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quality instructor led Telecommunications Training. This documentation is protected by copyright. No part of the contents of this documentation may be reproduced in any form, or by any means, without the prior written consent of AIRCOM International. Document Number: P/TR/005/O036/v5

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UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation

O036

Contents
1 Introduction 1.1 Course Overview 2 Optimisation Overview 2.1 What is Optimisation? 3 Network Dimensioning and Planning 7 7 10 10 17

3.1 Introduction 17 3.2 Simulating the Effect of Imperfect Site Location and High Sites 25 3.3 Provisioning for Asymmetric Traffic 32 3.4 Using More Appropriate Path Loss Models 36 3.5 Serving Very High Traffic Densities 42 3.6 Evaluating Simulator Results 45 3.7 Pilot Pollution 46
Simulation Examples 51

Site Location Issues 4.1 The Ideal Situation


4.1.1 Mis-placed sites.

55 55
58

4.2 Hot Spots 4.3 Site Density 4.4 High Sites 5 Factors Limiting Capacity 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Cell Throughput The Effect of Mobility on Capacity Maximising Frequency Re-use Efficiency Downlink Capacity and Orthogonality
Pilot SIR as an indicator of downlink capacity

60 64 70 74 74 75 78 81
85

5.4.1

5.5 The Noise Rise Limit 6 Antenna Selection 6.1 Antenna Gain & Coverage 6.2 Repeaters 6.3 Roll-out Optimised Configuration (ROC) 7 Soft Handover Issues 7.1 Macro-diversity & Maximal Combining Gain
7.1.1 Exercise 1

87 89 89 91 93 97 97
101

7.1.2

Exercise 2

101

7.2 Optimising Soft Handover Parameters 8 Parameter Planning 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9 Introduction Pilot Channel Power Maximum Power per User Common Channel Powers

102 107 107 108 110 111 112 112 114 114 115 125 125 129 132 136
149

Multi-frequency Planning 9.1 Network Performance

10

Micro-cell Planning 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Micro-cells targeting hot spots

11

Coverage & Capacity 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Introduction Exercise Link Budgets Downlink Limited Predicting the Capacity of the Downlink
Example

11.4.1

12 Analysis, Prediction and Optimisation of Downlink Capacity. 12.1 Analysis of Identical Users
12.1.1 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3 Verification Using A Monte Carlo Simulator. Isolated Cells An Evenly Loaded Network Uplink-downlink balance.

151 152
154

12.2 A Rapid Method for Estimating Downlink Capacity

155
155 157 159

12.3 Interim Conclusion 12.4 Simulator-aided Prediction for Unevenly-loaded Networks 12.5 Optimisation Issues 12.6 Conclusions 13 Masthead Amplifiers 13.1 Introduction 13.2 MHA example 14 Diversity Antennas

159 159 161 162 177 177 178 181

14.1 Introduction 181 14.2 Definition of Fading 182 14.3 Receive Diversity 183 14.4 Transmit Diversity 185 14.5 Multi-User Detection MUD 192 14.6 Predicting the Effect of Different Coverage and Capacity Enhancement Devices 196

15

Smart Antennas 15.1 Introduction

203 203 211 211


212 213 214

16

Practical Simulation 16.1 Exercise using MHAs


16.1.1 16.1.2 16.1.3 16.2.1 16.2.2 16.3.1 16.3.2 16.3.3 16.3.4 16.3.5 16.3.6 Network with no MHAs Insert MHA at centre of network All sites with MHAs Downlink limited case for network without MHAs MHA applied to all sites Voice Traffic NO Tx diversity 64kbps Service NO Tx diversity Tx Diversity Voice Service Tx Diversity 64kbps Service Tx and Rx Diversity Applied Voice Service Tx and Rx Diversity Applied to 64kbps Service

16.2 Downlink Limited case MHAs 16.3 Transmit Diversity

215
215 216

217
217 218 219 220 221 222

17

Measuring Success 17.1 Customer Focus 17.2 Key Quality Indicators KQIs 17.3 Key Performance Indicators KPIs
17.3.1 Exercise 17.3

223 223 224 225


226

17.4 Measurements 18 Drive Test Measurements 18.1 The concept of Drive Testing 18.2 Test mobile Measurements 18.3 Interpretation of Measurements
18.3.1 18.3.2 Using Measurements to Validate Improvements Comparing Uplink and Downlink Capacity

226 236 236 238 241


245 245

18.4 Using Measured Data 19 Cluster Identification 19.1 Procedure and Measurements 20 Scrambling Code Example 20.1 Case Study 21 Neighbour Planning 21.1 Neighbour Lists
21.1.1 21.1.2 21.1.3 Initial Neighbour List Generation Optimisation of Neighbour lists: Inter-freq & Inter-system Neighbour Planning:

246 250 250 255 255 261 261


263 264 266

22

Automation Topics 22.1 Modelling 22.2 Total Power Targets

268 268 271

23

Future Impact of Standards 23.1 Observations of Release 5 and beyond

273 273 275 275 276


276

24

From Initial Roll-Out to Mature Network 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Initial Roll-Out
24.2.1 The Initial Plan

24.3 Evolution of the Network 24.4 Concluding Remarks 25 Appendix 25.1 Amplificadores MHA

277 288 291 291

1 Introduction

1.1

Course Overview
The objective of this three day course is to provide delegates with knowledge of optimisation methods and techniques which will enable them to plan, improve and optimise UMTS 3g networks. Exercises and examples via software and a state-of-the-art 3g simulator will be provided to aid in the understanding of concepts and theories used in optimisation.
Introductory Session

Aims of Course
To deepen the understanding of UMTS networks so as to plan a network with greater confidence and allow specific required improvements to be targeted. To be able to evaluate the benefits that can be obtained from fitting capacity enhancing devices to the UMTS infrastructure. To attain an understanding of the optimisation procedures available within UMTS. The function and purpose of optimisation. To understand how to maximise the benefit of making drivetest measurements. The use of simulation to aid in optimisation.

UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation AIRCOM International Ltd 2003

Introductory Session

Course Schedule
A module may take more than one session

to complete. During each module, questions and exercises are provided.

UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation AIRCOM International Ltd 2003

2 Optimisation Overview

2.1 What is Optimisation?


Depending upon your position within your organisation this question will mean quite different things. Whilst business is about making money, the engineers goal is usually focused on network efficiency. These two issues are linked but the strategy for change and time scales can be, and very often are, different. Business will benefit if the quality of service experienced by customers improves. The engineer should be focused on obtaining the maximum performance and hence delivering the optimum customer experience from a given resource.

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Optimisation Overview

What is Optimisation ?
Quality of Service
Applications Network Coverage/Capacity

Competitive Advantage Radio Propagation Measurement Signals


UE UTRAN

Optimising a UMTS network is distinctly different from the optimisation of a GSM network. The fact that we have a single frequency on a cell layer poses challenges for the network planner. For example, it is no longer possible to use a frequency plan to help reduce the impact of poorly position sites. Further, there is no fixed capacity of a TRX in a UMTS network. The throughput possible depends on the services being utilised and the radio environment. The high level of mutual interference between users and cells leads to a trade-off between capacity and coverage. As use of the network increases, so does interference. This higher level of interference reduces the maximum path loss over which a connection can be satisfactorily made. Optimising for coverage and optimising for capacity will entail a different approach, both to planning and to infrastructure investment. When optimising any network, it is vital that any improvements can be confirmed by means of measurements made on the network. Feedback from drive-test measurements and OMC reports must be incorporated into a continuous cycle of optimisation and monitoring.

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Optimisation Overview

Why is Optimising different for UMTS ?


Single Frequency
Cannot frequency plan around problems caused by rogue sites.

Flexible structure sensitive to small changes in performance


Air interface performance directly affects capacity and coverage.

Optimisation Overview

Air Interface affecting Network Performance ?


Suppose we are able to reduce the target Eb/No on the uplink by 1 dB.

Capacity increased by 25% Range increased by

0.1

10

exponent

(7% if exponent equals 3.5) Area increased by 14% So both Capacity and Coverage Increase

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Optimisation Overview

Coverage/Capacity Trade-off ?
We do not have to accept a 25% capacity increase and a 14% coverage area increase. We could make capacity our goal. In this case we could increase the Noise Rise limit by 1 dB, and reduce Eb/No by 1dB

Loading Factor = 1 - 10

-NR

10

The improvement in capacity depends on the pre-existing Noise Rise Limit. ( Eb/No 4.8dB, voice 12.2kbps i=0.6)
Original Noise Rise Limit 1 dB 3 dB 7 dB Coverage km2 42.72 32.84 19.4 Throughput kbps 158.5 390.4 634.4 New Noise Rise Limit 2 dB 4 dB 8 dB Throughput kbps 366 597.8 841.8 Total Capacity Increase 131% 53% 33%

Optimisation Overview

Coverage/Capacity Trade-off ?
We could make coverage our goal. In this case we could fix the capacity, this will reduce the loading factor and reduce Eb/No by 1dB

NR = 10 log(1 )

The improvement in coverage depends on the pre-existing loading factor. ( Eb/No 4.8dB, voice 12.2kbps i=0.6)
Existing Loading Factor 40% 65% 80% Noise Rise dB 2.22 4.56 6.99 Capacity kbps 317.2 512.4 634.4 Coverage New Loading km2 Factor 36.39 26.75 19.43 31.46% 50.83% 62.93% New Noise Rise dB 1.64 3.08 4.31 Coverage km2 44.79 37.05 31.52 Total Coverage Increase 123% 138.5% 162%

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Optimisation Overview

Capacity/Coverage Enhancing Devices


Because of facts such as this, devices to give improvements of a few dB can be purchased. These include:
Mast Head Amplifiers Diversity (uplink and downlink) Multi-User Detection Smart Antennas

Any one device will usually give improvement in the uplink or the downlink but not both.
Important to be able to determine which direction is limiting network performance.

Improvement in performance must be predicted so that the best way forward can be implemented.

Optimisation Overview

Measuring and Monitoring


Any improvement in quality must be measurable. Improvement should be:
User experience: fewer blocked calls; new services being offered; greater coverage.

Revenue generation: greater network capacity; higher revenue services offered.

Optimisation is part of the overall quality cycle.

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Optimisation Overview

Course Structure
How to Plan a Network - Effectively
Getting the most out of a network with conventional equipment.

Analysing and Comparing devices that will enhance performance


Selecting the item that will provide the most benefit.

Network Measurements and Optimisation Procedures.

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3 Network Dimensioning and Planning

3.1 Introduction
It is necessary to be able to apply all the understanding of the technology and capacity, dimensioning and link budget calculations in a practical situation. Accordingly, it is imagined that a network is to be planned providing a certain capacity over a certain area. Initially, certain parameters will be over-simplified when compared with what can be expected to be encountered in practice. For example, the first assumption is that the terrain is flat, the traffic distribution is uniform and that the network will be offering only a single service. After dimensioning and examining the predicted performance of such a network, the effects of problems such as high sites and being unable to position base stations exactly where required will be demonstrated. After that, more realistic terrain data is introduced together with the need to be able to accommodate varying traffic density.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Planning a UMTS Network

We will assume that a coverage area is defined. We have mapping data.

We have a traffic forecast (in this case a


single voice service with uniform distribution.)

Planning a UMTS Network

The Philosophy
A strategy needs to be defined. For this environment, continuous coverage for voice services could
define the high level approach.

Other issues: Path Loss; Cell Range

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Planning a UMTS Network

Link Budget
Crucial to the planning process. Derived assuming a particular
Noise Rise. Voice Service Eb/No Power Control Shadow Fade Rise 3 dB Antenna Gain Proc Gain Mobile Tx Pwr Cell Noise Floor Max Path Loss Range 5 dB 2 dB 4 dB

Combined with Path Loss model


to determine cell range.

Noise

18 dBi 25 dB 21 dBm -100 dBm 150 dB 2.35 km

Planning a UMTS Network

Iterative Spreadsheet Dimensioning


Keep Re-calculate Range using CarryCalculating out linkrange budget to and
re-assessing predicted Noise Rise. Rise. determineNoise range (remember link budget assumes a NR)

Finally, the iterations should Re-assess Assess loading the loading of cell of and the converge so that the assumed
cell predict and Noise re-predict Rise. the This Noise will and predicted values of Noise Rise. differ from assumed Noise Rise agree. Rise.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Graphical Explanation
Gathering More traffic increases Noise Rise and reduces Range. Increasing Range causes more traffic to be gathered.

Range/PathLoss

Intersection gives the operating point Number of active users

Planning a UMTS Network

A complication
Noise Rise predicted from
estimated peak use of cell.

Range calculated from average


number of users.

Range/PathLoss

Intersection gives the operating point

Additionally, soft capacity must be


considered.

Number of active users

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Planning a UMTS Network

Spreadsheet Method
All relevant parameters (Eb/No, Tx Power etc.) known. From traffic forecast and coverage area, calculate density.

Make initial estimate of the number of trunks required per cell. Estimate Noise Rise and hence Cell Range 1 Using Erlang B and considering soft capacity estimate Erlangs served. Estimate area and hence Cell Range 2 Adjust number of trunks until Range 1 = Range 2

Planning a UMTS Network

Spreadsheet Method
All relevant parameters (Eb/No, Tx Power etc.) known. From traffic forecast and coverage area, calculate density.
Estimate Number of Estimate Noise Rise Simultaneous Connections per Cell Estimate Number of Erlangs Served per Cell

From Traffic Density forecast, estimate No cell range

Estimate Maximum Path Loss (Uplink)

Estimate Maximum Path Loss (using Propagation model).

Path Losses Equal?

The method outlined above was used to dimension a network given the following input parameters: Voice Service Data Rate: Eb/No Power Control Margin Antenna Gains
UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation AIRCOM International Ltd 2003

12200 bps 5 dB 2 dB 18 dBi


21

other to own interference ratio Shadow Fade Margin Coverage Area Traffic to be Served Mobile Transmit Power Cell Noise Floor Path Loss Model:

0.6 4 dB

1000 km2 4000 Erlangs 21 dBm -102 dBm Loss = 137 + 35log(R) dB

The result is that 82 sites would be required. The Noise Rise limit should be set to 3.9 dB in order to maintain continuous coverage.
Planning a UMTS Network

Example Output
For voice service over an area of 1000 km2 offering 4000 Erlangs of Traffic:

82 sites with 246 cells were required. Noise Rise Limit of 3.9 dB was required to maintain
continuous coverage.

It is possible at this stage to place sites on a map such that continuous coverage can be maintained. However, it is highly likely that the actual location of sites will not be as required. Further, assumptions made when creating the spreadsheet may not be accurate in practice. For these reasons, and for other including those listed below, it is necessary to utilise a planning tool that will consider practical variations from the initial broad assumptions made.

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Planning a UMTS Network

The need for a tool


If this can be done using a simple calculator, why do we need a planning tool?

We need to be able to simulate the effect of imperfections.


Sites not placed perfectly terrain/environment factors Uneven traffic distribution

Some parameters (for example interference ratio, i) have been assumed. Mixed services will have different coverage areas.

Planning tool can validate the strategy.

Planning a UMTS Network

Using the 3G Planning Tool

The coverage area was filled with the correct number of sites and traffic
was spread across the region.

Coverage was checked to be in accordance with requirements.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Summary of Initial Results


Parameters:

Eb/No = 7 dB (Incorporating Eb/No and Power Control) S.D. = 7 dB 4000 Terminals NR limit 3.9 dB

Results:

Coverage Probability 98.0% Almost all failures due to Noise Rise

Planning a UMTS Network

Action taken

3.9 dB NR limit provides continuous coverage even when all cells are simultaneously at their maximum load.

In reality not all cells would be simultaneously at their maximum loading. The neighbour can often assist an overloaded cell. Noise Rise limit can be raised. Noise Rise was raised to 5 dB.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Summary of Results
Parameters:

Eb/No = 7 dB (Incorporating Eb/No and Power Control) S.D. = 7 dB 4000 Terminals NR limit 5.0 dB

Results:

Coverage Probability 99.7% (c.f. 98.0%) Even split of failures between NR and UL Eb/No

Planning a UMTS Network

Next Step
As Noise Rise limit was raised without any apparent gaps in coverage
appearing, it should be possible to raise the amount of traffic served.

Traffic spread raised to 4600 terminals.

Results:

Coverage Probability 98.7% (c.f. 99.7%) 83% NR and 17% UL Eb/No.

3.2 Simulating the Effect of Imperfect Site Location and High Sites

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Planning a UMTS Network

Simulating the Effect of Problems


Imperfect location of sites.

50% of sites moved randomly by


up to 1 km from ideal position.

Gaps appear in coverage.

Planning a UMTS Network

Summary of Results
Parameters:

Eb/No = 7 dB (Incorporating Eb/No and Power Control) S.D. = 7 dB 4600 Terminals NR limit 5.0 dB

Results:

Results:

Problem area gives 95% coverage probability (c.f. 97.5% for whole area).

Coverage Probability 97.5% (c.f. 98.7%) 78% NR and 22% UL Eb/No Uneven distribution of failures

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Planning a UMTS Network

Action taken

Antennas were re-pointed in an attempt to restore coverage. Improvement was marginal (96.0% c.f. 95.8%)

Problem is uneven distribution of load due to improper placement of sites. Those sites with largest area suffered Noise Rise failures. NR failure occurs if more than approx. 29 terminals attempt to access a cell. Average is 19 terminals.

Planning a UMTS Network

Problems caused by High Sites

15% of sites made high sites with a


path loss 10 dB less than that of normal sites at a given range.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Problems caused by High Sites

Uneven loading causes


disastrous results.

Coverage probability

reduced from 98.7% to 78.6%.

Planning a UMTS Network

Problems caused by High Sites


Probability of NR failure
(63% average)

very high in high site area.

FRE for high site ~ 48% Throughput for high site ~


26 E (18 E average)

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Planning a UMTS Network

Action taken
Excess coverage area reduced by down-tilting the antennas of the
high-sites.

Result: Coverage probability increased to 95.1% (c.f. 78% before down-tilting and 98.7% with perfect sites).

Planning a UMTS Network

Alternative Action

Instead of down-tilting, reduce pilot power of high sites by 10 dB to equalise service areas. Result: Problem made worse! This is because terminals still caused Noise Rise even though they were not connected. Reduction of High Site service area causes an increase in Mobile Tx power hence aggravating the problem.

Pilot Power scaled to equalise service areas. Pilot Power Equal

Mobile Connects to Low Site - Tx Power increased

Mobile Connects to High Site

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Planning a UMTS Network

Alternative Action
Increased NR Limit of High Site by 10 dB Decreased Max Tx power, Common Chan power and Pilot power by
10 dB.

Result: A dramatic improvement. Performance of network indistinguishable from ideal case. High NR experienced by High Site but continued to perform satisfactorily. Detecting the existence of High Sites is crucial.

Planning a UMTS Network

Spotting a High Site


Site35C: Site36A: Site36B: Site36C: Site37A: Site37B: Site37C: Site38A: Site38B: Site38C: Site39A: Site39B: Site39C: 18.0946 18.2301 19.5065 18.4447 13.9719 14.4915 18.2414 37.0476 38.7644 36.72 10.6173 18.9417 10.1203

Examining the Best Server by Pilot array is informative. Spreading a traffic terminal and examining traffic captured is possibly more informative as it considers traffic distribution.

High Site

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Planning a UMTS Network

High Sites - a final word


There is no single definition of a high site. Do not think that it is wrong to place UMTS base stations on
hilltops.

High sites tend to gather uplink interference generated by other


users.

