. sachsische Criminalita! stat.

aus den Jahren 1889. Zeitsch. des


des sachs. 87, Zeitsch. Bohmert. Strafrechtspflege stat. Bureaus, 1S79.


in Sachsen.


378 La


Bonelli. Riv. Boron.





di S. Marino, per una di Stat. nei Bull.

pen. marzo. 1890. De' reati contro la intern, della


Contributo Ann.


giustizia alcuni

primitiva. stati d'

1875, Vol. 6. Bosco. Gli omicidi Instit. Bosco. La intern,

in de Stat.

Rome, Italia,

in delinquenza Firenze, 15 die. 1891, De la criminalite Bournett. 1884. Bournet. Brattasieve. stat. Brissaud. Revue Cardosa. La Corse Criminelle der

Europa, 1889, iv\, 1. Rass. Scienze et en Italic

soc. e pol. Paris,

en France

en 1888.


Ergebnisse Monatsschr. La statistique gen. de droit,

Strafrechtspflege, et les Criminalistes 1884,

1889. etc., Wiener

1879. penale Janvier. italiens, Actes de Es-


des prisons d'ltalie, 1862-83. du Congres intern. Rome, penit. 1889. Estadisticas de lo criminal. Revista Gayon. Statistique 15 Maggio, L'istruzione Etude 1888. e i reati sur la in Italia. statistique delle del R. Lecce, criminelle

pana, Castriota. Chaussinaud. France. Ciccone. regioni

1882. de la

1881. Lyon, Nota sulla criminalita d'ltalia negli ser'e Atti Vol.

diverse Istit. d'

provincie ineoragg.

1875, Napoli, Criminal Statistics Clay. of Stat. Soc, Journ. Colajanni. ermo, Colajanni, 1885. Oscillations Arch,

!3of Preston


of Correction,

in Pal-

1839. La delinquenza della


a le sue cause. et delits Nov., 1886. Lyon,

personnes. Colomb. Etude Corre. crim., Criminalite Mars,

thermometriques d'anthr. crim., en



sur la criminalite militaire 1891.

de la Creuse. France. Arch,







Cone. Essai sur la Criminalite, Journ.des Econ., Janv. 1868. Le crime en pays Creoles. Corre. Paris, 1889. dans le depart, du Rhone. Couette. La Criminalite Lyon, 1886. La Criminalite en Prusse et en Allemagne de Courbe (Le). 1881 a 1887, Bull. Soc. Prisons. Paris, Janv., 1891. du calcul des chances a la statistique Cournot. Applications Paris, 1833. judiciaire. Cuenould. La Criminalite a Geneve au XIX. siecle. Geneve, 1891, Gli omicidii in Italia, in Riv. Career, i., 349. Curcio. Curcio. La giustizia penale in Italia nei 1869-70 nell' Italia economica. Roma, 1873. Curcio. Le statistiche penali d' Italia e di Francia per il 1869, in Riv. Career. 1. 1871. Curcio. Sulle statistiche penali d' Italia per l'anno 1869. Firenze, 1871. De Chandolle. Sur la statistique des delits, Bibl. Univ. de Geneve. 1830. Sur les resultatsdes.comptesde l'adm. de De Chateauneuf. la just. Crim. en France, Seances de 1'Acad. des Sciences. Paris, 1842. Influence de la crise economique sur la criminality Denis. Bull. Soc. Anthr. et le penchant au crime de Ouetelet. Bruxelles, 1886. der Postverwaltung. DeutDie Kriminalslatistik Dimbach. sches Postarchiv, 1873. No. 9. Tavole statis. proporz. della espiaz ed impuD'Ippolito. nita nei crimini e delitti in Italia. Napoli, 1875. Die moralisclie Statistik und die menschliche Drobisch. Willensfreiheit. Leipzig, 1867. Dubois. Les donnes de la statistique criminelle en Prusse. Bull. Soc. Prisons. Paris, 1886, No. 7. Du Cane. Crime et criminels en Angleterre de 1837 a 1887. Bull. Soc. Pris., Paris, 1888, p. 708.



Ducpetiaux. France, i835Ducpetiaux. Belgique 164. Elliot. The

Statistique Belgique,




criminalite Bruxelles



et Allemagne.

et des prisons des tribunaux de Statistique nei message!" des sciences et arts, 1834, p. Increase of Material

and of Moral Prosperity with the State of Crime and PauperAgents Compared ism. 1868. Journ. of Stat. Soc. Die Monarchic preussischen des preuss. statist. Bureau, pp. 278. and Crime in the United Pauperism 1855. Journ. of Stat. Soc. sur la statistique inteliectuelle ii). idem. 1847. inteliectuelle de l'Acad. des consents des sciences. et Frequenz in der der Strafanstalten fur Zuchthaus185863. 1864. States of


Straflinge Zeitsch. Everest.

America. Essai Faget. la France,



Statistique Faget. cuses. Seances

et des ac1843. Journ. Phila-

en France, Sur les progres de la criminalite Faget. des economistes. Janv., 1846. of the United States. R. P. Prison Statistics Falkner, 1889. delphia, Etudes Faucher. (La Faucher. nalite Ferri. crimin. sur Vol. mouvement Janv., 1850. von Zeitsch. ii., Paris, de la

1'Angleterre. le

1856. crimidem f, d.

en Angleterre.) et Sur le caractere

en Angleterre, Das Verbrechen

ib. idem. in seiner


gesammte Ferri. L'Omicidio, Ferri. Relazione 1884-85 1885. ' Studi Ferri. con I tav.

Temperaturwechsel, Strafrechtsw. Berlin, Vol. mi Atti I. della Torino, discorsi

Abhangigkeit car. 2 tav. 1882. 1892. del

negli sulla

inaugurali Co mm. di stat. in Francia




Giadiz. dal


Criminalita Ann.


di stat.

1881, Vol

1826 al 1878, 21.







Thermometeiques 1887. nella




d' Anthrop. Crim., Janv., Precocita e recidivita Filippi. 1S84. Fletcher. Wales, 189, Fletcher. 231. Progress Soc, of Crime Moral Journ. and of


Firenze, and 'S1-

Educational Stat. Soc,

Statistics 1847,

of England 103, and 1849, Kingdom,

in the United sulla

Journ. dei

of Stat. Foinitzki, delitti. Folder,

1843, 218. delle Influenza stagioni S. Petersbourg, 1873. Abiinsigy




di Budapest.

1889. der ncucren Folder. Kriminalstatistik. Ergebnissc Einige - Zeitsch. Strafrechtsw. gesam. 1891. Das jiidische Verbrecherthum. Fuld. Leipzig, r8S5. Fuld. ung Fuld. fiir Fuld. Gabelli. Gabelli. nei Garofalo. 1881. Garofalo. 1880. Garofalo. La criminalita in Napoli. Attentats anthr. Viols Nov. Arch, psich., et viols 1886. a la pudeur sur pp. sur 164. les I discorsi dei Procuralori del re. Arch, dipsichecc. Der der Die Einfluss strafbaren deutsche der Lebensmittelpreise Mainz, fur auf die BewegArchiv Handlungen. Kriminalstatistik 1881. 18B5. Reichs.

pp. 275, xxxv. des deutschen Verbrecherbudget Strafrecht,


f. Volkswirthschaft,

Berlin, 1887. pp. 75. distatistica Milano, 1874. penale. Appunti della giustizia in Lombardia, Sui resoconti penale dei Grib. 1862. negli Anni 1878-80, ib. idem Criminalita in Italia


1889. Garrand et Bernard. enfants. Garrand et Archives Bernard. ib. idem,

a la pudeur Crim., et Sept. attentats



382 Gentini. Marzo, Gil Maestre. La criminalita


nei Messico,

net Bull.

Minist. en las


1888, e Arch,

psich., ix., 304. La criminalidad en Barcelona

grandes del Friuli

18S6. Barcelona, poblaciones. Statistica criminale della Giussanti. 1863., Goldhammer's Grosvenor. and Wales dal ai 1869. Archive 1870. f. Strafrecht. of the Abatement the Twenty Udine,

provincia 1888. in Crime Years Ended 1890. de l'etat Paris,

Statistics During Soc.

in England 18S7-88. de l'in-

Journ. Stat. et Balbi. Guerry struction Guerrv. i833Essai



comparee Statistique et du nombre des crimes. sur la statistique morale

1S29. de la France.

Paris, avec Paris, Senesi.

morale de l'Angleterre Statistique Guerry. comparee la stat. mor, de la France, Paris 1864, avec Atlas. 186?. Guidi. Guillaume. efficace Guiilaume. anstalten, Guillot. 1890. Hammich. Wales, Hausner, Heuschling. Zur Hilse. preuss. Holtzendorff. Lo 1884. dei reati principali in Riv. Career. per prevenirli, Zur Statistik der Schweiz. cause in Zeitsch. fiir schweiz. Stat. Le ed il mezzo stato della Criminalita in Italia in Studi


1876. Kriminalstraf1879. Bleue, 14 Juin, and

Statistique On the



Statistics of England Judicial Journ. of Stat. Soc, 1867. Statistik von Europa. Vergleichende 1865. Paris, 1876. Journ. de la Soc. de Stat. Statistik stat. der Todestrafe 1869. des deutschen Reichs in Zeitsch, des Bureau.

Icon. fiir


1S88, No. 8. 1885, in Gerichtssaal. Walsh. A Deduction from the Statistics Hussey, Journ. of Stat. Soc. 1857.

of Crime.





Die Zahlen der Kriminalitat in Preussen fiir 1854 Illing. bis 1884, in Zeitsch. des konig. preussischen stat. Bureaus, 1885. La France Criminelle, Paris, 1889. Joly. Kriminal-statistiche Kirchenheim, Notizen, Gerichtssaal 1879, xxx., also Rivista penale, die 1879. Kitts. Serious Crime. An Indian Province. London, 1889. La criminalite Kocher. chez les Arabes. Lyon, 1884. Kdhne. La criminalita prussiana dal 1868 al 1887 nei Gerichtssaal,
p. 219.