Problems occur as area becomes more heavily loaded (if the traffic
is reduced from 4000 terminals to 2000 terminals, coverage is excellent even with untreated high sites).

If coverage area is very lightly loaded - no problem.

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3.3 Provisioning for Asymmetric Traffic


It is common to find that the downlink is not being required to transmit at full power. In fact there is often about 10 dB extra power capacity on average in the downlink direction. This can be utilised to service asymmetric (downlink only) traffic requirements. It is possible to estimate the amount of traffic possible by attempting to establish approximate values for Noise Rise before at the current average base station transmit power (as obtained from the cell reports) and at the maximum transmit power. Then the extra loading possible can be determined. Because no two mobile stations are likely to experience exactly the same Noise Rise, the approximate values of traffic calculated should be validated by using a planning tool with a UMTS simulator. In the case being studied it was noted that the Uplink was approximately had a 60% loading factor on average. Because of the effect of orthogonality, it is expected that the loading on the downlink for the same amount of traffic would be approximately 40%. Thus the mobile stations could expect to experience a Noise Rise of 2.2 dB on average. It is noted that the average base station transmit power was 34 dBm. The maximum power available is 42 dBm. We need to be able to establish the Noise Rise that would be caused if the transmit power rose to 42 dBm given that a transmit power of 34 dBm causes a Noise Rise of 2.2 dB. The necessary equations are: Noise Rise increase on downlink on increasing Node B transmit power from B dBm to C dBm New Noise Rise = 10 log 10 1 + 10 (C A ) / 10 A = 10 log10 power B dBm. The above equations suggest that the new Noise Rise will be 7.1 dB (a loading factor of 80%). Thus the loading factor on the downlink can be expected to increase from 40% to 80% if the transmit power is increased

) where

10 B 10 where X is the noise rise in dB with transmit 10 X 10 1

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from 34 dBm to 42 dBm. This represents an increase in downlink traffic by a factor of 2. This prediction was verified by simulating an additional load on the downlink only equal to the original load. The simulator reported no significant effect on the existing traffic due to the extra load.
Planning a UMTS Network

Further Work: Adding traffic onto the downlink


Examining the Simulation Reports
reveals that the average Node B Tx Power is approximately 34 dBm.

The maximum Tx power is 42


dBm.

This extra power can be used to


send uni-directional data.

Planning a UMTS Network

Further Work: Adding traffic onto the downlink


Amount of extra data possible depends on the effect that increasing the
transmit power will have on Noise Rise at the mobile.

NR at 34 dBm

NR at 42 dBm

Increase in throughput

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Planning a UMTS Network

Further Work: Adding traffic onto the downlink


Calculations suggest that increasing Tx power to 42 dBm will move NR on the
downlink from 2.2 dB to 7.1 dB. An increase in loading factor from 40% to 80%. in the downlink only with no detriment to the existing services. terminals throughputs and Eb/No requirements. downlink only were added.

This suggests an additional load equivalent to the voice service can be added This additional load could be made up of any number of combinations of To keep things simple another 4613 terminals of 12200 bits per second in the

Result confirms expectations. Coverage probability for existing voice service reduces from 98.7% to 98.4% with error causes divided evenly amongst Ec/Io, Eb/No and NR. Downlink only service enjoyed 99.2% probability with error causes divided between DL Eb/No and Ec/Io.

Planning a UMTS Network

Further Work: Mixed Services


More than one service sharing the resource has implications for trunking
efficiency and hence dimensioning.

Campbells Theorem allows us to estimate the aggregate effect of a mixture of


services.

As an example 2000 Erlangs of voice and 1000 Erlangs of a symmetrical CS

data service with 50 kbps throughput and 2 dB Eb/No would have require the same resource as the 4613 Erlangs of voice.

Simulator confirms this.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Campbells Theorem Example(1)


Consider 2 services sharing the same resource:

Service 1: uses 1 trunk per connection. 12 Erlangs of traffic. Service 2, uses 3 trunks per connection. 6 Erlangs of traffic.

In this case the mean is:

= i bi ai = Erlangs ai = 1 12 + 3 6 = 30
The variance is:

= i bi ai2 = Erlangs ai2 = 12 12 + 6 32 = 66

Planning a UMTS Network

Campbells Theorem Example(2)


Capacity Factor c is:
c=

66 = = 2.2 30

Offered Traffic for filtered distribution:


Offered Traffic = 30 = = 13 .63 c 2 .2

Required Capacity for filtered distribution at 2% GoS is 21

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Planning a UMTS Network

Campbells Theorem Example(2)


Required Capacity is different depending upon target service for GoS (in
service 1 Erlangs):

Target is Service 1 C1=(2.2 x 21) + 1 = 47 Target is Service 2, C2=(2.2 x 21) + 3 = 49

Different services will require a different capacity for the same GoS. In other
words: for a given capacity, the different services will experience a slightly different GoS.

Planning a UMTS Network

Calculating the Relative Amplitude


What is the resource?

Bitrate - no Loading of individual user - yes Calculate traffic analysis using the ratio of single channel loading for different services

Loading is affected by bitrate and Eb/N0


bit rate for service bit rate for amplitude 1 Eb Eb

Relative amplitude =

N0 N0

for service for amplitude 1

3.4 Using More Appropriate Path Loss Models


The path loss model used so far is too simple to be realistic. More widely used models reduce to similar equations if the height of the mobile is fixed and, also, the terrain is flat. However, incorporation of the more sophisticated models is essential if terrain height variations are to be considered.

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A typical Okumura-Hata style of equation was used to predict the path loss over a terrain that included substantial variations in height. The variation in height caused coverage gaps to appear in the shadows of the hills. These were filled by the provisioning of additional base stations such that almost 95% of the areas covered to the required level of 146 dB path loss. It was found that some of the base stations fell into the category of high site and caused excessive blocking. The level of blocking could be reduced by careful re-pointing of the antennas.

Planning a UMTS Network

Incorporating more sophisticated Path Loss Models


Cost 231 - Hata
Loss = k1 + k 2 log (d) + k3 hms + k 4 log(hms ) + k5 log(heff ) + k 6 log(heff ) log(d ) = (k1 + k3 hms + k 4 log(hms ) + k5 log(heff ) ) + (k 2 + k 6 log(heff ) )log(d )

If hms is fixed then variations are only dependent on heff. Using


typical default parameters: Antenna Ht 15 20 25 30 Model 140.0 + 32.3 log(d) 138.2 + 31.5 log(d) 136.9 + 30.8 log(d) 135.8 + 30.3 log(d)

Planning a UMTS Network

A More Challenging Terrain

154 km2. Heights vary from zero to 135 m a.s.l.

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Planning a UMTS Network

The Challenge

Challenge is to serve 2000 Erlangs of demand for voice service. Even spread of traffic across the whole area. 13 E/km2 With 20 m antenna heights, initial calculation suggests 25 sites. Max path loss should be 146 dB, range 1.8 km. Peak Noise Rise will be 8.7 dB.

Planning a UMTS Network

Placing the Sites

Due to irregular outline, 31 sites were required to provide


continuous coverage at a range of 1800 metres.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Coverage Analysis
Initial site placing leads to 80% of
area being covered to required level.

UMTS simulation suggests


coverage probability of 87% with failures split between uplink Eb/No and Noise Rise.

Planning a UMTS Network

Increasing Percentage Coverage


Adding four more sites (35 in
total) resulted in 94.3% coverage based on pathloss and 92% coverage probability from UMTS simulator.

Again failures split between


Eb/No and Noise Rise.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Analysing Reason for Eb/No Failures


Coverage Eb/No Failures

Eb/No failures follow high path loss areas. If the path loss is too great the
required Eb/No cannot be achieved.

Planning a UMTS Network

Analysing Reason for NR Failures


Coverage Strongest Pilot

Noise Rise failures concentrated on High Sites. An example is shown.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Action taken to decrease NR failures.


For the cell being investigated:
Coverage

Starting statistics: Throughput 382 kbps


(approx 31 connections); 20 blocked connections due to NR.

Action: Height reduced to 10 m; antenna


down-tilted by 3 degrees.

Result: Throughput 294 kbps; 0.65


blocked connections due to NR; no noticeable increase in failures on neighbouring cells.

Planning a UMTS Network

Covering an Urban Area.


2000 Erlangs over 154 km2 is not a very
big density.

New challenge is to serve 2000 Erlangs


of voice service generated by users within an area of 2.36 km2.

This Urban area is not flat (zero to 50 m


a.s.l.) or regularly shaped, posing significant challenges.

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3.5 Serving Very High Traffic Densities


In practice, it is possible to encounter traffic densities far in excess of the 13 Erlangs per km2 examined in the last simulation. Accordingly, a small (2.4 km2) urban area was investigated with a view to servicing 2000 Erlangs of voice traffic: a density of approximately 800 Erlangs per km2. The main finding was that the other to own interference ratio tends to be much higher when the cells are packed closely together. Rather than the assumed value of 0.6, values of 1.5 were encountered. This reduces the capacity per cell. Lowering the antenna heights and down-tilting helped improve the situation but not to the extent where the assumed value of 0.6 was realised. Thus it seemed impossible in the first instance to service the level of traffic with the number of cells first calculated. The network provided good coverage for 1600 terminals as opposed to the required 2000 terminals. Increasing this level to 2000 would entail restarting the dimensioning exercise assuming a more realistic value for the interference ratio (unity being a suggested value for such situations). This is another example of a simulation tool being required to validate spreadsheet calculations.
Planning a UMTS Network

Spreadsheet Dimensioning.
Initial dimensioning exercise predicts that
coverage can be achieved by 22 sites each of range 240 metres.

Low path loss means that very high (20


dB+) Noise Rise can be tolerated.

Cell capacity effectively become Pole


Capacity.

Coverage prediction suggests that path


loss will not be a problem.

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Planning a UMTS Network

UMTS Simulation.
Only 65% Coverage Probability achieved. All failures due to Noise Rise. Estimation of Pole Capacity of a cell is
erroneous.

Cell Reports indicate very low FRE


(~40%) suggesting a value for the interference ratio, i, of 1.5 (c.f. 0.6 assumed).

Increasing FRE is crucial to increasing


Coverage Probability
capacity.

Planning a UMTS Network

Optimisation Procedures.
Lowering antenna heights and making the
downtilt as high as 10 degrees improved matters.

Coverage probability now 86% (c.f. 65%). FRE still only 50%. Initial estimate of 32 Erlangs per cell
unachievable in first instance.

Reduce traffic to more realistic levels.


Coverage Probability

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Planning a UMTS Network

Optimisation Procedures.
Reduced traffic from 2000 to 1600
terminals.

Coverage probability increased to 96%. Majority of failures due to one apparent


high site that could probably benefit from further attention.

25 Erlangs per cell would appear to be


the limit in this situation (average load 84%).

Coverage Probability

Planning a UMTS Network

Conclusions.
Spreadsheet dimensioning is an appropriate initial step. Planning Tool needed to form strategy; analyse coverage; spread traffic;
conduct detailed analysis; perform quantitative sensitivity analyses; predict the effectiveness of optimisation techniques. In particular high sites can dramatically reduce the capacity of a network. cells are packed closer together.

Control of cell antenna radiation is crucial to achieving designed capacity.

It becomes more difficult to achieve high Frequency Re-use Efficiency as Problems only become apparent as system becomes heavily loaded.

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3.6 Evaluating Simulator Results


When examining the prediction made by a simulator it is important to be clear regarding exactly what you are simulating. Essentially, a Monte Carlo style of static simulator will provide a prediction of the outcome of attempts to establish a connection to the network. Noise Rise failures generally indicate a failure to connect because of over demand. It is very useful to gain an estimate of the likelihood of a call being dropped once a connection has been established. If the network becomes under stress from overloading, or capacity being reduced due to external interference, there are various load control measures that can be introduced. These include tolerating a lower Eb/No value and also reducing the bit rate provided on a particular service. Simulations of network performance with these lower quality targets should be made and evaluated. In these circumstances the lower values of Eb/No and bit rate should result in Noise Rise failures being eradicated. The location of areas where the likelihood of failure is high should then be identified. These will generally be areas where the path loss to the best server is too high to allow the required Ec/Io and Eb/No conditions to be met. Their seriousness can be evaluated and remedial action taken.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Evaluating Simulation Results


The simulator provides a
prediction of the outcome of attempts to establish a connection to a network. probability of a call being dropped.

Of special interest is the

Load control in times of stress will involve reducing Eb/No and reducing
bit rates. The performance of the network under such circumstances should be evaluated.

Planning a UMTS Network

Evaluating Simulation Results


With reduced Eb/No and bit rates

(e.g. Eb/No 2 dB below target and voice bit rate reduced to 7.95 kbps), Noise Rise failures should be extremely rare (ideally zero).

Eb/No and Ec/Io failures will

probably be confined to small problem areas which will usually be related to high path loss.

Location of Failures

3.7 Pilot Pollution


The term pilot pollution is used in various texts to describe a number of related yet distinct problems. Essentially, they all relate to the situation where a similar path loss exists from a mobile to many (four or more) cells. It is possible under such circumstances for the total received power to be so high that Ec/Io failures are recorded due to the high level of Io.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Pilot Pollution

If a mobile experiences comparable path loss to a number of cells,


problems can arise through no single cell dominating. updates to membership of the active set.

Problems include: low Ec/Io; low capacity on downlink; frequent

The value of Ec/Io at a point depends on the pilot power of the best server, Pp, the other power transmitted by the best serving cell, T1 (that will benefit from orthogonality ), the link loss to best serving cell, LL1, the transmit powers of interfering cells (T1, T2, T3 etc..) and the link loss to these interfering cells (LL2, LL3, LL4 etc.).

PP Ec 1 LL = 10 log ( )( ) 1 1 T P T2 T3 I0 P + PN + + + .... LL 2 LL3 LL1


dB

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Planning a UMTS Network

Ec/Io
Pilot Power: 33 dBm Interference Power: 40 dBm

Noise Floor: -99dBm Link Loss 130 dB

In the above situation the pilot power would be received at a level of

97 dBm. Total of interference plus noise would be -89.5 dBm giving a value for Ec/Io of -7.5 dB.

Planning a UMTS Network

Ec/Io
Pilot Power: 33 dBm Interference Power: 40 dBm

Link Loss 130 dB

Link Loss 131 dB


Interference Power: 42 dBm

The power from a neighbouring site would add to the total

interference and noise power. In the above situation this total power would become -86.2 dBm and Ec/Io would be reduced to -10.8 dB

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Planning a UMTS Network

Ec/Io

If the mobile has a low loss path to many base stations, the value of

Ec/Io could become so low that the pilot cannot be detected, making communication impossible. -15 dB is a typical minimum usable value for Ec/Io.

More likely is the situation arising where downlink throughput is severely limited by the interference. A quick analysis of the approximate 3840 expression for the pole capacity in the downlink direction Eb (1 + i ) N0 demonstrates that the value of parameter, i, is crucial. If the cell has a similar path loss to many cells, then values of i as large as five can be encountered thus reducing the capacity possible on the downlink at those regions suffering from the interference.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Downlink Capacity

The Pole Capacity in the Downlink Direction is approximately


kbps.

3840 Eb N0

(1 + i )

Planning a UMTS Network

Downlink Capacity

In the situation above it is possible for the value of i to be as high as


4, thus reducing the downlink capacity. Network capacity may become downlink limited.

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Simulation Examples
Planning a UMTS Network

Simulation Examples

A small network of 7 omni-directional sites was loaded with traffic.


For a mean of 200 voice terminals 100% success rate was achieved.

Planning a UMTS Network

Simulation Examples

Ec/Io failures

Removing the central site caused pilot pollution in the central area resulting in Ec/Io failure (coverage probability now 78%).

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Planning a UMTS Network

Simulation Examples

Increasing the pilot power from 33 dBm to 38 dBm resulted in Ec/Io failures being eradicated but downlink Eb/No failures now occur in the same region.

Downlink Eb/No failures

Planning a UMTS Network

Identifying Problem Areas.

Active Set Size: 7 cells

Active Set Size: 6 cells

With a SHO margin of 5 dB, the mean size of the active set was determined for the 6-cell and 7-cell configurations.

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Planning a UMTS Network

Identifying Problem Areas.

Active Set Size: 7 cells

Active Set Size: 6 cells

The maximum active set size was 3 with the 7-cell configuration but as high as 6 in the 6-cell case. This indicates the number of cells with a low loss path to a mobile.

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4 Site Location Issues

4.1 The Ideal Situation


The uniformly loaded network is the easiest to plan for and presents us with something of a starting point from which we can examine issues that make planning more difficult. Even with an evenly loaded network, an initial assessment has to made regarding the traffic density. The coverage/capacity trade-off is well known. The initial decision may be to provide coverage for a low capacity and then increase capacity as demand picks up. Capacity can be increased either by building new sites, introducing extra carriers or by utilising an appropriate capacity-enhancing device such as diversity. The following table shows how the area of coverage of a typical cell will reduce compared to the area when five voice connections are maintained. The area of coverage for five connections is regarded as 100% for comparison purposes. Number of voice connections 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 Coverage Area 100% 95% 85% 74% 61% 45% 24%

Assumptions: Uplink Pole Capacity corresponds to 65 connections. Propagation exponent is 3.5. Once the coverage area required and the traffic density to be serviced has been decided, it is relatively straightforward to plan the network, the main issue being gaining permission to place sites where you need them. It is worth pointing out, however, that the coverage area prediction method and link budget are slightly different from the GSM case. Consider the classic method of determining maximum path loss given the existence of shadow fading. In a GSM situation we would decide on an area coverage probability required (usually 90% - 95%) and then add an appropriate margin, knowing the propagation exponent and the standard deviation of shadow fading. This will then allow a target path loss to be determined whereby the probability of the actual path loss being sufficiently low to allow a
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connection to be made is equal to the required probability. However, in UMTS systems the phenomenon of Noise Rise will affect the link budget. It is normal to add a Noise Rise (or interference) margin into the link budget. It is also usual to set this to the limit for a particular cell. This means that the calculations made will result in a path loss being output that will give a 90% connection (uplink Eb/No) probability even if the cell is fully loaded. At lower loading levels the probability will be greater. Thus, if an average probability is required, a lower value of Noise Rise should be used. This value of Noise Rise could be equal to that produced under average rather than peak loading conditions. The difference that this will produce will again depend on the desired capacity of the cell. The table shows the difference between peak and average Noise Rise and, further, provides an estimate in the difference this would make in the estimate of coverage area. Peak Noise Rise 2 dB 5 dB 10 dB Average Noise Rise 1.3 dB 3.4 dB 5.8 dB % coverage area difference 9% 19% 43%

Assumptions: NR caused by voice traffic on cell with pole capacity of 65 connections. Cell provisioned for average traffic on a 2% blocking probability. Propagation exponent assumed to be 3.5.

Site Location Issues

The Uniform Network


An ideal situation. Issues
Capacity/Coverage Trade-off Ability to place sites where they are required.

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Site Location Issues

Capacity/Coverage Trade-Off
Uplink Pole Capacity in kbps

3840 Eb (1 + i ) ) N 0

Typical values give a pole capacity (voice 12200 bps, Eb/No 4.8 dB, i= 0.6) as approximately 65 voice connections (100% activity). Taking the coverage possible for 5 voice connections as a reference it is possible to compare coverage for other capacities. Try the calculator, record area for 5 users, then increase users and note area reduction.

Number of Connections 5 20 50
100% 85% 45%

Site Location Issues

Dimensioning Procedures for UMTS


P(connect) 50% 75%

General Rule is to add in a slow fading margin. In UMTS a NR margin must also be included.

x0 -

P(connect) Point Location Probability the probability of being able to connect at this point Area Location Probability the probability of connecting in the area of interest

76%

90%

Result will be that coverage probability is achieved at NR limit. At lower values of NR, coverage is better than calculated. Perhaps coverage probability should be calculated at average cell loading levels.

5.6

x0 -

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Site Location Issues

Dimensioning Procedures for UMTS


Ratio of Peak to Average Noise Rise is not constant. If voice traffic (pole capacity 65 connections as before) is considered with an Erlang B distribution, differences in coverage area predictions can be calculated for different values of NR limit.
Peak Noise Rise Resulting Area Average Noise Rise using Erlang B 1.3 dB 3.4 dB 5.8 dB Resulting Area Area Increase

2 dB 5 dB 10 dB

37.47 25.24 13.07

40.99 31.37 22.72

9% 24% 74%

Breathing

4.1.1 Mis-placed sites.


An evenly loaded network is fairly straightforward to provision with evenly spaced sites. A problem arises if you are not able to place the sites where you would like them to be. In this situation a particular cell may have a coverage area larger than the average. Consider the example where a cell must increase its range from 1300 metres to 2000 metres (a 50% increase). This increase would raise the path loss at the cell edge by approximately 6 dB. This would reduce the probability of connection at the cell edge from an initial value of, typically, 75% to less than 50% when the noise rise experienced on the cell is close to the limit. Action that can be taken would be to reduce the Noise Rise limit. Perversely, this reduces the capacity of the cell when its coverage area has been increased but it would increase the probability of connection at the cell edge. Additionally, it would be possible to offer reduced bitrate services at the cell edge. With voice services, that would lead to an increase in the maximum path loss tolerated of up to 4 dB. Another possibility to consider is the use of an active repeater station.

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Site Location Issues

Mis-placed Sites
If sites cannot be placed exactly as required, the coverage area of some sites will increase. Location Probability ~75% 50% range increase leads to path loss increase of ~ 6 dB.
( 35 * log ( 1.5 ) = 6.2 dB )

Location Probability ~ 50%

Location probability will reduce, possibly to less than 50%.

Site Location Issues

Mis-placed Sites: possible action


Coverage helped by reducing NR limit.
This will reduce capacity of the cell.

Reduction of bit rate of services offered


12200 bps reduced to 4750 bps gives a 4 dB benefit.

Deploy a repeater station.

Repeaters can improve coverage to remote parts of the cell.

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4.2 Hot Spots


The fact that a single frequency is used to provide continuous coverage in a UMTS system means that cells act together much more intimately than in a GSM system for example. One object of system optimisation can be thought of as the minimisation of transmit powers. That will lead in turn to a minimisation of interference and therefore a maximisation of capacity. If hotspots exist, the impact on the network is very dependent on their location within the network. As an example let us suppose that a hotspot exists that demands services on the uplink that will generate a 3 dB noise rise on that uplink. If the background noise level is -102 dBm, the power from the users will also equal -102 dBm. However, the transmit power of the users, and hence the amount of inter-cell interference generated will be dependent on the location within the cell. We will consider a simplified situation where the hotspot is only 100 metres from the serving cell and 2000 metres from the nearest neighbour. The difference in path loss has been measured to be 45 dB. That means the neighbouring cell will experience an interference level of -147 dBm. This would cause a noise rise of only 0.0001 dB (equivalent to a loading factor of 0.003% - negligible). However, if the hotspot was in a location where the path loss to the neighbouring cell was only 4 dB more than that to the serving cell, the power level at the neighbouring cell would be -106 dBm and the noise rise generated would be 1.5 dB which is equivalent to a loading factor of approximately 30% definitely not negligible. Enhancement techniques such as uplink diversity and mast head amplifiers will be examined in detail later in this course. Suffice to say at the moment that they improve coverage and will allow the noise rise limit to be increased whilst maintaining the cell range. It is understandable tempting to employ such techniques on a cell that has a hotspot. However, this can lead to worse consequences for neighbouring cells. Suppose the hotspot was such that it generated a noise rise of 8 dB at the serving cell and path loss to the victim neighbour was only 4 dB greater than that to the serving cell. The signal level received at the neighbouring cell would be -98 dBm, generating a noise rise of 5.5 dB. This may well be above the noise rise limit of this cell. That means that adjacent cell interference alone has effectively fully loaded the neighbouring cell making it incapable of accepting any more traffic. As a final note, it is worth remembering that, in sectored sites, the cell edges do not necessarily occur at large distances from the cell.
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The location of hot spots within cells and in relation to other cells requires understanding. Techniques for handling these hot spots therefore varies depending upon the location of own cell base station and neighbouring base station location.

Accommodating Hotspots

Traffic Hotspots
In a UMTS network the affect of a hotspot depends on its location in relation to the network cells.

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Accommodating Hotspots

Traffic Hotspots: an analysis


Thermal Noise Power = -102 dBm Power from Hotspots = -102 dBm NR = 3 dB Noise Power= -102 dBm Power from Hotspots = -147 dBm Negligible interference

In a UMTS network the affect of a hotspot depends on its location in relation to the network cells.

PL=100 dB PL=145 dB

Accommodating Hotspots

Traffic Hotspots: an analysis


Thermal Noise Power = -102 dBm Power from Hotspots = -102 dBm NR = 3 dB In a UMTS network the affect of a hotspot depends on its location in relation to the network cells. Noise Power= -102 dBm Power from Hotspots =

-106 dBm

NR = 1.5 dB (loading factor of 30%)

PL=121 dB PL=125 dB

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Accommodating Hotspots

Traffic Hotspots: an analysis


Suppose the serving cell employs, for example, uplink diversity and then allows the NR to reach 8.6 dB.
Thermal Noise Power = -102 dBm Power from Hotspots = -94 dBm NR = 8.6 dB

-98 dBm

Noise Power= -102 dBm Power from Hotspots =

NR = 5.5 dB (loading factor of 72%)


PL=121 dB PL=125 dB

Interference is now very damaging.

Accommodating Hotspots

Traffic Hotspots: sectored sites


A hotspot located near to the edge of a cell has a more serious effect than one with a very dominant serving cell. In sectored sites, note that cell edges can be located near to the site. Soft or softer handover will improve the situation.

A badly
located hotspot

A nicely
located hotspot

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4.3 Site Density


Many ballpark figures are quoted regarding the capacity of a UMTS cell. This has affected the configuration offered by vendors when supplying Node Bs. Perhaps a cell is configured such that its hardware will accommodate 32 simultaneous voice connections. If this is accepted for the moment, the factor that limits the user density that can be served then becomes cell density. The problem is that, as we increase the site density of a site, cell interference increases. If the pole capacity of a cell is considered as equal to that given by the expression 3840

(Eb

N 0 )(1 + i )

kbps, the parameter i tends to increase with site density. This is due to two main reasons: Employing normal levels of down-tilt leads to the main beam penetrating neighbouring cells. The dual-slope nature of the signal strength vs. distance characteristic makes the propagation exponent lower the shorter the distance. Antenna downtilt. Suppose that the general rule was to down-tile antennas by 2 degrees. That will lead to the main lobe of the antenna being directed towards the ground at a distance approximately equal to 30 times the antenna height. The strength of the signal in the horizontal direction will be a few dB less than the main lobe (the exact value will depend on the vertical beamwidth of the antenna). This helps to reduce interference between cells. If the cells are packed more closely together, the main lobe of the antenna will penetrate adjacent cells. Dual slope propagation Characteristic. It has been found that for a particular environment and site configuration the path loss can be approximated by the expression k1 + k 2 log d where d is the distance in kilometres and k1 and k2 are constants for a particular environment and configuration. The parameter k2 is related to the propagation exponent and is crucial in determining the level of inter-cell interference. The lower the value of k2 the worse the inter-cell interference. In a GSM network that delivers a typical C/I value of 10 dB when the value of k2 is 35 (an exponent of 3.5), the value of C/I will reduce to approximately 7 dB if the value of k2 reduces to 25 (an exponent of 2.5). In a UMTS network, the value of the relative interference parameter I, will increase if the exponent reduces. A typical value for I in an evenly loaded network is 0.6 for an exponent of 3.5. For an exponent of 2.5, it can exceed 1.

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The fact is that signal strength is more accurately modelled by a dualslope graph where k1 and k2 have two different values: near and far. The value of k2NEAR will be less than that of k2FAR. The point of transition between the two values is referred to as the knee of the graph. The distance at which the knee occurs depends upon the height of the cell antenna (it increases with antenna height). Typically, the knee could be expected to occur at about 500 metres for an antenna height of 15 metres and 1100 metres for an antenna height of 30 metres. This means that the more densely you attempt to pack the sites, the lower the exponent and the worse the inter-cell interference. Action that needs to be taken to minimise the adjacent cell interference includes reducing the cell height (to make the distance to the knee smaller) and to down-tilt cell antennas, quite severely. When sites are densely packed, coverage becomes a secondary issue because of the small cell boundaries. The capacity of the cell effectively equals its pole capacity. Crucial in this pole capacity is the value of intercell interference. If the cell range is 100 metres and the cell antenna height is 15 metres, a down-tilt of 8.5 degrees will point the main lobe at the edge of the cell. Additional down-tilt will reduce the signal strength at the cell edge but will have the advantage that it will also reduce the amount of interference gathered from adjacent cells. Down-tilts of greater than 10 degrees can be expected in such circumstances.

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Increasing Site Density

Increasing Site Density: Problems


What is the capacity of a UMTS Cell? Ballpark figures suggest that approximately 32 simultaneous voice connections can be accommodated. ( 100% voice activity ) This has influenced the hardware configuration of cells. But, how densely can sites be packed?

32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32

Increasing Site Density

Increasing Site Density: Problems


As sites become more densely packed, inter-cell interference increases. Frequency reuse efficiency, FRE, decreases Two main reasons:
Using normal levels of down-tilt leads to the main beam penetrating neigbouring cells The dual-slope nature of path loss against distance.

32 32 32 32

i ~ 0.6

32 32 32

32 32

32 32

i ~ 1.0

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Increasing Site Density

Antenna Down-tilt

Large cells: low level of inter-cell interference

For a given level of down-tilt, the level of inter-cell interference will increase when the cell size reduces.

Small cells: high level of inter-cell interference

Increasing Site Density

Dual-Slope Characteristic
Loss (dB) Far slope

Break point Near slope distance

Propagation exponents quoted usually refer to the far slope. The exponent near to the base station is usually considerably less (2.0 being a typical value). Remember that up until now we have had 3.5
Pathloss = 137 + 35 x log (R)

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Increasing Site Density

Dual-Slope Characteristic
The lower the value of the exponent, the greater the penetration from one cell into the next. Generally, the lower the exponent, the greater the value of i. For an evenly loaded network:
Exponent i 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1.5 1.1 0.75 0.53 0.38

i 6 2

-exponent

Increasing Site Density

Dual-Slope Characteristic
The position of the break point is influenced by the height of the base station.
BS height (m)

The higher the base station, the greater the distance. At 2 GHz, the distance to the breakpoint is approximately

30 20 10 Distance to Break point (m) 300 600 900

30 hBTS

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Increasing Site Density

Dual-Slope Characteristic
Increasing the exponent reduces interference and increases network capacity. Reducing antenna height will lead to an increase in the exponent. Far value of exponent typically (urban environment)

4.5 0.66 log10 (hBTS )


Also reducing antenna height brings the break point closer to the BTS. (break point ~ 30 x hBTS ) Down-tilting antennas will also reduce mutual interference.

Increasing Site Density

Implications for Increasing Site Density


As site density increases, interference will increase. Reducing Base Station height and down-tilting antennas will help to reduce this. For very small cell ranges, the amount of down-tilting will be severe.
At a range of 100 metres, a 15 metre mast will have to be down-tilted by 8.5 degrees to point at the cell edge. tan-1(15/100) = 8.5o Additional down-tilting will reduce field strength at the cell edge but also reduce mutual interference. Vertical beamwidth of antenna is significant.

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Increasing Site Density

Vertical Antenna Beamwidth


Sectored antennas with a typical horizontal beamwidth of 85 degrees can have a variety of vertical beamwidths. A high gain (e.g. 18 dBi) antenna will have a vertical beamwidth of only about 3 degrees. A lower gain (e.g. 13 dBi) antenna will have a vertical beamwidth of about 12 degrees. Lower gain antennas are likely to cause fewer problems when severely down-tilted.

18 dBi antenna

13 dBi antenna

4.4 High Sites


A high site is a site that has a lower path loss at a particular distance than is normal for cells in the network. If GSM legacy is used for establishing a UMTS network any GSM umbrella site is likely to act as a high site in a UMTS network. Remember that it is not possible to frequency plan your way out of trouble in a UMTS network. You cannot isolate a rogue site by allocating a separate carrier to it. The fact that the path loss is lower to a high site means that it will tend to dominate a network unless action is taken. When a mobile selects a cell it measures the pilot channel power. The high site will have a larger area of coverage than its neighbours if they are all transmitting the same pilot channel power. That will lead to the cell becoming overloaded very quickly with its Noise Rise limit being reached. Further, the neighbouring cells will be affected by downlink interference generated by the high site. Many of the problems associated with a high site can be reduced by careful parameter planning. Sometimes, however, the results can be a little strange. It is tempting to reduce the pilot power of the high site in order to reduce its traffic. However, this would lead to mobiles increasing their transmit power as they connect to cells with a higher path
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loss. In this way, the high site in particular would experience a higher noise rise than if it actually served the traffic. One aspect that must be considered is, because the path loss is low, the noise rise limit can be raised whilst still maintaining coverage. If this is done, the pilot power can be reduced without severe consequence. The same argument can be used to allow the reduction in downlink power (total cell power and control channel power). This will reduce the downlink interference experienced by neighbouring cells. The presence of the high site remains undesirable however. It will be operating very near its pole capacity with the value of inter-cell interference reducing this pole capacity to modest levels. Additionally, because of its high position, the propagation exponent is likely to be low with the result that mutual interference is further enhanced. It is clear that controlling the radiation from the cells is crucial in getting the maximum performance from a network. The performance of a network containing a high site may be improved by careful down-tilting of the antennas. Summarising, the following parameters on a high site can be modified to improve the network performance
Noise Rise Limit Cell Power Pilot Channel Power Common Channel Power Antennas Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease Consider Down-tilting

The amount of increase or decrease that should be made is approximately equal to the amount by which the path loss at a particular distance is lower than normal. However, this is not a constant and some experimentation will be necessary in order to determine the optimum solution.

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High Sites

High Sites
The higher the site:
The lower the loss to a particular point (offset ~ 14 log10[hBTS]) Remember that it is the effective height of the BTS that is considered. The lower the propagation exponent (offset ~ 0.66 log10[hBTS])

Result:
High Sites suffer interference on the uplink and generate interference on the downlink.

High Sites

High Sites
An umbrella site from a legacy GSM network will generally act as a high site. You cannot frequency plan your way out of trouble in a UMTS network.

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High Sites

High Sites
Lower path loss can be rectified by either
Inserting extra loss Parameter planning: pilot power, noise rise limit, downlink Tx power.

The lower exponent causes greater problems; careful control of radiation (e.g. by down-tilting) can help with mutual interference. An untreated high site will cause severe problems with localised capacity reductions of 50% to be expected.
Note that high sites cause capacity rather than coverage problems.

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5 Factors Limiting Capacity

5.1 Cell Throughput


Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity


Cell Throughput is given by the simplified expressions for pole capacity in kbps multiplied by the loading factor

3840 Eb N0

(1 + i )

Uplink

3840 Eb N0

(1 + i )

Downlink

Crucial parameters are Eb/No, inter-cell interference i, orthogonality and loading factor (which is affected by the Noise Rise limit).

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5.2 The Effect of Mobility on Capacity


Achieving a high capacity from a UMTS cell is dependent upon being able to deliver acceptable levels of BER whilst operating at low Eb/N0 values. The use of a fast, closed-loop power control technique allows the average value of Eb/N0 to be very near to the minimum acceptable. Typically, the power transmitted in each direction (although it is uplink capacity that is most affected by this technique) can be adjusted by 1 dB every 0.67 ms (1500 Hz). Thus fades of up to 1500 dB/s can be compensated for. The intention is that this will allow the receiver to experience a constant signal level even when the channel is experiencing fast fading: that is, the mobile is moving through a multipath interference pattern with a spatial period of the order of a wavelength (15 cm).
Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Eb/N0


High capacity levels depend on low levels of Eb/No being used. ( Note BER must be acceptable ). Achieving this relies on accurate, fast power control to compensate for fast fading. Fast fading occurs as a mobile moves through an interference pattern. Interference patterns develop due to reflections. Repetition distance depends on angle between incident and reflected waves.

cos( )

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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Eb/N0


E1 + E 2 20 log E1 E 2
E1

cos( )

E2

This is difficult to estimate, for a 6 dB reflection loss the notch depth will be approximately 10 dB. Fast power control is intended to compensate for the fastest fading incidents at the steepest slope.

1 + 10 dBdiff / 20 Notchdb = 20 log 1 10 dBdiff / 20

Naturally, if the gradient of the notch in the direction of travel is very steep and the mobile is very fast moving, power changes at the rate of 1500 dB/s may not be sufficient to compensate for fluctuations in the channel. For example, it is possible for the standing wave pattern to have a gradient in excess of 100 dB/m. In such circumstances, the speeds greater than 15 m/s, 55 km/h, will cause problems. These problems manifest themselves in the form of fluctuations in the received signal power. The result is that a margin has to be built in to ensure an acceptable value of BER is maintained. This leads to an increase in the value of the target Eb/N0 and hence to a reduction in capacity. The increases required can be substantial, with 6 dB being thought to be typical for a mobile moving at 120 km/h. In terms of the impact on network resources. A 6 dB increase in the average level of Eb/N0 will lead to the capacity requirements of a connection rising by a factor of 4. Thus, the network capacity would reduce to only a quarter of the original value if all the mobiles start moving at a high speed through a strong interference pattern.

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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Eb/N0


If the mobile cannot respond to power control commands, the UE will notice a variation in the received signal. This will lead to BER variations that will cause the network to require a higher target Eb/No (a fast fading margin or power control margin will be required). The effect can be to increase the target Eb/No from a normal value of perhaps 4 dB to 10 dB or more for fast moving mobiles. This will reduce the capacity of a cell from typically 32 simultaneous connections to only 8 a dramatic reduction. Lesson: the multipath environment and user mobility can affect the target Eb/No and hence cell capacity.

Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: FRE


Frequency re-use efficiency is the name given to the proportion of received power that comes from a cells own users rather than from all users including other cells.

FRE =

1 intra cell 1 = = inter cell 1+ i intra cell + inter cell 1+ intra cell

i=

1 1 FRE

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5.3 Maximising Frequency Re-use Efficiency


Frequency Re-use Efficiency is a key indicator of how well the available spectrum is being used. It shows the percentage of power that is received at the cell (excluding thermal noise) that comes from users of that cell. Any cell has a limit to the amount of Noise Rise that will be tolerated before new admission attempts are refused. Out of cell power will cause noise rise just as much as in-cell power. Interference from outside the cell will therefore reduce the capacity of that cell. In fact the Frequency Reuse Efficiency factor (FRE) indicates the fraction of cell resource that is available for users of that cell. For an evenly loaded network, a value of 65% is thought to be typical. In a UMTS network, the problem is made worse by the fact that mobiles near the edge of a cell will be both transmitting at near maximum power and also in a location where the path loss to the adjacent cell is a minimum. Unevenly loaded networks yield surprisingly low values of FRE. If areas of high traffic density are near the edge of a cell, they will produce high levels of interference leading to a reduction in the capacity of neighbouring cells. Similarly, a cell providing coverage over a large geographic area that is surrounded by smaller cells serving areas of high user density will experience high levels of interference with the result that its capacity is adversely affected. The most effective methods of increasing FRE are: down-tilting cell antennas where appropriate and planning the location of Node Bs to try and ensure that they are placed as close as possible to any predicted traffic hotspots.