1880, XXXI.,

p. 254, e Revista

Penale, 1880,


Handbuch der vergleichenden I Aufl. Statistik, 1856, letzte Aufl. 1885. Marche de la criminalite en France de T825 a Lacassagne. i88r. 1880, in Revue Scientifique, 28 Mai. La criminalita. nelle citta e nelle campagne, Lacassagne. 1882. psich. Notes statistiques sur 1'empoisonnment crimLacassagne. inel en France de 1825 a 1880, Archives d'Anthrop. 1886. Crim., Mai. La Criminalite d'apres le degre de 1'instruction, Journ. Soc. Stat, Paris, 1875. Lacroix. Sur la criminalite infantile. Paris, 1880. La criminalita in Francia dal 1840 al 1886, Cuore Lafargue. e Critica. Bergamo, Marzo. 1890. Lallemand. Etudes sur les prisons de la statistiques Grande Bretagne. Bull. Soc. Prisons. Paris, 1890. Lefort. Etude stat. sur la criminalite en France. Actes de l'assoc. franc, pour l'avance. des se., Congres de Paris. 1878. Lefort. Etude sur la moralite en France. statistique Paris, 1885. La France et 1' Et ranger. Paris, 1869. Legoyt. Loriot. De la criminalite et medecine legale en Cochinchine. Lyon, 1887. Arch,

384 A.



of Indictable Survey Offenses in England Wales. 1880. Bemerkungen 1887, in Jahrb. 1889. Die Deutsche und zur


Summary Jurisdiction Jeurn. of Stat. Soc. Sep. deutschen Kriminalsta-

Lindenberg. tistik fiir schaft. Lindenberg.

f. Nationalok.

und Staatswissenfiir

Kriminalstatistik Staatswissenschaft. 1881-85 des


Jahrb. f. Nationalok. Litra. Den Kriminelle in Danimarca Liszt. Die Zeitsch. fiir

Retspleje j. 18S8. 1881-85).

1887. Crim. (Grinst. 1883 delits crim. ediz. 11. l'Acad. nella in


die ges. Strafrechtsw. Liszt. des crimes Repartition geographique in Archives Allemand l'empire d'anthrop. 1836. Lombroso. Lombroso. Torino, Lucas. Lucchini. Penale. Lucchini. Prisons. Mac Donald, Man," L'uonio delinquente. del L'incremento Torino. delitto

Jahres 1886. et

dans Mais.

1876, III. in Italia, cle M.

1884. ediz. des.

1879. Sur la recidive. et pol. I discorsi 1S82. La criminalite Paris, Arthur.

Comptes 18S3. d'apertura et Italie

rendus del en and P.

sc mov.

Rivista Bull. Soc.

1875-82. Crime

1884. Education

in " Abnormal WashSoe. des

published by U. S. Bureau D. C, 1893. ington, Criminalite et Moralite Malaree. en Stat. Matweieff. Paris, Die i860. russische

of Education, France.

Journ. Zeitsch.

Kriminalstatistik. Bureaus. sulla

kgl. preuss. stalistischen Manfredini. Rivista critica pel Mayr. Padora, 1870. Statistik der Miinchen. 1874.

1876. statistica penale Polizei.


gerichtlichen 1S67.





3S5 zur Miin-

der Ergebnisse Strafrechtspflege. Beitrage des Kdnigreichs, Statistik xix, 1868. Bayern. Die Gezetzmassigkeit im Gesellschaftsleben. Mayr. Mayr. chen, M. Callum. Du Maury. Mondes. Melier. avec Mem. Mendez, les 1887. Ibidem. Juvenile Delinquency, mouvement moral de la Societe i860. sur maladies les subsistances et la mortalite dans (et leurs la

1855. Rev. des Deux



criminalite) Aires en

de l'Acad.

de Medicine,

La Casariego. Buenos Aires, 1888. 18S7. Relazione critica Messedaglia. Atti dell' Messedaglia. nei 1856-56. Messedaglia. statist., Mitchell. Soc, Minzloff.

x. 193. criminalita de Buenos sull'

opera di Guessy, negli Institute iii. serie, x. vol. Veneto, criminali del l'lmpero Le statistiche Austriaco Benezia, La 1866-67. statistica della in criminalita. Russia. Revue und Arch, of di Stat

1879, fasc> 4Statistics of Crime pp. 369. Eludes sept,


1864. sur la criminalite. et dec. 1880.

de philosophie

positive, Mittelstadt. Zeitsch. Moreau, Moreau,

Kulturgeschichte f. die ges. Strafrechtsw. La criminalite Janv., 1844. La criminalite 1850. e le seienze statistic! 2.


de Jonnes. 1842, ibidem.

1884. en Angleterre en Angleterre socialie. sulla

pendant pendant

de Jonnes. Aout, 1849, ibidem. La statistica Morpurgo. Morpurgo. Arch, Miihlemann. schweiz. Necludoff. Recentistudi di stat., Zur

Firenze, 1872, in pena di morte in Stat. den 1885. St.

iii, fasc. Statistik dell'

1878. der Strafrechtspflege fiir a schweiz. et sulla delinquenza.

Kantonen. Influenza 1865.


Petersbourg, 25

3S6 Neison. Statistics Soc.


of Crime 1846. in

in England Italia in dal

and Wales.

Journ. 1882, nell' fiir 1882. Roma, fiir

of Stat. Niccolini. Atenio

La criminalita beneto.



Die Oettingen. einechristliche Orano. 1882. Orelli. Passez. Bull. Pavia. Das schweiz.

1884. Moralstatistik Socialethik. nelle


La criminalita schweiz. Statistik.

Erlangen, sue relazioni

Bedeutung 1868, 3. Aufi. col clima. Zeitsch. aux Etats in

Gefangnisswesen. Bern, 1869, de la criminalite nei

L'accroissement Soc. Prisons, Studi sulla

Unis. arch di

1889. criminalita

italiana criminal. della


1882. psich., Estadistica Perez, y Olivia. unales. Polletti. 1882. Porter. The Influence in the Nota Di 1889. una legge


de las trib-


criminalita. Shown Journ.


of Education Tables.

corded 1847. Pugliese. psich., Pugliese. giurispr., Quetelet. 1869. Quetelet. Paris, Quetelet.

Criminal sulla

Reby Facts of Statis. Societ. Arch, di di

criminalita criminalita

nelle italiano

Puglie. nei

1884. Nota sulla 1884. Physique Le

1880 in Riv.




11 edit. le le




et les

lois sans



1848. La statistique moral

consideree et

der physique, Paris, 1870. Quetelet. Rawson. land

de ['intelligence Bruxelles,

du rapport de i'homme.

Anthropometric. An Inquiry Into and Wales. Journ.

the Statistics of Stat.

1870. of Crime 1839.







387 of and







of Statistical Wales, 1837. Journal Society, 1838. Le criminalite etl'instruction Revue bleue Reville. publique. 26 avril, Rey. statistica Robiquet. mists Romognosi. l'adm. Annali. Rossi. sulla actes Rossi. Arch, Rossi. Arch, Rossi. Sul 1890. La criminalita coll' anthropologia in rapporto in Arch, di Stat., fasc. 2. 1878. France de 1826 a 1888. sul e colla

La criminaliteen 1882. Frangais, Osservazioni de la


statistiche en

compte pour




crim. just. di Statistica, della





Influenza criminalita

du Congres Alcune opinioni

e dell' alimentasione temperatura italiana. Arch, also psich., 1885; d' Anthr. Crim. 1886. Rome, sulla statistica della criminalita. kaliane.

1886. psich., Le recenti statistiche dipsich. 1889.



in Italia (con regionalismo codice di nuovo penal Appuntial Torino, 1889. II sesso negli De Orano. awelenatori

cartogrammi) Lombroso in


negli altri.





1880 al 1888. Lanchez de legislacion. Bodio Scalvanti. Arch. Schrade. Schoelcher. April, Seefeld. Setti. Sichart.


psich., 1891. Estadistica criminal. della



1887. e la statistica



Giuridico, 1891. Das Verbrecherthum Education 1844. Aus der

in Hamburg. et crimes. Journ.

Hamburg, 1879. des economistes.


Verbrecherstatistik. 1886. Verbrechens.

Gerichtssaal, L'esercito Ueber Zeitsch.

1887. e la sua criminalita. individuelle Strafrechtsw. Faktoren

Milano, des

d. ges.


38S Sichart. Ein




Gefangniss-Statistik. statistique in psch., de

Blalt. la crimi-

Gefangnissk. 1891. Contribution a l'etude Socquet. nalite Starke. 1878. Sterlich. zionc Stat. en France. Verbrechen Berlin, Statist, Paris, und

1884. Verbrecher

Preussen, 1884.

1854 falsificaAnn. di;.

1884; also, Arch, dei procedimente di biglietti

e spendizione Vol. xv. 1880.

penali per di banca.

Die Zunahme der Vergehen und Verbrecheni Stursberg. und ihre Ursachen. Diisseldorf, 5. Aufl. 1879. Tactics of the Times. London, Symons. 1854. I delitti. Tammeo. di statistica in Riv. morale, Saggio Care Tammeo. fasc ii. 1881-82. sulla criminalita in Italia, Archives de controle Moscow, in Arch. ant..r. Arch. Pensieri

psich. pag. 102. 1885. criminelle Tarde. Statistique crim. Tarde. anthr. Tarnowsky. sociali. Tarnowsky. le varie Maggio. Teichmann. Sept., 1887. Note sur la statistique crim. 1891. I delitti di Mai,



criminelle e


Juridiceskj. La modificazione classi sociali

sangue Viestnick.