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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: FRE


The ideal situation is where the receiving antenna can only see its own users but not those of other cells. ie FRE = 1 The power from neighbouring mobiles close to the cell border cause the biggest problems.

High power mobiles close to Cell border cause FRE reduction

Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: FRE


A large cell serving a low subscriber density surrounded by several smaller cells serving high subscriber densities will experience a low value of FRE.

A Large cell will experience low FRE Because it is surrounded by many users of other cells

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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: FRE


Hotspots near the cell border will cause more problems that evenly distributed neighbouring cells

Hot spots near cell border cause FRE reduction

A quantitative analysis is not always possible. A simulator is extremely valuable in helping to develop a feel for the seriousness of potential problems.

Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: FRE


Increasing FRE: the main weapon is to down-tilt antennas. This is most effective when there is a large angle between the line from the antenna to the cell edge and the horizontal. In the case of large cells, planning to avoid hotspots near the cell border will reduce the incidence of low FRE.

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5.4 Downlink Capacity and Orthogonality


The parameter known as orthogonality describes the amount of mutual interference that will be experienced between users of the same cell. The fact that downlink transmissions within a cell are synchronised means that the OVSF codes used provide interference rejection that is not possible on the uplink. In fact, an isolated cell with perfect orthogonality will have an infinite pole capacity (although the need for multiple scrambling codes would compromise this). The amount of interference rejection decreases in multipath environments. We shall now analyse two situations in which only orthogonality is changed. The effect on downlink power requirements and downlink capacity will be examined.
Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Orthogonality


Dramatic effect on downlink capacity.

Pole Capacity =

3840 Eb N0

(1 + i )

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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Orthogonality


Example: Eb/No = 4 dB, i = 0.6, 12200bps
Orthogonality Pole Capacity 0 963 0.2 1100 0.4 1284 0.6 1541 0.8 1926 1.0 2568

Pole Capacity (kbps)


2000

1000

Orthogonality
0.5 1

Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Orthogonality


The Loading factor deliverable on the downlink depends upon the link loss, maximum transmit power and noise performance of the mobile. Example: Tx Power 43 dBm; Noise Floor of Mobile -100 dBm.

Mobile Rx Power = 10 log 10(43 LL ) 10 + 10100 / 10 dBm 10(43 LL orth ) 10 + 10 100 / 10 (143 LL orth ) 10 NR = 10 log +1 = 10 log 10 100 / 10 10 1 = 1 (143 LL orth ) 10 10 +1 orth = 10 log(1 )

Deliverable loading factor can be expected to exceed 75%. Pole capacity is crucial.

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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Orthogonality


Question: Suppose a group of users of a 64kbps service in an isolated cell experiencing a link loss of 138.4 dB are demanding a total data throughput of 1.024 Mbps at an Eb/No of 4 dB. What is the downlink loading factor at this throughput if the orthogonality is i) 0.4 and ii) 0.8? Further, what is the traffic channel power demanded and what is the maximum throughput possible at that path loss if the maximum traffic channel power is 42.7 dBm?
Assume a noise level at the mobile of -102 dBm before noise rise.

Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Orthogonality


Answer: At an orthogonality of 0.4, the pole capacity is 2568 kbps. 1024 kbps represents a loading factor of 39%. Hence the Noise Rise would be approximately 2.1 dB. The effective received traffic power would be -104.06 dBm Actual received traffic power is 2.2 dB higher (-101.86 dBm) indicating a transmit power of 36.5 dBm (link loss 138.4 dB). 42.7 dBm would be able to deliver almost 72% loading factor and hence the throughput possible should be approximately 1846 kbps.

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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Orthogonality


Answer (continued): At an orthogonality of 0.8, the pole capacity is 7964 kbps. 1024 kbps represents a loading factor of 13%. Hence the Noise Rise would be approximately 0.6 dB. The effective received traffic power would be -112.2 dBm Actual received traffic power is 7.0 dB higher (-105.2 dBm) indicating a transmit power of 33.2 dBm (link loss 138.4 dB). 42.7 dBm would be able to deliver almost 35% loading factor and hence the throughput possible should be approximately 2783 kbps.

Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Orthogonality


Orthogonality degradation is caused by a multipath radio propagation environment. Typically, it is of the order of 0.6 in an urban environment, higher in rural environments. In an isolated cell, an indication of the orthogonality can be obtained by measuring the pilot SIR when the transmit powers of all channels are known. At low values of path loss, all interference power will be due to interference from other channels.

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5.4.1 Pilot SIR as an indicator of downlink capacity


The power of the pilot channel does not vary with time. The value of the ratio Pilot to Noise plus Interference (Pilot SIR) indicates the quality of the downlink channel at a particular location. For example, if the pilot SIR is 6 dB then the SIR experienced by a traffic channel of the same power as the pilot would also be -6 dB. If the required Eb/N0 for the bearer carried on the traffic channel was, say, +4dB then a processing gain of 10 dB would be needed. This limits the throughput to 384 kbps. The value of the pilot SIR indicates the capacity of the downlink per unit power (bits per second per milliwatt). The pilot SIR will vary with location and with orthogonality and the amount of loading on the network.
Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Pilot SIR


Although a minimum value of pilot SIR is a pre-requisite for any communication between the UE and the Node B, its level will indicate the quality of the user environment at any location. The SIR of the pilot channel indicates the SIR (Ec/Io) of any channel with the same transmit power.

If the target Eb/No of such a channel was known then the required processing gain, and hence user bitrate, could be determined.

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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: Pilot SIR


Example, at a particular location the pilot SIR is found to be -12 dB. A service with a target Eb/No of 4 dB is to be delivered to a user at this area. If the same power as the pilot is available for the traffic channel then the processing gain necessary would be 16 dB. This limits the throughput to 96 kbps.

R = W 10 PG /10

If the maximum channel power was 3 dB greater than the pilot power then this throughput would increase to 192 kbps.

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5.5 The Noise Rise Limit


The Noise Rise Limit is part of the admission control strategy of the network. It is imposed at the cell in order to maintain coverage and, as such, features in the link budget at the cell planning stage. It has been noted that, as a cell is only rarely at the noise rise limit, using the full value of this limit can result in the over-dimensioning of a network given a specified area coverage probability. Initial dimensioning can be performed with link budgets calculated by reducing the actual NR limit by 1 2 dB. In general, the smaller the cell the higher the NR limit can be. In an unevenly loaded network, this means that NR limits will vary from cell to cell. Further, average values of NR will also vary. It should be remembered that mobiles will attempt to connect with the cell for which the pilot strength is the strongest. In order to optimise network performance, the mobile should connect to the cell that will allow it to transmit at the minimum power. The example given here shows the ideal value of pilot power is greater for those cells with a lower NR limit. This is an example of parameter planning within a UMTS network.

Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: NR limit


NR limit appears in link budget and hence affects coverage prediction. If a network is planned so that continuous coverage would be provided with all cells simultaneously at NR limit, then probability suggests that coverage is over-dimensioned. Coverage can be planned for a NR value 1 2 dB below the limit. Failures will then be split between Eb/No and NR.

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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: NR limit


A small cell can have a higher NR limit lower path loss. Cell selection determined by Pilot power. Boundary should be so that mobile transmits with minimum power.

Low NR limit

High NR limit

Mobile at boundary should require approx equal Tx power to either cell

Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: NR limit

Low NR limit High NR limit

Conditions on each cell vary. E.g. if NR limit is 2 dB on large cell, the average level of noise rise could be 1.3 dB. NR limit of smaller cell of 10 dB suggests an average of 5.8 dB
( Erlang B calculator).

Mobile at boundary should require approx equal Tx power to either cell

Pilot powers should be set so that large cell pilot power is 4.5 dB greater than that of the smaller cell (all other things being equal).

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6 Antenna Selection

6.1 Antenna Gain & Coverage


It is common to sectorise the coverage at a site by means of employing several directional antennas rather than a single, omni-directional antenna. Directional antennas have a higher gain than an omni. Sectorising also has the effect of introducing more cells per site and thus makes the deployment of a cell more economic. The coverage range is seen to increase by typically 50% for a 3-sector site and 80% for a 6-sector site. However, that assumes that the noise rise limit is not adjusted. The noise rise limit is crucial in implementing the capacity/coverage tradeoff in UMTS networks. It may be that, rather than increase the coverage, site capacity should be increased by raising the noise rise limit. The amount that this will increase the capacity depends on the setting of the NR limit prior to it being increased as the relationship between throughput and noise rise is non-linear.

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Antennas and Sectorisation

Antenna Gain and Coverage


exponent Omni 6 sector 200% 180% 168% 3 sector 158% 148% 141%

Omni: typical gain 12 dBi

3.0 3.5 4.0

100% 100% 100%

Three-sector antenna: Typical gain 18 dBi

Relative range of different antennas Six-sector antenna: Typical gain 21 dBi

R2 = 10 exponent10 R1

( g 2 g1)

Antennas and Sectorisation

Sectorisation and FRE


Sectorising sites results in greater cell overlap at low path loss levels and hence reduces FRE (bad). However for similar ranges, NR limit can be raised and cell capacity can rise. Depends on initial conditions. eg Eb/No 5.2dB, 12.2kbps

No of sectors 1 3 6

FRE

Pole Capacity 761 kbps 715 kbps 644 kbps

NR limit 3 dB 9 dB 12 dB

Throughput/ cell 378 kbps 622 kbps 598 kbps

NR limit

Throughput/ cell 683 kbps 695 kbps 634 kbps

Throughput/ site 683 kbps 2085 kbps 3804 kbps

65% 61% 55%

0.54 0.64 0.82

10 dB 16 dB 19 dB

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6.2 Repeaters
The use of repeaters is a long-established method of extending the cell coverage area. They are extensively used in GSM networks to fill gaps in coverage. In a UMTS network they should be used with care. Although they can increase coverage, and even lead to an improvement in the frequency re-use efficiency, they can adversely affect the cell capacity. This is because the presence of the repeater will inevitably add noise to the channel. The result of this will be that the target Eb/N0 will rise. An increase of Eb/N0 will lead to a reduction in capacity.
Antennas and Sectorisation

Repeaters
Repeaters extend coverage. Gain provided in three ways:
Repeater antenna is Yagi directed at the cell (gain ~ 18 dBi) Repeater antenna is elevated w.r.t. mobile antenna (gain estimated at 10 dB) Repeater has an amplifier of gain ~ 70 dB

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Antennas and Sectorisation

Repeaters
Total gains typically 100 dB. If path loss to a point is 10 dB more than maximum tolerated, mobiles whose link loss to the repeater is less than 90 dB can be served.

Antennas and Sectorisation

Repeaters and Noise


The repeater is an analogue device. It will add to the noise in the system. As the signal received at the cell is already noisy a higher target Eb/No will be necessary. This will reduce cell capacity. Typical increase in required Eb/No is 1 dB but, if the cell employs Rx diversity and the repeater does not, this figure can rise dramatically (to perhaps 5 dB). Effect on cell capacity depends on the number of mobiles utilising the repeater.

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Antennas and Sectorisation

Repeaters and Noise


Repeaters are expected to be deployed in order to improve coverage in rural areas

cell

Also, for providing coverage in locations such as within tunnels.

6.3 Roll-out Optimised Configuration (ROC)


The ROC configuration has been put forward by vendors as a low-cost method of providing coverage whilst minimising infrastructure costs. It is based on the assumption that uplink coverage is prioritised initially over downlink capacity. The technique involves creating three-sectored sites and then sharing the power of one power amplifier between the three cells on the downlink. On the uplink, each cell has a separate receiver thus providing the same capacity and coverage that would be expected from a Node B with standard configuration. The reduction in power available to each cell on the downlink leads to the network capacity being approximately equal in the uplink and downlink directions.

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Antennas and Sectorisation

Roll-out Optimised Configuration (ROC)


Coverage, rather than capacity, will be the initial priority.

Coverage is expected to be uplink limited.

ROC provides a minimum configuration that can be upgraded in a straightforward manner.

Antennas and Sectorisation

Roll-out Optimised Configuration (ROC)


ROC is based on a 3 sectored site. 3 TRXs are used in the receive direction only with only one TRX (and hence only one PA) being used on the downlink.

To Rx of TRX1

To Rx of TRX3

To Rx of TRX1

To Rx of TRX3

TRX1 PA

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Antennas and Sectorisation

Roll-out Optimised Configuration (ROC)

Uplink is the same as normal 3-sectored site.

DL coverage is reduced.

To Rx of TRX1

To Rx of TRX3

To Rx of TRX1

To Rx of TRX3

TRX1 PA

Antennas and Sectorisation

Roll-out Optimised Configuration (ROC)


If PA is 20 W, only 6.7 W goes to each antenna. Of that 6.7 W, two-thirds will be for users outside the sector. Only 2.2 W is useful power. Power for a user in any sector is transmitted to all three sectors.

Example: Assume a user requires 0.25W, then the site must send 3x0.25W to provide power in the specific sector. Therefore only 27 users can be provided for, instead of the 80 expected.

Wanted power for user in this sector is also transmitted to the other two sectors.

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Antennas and Sectorisation

Roll-out Optimised Configuration (ROC)


The effect on DL capacity depends on the path loss. For small values of path loss the effect on DL capacity could be small. For large values of PL the difference could be substantial. A factor of 1:4 (ROC vs. 1+1+1) is appropriate if coverage is planned for 12.2 kbps voice.

Boundary problems may outweigh any saving

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7 Soft Handover Issues

7.1 Macro-diversity & Maximal Combining Gain


Soft Handover is a necessity in any single-frequency cellular network. In a multi-frequency technology, such as GSM, the possibility exists to ensure that the new connection has a significantly lower path loss than the old connection before handover takes place. In a single frequency network, the resulting interference on the new cell would drastically reduce the capacity of the network. Soft handover entails the mobile simultaneously connecting with more than one cell. Although the most significant purpose of introducing Soft Handover was to reduce uplink interference, there are other beneficial effects. Firstly, when more than one path is provided for the radio link, a diversity gain is obtained. There is a low probability of both channels suffering a bad fade simultaneously. Thus there is a reduced need for a margin to accommodate such fades. In this way, the target Eb/N0 value can be reduced when in soft handover. This is true of both the uplink and the downlink. In addition to the diversity (or macro-diversity) gain afforded, the receiver in the mobile (and the receiver at a Node B that is used when two cells from the same Node B are in soft, or rather softer handover) processes the multiple received signal to produce and output that is of higher quality than any individual signal. The result on the uplink is that the transmit power of the mobile can be substantially reduced when in soft handover having beneficial effects for coverage and interference. On the downlink, providing additional handover channels places a power burden on the cell. This is partially (but usually not fully) offset by reduction in the target Eb/N0 value. The general conclusion is the Soft Handover assists the uplink but places an additional burden on the downlink. The amount of use made of soft handover affects the relative capacities of the two directions.
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Soft Handover

Soft Handover
As well as providing vital power control functionality, Soft Handover improves the quality of the channel by means of two methods.

Macro-diversity Gain Maximal Combining Gain

Soft Handover

Macro-Diversity Gain
If the mobile communicates with more than one cell, protection against failure is provided as this failure would have to occur on all links to cause a call to drop. As the better quality link can be selected, there is less variation in overall channel quality. This leads to a reduction in Power Rise the increase in average transmit power that occurs as a mobile responds to power control commands.

25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 Mobile Tx Pwr Average Non-fading

Power Rise

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Soft Handover

Macro-Diversity Gain

The reduction in Power Rise helps to increase uplink capacity as the average Tx power is reduced.

25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 Mobile Tx Pwr Average Non-fading

Reduced Power Rise following Macro Diversity Gain

Soft Handover

Soft Handover Combining the Signals


On the Uplink there are two possible methods of combining the two (or more) signals. When the two cells are on separate sites (conventional soft handover), the RNC simply selects the better of the two signals. When the two cells are on the same site (softer handover), maximal combining of the two signals can be implemented. Maximal combining leads to an output that is of better quality ( less noisy ) than either of the individual signals. Maximal combining is implemented in the mobile to combine the downlink signals. Macro-diversity gain and Maximal combining gain combine to produce Soft Handover Gain.

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Soft Handover

Soft Handover Maximal Combining


Consider the case where two signals arrive at the inputs to a combiner. One is good (e.g. Eb/No = 8 dB) and the other is poor (Eb/No 1 dB).

Eb/No 8
dB

??

Eb/No 1
dB

It is possible to combine the signals such that the output has an Eb/No greater than 8 dB. This requires correct (maximal) weighting of the two signals.

Soft Handover

Soft Handover Maximal Combining


The Eb/No at the output when the inputs are maximally combined is given by the simple formula.

Eb Eb Eb = N N + N 0 out 0 1 0 2
It must be noted that Eb/No is quoted as a ratio (not in dB).

8 dB corresponds to 6.3 as a ratio. 1 dB is a ratio of 1.26. These sum to 7.56 which is 8.8 dB.

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7.1.1 Exercise 1
What Eb/No improvement is offered when two signals of equal quality are combined ? Answer :-

7.1.2 Exercise 2
What is the Eb/No at the output of a combiner if the input is composed of two signals one with an Eb/No of 6 dB and the other with and Eb/No of 2 dB? Answer:

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7.2 Optimising Soft Handover Parameters


Soft Handover

Optimising Soft Handover Parameters


The parameter of most significance is the Soft Handover Add and Remove Windows.
They influence the number of terminals in soft handover.

Generally, the larger the window is made, the lower the loading on the uplink and the higher the loading on the downlink. The path loss at the cell edge will influence the optimum value of the SHO window.
The lower the path loss the larger the value can be (as the downlink will probably have plenty of spare power available).

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Soft Handover

Optimising Soft Handover Parameters


4 dB window

2 dB window

The amount of improvement on the uplink and loading on the downlink depends on the amount of soft handover gain achieved.

Soft Handover

Optimising Soft Handover Parameters


4 dB window

2 dB window

Suppose each terminal shown above represents a 64 kbps 4 dB Eb/No connection.

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Soft Handover

Estimating FRE
Suppose the terminals are arranged in groups of 4 with the path loss to the two Node Bs changing in 1 dB increments. The red terminals will each cause an interference level 1 dB less than the wanted signals: equivalent to the load of 3 terminals. The orange terminals will each cause an interference level 3 dB less than the wanted signals: equivalent to 2 terminals. Total interference load: 5 equivalent terminals. FRE = 62.5% (5/8)
2 dB window 4 dB window

Soft Handover

Estimating FRE and Loading


Eb/No is 4 dB Pole Capacity = 995 kbps Loading = 54% (NR=3.4 dB)
4 dB window

On DL, if Link Loss = 125 dB, each terminal will require approximately 15 dBm of power, a total level of 24 dBm traffic power.

2 dB window

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Soft Handover

Estimating The Effect of SHO


Assumptions:
Window set to 4 dB. SHO allows the UL Tx power to reduce by 1.5 dB (Effectively making the Eb/No 2.5 dB). SHO allows the target Eb/No on the DL to be reduced. This is assumed to be 2 dB (maximal combining on downlink). BUT downlinks must service twice the number of terminals (a 3 dB extra burden). 4 dB window

2 dB window

Summarising the effect: UL loading factor will reduce from 54% to 38%. NR will reduce from 3.4 dB to 2.1 dB. Downlink Tx Power will increase by approximately 1 dB.