1887. della secondo delinquenza Viestnick. Mosca Juridicesky Oesterreichs. Allg. 1868. nei Deut. mes-

1889. Die Criminalstatistik

Holtzendorff, Strafrechtszeitung. Le assoluzioni Tarnowski. giudiziarie La justice criminelle de la Soc. de Stat, de Paris, Journ. Triest. zur Kriminal-und Beitrage saggero Thonissen. Giuridico. Mosca,

Juni, in Russia

Apr., 1891. en France Avril,

de 1826 a 1880.

1883. Strafanstaltstatistik Bureau. 1867. de l'empire 19, n. 2.

des kon. preuss. stat. Zeitsch. Preussens, Turcas. criminelle et correctionelle Statistique de allemagne. Bull. Soc gen Prisons,





Ulloa. pen. Ulloa. poli, Valentini.

Ouadro Torino, Sulle






giust. Na-

1843. statistiche






1842. Das

Verbrecherthum de 1'instruction en France,

im Preussischen


Leipzig, 1869. Influence Valentini.

pubblique Journ. de

sur la diminuSoc. Stat. Paris, de

tion de la criminalite 1870. Van

Alleyennes. Statistique 1831 a 1885 in Belgique La criminalita. in VirgiH. Von soc. e polit. Baumhauer. cupidite, 1874. Vinkler. Die Ergebnisse Monatschrift,


Judiciaire, Francia e in

la Belgique 28 Mars, 1886. Italia. Rass.


Firenze, 15 Apr., 1891. Crimes et delits centre memoir ix. Congr. der Intern,

la propriete de Stat. in

par Aia,

Statistiche Wagner. lichen Walford. Die

Strafrechtspflege xiv. 2. 1888. Wien, den scheinbar Hamburg, Accidents, United Soc. in


in Gesetzmassigkeit menschlichen Handlungen. Number of Deaths from in of Stat. of Misadventure Journ. Statistics


and Violence, other Countries. Westgarth. 1864. Sur Wilson. The

Negligence and Kingdom Ibid.

i38r. Australia.


la statistique du crime dans les Etats Unis de Actes du II. Cong. Anthrop. l'Amerique. Lyon, 1890^ Wines. American in the Tenth Prisons Census. Wines. Care. Wurzsburger. mand. iii., Yvernes. Societe 1. La criminalite Paris, et Nov., sa repression. 1887. Journ, de la Stat. Le carceri americane al X. censimento. del' stat. Riv. Alle1888.

1889. La statistique de 1' Inst, Bull,

criminelle intern, de

Empire Rome,



La statistique Yvernes. judiciaire. Journ. de la Soc. de Stat, de Paris, Oct., 1883. Milente za reforma Lazzenich Zawod Prilogi Zujovic (criminal statistics of Serbia). Belgrade, 1887. Zincone. Dell' aumento dei reati, ii. ediz. Caserta, 1872.

Amadei. Anomalie delle sperim, circonvoluzioni fren. 1881. 1881. Deutsch. Medic. frontali nei delin-

Riv. quenti. Ball. L'assassin Bardeleben. Wochenschr., Benedikt. Der

Encephale, Lefroy. Ueber Verbrechergehirne. 18S2.

am mcuschlichen Raubthiertypus Centralbl. fiir d. Med. Wiss., Nr. 52, 1877. des criminels. Anomalies Benedikt. cerebrales Medical, Benedikt. 1879. Ueber den Stand Med. der Presse,


Progres der

Verbrechergehirne. Benedikt. Demonstration Wien, Benedikt. Revue Benedikt. Presse. Benedikt. Mediz. Benedikt. 1883. Histologie scientifique. Zur Frage 1883. Beitrage Jahr. zur 1888.

heutigen Wiener

Anatomie 1880.



pathologique 1883.

du cerveau

de Guiteau. Wien. mediz.

der Verbrechergehirne. Anatomie der

Gehirn-Oberflache. bei dem Morder

Anthropologische Wien. mediz. Schenk. Le cerveau Osservazioni mal. Sur Le nerv.

Befunde Blatter.

Bonfigli. 1887. Bonfigli. ital. Broca. Broca. Anthr.

de l'assassin sui cervelli

189!. Pranzini. dei la





1887. l'assassin Lemaire

e sur

criminalite. Bull.

Bull. Soc.

Soc. Anthr.

Paris, 1867. cerveau de l'assassin 1880.





Bouchard. trois

Etudes cerveaux



circonvolutions Bull. Soc.

frontales Anthr.,

de III.


Bordeaux, Bouchard. Jour. Chiarugi. sani,

1887. sur Note divisione


cerveau Oct., delle




med. Sulla


1S91. circonvoluzioni



Siena. 1885. pazzi, delinquenti Chudzinski. Le cerveau de Menesclou. Bull. Fasc. Fallot. Paris Ferraz III. Le Paris, cerveau 1880. des criminels. crim. Bull.



Soc. et sans


1888 et Arch,


de Macedo. grise

L'encephale en rapport d'une avec

1889. humain avec la criminalite.




1889. Cerveau Ferrier. Flesch.

criminelle. mediano iiber


1882. Arch. Wiirz-

Su un cervelletto

in una criminale.

1882. psich. ecc. Flesch. Untersuchungen burg, 1882. Flesch. Zur Casuistik u. et Verbrechern XVI. Foville. med. Giacomini uomo. Giacomini. " Crane cerveau

Verbrecher-Gehirne. Befunde an Arch, Gehirnen fiir

anomaler Selbstmordern.

von Psych. Ann. dell'




1868. psych. Varieta delle Torino, 1881.


cerebrali Gazz. delle

Sui cervelli de

delinquenti. condamnes. einer


1883. Cerveaux Hanoi. 1880. Hotzen. f. ger. Lussana. nerv. Marchi, Befunde Med.





am Gehirn


Viertj. ital. mal.

1889. cerebrali Anomalie nov.

nei delinq. Arch,


1879. di Gasperone. II cervello








von Verbrccher-Gehirnen. Meynert, Kritik uber Nachrichten Anz. der ger. Gesellsch. Wien, 1876. Arrested and Aberrant and Gyres Mills. Development in the Brain of Paronoiacs. Criminals, Idiots, Negroes. 1889. Philadelphia, italiMingazzini. Sopra 30 crani ed encefali di delinquenti ane. Rivista sperim. fren. 1888. Neis. Poids de 33 cerveaux peses au penitencier de Paulo Condore. Bull. Soc. Anthro. Paris, 1882. Romiti. Crani e cervelli di delinquenti. Siena, 1883. an zehn Gehimen von Schwekendiek. Untersuchungen und Selbstmordern. Verbrechern 18'''. Wiirzburg, Cervelli di delinquenti. Tenchini. Parma, 1885. di delinquenti Cervelli III. Tenchini. memoria, Parma,

Varaglia e Silva. Sopra 60 crani e 42 encefali di donne criminali italiane. Arch, psich. ecc. 1885. Studi sul cervello dell' assassino Freud. Prager Willigk. Viert. f. Prakt. Heik, 1876.



Allman. Badich. Baillarger. ches Ball.

Des alienes Irre Note sur

criminels. Berlin, les causes


1891. de iv. la folic


1884. de la frequence psychol, sessuali. Giom 1' anthropophagie. med.

les prisonniers. Annals Varie forme di psicopatie 1887. Napoli, De l'homicide and Crime. the e de

1884. di neuro-

patol. Barbaste.

Paris, New ?

1856. Bell. Madness York, Bell. Sept. Shall we

Medico-Legal Insane who York, Commit April,


1884. Hang Homicides 1885. Care, pp. New Journ. et criminalite. criminali

Medico-Legal Benedikt. Folie Bergonzoli. 311. Berti. Blanche.

Sui pazzi

Wien, 1885. in Italia. Riv.

1875. Pazzia c omicidio. Des Homicides

Venezia, commis di

1876. par les

alienes. mattoidi.

Paris, Arch.

1878. e Collino. Boggio Psich. Bouvecchiato. ecc. A

Tipi 1881.

delinquenti di un



scandaloso avec la

Venezia, (Guiteau). 1884. Brierre de Boismont. Rapports folie Buchnett. 1884. Busdraghi. II furto nei pazzi. homicide. The Am. Relation med.

de la folie


1887. psychol. of Madness to Crime. Arch.,









Busdraghi. Busdraghi. Busdraghi. 1888. Cazanvieilh. 1827. Cazauvieilh. contre Chevalier. vue Dagonet. Dally. nels, Delbruck. 1867. Diuchow. Dufay. Esquirol. tales.



incendiari, nei pazzi, di libidine

Arch, Arch nei

psich. psich. ecc. Arch,

1887. 1887. psich.

L'omicidio Delitti


De la


homicide, mentale 1840.

ann. et




de l'alienation Paris, de Paris,

des crimes

les personnes. De l'inversion legal. la folie






medico De

Considerations ami", med.

1885. ami", med psich. 1870. impulsive, et les alienes crimisur les criminels ann.


1863. psich. follia criminale, e pazzia. criminels, homicide, Viestnik




Delitto Sonnambules



Revue traite

Monomanie Paris,

philos. Jan., 1891. des maladies men-

Sulla 1874. Flemming. Forel. Forme di passaggio fra integrita e alterazioni Centralbl. Nervenh. psich. Sep., 1890. Des alienes-voleurs, Paris, 1879. etc., These, Gorry. Gray. Responsibility of Insanity. 1875. Grunewald. Journ. Guasquet. 1883. Hammond. Dec. Hollander. Psych. Huges. Zur 1887. Moral in the Criminal (Study of 58 der Insane Insane. Amer. Homicides.) Das

1846. 1836, et Florence, follia morale. Irrenfreund,


Journ. April,

Frage Insanity. and

Pyromanie. Journ. of Ment. North



April, Rev. f.

Madness 1888. Zur Lehre Effective







Insanity. 1881.


Wien, Moral

1882. Insanity. Sidonis,

396 Die Jessen. i860. Jarvis. Mania


Brandstiftung Transitoria. Mania Schagler,

in Affecten

und Geistes-Kranken.

Amer. transitoria. Kirn,

Krafft-Ebing. Krafft-Ebing,

Journ. of Insan. July, Ann. med. psych.

1869. 1870.

Gauner. Die Emminghaus, 2. Aufl. 1881; Stuttgart, gerichtliche Psychopathologie, in Maschka's Handbuch der Medizin, gerichtlichen Vol. iv. 1883. e Lombroso. Le psicopatie Giuridica Antropolgica Lehrbuch der gerichtlichen 1890. penitenziaria. in der Strafanstalt Hinsicht. Ann. med. psych sessuali. iii.: Serie). Torino 1889.

Krafft-Ebing (Bibiiogrofia Krafft-Ebing. 2. Aufl. Kirn. Kirn. Sulla Novembre, Die


Stuttgart, psicosi 1882.

Psychose klinischenforensen Le

in der

Zeitschrif. penali Zeitsch. dal

aetiologischen f. Psychi. 188S. lato eziologico, 1888. Question alia


nelle case psicosi clinico e giuridico, Allegm. of Mind Unsoundness Knagg. Acts. of Criminal London, Knecht. Degenerazion, nei Zeitsch. Su

f. Psych. in Relation to the 1874. delinquenti fiir Psych. Guiteau. mentale in


nevropatia, Alieg. Kornfeld e Lombroso. 1S81. Lacour. Suicide Les et Paris, aux

1883. Arch, psich. dans les


alienation 1875.

prisons 1877. Fevr.,.

cellelaires. Lascique. Lasegue. 1880. Laschi. Langlois. 1889. Laugreuter. brecher Zeitsch, Le vol

exhibitionnistes, etalages

Univ. Arch.

Med., Gen.

Mai., de Med.


Arch, politico, pazzia nei delitto psich. dits criminels. Folie simulee et alienees

1885. Nancy, VerAllg.

Ueber und

die Unterbringung verbrecherischer 1887.

geisteskranker Geisteskranken,

f. Psych.





Laurent. Laurent. Legrand

criminelles. Paris, suggestions L'amour morbide. Paris, 1891. La folie devant les tribunaux. du Saulle. Etude Ann. medico-legale Oct. hyg. publ. medico-legale actes sur 1868.


1891. Paris, 1864. les enfants et les

du Saulle. Legrand les vicillards. Legrand du Saulle.




Paris, tiques. du Saulle. Legrand tueux Liman. Lombroso. Lombroso. psich. Lombroso. psich. Lombroso. 1884. Lombroso. Crim, Lombroso. Lombroso. Lombroso. Lombroso. Lucas. Note

1877. Les hysteriques, et criminels. Paris, 1883. nei Gerichtsaal. Pazzi I ecc. e delinquenti. Riv. mattoide graformani 1880.


I simulator!

1886. 1874. penale, i. e mangione. Arch. nato. Archive.

La pazzia morale ecc. 1881. Pazzia morale

e il delinquente nato,

e delinquente. criminelle, Arch,


psich. Anthr.

sur I'epilepsie

Archives 1888. Torino, 1890. York, 1891. 1888.

Sep., 1887. I pazzi criminali, L'uomo The A locura


di genio (v. edition). L'Homme de genie. Paris, Man of Genius. New


a lei penal. Porto, perante Arth. La sexualite Mac Donald, patho-criminelle, Crim. de L'anthrop. 1892 et 1893. Mac Donald, London, Magnan. avec II. Marandin. Mai, Marc. De la Arth. Nov., Criminal des Crim. Contagion, criminels naturelle 1892. l'enfance

Archives Review.

National dans au ses

predisposition d'Anthr. Congres Les 1891, De la alienees folie dans


rapports Acts du

1890. Annales criminels, ses rapports avec

Med. les






398 Marro Marro. Arch, Mattos e Lombroso. delitto


nei fanciulli, Esami psicometrici ecc, pazzia

germe Aarch.

morale e del pazzia psich., ecc, 1883. di pazzi morali e di mattoidi, serie Mental della Bibl. Anthrop. London,


di psich. La (De). Torino,

1885. (iii. in

Giur). Maudsley.

1891. Diseases.

Responsibility Irre

1873Ueber Moeli. Montyel. Moreau. Motet. Hyg. Nicholson. North.


La piromanie. Des aberrations Suicide et folie

1888. Berlin, de neurol, 1887. Arch, du sens genesique. Paris, cellulaires,

dans les prisons

1883. Annales

Publ., 1879. The Morbid Science, and Insanity Epilessie S. La

of Ment. 1886. Ottolenghi. 1891. Ottoienghi,

of Criminals. Journ. Psychology July, 1873, and July, 1875. Crime. Ment. Science, Journ. July, psichiche nei criminali, Arch, psich.


forense. psichiatria Osservazioni Pagliani. Clinica, Palombella. 1877. Psicopatia

in rapporto alia delinquente Torino, 1892. su xv. pazzi delinquenti, Rivista. omicida e suicida. Giovinazzo, Gimdz,,

1889, Venzeni Penta. 1890. Passanante Penta. 1890. Pietrasanta.

e le psicopatie pazzo e gli

sensuali, errosi




Paris, 1856. penitentiaire. im Geistesstcrungen Gefangnisse. AUgemein. Piper. f. Psych. Zeitschf, Pressat. Pulido De la monomanie Annals. y Fernandes. Locos homicide Med. ed de l'honiicide iv., 1844. Madrid, 1890. chez les alienes. Psycholo.

La folie









in Gefangenschaft. Wochenschr., Ann. Hyg.

Berlin, 1880. Publ.

1871. Mania Reich.

Berlin Klin. transitoria, Reuss. Aberrations du sens genesique. 1886. (La) nelle malattie Responsabilita Riant. Les irresponsables devant Simulated Robinson. Insanity Journ. Roggero. Rousseau. Psych., Sander und of Nerv. and Ment. Sui pazzi delinquenti De la monomanie Nov., Richter. 1881. Die



la justice. Paris, in the Criminal

1875. 1888. Class.

New York, Disease, 1887. in Italia, Riv. Care, 1875. incendiaire. Ann. Meed. zwischen 1S86. 1881. Geisstes-

stdrungen Moral Savage. Savage. Moral

Beziehungen unci Verbrechen. Berlin, Insanity. Insanity. sur la sur

Journ. of Ment. Science, New York, 1886. folie la hereditaire, folie Les

Etude Saury. Paris, 1886. Recherches Sauze.

degdneres. Ann. Med.

penitentiaire. 1890. e le malattie

1857. Psych., Folies penitentiaires. Semal. Sergi. Riv. Relazione Care, tra 1886.


la delinquenza

mentali. Rev.

e Tainburini. Pazzia morale Sighicelli Sherim. 1888. Fren., Verbrechen und Wahnsinn. Solbrig. Sommer.

ed epilessia. Miinchen,

zur Kentniss der Criminal Beitrage Zeitschf. f. Psych., 1883, Moral Medico-Legal Spratling. Insanity. York, Sunin, Max. Tamassia. 1874. Tamassia. logia Dee, La 1890. Crimes et delits pazzia nei dans criminali ultimi la folie.

1867. Irren, Allg. New


Paris, 1886. Riv. italiani. Care studi di

Rivista forense.

critica Rivista







Tamassia. sper. Tamassia. toria. Tamassia. Taniburini. Riv. Crim. Taniburini.

Sull' fren.

inv ersione 1878.



sessuale. mania

Riv. transi-

medico-forenze della Importanza Rivista 1881. penale, XIII. Guiteau. Arch,

psich. 1883. Imbecilita. morale e delinquenza congenita. du Anthr. sper. fren. 1886; et Actes Congres Rome, 1886. sur 36 alienes condamnes du Congres Acts Anthr. Studio di psicopatologia sopra un Riv. comme Crim, Observations

semi-responsables, 1886. Rome, Taniburini Riv. Taniburini morale. Tanzi. Pazzi e Seppelli, fren. sperim. e Guicciadi. Riv.

criminale. hnbecille sper. fren. 1892. of Nerv. 1888.

1883 e 1S87. Ulteriori studi

fren. 1888. sperim. morali e de delinquenti nati.

1884. Tardieu.

sur la folie. medico-legale On Mind, Insanity, and Criminality. Teed. and Ment. Disease. Jan., 1880. La idee fisse Le pazzie G. B. Considerazioni sulla del V. pazzia impulsive. transitorie. morale


Paris, Jour, die

Ventra. Venturi.