Soft Handover

Estimating The Effect of SHO


If the window is set to 2 dB.
The DL will only have to suffer an increase of 50% in the number of terminals (to 12) and 8 of these will benefit from SHO gain. Overall increase in burden estimated to be 0.5 dB. UL split between users with a target Eb/No of 2.5 dB and those with 4 dB. Combined loading estimated to be 27% + 19% = 46% 4 dB window

Summarising the effect: UL NR will reduce from 3.4 dB to 2.7 dB. Downlink Tx Power will increase by 0.5 dB.

2 dB window

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Soft Handover

Estimating The Effect of SHO: Conclusion


Setting the window to the optimum size can balance the uplink and downlink in a network.
4 dB window

Note that example here is with symmetrical loading. Excessive SHO reduces the ability for the DL to serve asymmetric users.

Note also that SHO requires additional hardware in the Node B to provide the necessary bearers.

2 dB window

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8 Parameter Planning

8.1 Introduction
The performance of a network can be influenced by the setting of parameters, particularly at the Node B. This section reports on recommended values for various parameters such as Pilot Power and Synchronisation Channel power as a proportion of the maximum power available from a cell. Additionally, the maximum power that a single user is permitted to use influences the throughput available to such a user and also ensures that a certain capacity is kept available.

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Parameter Planning

Parameter Planning
We have already examined adjusting the Noise Rise limit and SHO parameters. Probably the most significant parameter is the Pilot channel power. The pilot is vital to be able to synchronise the channel; sound the channel; select the serving cell. Without pilot coverage, there is no coverage.

8.2 Pilot Channel Power


Parameter Planning

Parameter Planning: Pilot Channel


However, there is no point in providing pilot coverage in areas where it is not possible to establish a traffic channel.

The pilot channel power needs to be decided in conjunction with other cell parameters.

Synchronisation channel power Maximum power Maximum power per user

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Parameter Planning

Parameter Planning: Pilot Channel


Synchronisation channel power: this is the channel the mobile initially locks onto. It makes sense for the cell with the strongest SCH to also be the best pilot. Maximum power; pilot power is related to maximum cell power it is pointless using a large fraction of the total available power in the pilot leaving little for the user channels. Maximum power per user. This is again related to the pilot power and dictates the maximum user data rate that can be provided in different environments (experiencing different levels of pilot SIR).

Parameter Planning

Parameter Planning: Pilot Channel


Typical Values:

Maximum Power Pilot Power SCH Power (Prim/Sec-SCH) Maximum power/user

43 dBm 33 dBm 28 dBm 30 dBm

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8.3 Maximum Power per User


Parameter Planning

Parameter Planning: Maximum power/user


Suppose planning of pilot coverage aims for a minimum value of pilot SIR to be -12 dB.

SIR Signal to Interference Ratio If the maximum power per user equals the pilot power then the Ec/Io experienced in these areas will also be -12 dB.

Parameter Planning

Parameter Planning: Maximum power/user


If required Eb/No is, for example, 4 dB then a processing gain of 16 dB will be needed. This corresponds to a throughput of approximately 96 kbps. Note that the throughput will be higher for the same transmit power in regions with a better Ec/Io. If maximum power per user is reduced to, say 4 dB below pilot, then maximum throughput will be reduced to 38 kbps at the cell edge.

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8.4 Common Channel Powers


Parameter Planning

Parameter Planning: other parameters


Rules of Thumb for other parameters to equalise coverage for all vital channels.

P-CCPCH

-5 dB relative to pilot power

PICH

-8 dB relative to pilot power

AICH

- 8 dB relative to pilot power

S-CCPCH

-5 dB relative to pilot power

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9 Multi-frequency Planning

9.1 Network Performance


Multi-Frequency Planning

Using more than one Carrier Frequency


Using more than one carrier on the Macro-cell layer will lead to an improvement in Network Performance. By choosing the appropriate system parameters the Network Planner can divide this resource between Capacity improvement Coverage improvement A combination of Coverage and Capacity improvement

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Multi-Frequency Planning

Capacity Improvement
Using an extra carrier will allow double the number of simultaneous connections to be made within a cell if all other parameters (pilot power, noise rise limit etc.) are kept equal. This will lead to more than double the amount of subscribers being serviced through the greater trunking efficiency obtained. Example: each carrier can support 15 simultaneous connections. A single carrier will service 9 Erlangs of demand, two carriers will service 22 Erlangs of demand.

Multi-Frequency Planning

Coverage Improvement
If capacity is not the main issue it is possible to improve coverage by reducing the Noise Rise limit. Example: Noise Rise Limit 3 dB, loading factor 50%. Two carriers with a loading factor of 25% will carry the same amount of traffic. 25% loading factor results in a 1.25 dB Noise Rise. A coverage improvement of 1.75 dB will result with the cell servicing the same level of demand.

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10 Micro-cell Planning

10.1 Introduction

The use of hierarchical cell structures is well established within cellular networks. In a network such as GSM, each layer would typically have separate carriers allocated. A UMTS operator may have only 2 carriers allocated and would therefore be very concerned about maximising the capacity of each carrier. This may entail creating what would normally be called a micro-cell but allocating it the same frequency as a macro-cell layer. This section investigates the benefits possible in terms of network capacity that come from introducing micro-cells.

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10.2 Micro-cells targeting hot spots


Micro-cell Planning

Micro-cell planning
Micro-cells can provide coverage for areas of high subscriber density. They are usually targeted at hot spots. The micro-cell layer may not provide continuous coverage. In this case continuous coverage is provided by the macro-cell layer.

Macro cell layer providing continuous coverage

Micro cells serving hot spots.

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Micro-cell Planning

Micro-cell planning

Macro cell layer providing continuous coverage

Micro cells serving hot spots.

In this situation the micro-cell layer must be allocated a different carrier frequency to the macro-cell layer. If they are allocated the same frequency, uplink interference on the macro-cell will prevent coverage from being continuous.

Micro-cell Planning

Micro-cell planning

Power from mobiles served by micro-cell generate Noise Rise on the macro-cell if they share the same frequency.

As the path loss on micro-cells is small, they tolerate high Noise Rise. If the macro-cell uses the same frequency as the micro-cell, this Noise Rise will appear on the macro-cell either triggering NR limit failures or reducing coverage to a similar range to that of a micro-cell.

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Micro-cell Planning

Micro-cell planning

Small, micro-cells forming part of the macro-cell layer.

The capacity of the macro-cell layer can be maximised by making the cells small. However, it is essential that these very small macro-cells provide complete coverage. The larger macro-cells will probably experience a low FRE frequency re-use efficiency (i will be large) leading to poor performance.

Micro-cell Planning

Micro-cell planning: explanation of low FRE

High subscriber density in neighbouring cell leads to high value of i, low FRE.

i=

" other cell power" " own cell power" 1 FRE = 1+ i

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Micro-cell Planning

Macro-cell: micro-cell interference

Link loss to micro-cell on adjacent carrier as low as 80 dB. 33 dB protection insufficient to prevent NR failure.

Link loss to serving macro-cell approximately 140 dB. To maintain required Eb/No, the mobile must transmit at approximately +20 dBm.

The so-called near-far problem includes the situation where a mobile being served by the macro-cell layer gets very close to a micro-cell on the adjacent carrier. Interfering receive levels as high as -75 dBm are theoretically possible. Dropped calls will result.

Micro-cell Planning

Solutions to Interference Problem


You can physically prevent path losses as low as 80 dB occurring. You could perform hard handover to micro-cell layer. You could raise the Noise Floor of micro-cell receiver. -85 dBm interference power is less serious if the noise floor is -80 dBm. Micro-cell link budgets will often be able to withstand a Noise Rise of 15 dB above a noise floor of -80 dBm.

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Micro-cell Planning

Challenging the Assumptions


Conventional wisdom suggests that micro-cells need a separate layer (i.e. a separate carrier frequency) because: They serve a high user density They operate at high Noise Rise limits Hence generate high levels of noise rise in neighbouring cells Hence would wipe out the macro-cell if it was sharing the same frequency

Micro-cell Planning

Challenging the Assumptions


Recent research work (3g 2002, IEE, London, May 2002) suggests that it may sometimes be beneficial to employ a micro-cell sharing the same frequency as a macro-cell.

What has changed? What is the secret?

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Micro-cell Planning

Challenging the Assumptions


Success of the frequency-sharing strategy depends on controlling the pilot power of the micro-cell and macro-cell to balance the loading of the two cells to the required level.

For the strategy to be a success:

Overall uplink power must be reduced for similar traffic loading. Capacity must be increased significantly.

Micro-cell Planning

Challenging the Assumptions


Overall power reduction:.

Without a micro-cell, the power levels will converge so that satisfactory SNR is achieved. With a micro-cell (at the same frequency), the power levels of mobiles near the new cell will reduce.

But how much extra capacity could this generate?

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Micro-cell Planning

Can such micro-cells cope with hotspots


The purpose of micro-cells is to service areas of higher than normal traffic density.

Micro-cell Planning

Can such micro-cells cope with hotspots


Consider a macro-cell whose noise rise limit is set so as to limit the number of simultaneous voice connections to 30. This will service 22 Erlangs of traffic. A hotspot of 10 extra Erlangs of traffic is produced by a small area.

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Micro-cell Planning

Can such micro-cells cope with hotspots


Major issues: Micro-cell Pilot Power NR limit on Micro-cell Macro-cell

Micro-cell Planning

Major Planning Issues


Pilot Power:
Determines capture area.

Mobiles at cell edge will transmit different powers on either side of border.

Macro-cell mobile will cause more NR on micro cell than it will on serving cell.

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Micro-cell Planning

Major Planning Issues


NR limit:
NR limit can be increased so that NR from adjacent cell does not cause failures.

Critical that it is not made so high that Eb/No failures result or Tx powers rise so as to cause NR failures in macro-cell.

Micro-cell Planning

Critical Parameters
Size and position of hotspot:

Micro-cell traffic cannot approach that of macro-cell. Physical size of coverage of micro-cell should be kept small for best performance. Physical distance between two cells helps with isolation.

Tailoring of radio environment so that path loss increases rapidly outside micro-cell coverage area helps considerably.

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Micro-cell Planning

Case Study Results


Original Macro-cell 22 Erlangs : 0.25% failure Introduce 10 Erlang hotspot: 13% failure Cover hotspot with identical cell: 6% failure (only 1-2 extra terminals served). Reduce pilot power of micro-cell by 10 dB, increase NR limit for micro-cell by 10 dB: 0.8% failure.

Micro-cell Planning

Conclusions
Same frequency micro-cells can service weak hotspots.

This maximises the service achieved from a single carrier but:

Service per cell drops significantly (e.g. 33% increase in traffic served for 100% increase in cells). Cost of micro site is substantially cheaper If short on spectrum, ie only 1 carrier provides for growth in traffic

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11 Coverage & Capacity

11.1 Introduction
Coverage versus Capacity

Introduction
Coverage and Capacity
What are the limiting factors ? How can you spot uplink limited coverage How can you tell downlink limited coverage

Traffic Mix
Application dependent ( will alter with time ) High degree of data rate mixing UMTS is not optimised for voice

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Coverage versus Capacity

Techniques for improving coverage


In general coverage is Uplink limited Downlink limited situations are possible for example:
Asymmetric data rates + Mast head amplifiers Low base-station power UL Diversity employed Users positioned at high path loss

Link budgets provide a method for calculating initial cell range. Improving coverage may result in reductions in capacity

Coverage versus Capacity

Limiting Systems
Uplink Limited
Noise Rise failures, caused by the number of attached mobile terminals Capacity fixed by Loading Factor Maximum coverage influenced by Noise Rise limit Uplink Eb/No failures

Downlink Limited
Downlink Eb/No failures Caused by the Node B power limit being reached Capacity variable due to mobile positions in cell

Maximum uplink coverage defined by Noise Rise limit, Eb/No, data rate and mobile transmit power.

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Coverage versus Capacity

Improving Coverage
UpLink Limited Defined
Combination of path loss, noise floor, feeder losses, antenna gains, noise rise, processing gain, Eb/No, mobile transmit power, result in the maximum path loss being lower than that to the cell edge. Solution Improve uplink load equation (MHA; diversity; reduce interference; reduce cell range)

DownLink Limited Defined


Total Node B power and/or maximum power per user is insufficient to meet demand. Demand for power results from: data rates; Eb/No; link loss; noise floor of mobile; noise rise; interference. Solution Improve downlink load equation Improve downlink link budget

Coverage versus Capacity

Load Equation
We will use separate Uplink and Downlink Load Equations Both Include
Eb/No Processing Gain eg 25dB for voice at 12.2kbps Activity Factor Inter-cell Interference Soft Handover Gain

Specific to Downlink
Orthogonality factor typically 0.6

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Coverage versus Capacity

UpLink Cell Load


Capacity Limited
Capacity is directly proportional to maximum uplink cell load Determined by Noise Rise limit

Path Loss rises exponentially with cell load Pole Capacity is never reached due to finite power of mobile terminals 30% cell load is 1.5dB noise rise 70% cell load is 5.2dB noise rise

Coverage versus Capacity

UpLink Budgets
Determine the allowed propagation loss for 3 different services.
Speech at 12.2kbps Data 64kbps Asymmetric Data 64kbps Uplink, Data 384kbps Downlink

Record your answers and settings in the tables provided Assume


Maximum Transmit Power of 21 dBm Software handover gain of 2dB Loading factor of 50%

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11.2 Exercise Link Budgets


Coverage versus Capacity

Link Budget - voice


Parameter Bit Rate Max Tx Power Antenna Gain Body/Cable Loss Processing Gain Eb/No MDC gain Target Loading Noise Rise Thermal Noise -108.1 -108.1 UpLink 12200 21.0 0.0 3.0 24.98 6.0 0.0 DownLink 12200 40.0 18.5 2.0 24.98 7.0 1.2
kbps

Parameter Noise Figure Interference Floor Rx Sensitivity Rx Antenna Gain Cable/Body Loss Fast Fade Margin Soft handover gain Allowed Propagation Loss

UpLink 3.0

DownLink 8.0
dB dBm

dBm

dBi

dBm

dB

18.5 2.0 3.0 2.0

0.0 3.0 0.0 2.0

dBi

dB

dB

dB

dB

dB

dB

% dB

dB

dBm

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Coverage versus Capacity

Link Budget 64kbps symmetric


Parameter Bit Rate Max Tx Power Antenna Gain Body/Cable Loss Processing Gain Eb/No MDC gain Target Loading Noise Rise Thermal Noise -108.1 -108.1 UpLink 64000 21.0 0.0 0.0 17.78 4.0 0.0 DownLink 64000 40.0 18.5 2.0 17.78 5.0 1.2
kbps

Parameter Noise Figure Interference Floor Rx Sensitivity Rx Antenna Gain Cable/Body Loss Fast Fade Margin Soft handover gain Allowed Propagation Loss

UpLink 3.0

DownLink 8.0
dB

dBm

dBm

dBi

dBm

dB

18.5 2.0 3.0 2.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0

dBi

dB

dB

dB dB

dB

dB

% dB dBm

dB

Coverage versus Capacity

Link Budget - Asymmetric


Parameter Bit Rate Max Tx Power Antenna Gain Body/Cable Loss Processing Gain Eb/No MDC gain Target Loading Noise Rise Thermal Noise -108.1 -108.1 UpLink 64000 21.0 0.0 0.0 17.78 4.0 0.0 DownLink 384000 40.0 18.5 2.0 10.0 1.0 1.2
kbps

Parameter Noise Figure Interference Floor Rx Sensitivity Rx Antenna Gain Cable/Body Loss Fast Fade Margin Soft handover gain Allowed Propagation Loss

UpLink 3.0

DownLink 8.0
dB dBm

dBm

dBi

dBm

dB

18.5 2.0 3.0 2.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0

dBi

dB

dB

dB

dB

dB

dB

% dB

dB

dBm

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Coverage versus Capacity

UpLink Budgets
Determine the maximum number of users for the 3 services to provide for a loading factor of approximately 50% in the uplink integer number of channels. Calculate the remaining throughput using eq1, determine how many further speech channels could be allocated.

Remainingthroughput = pole _ capacityuserbitrate loading _ factor throughput Availablespeech = Remainingthroughput userbitratespeech activity _ factorspeech
eq1

Service Speech 64kbps 384kbps

Record your answers in the table provided.


Eb/No (dB) 6 4 1 Activity 0.67 1 1 Inter-cell 0.83 0.83 0.83 Loading Factor 49.21% 44.12% 40.92% pole_capacity kbps 531.55 870.35 1876.62 Remaining bits/s 4206 51172 170311 Availablespeech 0 6 20

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11.3 Downlink Limited


Coverage versus Capacity

Downlink Limited
Increase cell loading = Increase in cell capacity Range of cell is reduced ( cell breathing ) Power per user is less due to smaller path loss PNB = Pusers + Ppilot + Pcommon

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Coverage versus Capacity

Node B Transmit Power


The Node B must provide power for each active user in each cell, including those connected in soft-handover. The Node B must also support the pilot, control and synchronisation channels
If we assume 20% of the cell power is assigned to these

Node B Tx Power per cell per carrier 37 dBm (5W) 40 dBm (10W)

Application Low capacity, mainly service coverage Medium capacity, look at using 2 carriers at 10W instead of 1 carrier at 20W Standard operation High propagation loss scenarios

43 dBm (20W) 46 dBm

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Coverage versus Capacity

Propagation Loss v Cell Transmit Power


80 70 Number of Speech Users 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 140 Node B Power 37 dBm Node B Power 40 dBm Node B Power 43 dBm Node B Power 46 dBm

145

150

155

160

165

170

Maximum Allowed Propagation Loss ( dB )

Pilot set at 33dBm, Common Channel set at 33dBm Orthogonality set at 0.55, Inter-cell Interference set at 0.5, Eb/No set at 6.5 dB

Coverage versus Capacity

Propagation Loss v Cell Transmit Power


80 70 Number of Speech Users 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 140 Node B Power 37 dBm Node B Power 40 dBm Node B Power 43 dBm Node B Power 46 dBm

145

150

155

160

165

170

Maximum Allowed Propagation Loss ( dB )

Power (dB)

Users

If we assume that path loss is 150dB Number of users for each power level is

37 40 43 46

30 60 68 72

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Coverage versus Capacity

Required Tx Power v Number of Speech Users


N

Eb W

60 58

DL = j
j =1

No Rj

(1 + i j )

56 54 52 50 48 TxPow er ( dBm) 46 44 42 40 145dB 150dB 155dB 160dB

Note as loading factor, , tends to 1, Node B power tends to infinity 36dBm pilot + common power

38 36 34

N rf W L j
j =1

TxPower =

Rj

1 DL

+ pilot + common

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30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 N um berof SpeechUsers

Eb

32

No

30

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11.4 Predicting the Capacity of the Downlink


Coverage versus Capacity

An example: Predicting Downlink Capacity


If a single extra user is introduced, and this new user demands downlink data, it is possible to predict the amount of power required to deliver a certain amount of data. This is an iterative process and the result will depend on the specific user environment. Is it possible to predict the extra downlink capacity of a cell in general?
Actual Traffic Power: 38 dBm Actual Traffic Power: 34 dBm Maximum: 42 dBm Maximum: 42 dBm Actual Traffic Power: 36 dBm Maximum: 42 dBm

Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


The Noise Rise experienced by a mobile depends on the throughput, the pole capacity and the loading factor. However, pole capacity and loading factor are parameters that are specific to a particular user. The general expression for pole capacity is given here.