Manicomio, 1888. Napoli, Pazzia morale

Verga, sione Atti


e discus-

Congresso e la natura

e delinquenza congenita. a Siena, Freniatrico Milano, morbosa del delitto. Roma, Bibl. med, di

1887. Passante Virgilio. 1888. Voisin.

cellulaire en Belgique. L'emprisonnement Soc. Prisons. Paris, 1888. e Mendel. Sulla follia morale. Soc. Westpha! Berlino. 1878. Worckmann, On Crime and Insanity. Montreal,




Arch, psich. di Giona La Gala. (De). Autopsia ecc. 1883. Anomalie nei canali infraorbital! Cornelli. negli alienati, e sani, nella Riv. Clinica, 1875. delinquenti nei Repert di un delinquente, Derolandis. Necroscopia Med. Chir. Flesch. del Piemonte. Untersuchungen burg, 1882. Omicida Frigerio. per ibidem, 1884. Fubini. Osservazioni 1835. iiber Verbrecher-Gehirne. allucinatoria Wiirz(autopsia),



con fucilazione, sopra un giustiziato ibidem, pag. 447. 1884. in cadaveri di delinquenti e normali, Guerra. Anomalie in Arch, per l'Antr. xvii. 3., 1887. Laborde. Observations sur la tete et le corps d'un iusticie, Revue Scientif., 21 Juni, 1884. Lombroso e Ferri. Su A. Faella e sugli osteomi, ecc, in Archivio psich., pag. 118. 1882. del cadavere di un delinSalvioli. Reporto necroscopico quente, nella Riforma Medica, 1885. Tenchini. omicide. Mancanza della xii. vertebra vertebre dorsale coste in un Parma, 1887. Varieta numeriche Parma,

Tenchini. mali e delinquents.


in nor-



Anomalie in 151 minorrani Arno. Beliakow. Studi antropometrici psich. nevrol. di Kowalwoski. detenuti. Arch, psich. Arch,

omicidi. sugli 1884. Bertillon. Forme du nez. Revue d'Anthr. Mars, 1887. des pouces dies les criminels, Fanville. Mensuration Bull. Soc. Anthr. Paris, 1891. de l'oreille Fere. Varietes morphol. du pavilion humaine. Revue d'Anthr. 1886. Ferri. Studi comparati di antropometria criminale e normale. Arch, psich ecc. 1881. Ferri. Studi quenti, di comparati pazzi e normali. antropometria Arch, psich. su 1,711 delinecc. 1882. Crim. Arch,

L'oreille Frigerio. Archives anthr. Furlani,

Prampoleni psich. ecc. 1881. II padiglione Gradenigo.

etude externe, crim. 1888. e Ferri. Studi

d'Anthrop, sui cacerati.

dell' orecchio nei normali, alienali c delinquenti. Giorn. Ace. Med. Torino, 1889. Das Ohr des Verbrechens. Wien, 1889. Gradenigo. della anomalie nei antropologico Gradenigo. Significato Arch, psich. 1891. padiglione dell' orecchio. Julia. De l'oreille au point de vue anthropolique et medicolegale. Lyon, 1889. Ueber die Verbreitung Knecht. bei physich. Degeneration Verbrechern und die Beziehungen zwischen DegeneraNeuropathien. Berlin, 1883. Psychiatric Lacassagne. Rapporto fra la statura delle braccia in 800 delinquenti. Launois. L'oreille Anthr, crim. tionszeichen und Allegm. Zeitsch. f.

e la grande apertura Arch, psich. 1883. au point de vue anthrop, crim. Archives 1887,





Lombroso. Istit. Lombroso. psich. Ottolenghi. pazzi, Ottolenghi.

Antropometria Lomb. 1872 e Riv. Rughe anomale

di Care



Mem. Arch.

1872. ai criminali. speciali

1890. Lo scheletro

e la forma

del naso nei criminali, 1888. psich. ecc. nei criminali. Arch. Arch,

e cretini. Arch, epilettici II macinismo anafomico 122

psich. 1889. Pasini. Studi su ecc. Raseri. 1882.

delinquenti di Min. 120 Agrie su


psich. alia

Antropometria Generala. Ann. Note Arch,

minorenni Roma,


Riccardi. Rossi. Rossi. Salini. Salsotto. Siffredi. ecc. Tarnowski, ladre Tarnowski.

psich. Una centuria

antropologiche ecc. 1882. di criminali.

1877. minorenni delinquenti. 1888. ad una cen-

Torino, applicato 1889.

II tachiantropometro turia di criminali. Riv. Studio

anfosso Care

su alcuni antropologico Sulla donna delinquente. su 80 minorenni

delinq. Riv. Riv. Care criminali.

Care 1888. Arch,

1879. psich. 100

Studio 1882.

Misure e 1,100

antropometriche contadine. Arch, antropometriques

su 150 prostitute, 1888. psich. ecc. sur les prostitutees nell'

Etudes Varieta 1889. Risultati con psich. e psich.

et les voleuses. Tenchini. Parma, Troiski. porto Arch, Venturi Arch, Zavaldi. Zonga. Care,

Paris, 1889. numeriche vertebro-costali di cefolametria caratteri 1884. I piedi nei di nei

uomo in

delinquenti deg'enerazione e nei

alcuni nev.




delinquenti Care, 1874. Riv.

1890. Riv.

in 23 delinquenti. Antropometria Studio su 25 antropologico, 1878.




Photographies Paris, 1882. Se i delinquenti 1875. Salo,


criminels. abbiano





una fisonomiaspeciale. Viert. f. gericht. Arch, Med.

Casper. 1854. Cougnet. 1880. Hement. Acad. Marro

Morder-Pnysiognomien. Sulla fisonomia dei


psich. mem. Arch. id.

Les causes

scientifiques et Polk. Soc. Moralese Album di

de la physionomie Paris, criminale delle 1887. tedeschi. donne criminali

e Lombroso.

psich. pag. 127. e Lombroso. Marro

1883. Fisionomie

1883. pp. 370. des Cesars a une iconographie Notes pour servir Mayor. au point de vue anthropologique. Rome, 1885. studiate nelle ioro Sulla fisonomia ed espressione Tebaldi. deviaziqni, with atlas. Verona, 1884.




international premier congres criminelle. Rome, 1886-87. (D'). II II. congr. del II. d'antr. Tribuna


d'anthropologic giudiz. Napoli, Ri-

Aguanno 1889. Andries. vista Andries. Benedikt. Rom. Benedikt. Brusa. Roma.

Resconto economica Der Der zweite

Congresso Antrop. di Atene die. 1889. intern. fiir Congr. Berlin, f. 1890. crim.


Anthrop. in



Congress Wiener Mediz. Aus II III. der Pariser

Kriminalanthropologie Presse. 1886. Wien, d'antrop. 1889. crim.

1886. agosto. di Roma. e antropologico (II) penitenziario Congresso 1886. Bellinzona, port di giurispr. Correvon. Lettres sur le III. Congres Penitentiaire national. Desjardins. Ferri. L'anthropologie des Tribunaux. Lausanne, Journal Bull. Soc Gen. des prisons. 1888. criminelle intern, d'ant. en 1885. crim. Revue Arch,

Congr. Riv. penale,

Congresszeit. e quello penitenz.

a P.e-


1886. scientif. X.

9 Janv., 1886. Ferri. II II. congr. 1889, Frigerio. Crim. Gauckler. Critique Inipallomeni. d'antr. Resoconto

psich. d'Antrop.

sul Congresso 1886. Alessandria, Le Congres d'anthrop. de Legisl. La nuova 1880. scuola penale,

e sul Espos. Crim. a Paris. al II.

Revue intern.


congr. 1890.






Lacassagne. Archives Laurent. Sept., Lombroso. Bologna, Mac Donald, Congress Aug., N. Y. Montegazza Le

Le d'anthr. congres

congres d'anthropologie crim. mars et mai, 1886. d'anthrop. in difesa Rev. de



1889. Polemica 1886. Arthur. for 1892,








International at 1892. Brussels Elmira,

Criminal Anthropology in " Summary" Oct. 9, Polemica Rivista

e Lombroso.

criminale. pologia El primer Morote. criminal. pologia Marzo, Motet. 1886. L'Exposit. crim. d'anthrop. et Roussel. Bull. Napodano. ca. Perez, Soc. Gen.

sul congresso di antro1886. Penale, Marzo, anthroMadrid, Archives

international de congresso Rev. Gen. de Legislacion d'anthrop. 15 Janv., crim. 1886. d'anthr. a Rome.


sur le congres Rapport des Prisons, 1886. carceraria Febbr., ed Esposiz. 1886.


Esposizione Riv. Penale. El

antropologiRev. de los



Congresso 1886. Abril, di

antropologico. antropologia

Sul Congresso Pugliese. 1886. di giurispr. Renzis (De).



ed il Congresso L'Esponzione Nuova die ed antropologico. Antologia des Actes du Congres d'antr. crim. Resume Statistical Severi. La Society. London, Sept., inter, Firenze, 1887. di

penitenziario 1885. Journal of the


prima Esposizione nello Sperimentaie. e Tarde Archivis crim.




Benedikt Sighele. d'antr. crim. Taladriz. lid, L'antrop. 1889.

a proposito giuridico. in Europa

1885. dell II.

Congresso Valiado-

1890. y America.





Archives Les actes du Congres de Rome. d'anTarde. thr. crim. Janv., 1888. Le II. Congr. intern, d' a. c. Revue scientif. Tarde. 30 avr., 1889. criminelles tenu a Troisieme d'Anthropologic Congres Bruxelles 1892; includBruxelles en 1892. Rapports. authors and titles, to wit: ing the following Alimena, B. Des mesures applicables aux incorrigibles et de l'autorite apte a en fixer le choix. des applications de 1'anthroBenedikt, Moritz. Apercu pologic criminelle. et la reLes suggestions criminelles Benedikt, Moritz. sponsabilite penale. Les suggestions criminelles et la responsabilite Berillon. penale. Boeck (de), et Otet P. Les prisons-asiles et les reformes penales qu' dies entrainent. De "influence des professions sur la crimiCoutagne, H. nalite. id. (rapport). Dallemagne, Jules. Etiologie fonctionelle du crime. Des principes fondamentaux de 1'ecole Drill, Dimitri. criminelle, De l'importance respective des eleet des elements anthropologiques dans la determination de la penalite. P. Ds la necessite de considerer l'examen Garnier, de certains on accuses psycho-moral prevenus comme un devoir de Instruction. Hamel (van), G. A. Des mesures applicables aux incorrigibles et'de l'autorite apte a en fixer le choix. Existe-t-il un type de crimHuze, E. et Warnots, Leo. inel anatomiquement determine ? d'anthropologie M. E. Gauckler, ments sociaux Jelgersma. M. G. Les caracteres physiques intellectuels et moraux reconnus chez le criminel-ne sont d'origing pathologique (rapport).



Ladame. Liszt


(von), Franz. pologie criminelle. L'obession criminelle Magnan. Manouvrier, M. L.

du meurtre. Apercu des applications morbide.

de' 1'anthro-

dans l'etude Questions prealables des criminels et des honnetes gens. comparative aux incorrigibles et Maus, I. Des mesures applicables des autorites aptes a en fixer le choix. Rode (de), Leon. L'inversion genkale et la legislation. Le signalament Ryckere (de). anthropometrique. Tarde. Les crimes des foules. aux incorFerdnand. Des mesures applicables Thiry, rigibles et de 1'autorite apte a en fixer le choix (rapport). criminelles au delictueuses et Poisin, A. Suggestions responsibility penale (rapport). Per il congr. d'antr. crim. Gazz. letter. Torino, Zerboglio. 1889. Deuxieme d'anthr. crim. Archives Zerboglio. congr. anthr. Zerboglio. Lyon, cr. Sept., 1889. Actes du deux congres 1890. intern, d'anthrop, crim,




28 Abyssinians, 88; effects on savages, 97 21; wine and gambling, Alcohol, to theft, 156 Alcoholism, 89; relation Amadei, 73 xii, 176 America, of weather on, theft of, 20; meanness influence Animals, to kill, 180, 198 of, 22; tendency Anouchine, 52 of thief, case " C," 219 Antecedents Arabs, 28 Ardouin (d'"), 50 Assassins, 25, 47, 49, 57, 82-83, 101-102, 160-162 of criminals, Associations, 119-128; bad, 243 Astros (d'),'68 54 Asymmetry, Atavism, 46 Aubry, vii, 129 of murderer Autobiography, " meanness E," 264-265 xi Auvergnat, "A," 177-186:

of case of

Balzac, 118 Benedikt, vii, 59, 60 ' vii, 141, 143, 144, 147 Bernheim, Bertillon, 42

410 Bibliography,

INDEX. works English of the National and literature, 275-331; Prison Association of the and press literature, periodical

287-303; French, 332-342; German, 304-331; Italian, 343-353; 354-368; Spanish, 369; other languages, 370-371; crani'gy> 372-375; criminal statistics, 376-390; cerebrologv, psycho-criminal pathology, 394-400; patho401; anthropometry, logical anatomy, 402-403; physiognomy, 404; congresses of criminology, 405-408. Biliakow, 37 Bischoff, 37 Bom, 37 Bono, 71 Bordier, 47, 50 Brain, reciprocal influence of, on cranium, 61 Broca X, 48 Brouardel, 139, 140 Buchner, 21 Byron, 118 32, 41 46, 121-125 Cannibalism, 19, 24-26 Castello, 658 Cellular system, in different Cerebral anomalies, 58-61 Caligula, Camorra, 391-393;

Congresses United States,



Chambige, 145-146 Charcot, 137 Children, anger of, 27-28, 31; lying, 31, 32; criminal tendency, 30; anomalies, 35; education, 37; false tes141; propensities timony, corrected, 176 Clark, 72 Clequet, 56 188, 205-210, 257-260 60-61; murder, 202-203: theft, 266, 271; general, 271-272 218, 250, 256;' Complaints, Conclusions, meanness,



Contagion, vii, Corre, Cranial Cranial

129-135: 37, 47. 5.

by vitriol

or revolver,


52, 55- 56. 57. 62, 70, 72, 76, 77 53-56

anomalies, capacity, 46

270 Craniology, 46-56, 202, 210, 217, 229, 263-264, Cranks, 131 evolution of, 18; philological Crime, of, 17-35; equivalents of savage, 26-29; evidence of, 23; view 103; genius, 104; youthful, of, 272 172 ; foolishness health and Criminals, weight asymmetry, Cretins, Cruelty, 40, 57 198-199 86-88, 42; physical education, in France, 159; and cure of, and

of, 38; hair side, 168


50 Dallemagne, behavior Death, Demme, Details, Dumas, Education, in pure 205, 105 value 118 effect murder of,




to " A,"




108, 178

on case,






behavior at school,

thief, 187-188, 191 ; moral, 200-201; in school, 211; in public schools, 236

215; lying Evils of bad Examination Ferri,

240 home, 197; of roving, of " A," 197 50, 161, 162

vii, 37,47, 62 Ferrus, Flesch, Forgery, Foscolo, Gambling, 62, 67, 69 41, 228 118

123, 143

412 Gambetta, Giacomini. Gilles Giraud, Goethe, Gratiolet, Hamy, Heger, 58 58 de la Touretle, 137 x x


vii, 137

49 49, 50 56, 174 Heredity, Hieroglyphics, signatures, 109-113 History of cases, 186, 205, 251 Hoger, 67 Holder (von), vii, 44, 67, 156, 157 Homicide, for, 132 57 ; monomania Huschke, 60 136-154; precautions, 141-142 ; experimenHypnotism, tal, 137-138; auto-hypnosis, 151-152; simulated, 145 case of romance, 152-154 -146; 22, 74 Incorrigibility, Infanticide, 19, 24, 132 relation to crime, Insanity,

-91, 131; transitory, habitual, persecution, 155 ; criminals, 156, 157 effects of, 77-80 Insensibility, 81 Instability, Intelligence, 96-118, 195, 235 205, 246, 247 Intemperance, Interviews with criminals, 215-216, 28 : impure Justice, rudimentary, 141 ; false, 253 magistrate, Kleptomania, Knecht, 69 Krafft-Ebing 21 (von), vii, 151


233-250, 263 origin of, 33; duty of



Lacassagne, 19, 37, 56, 57 Lacenaire (celebrated criminal), Laurent, . Lauvergne, Lepine, Liebeault, Liegeois, 72 37 140, 141 113-118 vii, 150 47, 62

97, 116, 129, 162-

Linker, 72 Literature of criminals, Lombroso, vii,

58, 59, 69, 118, 126, 163 Lynch-law, Maffia, 126 34

19, 20, 37, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 50, 52, 53, 112, 114, 70, 72, 73, 75, 79, 91, 92, 105, in,




one another,

Magistrates, xi, Magnan, Manouvrier,

duty 2 xi,

of, 47, 50


Mantegazza, 39 Marro, 41, 42, 70 Meanness, Mendel, Method, 22, 169, 257-271 of children, Measurements, 67 need of exact,


172, 169-173 73

anomalies of, 72; blushing, Mobility, of prisoner, Moral pulse-beats 171 Mortality, Murder, 63 18 ; homicidal fury, 20; instinct


of, in little, 28; regarded from lust-murder, 86-87, H6> 47," 85: vengeance, " case from A," imitation, 169; pure 174-203; 129-132, threat, Negroes, Nero, 41 251 ; provocation, 49, 52, 60, 76 175

24; by religion, war, 34-35, 41, 79;




72 49, 50 66 45

Orchanski, Orgeas,

Parent-Duchatelet, Pasini, Pathology, Pathological Pederasty, Perez, 31 73 61

anatomy, 41, 45, 69, 90


Physiognomy, 38-44 examinations Physical " " C 217 ; 230-231 20 Pierquin, Poisoning, Prison Prison, Prison bad 134-135 associations, influence

" " A " " of criminals, 201 ; B 216" " " " E F ; 264; 270-271

United of,


proceedings comfortable,

of, 287-303 crim-

discipline, 155, inal's idea of, 237-238 sense of, 22, 26, 30 Property, 45, for " E," 65, 66, 90,

116-117 255; too


Prostitution, regard 235 ; of,

offspring, 262 22; confused

96; in 164; idea

reformation relation to

rare, cases:

158; "C"

Punishment, on

criminals, 124;

120, severity 215, 216 174 204;

of, tainty " case B," Publication Pure Pure murder theft

of, 29; criminals'infliction 122; by death penalty, 123; at scaffold, of, 156; conduct


214, of crimes, defined, defined, 49

272 in case "



Quatrefage, Ranke, Recidivists, Recidivation to moral 47

44 of women, sense, 159;

156; relation " case of D,"

to 256.





Reformation, Religion, Rindfleisch, Rousse, Rudinger, Saint-Hilaire, Sallust, Saltmann, Savages, Seneca, Sensibilitjf, vulnerability, Sentiments, Sensuality Signatures Simulation, Skeleton, Slang, 105 59 inertia 105




27, 214, 262 68 20 60 x, xi


27 and meteoric, hardened, 82, 83 86-87 112; 139 of criminals, 111-113 70; 132 71-;

general 81;



91-92; vanity, in murder, of insane, hypnotic,

57 173 cases of, 73-76

105-109 scientific, Sociology, Somnambulism, Sphygmography, Strabo, 24 of criminal, Study Sue, 118 Suicide, Swindling, Tacitus, Tardieu, Tattooing, Tenchini, 72 65 44-45, vii, 60 70; 191-192; 137 73;

172 93

soldiers, among 21, 41, 74, 101


94 varying opinions " ; ,"261-263; of, " F,"

as to cases," A," Testimony 190; " " ; B," 210, 215 ; "C," 231 D,"25i 268



Theft, 20; of chiefs, 29; thieves, 41, 74,76 ; difference in of one another, 126; alcoholics, thieves, 100; treatment thieves, 164,165,169; in murder case, 156; argument;of " nature in case 211, of, 218; C," 231; 188-189; 205, case " D," 252-253 41,' 72 161 Thompson, Tonninni, 73 x, 58 Topinard, Tropman (brutal criminal), 131 37 Troyski, Semitic, ethnic, Type, ix-xii; 40; to face and cranium, 44 relation Tiberius,



cases of, 84-85; at executions, . Vanity, 93, 119 cases of, 85-86 ; songs of, 115, 127, 234 Vengeance, Victor Hugo, 118 Violation, Violators, Virgilio, 136, 139, 141 57 ; feeble reflexes 72 91-92 of, 76