3840 Eb N0

(1 +i)

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Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


If general values for orthogonality and i are assumed (e.g. both equal to 0.6) then the pole capacity can be estimated for a given value of Eb/N0. If Eb/N0 is 5 dB (3.16 as a ratio) then the pole capacity would be 1214 kbps. If the throughput was half of this then the Noise Rise experienced by a typical user can be estimated to be 3 dB.

3840 Eb N0

(1 +i)

Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


So, cells serving 50 voice terminals at an Eb/N0 value of 5 dB could be expected to generate a Noise Rise of 3 dB on the downlink.

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Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


In order to answer the question How much extra capacity is available? it is necessary to know how much power is available. Suppose serving these users required a traffic power of 37 dBm from a maximum available of 42 dBm.

Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


The question now becomes: If 37 dBm produces 3 dB of noise
Noise Rise

Noise Rise vs. Throughput


20.00 18.00 16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00

rise, how much noise rise (and hence loading factor) will 42 dBm produce?.

What will be the increase in throughput?

Series1

1 2

6 7

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Throughput (x100kbps)

37 dBm produces 3 dB NR

How much NR will 42 dBm produce?

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Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


The analysis involves imagining that the cell transmits not only user power but also some Noise Power and the mobile exists in a noise-free environment. For example, if the Noise Rise was 3 dB and the User Power transmitted was 37 dBm then the Noise Power would also be 37 dBm.

User Power B dBm

Noise Power A dBm

Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity

User Power B dBm

Noise Power A dBm

Generally:

(user power )10 10 dBm A = 10 log NR 10 1 10

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Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


User Power increased

User Power C dBm Noise Power A dBm

If the user power is increased, the new Noise Rise can found.

(C A) 10 dBm NR = 10 log1 + 10

Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


Noise Rise leads to loading factor which leads to throughput.

(user power )10 10 dBm A = 10 log NR 10 1 10


(C A) 10 dBm NR = 10log1 +10

= 1 10
throughput = Eb

NR

10

3840 N0

(1 + i )

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Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


In the example discussed. 37 dBm of user power produced 3 dB noise rise. 42 dBm of user power would therefore produce 6.2 dB of NR. Loading factor is now 76% Potential throughput is now 922 kbps at Eb/N0 of 5 dB.

(user power )10 10 dBm A = 10 log NR 10 1 10


(C A) 10 dBm NR = 10log1 +10

= 1 10
throughput = Eb

NR

10

3840 N0

(1 + i )

Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


This extra capacity of 315 kbps at an Eb/N0 of 5 dB can be used to deliver a much higher throughput at a lower Eb/N0. For example, if the extra capacity was used by a packet bearer that required an Eb/N0 of only 1 dB, 790 kbps would be achievable.
Extra Capacity 790 kbps at 1 dB Eb/No Extra Capacity 315 kbps at 5 dB Eb/No

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Coverage versus Capacity

Predicting Downlink Capacity


This extra capacity of 315 kbps at an Eb/N0 of 5 dB can be used to deliver a much higher throughput at a lower Eb/N0. For example, if the extra capacity was used by a packet bearer that required an Eb/N0 of only 1 dB, 790 kbps would be achievable.
Extra Capacity 790 kbps at 1 dB Eb/No Extra Capacity 315 kbps at 5 dB Eb/No

Coverage versus Capacity

Summarising.
Extra capacity has been predicted by making general assumptions, in particular regarding a global value of the pole capacity on the downlink. Method requires validation. Enterprise 3G, AIRCOMs UMTS planning tool was used to verify the method.
Extra Capacity 790 kbps at 1 dB Eb/No Extra Capacity 315 kbps at 5 dB Eb/No

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Coverage versus Capacity

Verifying.
Enterprise 3G will predict the performance of the network under a particular definable load by simulating the action of the network as mobile users request a service and succeed or fail as appropriate. Critical parameters such as downlink traffic channel power are recorded for each cell in the network.
Extra Capacity 790 kbps at 1 dB Eb/No Extra Capacity 315 kbps at 5 dB Eb/No

Coverage versus Capacity

Verifying

A network was dimensioned and fully loaded with symmetric voice traffic. Throughput per cell approximately 220 kbps Estimated Noise Rise on downlink is 2.2 dB.

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Coverage versus Capacity

Verifying

Report shows that downlink traffic channel power is about 34 dBm. Maximum traffic power of 42 dBm can lead to a 7.1 dB downlink noise rise. Throughput on downlink can be doubled.

Coverage versus Capacity

Verifying

The simulator was run once more having added the appropriate amount of downlink only traffic. Simulation supports analysis. Traffic was served and downlink traffic power was at near-maximum value.

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Coverage versus Capacity

Contemplating
The input parameters were: Maximum Traffic Channel Power Estimate of Pole Capacity Report of throughput and traffic channel power for a known amount of symmetric traffic. It is this last requirement for which Enterprise 3G simulation functionality is needed. Could we estimate this?
Downlink Tx Power 42 dBm Downlink Tx Power 37 dBm

Coverage versus Capacity

Further Analysis
Factors that affect the amount of downlink power required for a given amount of traffic: Pathloss Antenna Characteristics Pilot and Common channel powers Orthogonality Out of Cell Interference
Downlink Tx Power 42 dBm Downlink Tx Power 37 dBm

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Coverage versus Capacity

Further Analysis
Determining the power required for one particular user is relatively straightforward. Determining the power required for users evenly spread across the coverage area is more difficult. Determining the power required for users unevenly spread across the coverage area is next to impossible.
Evenly spread users: not so easy Single user: easy

Unevenly spread users: very difficult

Coverage versus Capacity

The evenly loaded cell


The big question is is there a magic location such that the downlink power is the same as if all mobile were located at that point?. What is the path loss to this point? The problem is that path loss is not the only variable. Interference also varies significantly.
Low Path Loss, Low Interference High Path Loss, High Interference

Magic Location

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Coverage versus Capacity

The evenly loaded cell


A rule of thumb. The magic spot has a path loss 4 dB less than the cell edge. Where did this figure come from? Analysis making suitable assumptions plus Experimentation using the Enterprise 3G simulator! Either way the simulator is invaluable.
Low Path Loss, Low Interference High Path Loss, High Interference

Magic Location

Coverage versus Capacity

An example
Suppose the link loss to the cell edge is 135 dB. The link loss to the magic spot is 131 dB. Common Channel plus pilot power is 36 dBm; Noise Floor is -102 dBm; orthogonality is 0.6. What Noise Rise can be produced by a traffic channel power of 42 dBm? Solution: equivalent noise plus interference = -97.2 dBm. Received Traffic Channel Power = -89 dBm. Noise Rise = 5.6 dB. Loading Factor = 72%.
Magic Location

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Coverage versus Capacity

Another example
Suppose the link loss to the cell edge is 145 dB. The link loss to the magic spot is 141 dB. Common Channel plus pilot power is 36 dBm; Noise Floor is -102 dBm; orthogonality is 0.6. What Noise Rise can be produced by a traffic channel power of 42 dBm? Solution: equivalent noise plus interference = -99.5 dBm. Received Traffic Channel Power = -99 dBm. Noise Rise = 1.6 dB. Loading Factor = 31%.
Magic Location

Coverage versus Capacity

The Story so Far


It is possible to make ball park estimates of the capacity on the downlink. The first step is to estimate a nominal pole capacity
Eb 3840 N0

(1 +i)

Then estimate the noise rise that can be produced at the magic spot. Hence deduce loading factor. This is a useful first pass planning calculation to perform. However, it does not consider an unevenly loaded network, nor does it help us optimise network performance.

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11.4.1

Example

As an example, consider the situation where a network has been dimensioned such that the link loss to the edge of each cell is 133 dB. All sites have three sectors. The pilot and common channel powers are to represent 20% of the total cell power. Estimate the pole capacity for an Eb/N0 value of 4 dB assuming that i = 0.5 and = 0.6. Further, estimate throughput possible on the downlink per cell (for an Eb/N0 value of 4 dB) if the total cell power is a) 43 dBm and b) 37 dBm. Assume that the noise floor of the mobile is -101 dBm.

Solution. Pole Capacity =

3840 Eb N0

(1 + i )

=1700 kbps

For a sectored cell magic spot has a link loss of approximately 126 dB. If total power is 43 dBm, then Common plus pilot will be approximately 36 dBm. This will be received at a level of -90 dBm but will have an effective level of -94 dBm (due to orthogonality). If this is added to the noise floor of the mobile, the overall level of noise plus interference will be -93.2 dBm. The cell will have 42 dBm available for traffic power. In order to estimate the Noise Rise produced, the effective power will be 38 dBm which will be received at a level of -88 dBm. The Noise Rise will be approximately 6.3 dB which corresponds to a loading factor of 77% allowing the throughput to be estimated at 1300 kbps. If total power is 37 dBm, then Common plus pilot will be approximately 30 dBm. This will be received at a level of -96 dBm but will have an effective level of -100 dBm (due to orthogonality). If this is added to the noise floor of the mobile, the overall level of noise plus interference will be -97.5 dBm. The cell will have 36 dBm available for traffic power. In order to estimate the Noise Rise produced, the effective power will be 32 dBm which will be received at a level of -94 dBm. The Noise Rise will be approximately 5.1 dB which corresponds to a loading factor of 69% allowing the throughput to be estimated at 1170 kbps. The difference may not be regarded as dramatic. The effect would be more noticeable at higher levels of path loss.

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12 Analysis, Prediction and Optimisation of Downlink Capacity.


Analysis of the downlink of a UMTS network is significantly more challenging than that for the uplink. When the capacity in terms of simultaneous users is calculated, it is usual to refer to identical users. For users to be identical on the uplink they should have the same bitrate and E b N 0 . On the downlink, the users should additionally experience identical link loss, out of cell interference and orthogonality. Further, there is no noise rise limit on the downlink. Rather, the downlink transmit power can be thought of as capable of delivering a particular loading factor. Nevertheless, the situation where the downlink of a cell is capable of accommodating a greater throughput than the uplink is expected to be typical. This is largely due to two factors: more power is usually available on the downlink; orthogonality provides greater interference reduction on the downlink. This paper presents an analysis of the downlink that allows rapid estimates of downlink capacity to be made for dimensioning purposes. An initial analysis involving identical users is extended to one for an evenly loaded cell and, further, to an evenly loaded network. Unevenly loaded networks are tackled by explaining how a report from a Monte Carlo simulation at one level of loading can be used to estimate the maximum loading sustainable on the downlink. Additionally, it is explained how a report on the quality of the pilot signal at various locations can be used as an indication of the ease with which particular
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data rates can be achieved at that location. This has implications when maximising cell capacity for a particular traffic distribution.

12.1 Analysis of Identical Users


As an example of a cell that is fully loaded with symmetric traffic, consider a cell with a noise rise limit of 3 dB and an out of cell to in cell interference ratio, i, of 0.6. This cell is loaded with traffic with an E b N 0 of 6 dB. The pole capacity is approximately 600 kbit/s which, with the loading factor of 50% imposed by the noise rise limit, means that the uplink capacity will be 300 kbit/s. This can be taken to be equivalent to approximately 25 simultaneous full rate voice connections. The cell range on the uplink is influenced by the transmit power. If the uplink power is assumed to be 24 dBm (per user) and the noise figure of the receiver is 3 dB, then the 25 dB processing gain available will result in the maximum link loss (which is defined as the difference between the transmitted and received power levels) tolerated being 148 dB, assuming a thermal noise level of 108 dBm. In determining the downlink transmit power required to match the uplink loading, it is necessary to make assumptions regarding the value of the pilot power, and of other downlink common channels, as well as link loss, out of cell interference, orthogonality and noise figure of the mobile receivers. The relevant equations are:
PRcom = PR int =

(PRcom + PRoth )i
(1 )

(N 1)Puser (1 ) PTcom (1 ) ; PRoth = ; LL LL


;

Eb Puser W = N 0 L L (PN + PRcom + PRoth + PR int ) R

where L L is the link loss; PN is thermal noise power; PTcom is the transmitted power of common channels (including pilot); Puser is the transmitted power for an individual traffic channel (considered the same for each user); PRoth is the interference power experienced by one user as a result of power being transmitted to (N-1) other users; PRcom is the received level of common channel power having been effectively reduced due to orthogonality (factor ); i is the out of cell to in cell interference ratio.

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is then given by (NPuser + PTcom ) . It is now possible to determine the total transmit power required to service N simultaneous connections or, alternatively, to predict the maximum number of connections that can be serviced by a given maximum transmit power. The following table shows how the total transmit power for 25 voice connections and the maximum total number of possible equivalent channels for a transmit power of +43 dBm vary with link loss assuming
= 0.6; i = 0.6; E b N 0 = 6 dB; mobile receiver noise figure = 6 dB; common

The total transmit power needed to deliver the required E b N 0 to N users

channel power = 36 dBm. TABLE 1 Variation of Downlink Power and Capacity with Link Loss Link Loss (dB) Total Tx Power for 25 user channels (dBm) Maximum total capacity for Tx Power of 43 dBm (identical user channels) 64 64 49 33 16

110 125 140 145 150

37.62 37.69 39.33 41.63 45.26

It is seen that, for low values of link loss, there is not much variation of required transmit power or downlink capacity. However, as the link loss reaches levels where significant traffic channel power is required to overcome thermal noise, the capacity then decreases dramatically as link loss rises. A similar analysis can be undertaken to show the effect of different levels of orthogonality and out of cell interference. This straightforward analysis provides a useful insight to the way in which downlink capacity is influenced by the parameters discussed. However, the fact that the users are all assumed to be identical leads to questions being asked regarding the general applicability. It is largely for this reason that the Monte Carlo analysis method has become ubiquitous. But this tool has a danger of encouraging a try it and see approach, rather than a methodical approach to dimensioning or initial planning of the downlink. Even if the users are evenly distributed, a Monte Carlo
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simulator would still be used. A method of predicting the downlink capacity in the evenly loaded case would be of interest as would that of predicting the extra downlink capacity if it is to be distributed proportionately to an existing symmetric loading.

12.1.1

Verification Using A Monte Carlo Simulator.

In order that confidence could be placed in the prediction method described, and in the Monte Carlo simulator within the AIRCOM 3g planning tool, firstly 25 users were placed at a position where the link loss was 140 dB. The cell was kept isolated (i = 0) in order to maintain control over the situation so that a comparison could be made under controlled conditions. The orthogonality factor was set to 0.6. It was found that 34 dBm of traffic power was required to maintain an Eb N 0 value of 7 dB at 12.2 kbit/s if the noise figure of the mobile receiver was 4 dB. This agrees exactly with the prediction by the simpler method. The Monte Carlo simulator was then used to predict the downlink power required when the traffic was evenly spread over a cell coverage area. It was found that, if traffic was spread uniformly over an area with a maximum link loss of 144 dB, the downlink traffic power required was again 34 dBm. Figure 1 shows the coverage area with the link loss being indicated in 1 dB steps up to a maximum of 144 dB. Thus the effect on the downlink of a group of users all at a link loss of 140 dB was the same as that evenly spread with link losses varying from very small values to 144 dB. It is as though the typical user was positioned at a loss 4 dB from the edge of the cell. In both cases the Monte Carlo simulator agreed with the simple prediction method in predicting that 42 dBm (the maximum available traffic power) would service 85 similar downlink channels. Thus the two configurations (all at 140 dB path loss or spread up to a maximum link loss of 144 dB) again produced the same loading on the downlink. This was verified at an orthogonality of zero, where 37.0 dBm of traffic power was required to accommodate 25 12.2 kbit/s users and 42 dBm was capable of servicing 46 users.

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Coverage area of test cell with link loss shown varying in 1 dB steps.

12.2 A Rapid Method for Estimating Downlink Capacity


12.2.1 Isolated Cells

By including the power of the wanted signal with the noise rise, it is possible to develop a very rapid calculation method for the capacity on the downlink. Such an approximation is reasonably valid if the capacity is to be shared amongst many users, each with a modest throughput (rather than very few users each with a large throughput). The relevant equations are:
3840 Eb

Pole Capacity, PC =

N0

(1 + i )

kbit/s

Potential Noise Rise, NR=


capacity = PC 1 1

PT max (1 + i ) + PN L L PN L L + PTcom (1 + i )

NR

Then:

PT max PTcom 3840 . kbit/s E b N 0 PT max (1 + i ) + PN L L

where PT max is the maximum total transmit power of the cell. The advantage of the approximate method is that it allows the rapid production of graphs that demonstrate the effect of BTS power, link loss, orthogonality and out of cell interference on the capacity of the downlink.

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The effect of link loss on capacity. Figure 2 shows the effect of link loss for various BTS powers. It is assumed that the out of cell interference ratio, i, = 0.6. The orthogonality factor = 0.6, Eb N 0 = 5 dB. The level of common channel power is assumed to be 7 dB less than the maximum power. It can be seen that there is a definite maximum capacity regardless of power level. This maximum capacity is reached when thermal noise is negligible compared with the power received from the network. Then:
NR = PT max PTcom

and
3840 Eb P 1 Tcom P (1 + i ) T max

Capacity =

N0

kbit/s

If PTcom is taken to be 7 dB below PT max then the above equation can be further simplified to give
3072 Eb P 1 Tcom P (1 + i ) T max

Capacity =
1200

N0

kbit/s.

Capacity (kbit/s)

1000 800 600 400 200 0 120 130 140 Link Loss (dB) 150 160

+37 dBm

+40 dBm

+43 dBm

+46 dBm

The effect of link loss on downlink capacity for various values of BTS power. The effect of varying orthogonality is now ined for the same conditions excepting that link loss is now fixed at 145 dB and orthogonality is varied between zero and unity. It is noted that variation of orthogonality has the most marked effect when the BTS power is high. At lower levels of BTS power, thermal noise (which is not affected by orthogonality) dominates the mobile receive power.

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1200 Capacity (kbit/s) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Orthogonality
BTS Power: 37 dBm
40 dBm
43 dBm
46 dBm

The effect of orthogonality on downlink capacity for various values of BTS power. Finally, the effect of varying the out of cell interference ratio, i, keeping link loss fixed at 145 dB and the orthogonality fixed at 0.6 was examined. Again, the effect was most noticeable when the BTS transmit power was high. It can be seen that out of cell interference and the value of orthogonality both have a significant impact on the cell capacity.
1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 Out of Cell Interference
BTS Power: 37 dBm
40 dBm
43 dBm
46 dBm

Capacity (kbit/s)

The effect of out of cell interference ratio, i, on downlink capacity for various values of BTS power.