Vulnerability, Weisbach,

47 Witkowski, 67 Wine and gambling, 88-89 Woman, accomplice^rTcrrme,

121; recidivation

of, 156

Zola, no

/ .ftv^


CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION - BY PROF. CESARE LOMBROSO. Criminal type - Type scarcely recognized - Reasons - Criminals by occasion not belonging to type - Strange ideas of type - Idea of type limited - Definitions of Gratiolet, Goethe, Saint-Hilaire, and Broca - Type an ensemble of prominent traits - Skulls easily arranged - Joly's inconsistency - Error of Magnan and Manouvrier - Deep root of school in America - Ideas to return to Europe modified and improved Preface PART I. - GENERAL CRIMINOLOGY. CHAPTER I. - THE EVOLUTION OF CRIME. Absolute impartiality impossible - Descriptive method in science - Embryology of crime - Phenomena closely allied - Taking of life in war patriotic - Nature a synthetic whole - Lower realms explain higher - Acts of nature cruel - Equivalents of murder - Dependence on histological conditions - Equivalents of crime, increase from vegetable to animal - Cannibalism - Infanticide - Irresistible impulse - Influence of weather on animals - Theft among animals - Species of kleptomania - Influence of alcohol on animals - Swindling and deceit of animals - Meanness - Sense of property - Punishment of animals - Prehistoric races - Man's progress slow - Crime the rule - Philological evidence - Excessive increase of population - Homicides ordained by religion - Abortion common - Ancient Mexican aristocracy - The New Caledonians Custom in Sweden, New Zealand, etc. - Celebrity of assassins - Idea of property wanting - Crime from point of view of savage - Natural conservatism - Greatest of crimes - Brahmins, Arabs, Abyssinians - Rudimentary justice - Increase of despotism - Theft a serious crime - Murder a secondary offense - Duels first legal forms of punishment - Compensation for vengeance - Power of chiefs increased - Muscular force not sufficient - Germs of crime in infancy - Frequency of anger in children Ways of manifestation - Children's lying, love, cruelty, and murder - Impure origin of justice - Vengeance - Lynch law - Extreme egotism of man. - War CHAPTER II. - THE PHYSICAL SIDE OF THE CRIMINAL. Measurements of children - Anomalies - Physically defective - Criminal children - Effect of education - Minors, normal and criminal - Adults - Weight - Health of different classes of criminals - Physiognomy - First impressions - Classification of expressions - Ethnic type - Murderers, thieves, pederasts, swindlers, forgers, etc. - Hair - Eye Physiognomical type - Illustrative proverbs - Facial muscles - Difficult to distinguish recidivists - Tattooing of sailors, prostitutes, soldiers - Causes of tattooing Craniology - Comparative study - Cranial capacity and intelligence - Weight of cranium - Semi-horizontal circumference - Auricular angles, table - Curves - Cephalic index - Brachycephalic most common - Vertical and frontal indices - Corre's results - Cranial anomalies, table of asymmetry - Surroundings and heredity - Skeleton and members - Homicides, violators, thieves, assassins, idiots - Cerebrology - Comparative brain weight - Anomalies - Conclusion - Inadequacy of present knowledge Reciprocal influence of brain and cranium - Pathology - Regularity of prison life favorable - Feeble health in thieves - Premature senility, agitated life - Mortality, table Prostitution - Pathological anatomy, table - Valvular insufficiency - Liver and stomach CHAPTER III. - PSYCHOLOGY OF CRIMINALS. General sensibility less - Meteoric sensibility greater - sight, hearing - Left-handedness - Anomalies of mobility - Blushing - Sphygmography, vascular reaction cases Violators' feeble reflexes - Longevity of criminals - Effects of insensibility - Moral as great as physical - Peculiar acts of criminals - Sentiments - Instability always present - Vanity, extreme cases - Vengeance - Cruelty and sexuality, lust-murders - Wine and gambling - Other tendencies, fast life - Crime and insanity - Sensibility and passions, savagery, impetuosity - Vulnerability, analgesia - Conduct at executions, fainting, defiant, loquacious - Suicide - Soldiers - Religion of criminals - Glaring contradictions CHAPTER IV. - INTELLIGENCE OF CRIMINALS. Below the average - Lacenaire's testimony - Credulousness, levity, lack of foresight - Specialists in crime - Superstitions - Poisoners, species of thieves, assassins Idlers and vagrants - Criminals of genius - Crime rare among scientists and mathematicians - Education and crime - Poets and artists - Per cent. of education in France, Austria, Italy - Compared with insane - Slang - Insight into criminal mind - Objects by attributes, phonetic disguise - Many synonyms for guards, drunkenness, money Few ideas of criminals - Cyiminal hieroglyphics and signatures - In Naples and Sicily - Two groups - Writing of the insane, points over letters - Literature of criminals The ancients - Descriptions of species of swindlers and vagabonds - Product of leisure hours - Old friends in prison - Aesthetical feeling - "Tiravallura" - Criminal maxims - Songs of vengeance - Lacenaire, "To my Love" - Bad influence of prison - Novice blushes - First step taken - Bad passions - Literary miasma - Productions of the insane CHAPTER V. - ASSOCIATIONS OF CRIMINALS. Criminality strengthened - Savage tendencies developed - Vanity - Constant purpose - Sex - Character of association - Division of labor - Criminal idea of punishment Method of trial - Aid of women - Feigning epileptic fit - The Camorra - Hierarchy - Aspirants for candidacy - Enemy of authority - Exposure of life - Banquet - The "Si" Distribution of "la Camorra" - Extortions - The tenth part - The poor suffer - Death penalty - Determination of guilt - Certainty of punishment - The Maffia - Word - Variety of Camorrists - Keeping secrets - Origin of Maffia - Code - Protection of the rich - Vengeance - Anarchy - Thieves and assassins - Argot - "Picciotti" - Avoiding detection - When to use arms CHAPTER VI.-CRIMINAL CONTAGION. Reformation - Testimony of Lacenaire - Contagion from the press - Cases - Tropman - Reading of novels - Significant confession - Finer sensibilities hardened Weaklings affected - Contagion by vitriol or revolver - Women - Seduction and abandonment - Approval of the crowd - False heroine - Poisoning less employed Progress of science CHAPTER VII. - CRIMINAL HYPNOTISM. Violation - Lethargic state - Semblence of voluntary action - Memory confused - Simulation - Somnambulism - Doubtful offenses - Opinion of Jilles de la Tourette Experimental cases - Post-hypnotic states - Charcot's case - Subject to hypnotism - Danger to hypnotiser - Hysterical persons - Sterno-mastoid muscle - Analogue states - Irresistible force - Experiment of Ligois - False testimony through fear - Precautions - Duty of magistrate - Danger of suggesting to witness - Determination of suggestibility - Criminal suggestions - Cases of Bernheim - Influence of hypnosis - Indirect influence on other patients - Explanation of noted case - Chambige Subconscious state in love - Suggestion, passion irresistible - Idio-dynamic automatism - Case of young lady and physician - Confession of love during somnambulism Suspicious pregnancy - Case of suggestible lawyer - Double personality - Past existence forgotten - Arrested for swindling - Normal persons at times capricious - All degrees of transformation - The rle of suggestion in morality - Greatest criminals not always most guilty - Case of Laurent - Krafft-Ebing's case of theft - Auto and experimental hypnosis - Case of romance - Simulated hypnotism CHAPTER VIII. - RECIDIVATION. Crime a profession - Reformation rare - Prison or asylum - Defective prison discipline deepens criminality - False names, coarseness, audacious plots - Necessity of severe punishment - First stage of insanity - Alcoholics seldom thieves - Persecutive hallucinations - Von Hlder's classification - Crime and insanity, distorted manifestations of mind - Criminal inclinations common - Civilization and recidivation increase - Statistics in Belgium, Prussia, Austria, France - Persistency of habitual crime - Criminal purposes - Prostitutes seldom reform - Cellular system in Prussia, Belgium, France - Legal notions of crime - Increase of crime in young - Moral sense Point of view of criminals - Moral sense feeble - Feelings of criminals - Idea of honor - Deep remorse a myth - Table - Confession to justify - Lacenaire - Confession of the Marquise of Brinvilles - Inconstancy and voluptuousness - moral metamorphosis - Criminals' arguments - Two kinds of justice, natural and artificial - Thieves' meeting in London - Division of booty - Mutual jealousy PART II. - SPECIAL CRIMINOLOGY. METHOD OF INVESTIGATION. Details - Insight into typical cases - Repetition the rule - Value of single cases - Visiting reformatories - Pure theft, murder and meanness - The worst cases - Prison environment known - Significance of complaints - Order of procedure - Previous knowledge of prisoner important - Method of interview - Abnormal cases - Each case presented so as to leave reader independent - Importance of slight offenses - Knowledge about prisoners after leaving prison - Advancement - Institutions useful to society for study - Knowledge of causes' first step - Degree of cure important - Exact knowledge rare - Need of exact methods - Psychology of criminal at moment of crime important - Beginning of scientific sociology CHAPTER I. - PURE MURDER. CASE "A." Characteristics of murderers - Heredity - Cause of murder - Unconscious of repulsion - Cases - Heroism and ferocity - Autobiography of "A" - Evil home surroundings Drunken father - Teasing of animals - Tendency to kill animals - Roving instinct - Interest in seeing things - Stoning of old lady - History of "A," from records of institution - Family very poor - Facts confirmatory of autobiography - Weight, height, etc. - Previous education - Complaints against "A" - Making disturbance, doing poor work Stealing - Assaulting with knife - Punishment - Release from institution - Testimony of officers; disagreeable to boys, strikes them; does not care how he works - Attempt at suicide - Good scholar - No mechanical ability - Not vicious, not hilarious - Has spells, and stares - Sometimes silly - Not with other boys much - Hardly knows what he does when excited - Bright and bad - Letter of "A" - Testimony of farmer - Examination of "A" - Idea of his home - His account of stoning old woman - Anger - Idea of retaliation - Cruelty - Dizzy feeling. Lack of self-control - Intended to murder - Did not feel to blame - Attempt at Suicide - Physiological examination - Craniology Conclusion: not epileptic - Want of repulsion to taking life - Allowed freedom too soon CHAPTER II. - PURE THEFT. Idea of theft - Incorrigibility - Liberality and popularity - Case "B," history - Father intemperate - Previous arrests - Complaints - General disorder - Burglarizing Insubordination - Filthy habits - Impudence - Generally pleads guilty - Testimony of officers - Good at trade, bad in school - A good soldier - Proud of knowledge of evil Indomitable will - Sincere in religious desires - Behavior during punishment - Seldom cries - Interview with "B" - Not talkative - State when very young - Father whipped him - Results unfavorable - Physical and craniological examination - Asymmetry of head - Conclusion - Strong passion for stealing - Hereditary influences - Reformation doubtful - Case "C" - Records of institution - Antecedents - Good family - Conduct report - General willful disobedience - School record - Letters - Signing false name Forged check - Craniology - Physical examination - No special abnormality - Good risk for life insurance - Testimony of officers - Stealing shoes - Good workman "Slick fellow" - Interview with "C" - Put obstruction on railroad - "Devil in me" - Living with a woman - Stole apples when young - Bad associates - "C's" idea for improving prison discipline - Lying at school - Excuse for bad behavior - Visited places at night - Played pool - Loose girls - Parole - Conclusion - History of Case "D" - Testimony of officers - Conduct in another reformatory - Escaped on way to prison - Threatened to kill a detective - Parents orderly people - Ingenious in crime - Interview with "D" Whipping - Intends to quit crime - Cause of stealing - Injustice to him - Inventor - Genius for escaping - Electrocution - Reformation - Prison experience - Ill-will of prisoners - Returns to crime - Conclusion - Criminal genius - Untruthful and crooked - Cause of his criminality CHAPTER III. - PURE MEANNESS. Term - Miss "E" - Records of institution: child-hood - Complaints - Very disorderly - Appropriating things - Vulgar talk - Breaking things - "Tantrum" - Beyond control - Testimony of officers - Obscene - Open and defiant - Abandoned life - Religion - Interview with Miss "E" - Mother a "run-about" -