12.2.2

An Evenly Loaded Network

The analysis has been conducted for various values of orthogonality factor, , and out of cell interference ratio, i. However, both of these values have been assumed to be constant. In practice, the value of i in particular will vary dramatically across the network, from very low values close to the BTS to values typically approaching 2 at the edge of the cell. This is in contrast to the uplink where each cell will experience similar levels of out of cell interference, typically in the region of 0.6. When the method for identical users was checked against an evenly loaded isolated cell, it was found that the loading on the downlink was approximately equal to that caused by identical users each with a link loss 4 dB less than the cell edge. The question can be extended to ask is there
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an aggregate average value of i that can be used to rapidly estimate downlink load and capacity?. The cause of out of cell interference in both directions is overlap of the radiation patterns of antennas on neighbouring cells. Further, the users at the cell edge are the principal producers of uplink interference and victims of downlink interference respectively. To gain confidence in any value being taken as appropriate for use in the prediction equations, the Aircom Enterprise 3g Monte Carlo simulator was again used. A network was created such that 82 sites (246 cells) covered an area of 1000 km2. The link loss to the cell edge was 133 dB. The maximum downlink capacity with a maximum transmit power of 43 dBm was found to be 460 kbit/s at a value of Eb N 0 of 7 dB. In comparing this prediction with that made using the rapid calculation method with an assumed link loss of 4 dB below the maximum value, agreement was achieved if a value for i of 0.85 was taken. This agreement held up well for various values of loading and link loss. This allows a rapid approximate method to be developed whereby the downlink capacity of a cell can be estimated for initial dimensioning purposes. Given the maximum BTS power, the link loss to the cell edge, orthogonality, the noise factor of the mobile receiver, NF, and the required Eb N 0 value of the service:
PT max Pcom 15 (NF )L 6 10 + PTcom (1.85 ) L

Capacity =

3840 Eb N0

If typical values of orthogonality (= 0.6), PTcom (= PT max 5) and NF (= 4) are put into the equation
Eb

Capacity =

N0

(2.4 10

2458 PT max
14

L L + PT max

kbit/s

Eb N 0 kbit/s at negligible levels of link This tends to a maximum of loss. The level at which link loss becomes significant in reducing capacity depends on BTS power as illustrated in figure 2.

2458

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12.2.3

Uplink-downlink balance.

The approximate equation for maximum throughput on the downlink is remarkably similar to the pole capacity on the uplink. The fact is that it is possible to achieve higher levels of loading factor under typical (uplink limited) link loss values on the downlink. This situation may well change as cells become more densely packed within a network and uplink noise rise limits are increased to levels of 10 dB or more. Then the uplink and downlink capacity would be more nearly equal. Features such as uplink diversity and the implementation of mast-head, low-noise amplifiers further favour the uplink.

12.3 Interim Conclusion


Equations have been developed that will allow the capacity of a network in the downlink direction to be estimated for dimensioning purposes. Analysis has been limited to situations where the geographic distribution of users has been assumed to be uniform. The next section demonstrates how reports from a Monte Carlo simulation can be used to estimate the downlink capacity for an unevenly loaded network.

12.4 Simulator-aided Prediction for Unevenlyloaded Networks


As an example of the different experiences of users on the downlink, consider the situation where users are divided into two groups: one group of 12 users with a link loss of 120 dB and an out of cell interference ratio of 0.3; the other group of 12 users with a link loss of 140 dB and an out of cell interference ratio of 1.0. An analysis reveals that the users closer to the downlink transmitter (120 dB link loss) would each require a user power 17.6 dBm whereas 22.0 dBm is required by each user at 140 dB link loss. The fact that users are at different link losses and experience different levels of out of cell interference leads to the different users experiencing a different noise rise. The users near to the transmitter would experience a noise rise of 2.1 dB whereas the users at 140 dB link loss would experience a noise rise of 1.4 dB. Note that noise rise is defined as the rise in effective noise level due to the presence of traffic channel power. The contribution to the overall
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interference level due to common channel power (that is at a constant level) is considered to be part of the original noise level and not part of the noise rise. The crucial question regarding the capacity on the downlink is very much dependent on the environment of the individual users. In the above situation, a total transmit power of 43 dBm would accommodate an extra 53 users if they were at a link loss of 120 dB but only an extra 24 users if they are at a link loss of 140 dB. If the increase is evenly divided between the two categories, an extra 32 users can be accommodated. The analysis of this, still over-simplified, scenario is not without difficulty and is not in "closed form. For more general situations where traffic densities are declared on the basis of land usage (clutter categories), a Monte Carlo simulator would be used. However, there is a tendency to predict capacity on a trial and error basis, which is somewhat time consuming and generally unsatisfactory. A procedure is now reported whereby the capacity can be rapidly estimated from the results of one simulation. It relies on an estimation of the pole capacity of the cell The value of i should be estimated from the static analyser or, alternatively, a general value of 0.85 used. A single simulation will result in a report of the throughput. This can be described as a loading factor that can in turn be used to predict the noise rise experienced by a representative user on the downlink. It is then possible to predict the noise rise that would be produced if the maximum traffic power were applied to the downlink. As an example, a simulation was conducted for a loading of 25 (12.2 kbit/s) voice users per cell at an E b N 0 value of 6 dB. The traffic channel power required for a particular cell required was found to be 33.91 dBm. It is possible to calculate the loading factor based on assumptions that the
Eb N 0 (1 + i ) pole capacity is given by kbit/s if = 0.6, i = 0.85. Thus 300 kbit/s throughput would result in a loading factor of 39% that would produce a noise rise of 2.14 dB. The power available for traffic is 42.03 dBm. In order to work out the extra capacity possible, it is necessary to answer the question: if 33.91 dBm can produce a noise rise of 2.14 dB, what noise rise would be produced by a traffic power of 42.03 dBm?. It must be borne in mind that the traffic channel power of 33.91 3840 = 772
3840 kbit/s Eb N 0 (1 + i ) .

dBm will be received as an equivalent of 33.91 + 10 log(1 + i) = 34.88 dBm. This new noise rise can be converted to loading factor and, hence, to throughput. A simple method of calculating the answer to this question involves calculating the equivalent transmitted power of the noise, which
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1 = 36.84 dBm. Thus a traffic in this case is equal to 34.88 10 log 10 power of 42.03 dBm (received as an equivalent power of 43.00 dBm once out of cell interference and orthogonality have been considered) would
2.14 10

= 7.10 dB. This would result in a noise rise of 10 log 1 + 10 correspond to a loading factor of 80.5%, suggesting a possible throughput of 622 kbit/s equivalent to 52 users. This is the throughput possible if the additional users possess a similar distribution of user density to those in the original simulation. This method has been found to correspond closely to that determined by simulation methods excepting those situations where the loading is dominated by users that experience out of cell interference values significantly different from 0.85. This can be predetermined by examination of the static analysis output.

(4336.84 ) 10

12.5 Optimisation Issues


It is clear that the capacity on the downlink is heavily influenced by out of cell interference on the downlink. Network capacity can be enhanced by ensuring that any areas of high demand are in locations where the out of cell interference is a minimum. One output that can be obtained by conducting a simulation is the pilot SIR, that is the quality of the pilot signal once interference from other channels on the same cell has been reduced through orthogonality. Figure 5 gives an example of a plot of Pilot SIR for a network for which the total cell downlink power was 42 dBm and the pilot power was 33 dBm.

Pilot SIR for a heavily loaded network. Values of pilot SIR of the order of 5 dB were reported for areas directly in front of one of the antennas, up to a distance of about half the cell
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coverage range. The value then reduced to approximately 12 dB at the edge of the cell. It is of note that this is the same SIR that would be obtained by any traffic channel with a transmit power equal to the pilot (2 W). The data rate that this channel could sustain depends on the required
Eb N 0 kbit/s. Thus the pilot SIR array can be interpreted as the throughput possible at a particular value of Eb N 0 for
Eb N 0

and is equal to

3840 SIR

unit power. This can be expressed as bits per second per watt (or bits/joule). The bits per joule possible at any one location is given by This expression has the advantage of being valid for any level of downlink loading although most interest would probably be paid to levels of throughput possible under high loading conditions. In practice, an orthogonality value of 0.6 would reduce the effect of own cell interference on the pilot SIR by 4 dB. Thus the best value of SIR that can be obtained (when out of cell interference and thermal noise are at negligible levels) is 4.4 dB. This suggests that values of approximately 220 kbit/J at an Eb N 0 value of 5 dB are achievable in the most favourable locations. What is of considerable interest from a capacity enhancement viewpoint is that the value of SIR varies by approximately 5 dB with azimuth for a constant range. Thus, the throughput possible per unit power can be expected to vary by a factor of 3 or more. The location of areas of high user density should be served by a Node B that is not only in close proximity but, further, care should be taken with regard to the azimuth of the antennas of each cell to minimise the out of cell interference experienced in these areas.
3840000 SIR PTpilot (E b N 0 )

12.6 Conclusions
Equations whereby the capacity of the downlink of a UMTS network can be estimated for dimensioning purposes have been put forward. These equations have been validated by comparing estimates with values obtained using a Monte Carlo simulator. Estimates can be obtained for cells where either all users are identical or, alternatively, the user distribution is uniform throughout the network. In cases where the user distribution is non-uniform, the estimates are likely to become less accurate. An additional method that is more suitable for these situations has been explained. This involves using information from a Monte Carlo simulator in order to estimate the possible throughput when the traffic channel power on the downlink is a maximum.

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Coverage versus Capacity

Further Analysis of the Downlink


The concept of the identical user.

Identical:

Bit Rate Eb/No Path loss Orthogonality Interference

Coverage versus Capacity

Further Analysis of the Downlink


Power Received by each user:
PTcom Puser N-1 other users

PN +

(1 ) + P NPuser (1 ) P + Tcom R int LL LL

Bit Rate Eb/No Path loss Orthogonality

PRint

P + NPuser i = Tcom LL

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Coverage versus Capacity

Further Analysis of the Downlink


Eb/No delivered to each user:
Eb Puser W = N 0 L P + PTcom (1 ) + (N 1)Puser (1 ) + P R R int L N LL LL

Total Transmitted Power =

NPuser + PTcom
Downlink Analysis

Capacity vs. Link Loss


= 0.6; i = 0.6; Eb N 0 = 6 dB;
P Tcom = 36 dBm; R = 12200 bit/s; PN = 102 dBm

Link Loss (dB)

Tx Power for 25 users (dBm)


37.62 37.69 39.33 41.63 45.26

Maximum users for 43 dBm Tx Power


64 64 49 33 16

110 125 140 145 150

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Downlink Analysis

Rapid, Approximate Method


As Puser is allowed to approach infinity:

RN

W Eb N0

(1 + i )

The Pole Capacity.

Downlink Analysis

Rapid, Approximate Method


Identical Users will experience identical noise rise.
25

20

15

10

0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Noise rise can be converted to throughput. We can predict the noise rise for given circumstances.

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Downlink Analysis

Rapid, Approximate Method


We can predict the noise rise for given circumstances. The maximum noise rise that can be produced is

PT max (1 + i ) + PN LL PN LL + PTcom (1 + i )
Then, capacity is given by

PC 1 1

Noise Rise

) = E WN
b

P T max P Tcom P ( 1 + i ) + PN LL 0 T max .

Downlink Analysis

Effect of Link Loss on Capacity


There is a maximum capacity at low levels of link loss. High transmit power allows this capacity to be approached at significant levels of link loss.
1200 Capacity (kbit/s) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 120 130 140 Link Loss (dB) +37 dBm +40 dBm +43 dBm +46 dBm 150 160

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Downlink Analysis

Maximum Capacity
At negligible levels of link loss, the expression for noise rise becomes

PT max PTcom
And capacity can be estimated from

3840 Eb N0

P Tcom . 1 P kbit/s (1 + i ) T max

Downlink Analysis

Maximum Capacity
If

PT max PTcom

is taken to be fixed at, for example, 5,

then capacity is given by And maximum capacity can be estimated from

3072 Eb N0

(1 + i )

kbit/s

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Downlink Analysis

Effect of Orthogonality
Graph shows the effect of orthogonality on the downlink capacity for a link loss of 145 dB and i set at 0.6.
1200

Capacity (kbit/s)

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Orthogonality
BTS Power: 37 dBm 40 dBm 43 dBm 46 dBm

Downlink Analysis

Effect of OutOut-ofof-Cell Interference


Graph shows the effect of variations in the value of i on the downlink capacity for a link loss of 145 dB and orthogonality of 0.6.
1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 Out of Cell Interference BTS Power: 37 dBm 40 dBm 43 dBm 46 dBm Capacity (kbit/s)

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Downlink Analysis

Extending the Validity The EvenlyEvenly-loaded Network


So far, identical users have been considered. Consideration is now given to an evenly loaded network. Crucially, is there a representative value of link loss and out-ofcell interference that can be used to estimate downlink capacity?

Downlink Analysis

Extending the Validity


Experimentation with Monte Carlo simulation suggests that: The effective value of link loss is 4 dB less than that to the edge of the cell. The effective out-of-cell interference ratio is 0.85. Max throughput =

2458 kbit/s Eb N 0

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Downlink Analysis

Extending the ValidityValidity- An Example


Network of cells with link loss to edge of 133 dB. Maximum throughput on downlink at Eb/No of 7 dB is 460 kbit/s for 43 dBm transmit power. Note: Pole Capacity = 613 kbit/s If 20% of power is for common channels then Max throughput = 490 kbit/s

Downlink Analysis

UplinkUplink-Downlink Balance
Approximate Downlink Pole Capacity = Approximate Uplink Pole Capacity =
2458 kbit/s Eb N 0

2400 kbit/s Eb N 0

Initial expectation is that loading factors will be higher on the downlink. Uplink Diversity and MHA will favour the uplink.

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Downlink Analysis

The UnevenlyUnevenly-loaded Network


The situation is complicated by the fact that different users experience different levels of noise rise. For example, consider the case where there are 24 voice users, split into two, equal groups.

Link loss = 120 dB i = 0.3 NR = 2.1 dB

Link loss = 140 dB i = 1.0 NR = 1.4 dB

Downlink Analysis

The UnevenlyUnevenly-loaded Network


For a more general situation, the maximum capacity is often determined using a Monte Carlo simulator on a trial and error basis.

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Downlink Analysis

The UnevenlyUnevenly-loaded Network


However, if the pole capacity is estimated from
3840 Eb N0

(1 + i )

Then a single simulation result can be used to estimate the maximum downlink capacity. Reports from the simulation include downlink traffic channel power and throughput.

Downlink Analysis

The UnevenlyUnevenly-loaded Network


As an example, it was found that a cell supported 300 kbit/s at an Eb/No value of 6 dB using 33.9 dBm of traffic channel power. Pole Capacity estimated at 772 kbit/s. Hence representative noise rise estimated as 2.14 dB. 42 dBm of traffic channel power is available. What noise rise (and hence throughput) would this cause?

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Downlink Analysis

The UnevenlyUnevenly-loaded Network


If 33.9 dBm causes 2.14 dB of noise rise then 42 dBm would cause 7.1 dB of noise rise. Loading factor of 80%. Resulting throughput of 622 kbit/s at an Eb/No value of 6 dB. Tested with Monte Carlo simulation and found to be valid for general situations where the distribution of the new load was similar to the existing load.

Downlink Analysis

The UnevenlyUnevenly-loaded Network


For heavily concentrated hot spot situations. A static analysis can result in an estimate for downlink values of i.

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Downlink Analysis

Optimising Throughput using Pilot SIR


The value of i influences throughput. Any hotspots should be located where i is low. Examining the Pilot SIR as part of a static analysis when the network is heavily loaded will indicate the throughput possible.

Downlink Analysis

Optimising Throughput using Pilot SIR


If the pilot is at +33 dBm, the SIR reported will be that for any traffic channel with the same power. This influences throughput. E.g. SIR = -6 dB; target Eb/No = 4 dB Maximum throughput for 33 dBm = 384 kbit/s. 192 kbit/s/watt (192 kbit/J).

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Downlink Analysis

Optimising Throughput using Pilot SIR


Pilot SIR varies between -5 dB and -12 dB. kbit/J parameter varies by a factor of 5. Re-directing antennas can cause variation by a factor of 3 or more.

Downlink Analysis

Conclusions
Downlink capacity can be estimated for dimensioning purposes. Estimates compared with Monte Carlo simulator predictions. Estimates less accurate where network is not evenly loaded. Simulations can lead to a more accurate estimate. Site location and antenna azimuth have key role in optimising downlink throughput.

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13 Masthead Amplifiers

13.1 Introduction
Antennas placed at Node Bs in a UMTS network will gather thermal noise at a level of approximately -108 dBm over the bandwidth of a single carrier. The actual level is affected by temperature, but only slightly. If there is a lossy feeder between the antenna and the receiver, the signal will be attenuated but the noise level will not reduce. This is because the resistive elements of the feeder will generate noise that exactly compensates for any attenuation. The result is that the SNR at the receiver is worse than that at the antenna. The MHA helps to overcome this by amplifying the signal before it is attenuated. Naturally, the noise is also amplified (and the amplifier adds its own contribution to the noise level) but, once this has happened the effect of the noise added by the lossy feeder is less significant. The overall result is an improvement in the signal to noise ratio delivered to the receiver and, in turn, a better received Eb/N0. This section describes a typical MHA and analyses the improvement that can be expected in its performance. Of crucial importance is the fact that a MHA will assist the uplink only whilst placing additional loss in the downlink direction.

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13.2 MHA example


Diversity

Mast Head Amplifiers


Compensates for cable loss between antenna and base station (typically 3dB) MHA used to increase coverage range
Tx Characteristics Specification Frequency Range 2110-2170 MHz Insertion Loss <0.6 dB Max Power Handling 52 dBm CW 62 dBm Peak Rx Characteristics Specification Frequency Range 1920-1980 MHz Noise Figure (Typical) <1.4 dB Gain Variation Over Frequency 12.0 0.9 dB

Amplificadores MHAs UMTS Masthead Amplifier UMTSMHA002a/100800

Mast Head Amplifiers

Mast Head Amplifiers MHAs


Used to reduce the Noise Figure of the Node B subsystem Improves the uplink link budget Allows for greater coverage Use of MHA assumes the cell is uplink limited Downlink limited cells will have their capacity reduced.
Insertion loss of typically 0.5 dB By extending the range of the cell, users will on average need more power from the Node B

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Mast Head Amplifiers

MHA Composite Noise Figure - Uplink


Noise Figure of the first component is the most important Noise Figure is in dB, Noise Factor, F is a ratio ( minimum 1 ) Passive components take their loss as a Noise Figure

F = F1 +
Element MHA Feeder Bias-T Node B

(F2 1) + (F3 1) + (F4 1) + .....


G1 G1G2 G1G2 G3
Noise Figure dB 1.4 2 0.3 ( F = 1.037 ) 4 ( F = 2.511 ) Downlink Loss 0.5 dB 2.0 dB 0.3 dB

Uplink Gain 2.0 to 12.0 dB Length dependent eg -2.0 dB ( F = 0.63 ) -0.3 dB (F = 0.933)

Mast Head Amplifiers

MHA Composite Noise Figure - Uplink


Note that at small values of MHA gain and low feeder loss, the overall NF is slightly worse

Noise Figure v Feeder Loss


14.000

12.000

No MHA MHA 1dB MHA 2 dB MHA 3 dB MHA 4 dB

10.000

Noise Figure dB

8.000

MHA 5 dB MHA 6 dB MHA 7 dB MHA 8 dB MHA 9 dB

6.000

4.000

MHA 10 dB MHA 11 dB MHA 12 dB

2.000

0.000 1 1.6 2.2 2.8 3.4 4 4.6 5.2 5.8 6.4 7 7.6 Feeder Loss dB

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Mast Head Amplifiers

MHA Downlink Limited


Assuming the system is downlink limited The improved coverage puts additional strain on the power supply of the Node B Increase in the allowed propagation loss will reduce the capacity Effect is less for higher bit rate services due to the smaller number of users
60 58 56 54 52 50 Tx Power ( dBm ) 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 32 42 44 48 52 54 58 60 70 30 34 36 38 40 46 50 56 62 64 66 68 72 Number of Speech Users 74 145 dB 150 dB 155 dB 160 dB

Mast Head Amplifiers

MHA Matrix
Usefulness Matrix range -5 to 5
Cost Relatively cheap solution Eb/No no effect Inter-cell interference Uplink increases i due to more uplink users at edge of cell which requires maximum power Downlink increases i due to more users, forces Node B closer power saturation. Uplink range improvement Downlink may limited coverage due to overall lack of power Uplink improved brings in more users Downlink may reduce due to power limitation

Coverage Improvement

Capacity Improvement

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14 Diversity Antennas

14.1 Introduction
Diversity is a well-established method of improving the quality of a communication channel. It traditionally means employing more than one receive antenna and then combining the signal (sometimes merely selecting the one with the larger amplitude) so that the outcome is superior to that which would be obtained without diversity. Combining has usually taken place at RF. In UMTS networks receive diversity actually employs multiple receivers allowing the signals to be combined at base band. This gives an improvement in the value of Eb/N0 which, in turn gives an improvement in both coverage and capacity. Another innovative feature of UMTS networks is the ability to utilise transmit diversity. This is not so effective as receive diversity but, nevertheless, can provide Eb/N0 improvements of greater than 1 dB (compared to 4 dB improvements possible for uplink diversity).