Very bad home - Craniology - Physical examination - Autobiography - Conclusion - History of "F" - Records of institution - Complaints - Impudent and surly - Testimony of officers - Home poor - Father drunkard and criminal - Interview - Whipped by father - Treated well by grandparents - Easily angered - Craniology - Physical examination - Conclusion - General practical conclusions - Society making experiments - Release only on reasonable probability of reformation - Indeterminate sentence best - Danger to society the basis of punishment - Publications in newspapers of details injurious - Foolishness of crime PART III. - BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CRIME. English Proceedings of the Congresses of the National Prison Association of the United States Periodical and Press Literature French, German, Italian, Spanish, other languages Craniology Criminal statistics Cerebrology Psycho-criminal pathology Pathological anatomy Anthropometry Physiognomy Congresses of Criminology Index INDEX. Abortion, Abyssinians, Alcohol, Alcohol, wine and gambling, Alcohol, effects on savages, Alcoholism, Alcoholism, relation to theft, Amadei, America, Animals, influence of weather on, theft of, Animals, meanness of, Animals, tendency to kill, Anouchine, Antecedents of thief, case "C," Arabs, Ardouin (d'), Assassins, Associations, of criminals, Associations, bad, Astros (d'), Asymmetry, Atavism, Aubry, Autobiography, of murderer "A," Autobiography, of case of meanness "E," Auvergnat, Balzac, Benedikt, Bernheim, Bertillon, Bibliography, English works and literature, Bibliography, Congresses of the National Prison Association of the United States, Bibliography, periodical and press literature, Bibliography, French, Bibliography, German, Bibliography, Italian, Bibliography, Spanish, Bibliography, other languages, Bibliography, craniology, Bibliography, criminal statistics, Bibliography, cerebrology, Bibliography, psycho-criminal pathology, Bibliography, pathological anatomy, Bibliography, anthropometry, Bibliography, physiognomy, Bibliography, congresses of criminology, Biliakow, Bischoff, Bom, Bono, Bordier, Brain, reciprocal influence of, on cranium, Broca Brouardel, Buchner, Byron, Caligula, Camorra, Cannibalism, Castello, Cellular system, in different countries, Cerebral anomalies, Chambige, Charcot, Children, anger of, Children, lying, Children, criminal tendency, Children, anomalies, Children, education, Children, false testimony, Children, propensities corrected, Clark, Clequet, Complaints, Conclusions, Conclusions, murder,

Conclusions, theft, Conclusions, meanness, Conclusions, general, Contagion, Contagion, by vitriol or revolver, Corre, Cranial anomalies, Cranial capacity, Craniology, Cranks, Crime, evolution of, Crime, equivalents of, Crime, philological evidence of, Crime, view of savage, Crime, genius, Crime, education, Crime, youthful, in France, Crime, cure of, Crime, foolishness of, Criminals, health and weight of, Criminals, hair and eye and asymmetry, Criminals, physical side, Cretins, Cruelty, Dallemagne, Death, behavior at, Death, welcome to "A," Demme, Details, value of, Drunkenness, Dumas, Education, effect on children, Education, professions, Education, in pure murder case, Education, moral, Education, thief, Education, behavior in school, Education, in public schools, Education, lying at school, Evils of bad home, Evils of roving, Examination of "A," Ferri, Ferrus, Flesch, Forgery, Foscolo, Gambling, Gambetta, Giacomini, Gilles de la Tourette, Giraud, Goethe, Gratiolet, Hamy, Heger, Heredity, Hieroglyphics, signatures, History of cases, Hoger, Hlder (von), Homicide, Homicide, monomania for, Huschke, Hypnotism, Hypnotism, precautions, Hypnotism, experimental, Hypnotism, auto-hypnosis, Hypnotism, simulated, Hypnotism, case of romance, Incorrigibility, Infanticide, Insanity, relation to crime, Insanity, transitory, Insanity, persecution, habitual, Insanity, criminals, Insensibility, effects of, Instability, Intelligence, Intemperance, Interviews with criminals, Justice, rudimentary, Justice, impure origin of, Justice, duty of magistrate, Justice, false, Kleptomania, Knecht, Krafft-Ebing (von), Lacassagne, Lacenaire (celebrated criminal), Laurent, Lauvergne, Lpine, Libeault, Ligeois,

Linker, Literature of criminals, Lombroso, Lynch-law, Maffia, Maffia, assassins' behavior toward one another, Magistrates, duty of, Magnan, Manouvrier, Mantegazza, Marro, Meanness, Measurements, of children, Mendel, Method, need of exact, Mobility, anomalies of, Mobility, blushing, Moral pulse-beats of prisoner, Mortality, Murder, Murder, homicidal fury, Murder, ordained by religion, Murder, regarded little, Murder, instinct of, in war, Murder, Iust-murder, Murder, from vengeance, Murder, from imitation, Murder, pure case "A," Murder, threat, Murder, provocation, Negroes, Nero, Ogle, Orchanski, Orgas, Parent-Duchtelet, Pasini, Pathology, Pathological anatomy, Pederasty, Perez, Physiognomy, Physical examinations of criminals, "A" Physical examinations of criminals, "B" Physical examinations of criminals, "C" Physical examinations of criminals, "E" Physical examinations of criminals, "F" Pierquin, Poisoning, Prison associations, United States proceedings of, Prison, bad influence of, Prison discipline, Prison too comfortable, Prison criminal's idea of, Property, sense of, Prostitution, Prostitution, reformation rare, Prostitution, regard for offspring, Prostitution, in relation to cases: "C" Prostitution, in relation to cases: "E," Punishment, Punishment, confused idea of, Punishment, criminals' infliction of, on criminals, Punishment, by death penalty, Punishment, certainty of, Punishment, severity of, Punishment, conduct at scaffold, Punishment, case "B," Publication of crimes, Pure murder defined, Pure theft defined, Pure theft defined, in case "C," Quatrefage, Ranke, Recidivists, Recidivation of women, Recidivation relation to civilization, Recidivation relation to moral sense, Recidivation case of "D," Reformation, Reformation, rare, Religion, Rindfleisch, Rousse, Rdinger, Saint-Hilaire, Sallust, Saltmann, Savages, inertia of, Seneca, Sensibility, general and meteoric, Sensibility, sight, hearing, Sensibility, vulnerability, Sensibility, hardened, Sentiments,

Sentiments, vanity, Sensuality in murder, Signatures of insane, Signatures of criminals, Simulation, hypnotic, Skeleton, Slang, Sociology, scientific, Somnambulism, Sphygmography, Sphygmography, cases of, Strabo, Study of criminal, Sue, Suicide, Suicide, among soldiers, Swindling, Tacitus, Tardieu, Tattooing, Tattooing, religious, Tenchini, Testimony as to cases, "A," Testimony varying opinions of, "B," Testimony varying opinions of, "C," Testimony varying opinions of, "D," Testimony varying opinions of, "E," Testimony varying opinions of, "F," Theft, Theft, of chiefs, Theft, thieves, Theft, difference in thieves, Theft, treatment of one another, Theft, alcoholics, Theft, argument of thieves, Theft, in murder case, Theft, nature of, Theft, in case "C," Theft, case "D," Tiberius, Thompson, Tonninni, Topinard, Tropman (brutal criminal), Troyski, Type, Type, ethnic, Semitic, Type, physiognomical, Type, relation to face and cranium, Vanity, cases of, Vanity, at executions, Vengeance, cases of, Vengeance, songs of, Victor Hugo, Violation, Violators, Violators, feeble reflexes of, Virgilio, Vulnerability, Weisbach, Witkowski, Wine and gambling, Woman, accomplices in crime, Woman, recidivation of, Zola,