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14.2 Definition of Fading


Diversity

Fading
Electromagnetic signals will interact, causing addition and subtraction of their field strengths Fast fading signal strength changes are due to relative motion and local scattering objects such as buildings, foliage, etc. and change rapidly over short distances.
Typically Multipath interference results from fast fading Fading of the signal follows a Rayleigh distribution

Slow fading is the change in the local mean signal strength as larger distances are covered.
Fading of the signal is a log-normal distribution

The resultant signal at the Node B and UE antenna will be subject to rapid and deep fading

Diversity

Diversity
Signals from multiple antennas (spatial diversity), can be used to reduce the effects of fast fading and improve received signal strength. Three common combining schemes used for Rayleigh fading channels (Fast fading) are
Selection diversity chooses the strongest signal power, combines the co-phased signal voltages with equal weights, weights the co-phased signal voltages relative to their signal to noise ratio. Equal gain Maximal ratio combining

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14.3 Receive Diversity


Diversity

Receive Diversity
Basic idea is that, if two or more independent samples of a signal are taken, these samples fade in an uncorrelated manner.
Each path can then be thought of as separate and worked on in isolation

Increases the signal to interference ratio, SIR


Allows a system to reduce the target uplink Eb/No of a channel Saves UE & Node B Power

Standard configuration for WCDMA may be two-branch Rx diversity


Using a single cross polar antenna or two vertically polarised ones. Separation of the vertically polarised antenna is typically a few wavelengths

c = f =

c 3 108 = = 15cm f 2 10 9 separation 30 to 40cm

Diversity

Uplink Receive Space Diversity


Even if signal is highly correlated, coherent combination should yield about 3 dB improvement. In practice a gain of 4 dB or more is expected from antennas Typical dimension 1.5m

Receive antenna 2

Receive antenna 1

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Diversity

Uplink Receive Space Diversity


This is not conventional space diversity.

Each antenna is connected to a separate finger of the Rake receiver.

This is possible due to the synchronisation and channel estimation derived from the Pilot bits on the DPCCH channel.

Eb/No is improved, rather than simply an effective power gain.

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14.4 Transmit Diversity


Diversity

Downlink Transmit Diversity


UMTS explicitly allows the use of transmit diversity from the base station However it is not possible to simply transmit simultaneously from two close antennas as this would cause an interference pattern Mobile terminals must have the capability of implementing downlink transmit diversity .

Transmit antenna 2

Transmit antenna 1

Diversity

Downlink Transmit Diversity


UMTS FDD mode does not allow for an accurate measure of the downlink channel using uplink estimations The UE can measure the downlink channel and return estimates to the Node B closed loop The alternative is coding the downlink to allow for the UE to correlate the two signals open loop The P-CPICH is transmitted from each antenna differently
Orthogonal signals Antenna 1 { 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, } normal operation Antenna 2 { 0,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,

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Diversity

Downlink Transmit Diversity


The following methods are suggested in the UMTS standards to avoid the problem of the interference

Transmit Diversity Method Open Loop TSTD Open Loop STTD Closed Loop Mode 1 Closed Loop Mode 2

Description Time Switched Transmit antenna Diversity for SCH only Space Time block coding Transmit antenna Diversity Different Orthogonal Pilots CPICH + S-CPICH Same Pilot

Diversity

Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD) for SCH

Even numbered slots transmitted on Antenna 1, odd numbered slots on Antenna 2

Slot #0
P-SCH

Slot #1
P-SCH S-SCH

Slot #2

Slot #14
P-SCH S-SCH

Antenna 1
S-SCH

Antenna 2

P-SCH S-SCH

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Diversity

Space Time Transmit Diversity (STTD)


STTD encoding is optional in UTRAN. STTD support is mandatory at the UE

r(t) = r1 = S1 h1 + S2 h2 + n1
Channel coding, rate matching and interleaving is done as in the non-diversity mode.
* * r(t +T) = r2 = S2 h1 + S1 h2 + n2

* r + h r* =h S 1 1 1 2 2
STTD encoding is applied on blocks of 4 consecutive channel bits

* r h * =h S 2 2 1 1 r2

h is the impulse channel response of each antenna

Diversity

Analysis of STTD
Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Combination

b0 -b2 b0-b2

b1 b3 b1+b3

b2 b0 b0+b2

b3 -b1 b3-b1

Processing alternate bits will extract the data

STTD encoding effectively spreads a data bit across more than one bit period. This leads to a general improvement in noise performance. Further, it allows a stronger signal from one antenna to dominate.

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Diversity

Analysis of STTD

The Space-time combining generates symbols that are proportional to the sum of the powers from both antennas

Diversity

Closed Loop Mode


Channel coding, interleaving and spreading are done as in non-diversity mode The spread complex valued signal is fed to both TX antenna branches, and weighted with antenna specific weight factors w1 and w2. The weight factors are determined by the UE, and signalled using the FBI field of uplink DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel).
DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits TFCI NTFCI bits Tslot = 2560 chips, 10 bits FBI NFBI bits TPC NTPC bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

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Diversity

Closed Loop Mode


w1 Spread/scramble CPICH1 Ant1

Tx

DPCCH DPDCH

DPCH

Ant2

w2 CPICH2 Rx w1 w2 Rx

Tx

Weight Generation

Determine FBI message from Uplink DPCCH

Diversity

Closed Loop Mode


Closed Loop mode 1
The phase of one antenna is adjusted relative to the other Using 1 bit accuracy per slot Feedback rate is 1500 Hz

Closed Loop mode 2


Relative phase adjusted using 3 bit accuracy Amplitude adjusted using 1 bit Feedback rate is 1500 Hz

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Diversity

Downlink Eb/No reduction


Diversity Mode Open Loop Closed Loop 1 Modified Vehicular A 3km/h. ..50km/h 1.0 dB 1.5 dB 0.5 dB 1.0 dB ..120 km/h 0.5 dB 0.0 dB Pedestrian A 3km/h 3.0 dB 3.5 dB

Source Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS, Jaana Laiho et al

Slower speeds and lower multipath interference produce the best results

Diversity

Transmit Diversity - Conclusions


Depends on UE performance
Estimate of channel impulse and SIR

Main benefit is reduction in downlink Eb/No No advantage in problematic time and multipath environments
50km/h -- Eb/No only 0.5dB better in open-loop mode 120km/h -- Eb/No no real improvement

Microcells will benefit from TxDiversity


Beam forming problems associated with location

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Diversity

Downlink Transmit Diversity Matrix Open Loop

Cost (-2) Eb/No Inter-cell Interference Capacity Coverage

Uplink 0dB 0 0 0

Downlink 3dB 0 2 2

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14.5 Multi-User Detection MUD


One major advantage that the downlink has in a UMTS network is the use of orthogonal codes to reduce the interference effect of other traffic and control channels. This relies on the fact that the downlink channels can be easily synchronised as they originate from the same point. The same sort of cancellation is not possible on the uplink as the transmission delay is different for each user. MUD helps to provide some interference cancellation by performing an inverse transform on the message contained in interfering channels and then removing that from the input of the wanted signal. It is a highly sophisticated method and its potential is yet to be fully realised. However, a 1 dB improvement in uplink performance can be recorded (which can lead to useful coverage and capacity increases). Note that MUD is only effective at a serving cell, the interference effect on neighbouring cells is not reduced.
Diversity

Multi-User Detection
Multi-User detection (MUD) is a method used to improve the performance of the receiver by reducing the noise contributions from other CDMA users. The concept is based on the fact that noise from CDMA users, although usually approximated with AWGN characteristics, inherently consists of coherent signals. MUD reception decodes a number of users simultaneously and subtracts their noise contributions from the others Essentially this results in a more sensitive receiver

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Diversity

Multi-User Detection
Mid 1980s research showed that joint, optimal, maximum-likelihood decoding of all users out performed matched filter alternatives. The problem was the exponential increase in processing as the number of simultaneous users went up. ( Viterbi trellis techniques )

Current research interests


Suboptimal linear receivers Data-aided minimum mean squared (MMSE) linear receivers Blind ( nondata-aided ) MMSE receiver Non-linear multiuser detection Multistage interference cancellation, parallel and serial, PIC & SIC

Diversity

Multi-User Detection
Viterbi decoding uses past symbol knowledge to weight present and future choices Multiuser decoding has the added complexity of having present other user interfering symbols Therefore some decision as to the interfering symbols must be made Due to the complexity, multiuser detection is more likely to exist in the Node B

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Diversity

Multi-User Detection
Multiuser detection reduces the need for tight power control Power control is still important to the performance of the MUD system Best performance used with short spreading codes, repeating every symbol. ( Downlink ) Can be used with long spreading codes, pseudorandom sequences which are much longer than the symbol duration. (Uplink)

Diversity

Visualising the Processing Gain w/o MUD


W/Hz
Before Spreading

W/Hz
After Spreading

W/Hz Ec
With Noise

Io f

W/Hz
After Despreading /Correlation

W/Hz
Post Filtering (No MUD)

Eb No f

Signal Intra-cell Noise Inter-cell Noise

dBW/Hz Eb Eb/No No f

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Diversity

Visualising the Processing Gain with MUD


W/Hz
After Despreading /Correlation Post Filtering

W/Hz

Eb No f

W/Hz

Eb No f

f W/Hz

Eb No f

W/Hz

Eb No f

Signal Other Users Inter-cell Noise

Because of MUD the contribution of the other users to the Noise is Reduced. It is not completely eliminated because of the inaccuracies of the Multiple access interference estimation.

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14.6 Predicting the Effect of Different Coverage and Capacity Enhancement Devices
It is clear that adding certain devices, such as mast head amplifiers or diversity receivers will improve network performance. However, we need to be able to quantify any likely improvement in order to undertake a cost-benefit analysis. As a starting point we shall consider an isolated cell that is serving voice users delivering a bit rate of 12200 bps at an Eb/N0 of 4 dB on the uplink and the downlink. With an uplink Noise Rise of 3 dB the cell can accommodate a link loss of 133 dB. This information alone is sufficient to suggest that the pole capacity is 1530 kbps on the uplink and 3822 kbps on the downlink (assuming an orthogonality value of 0.6). An uplink Noise Rise of 3 dB would suggest that 63 voice users are seen as a full load for the cell. The loading factor on the downlink would be estimated to be only 20% suggesting a Noise Rise figure of 1 dB. If 36 dBm of common channel and pilot power is transmitted, the effect at the mobile receiver would be that of a -94 dBm interference power if the mobiles are at a path loss of 126 dB. If the noise floor of the receiver is -101 dBm then the overall noise plus interference level would be -93.2 dBm. If a Noise Rise of 1 dB must be produced, then an effective traffic channel power of -99.2 dBm (actual receive power -95.2 dBm) must be received. This would necessitate a transmit power of 30.8 dBm if all users were at a path loss 7 dB less than the cell edge (which is defined by a link loss of 133 dB). Quick check downlink analysis. 30.8 dBm corresponds to 12.8 dBm per user (if there are 63 users). Received power per user is -113.2 dBm. Effective Noise Power is -92.2 dBm (given a NR of 1 dB). Thus wideband SNR is -21.0 dB. Processing gain of 25 dB will restore the required Eb/N0 value of 4 dB. Having carried out and understood the mechanism of this calculation it is possible to predict the effect of capacity enhancement devices such as uplink diversity. When considering whether or not to use such devices it is important that their purpose is made clear. For example, is maximising

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capacity or maximising coverage range our goal (or is it a combination of the two aims)? Additionally, the affect on the downlink must be assessed. Consider, as an example, the effect of implementing uplink diversity on this cell. The effect is to reduce the target Eb/N0 value by 3 dB. If maximising capacity (whilst keeping the coverage range fixed) is taken to be our goal then it is possible to increase the NR limit by 3 dB to 6 dB and then note that the pole capacity on the uplink has doubled to 3060 kbps. The loading factor of 75% means that a throughput of 2290 kbps is possible, equivalent to 188 voice users. This represents a dramatic increase on the previous value of 62 users. However, there has been no help offered on the downlink. The pole capacity in this direction remains unchanged at 3822 kbps. Thus a loading factor of 60% will be imposed causing a Noise Rise of 4 dB. The effective Traffic Channel Power required to cause this Noise Rise will be -91.5 dBm, an actual received power of -87.5 dBm. The total traffic channel transmit power would have to be 38.5 dBm (15.8 dBm per user). This is a significant increase over the previous value of 30.8 dBm. Notice that the amount of power required by each user has increased significantly. Alternatively, if may be that uplink diversity has been introduced with the goal of increasing the range of the cell keeping its capacity constant. If that is the case the new pole capacity of 3060 kbps can be used to calculate a reduced loading factor of 25%, which represents a noise rise of 1.2 dB. Thus the cell coverage range can be increased by 4.8 dB. Thus a typical user can be thought of as having a path loss of 131.8 dB to the cell. The result of this is that the interference effect of the pilot and common channels is reduced. However, the fact that users are at a greater distance means that the power requirements will be greater, although not 4 dB greater. Calculations show that the Traffic Channel power requirement will rise from the initial value of 30.8 dBm to 32.0 dBm. It is possible to use similar techniques to predict the effect of using mast head amplifiers and of implementing downlink diversity.

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Diversity

Predicting the Effects


It is important to be able to predict the coverage and capacity effects of introducing a feature such as uplink diversity into a cell. As a starting point we will consider an isolated cell that is serving voice users delivering a bitrate of 12200 bps in both directions at an Eb/No of 4 dB. We shall assume that the orthogonality factor is 0.6. Maximum link loss is taken to be 133 dB with the average user on the downlink having a link loss of 126 dB. Mobile noise floor is -101 dBm. Common Channel and Pilot Power taken to be 33 dBm each (total 36 dBm).

Diversity

Pole Capacity Calculations


In the uplink the pole capacity is

3840 = 1530 100.4

kbps

In the downlink the pole capacity is

3840 = 3822 kbps 10 (1 0.6)


0 .4

Initial loading condition is taken as 63 voice users producing a NR of 3 dB. Throughput approx 785 kbps.

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Diversity

Downlink Calculations
Noise Floor of Mobile is -101 dBm Common and Pilot Channels received at a level of 36 126 = -90 dBm. Orthogonality reduces this by 4 dB (10log[1-0.6]=-4). Thus equivalent is -94 dBm. -94 dBm + (-101 dBm) = -93.2 dBm The pole capacity of the DL has been calculated as 3822 kbps. Throughput of 785 kbps would be a loading factor of 20% and a NR of 1 dB. Traffic channel power has to produce this Noise Rise.
Noise plus interference = -93.2 dBm

Diversity

Downlink Calculations
Noise plus interference plus traffic channel power must be -92.2 dBm. Effective traffic channel power must be -92.2 dBm (-93.2 dBm)=-99.1 dBm. But traffic channel power will benefit from orthogonality. Actual received traffic channel power must be -95.1 dBm. Transmitted traffic channel power must total -95.1+126=30.9 dBm Confidence check: 63 users: 12.8 dBm per user: Rx power per user is -113.2 dBm. Noise plus interference = -92.2 dBm. SNR = 21 dB. Processing Gain = 25 dB. Eb/No = 4 dB as required.
Actual received traffic channel power = -95.1 dBm Required transmit traffic channel power = 30.9 dBm. Noise plus interference plus traffic channel power = -92.2 dBm

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Diversity

Introducing UL Diversity
Now we will introduce UL diversity and prioritise capacity, keeping the range the same. UL Eb/No improvement assumed to be 3 dB. Pole capacity on UL is now 3060 kbps; on DL it remains at 3822 kbps. NR limit can be increased on UL from 3 dB to 6 dB. Throughput on UL increased to 2290 kbps (188 voice users). Loading factor on DL is now 60%: a NR of 4 dB. Effective Traffic Channel power is now required to be -89.2 dBm (-93.2 dBm)=-91.5 dBm. Actual Traffic Channel Power Received = -87.5 dBm.
Actual received traffic channel power = -87.5 dBm Required TCH power = 38.5 dBm. Capacity on UL is trebled.

Required Traffic Channel transmit power = 38.5 dBm (15.8 dBm per user)

Diversity

Introducing UL Diversity
Now we will introduce UL diversity and prioritise range increase, keeping the capacity the same. UL Eb/No improvement assumed to be 3 dB. Pole capacity on UL is now 3060 kbps; on DL it remains at 3822 kbps. UL loading factor is now 25% NR limit can be reduced on UL from 3 dB to 1.2 dB. Path loss can be increased by 4.8 dB so typical user now has link loss of 130.8 dB. DL interference from pilot and common channel = -98.7 dBm Adding thermal noise gives -98.7 dBm + (-101 dBm) =-96.7 dBm
UL path loss increased by 4.8 dB.

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Diversity

Introducing UL Diversity
To give 1 dB NR on downlink, the Effective TCH power must be -95.7 dBm (-96.7 dBm) = -102.7 dBm. Actual Received TCH power must be -98.7 dBm. Required Transmit TCH power must be 32 dBm. Note: this has risen from 30.9 dBm. The 1.1 dB rise in power is less than the 4.8 dB rise in path loss due to the fact that the majority of noise plus interference at the mobile is pilot and common channel power from the cell. One conclusion is that it is the loading that most influences requirements on the downlink power level.
Required TCH power = 32.0 dBm. UL path loss increased by 4.8 dB.

Actual received traffic channel power = -98.7 dBm

Diversity

Introducing MHA
Now we will now consider the effect of introducing a MHA and prioritising capacity, keeping the range the same. The Noise Performance improvement is assumed to be 2 dB. Pole capacity on UL remains unchanged at 1530 kbps. NR limit can be increased on UL from 3 dB to 5 dB. Throughput on UL increased to 1045 kbps (86 voice users). Loading factor on DL is now 27%: a NR of 1.4 dB. Effective Traffic Channel power is now required to be -91.8 dBm (-93.2 dBm)=-97.4 dBm. Actual Traffic Channel Power Received = -93.4 dBm.
Required TCH power = 32.6 dBm. UL NR increased by 2 dB.

Capacity increased by 37%

Required Traffic Channel transmit power = 32.6 dBm (13.3 dBm per user)

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Diversity

Introducing MHA prioritise coverage


Now we will now consider the effect of introducing a MHA and prioritising coverage, keeping the capacity the same. The Noise Performance improvement is assumed to be 2 dB. Pole capacity on UL remains unchanged at 1530 kbps. NR limit is unchanged: maximum link loss now increased by 2 dB to 135 dB. Loading factor on DL is unchanged. Effective Traffic Channel power is now required to be -93.8 dBm (-94.8 dBm)=-100.7 dBm. Actual Traffic Channel Power Received = -96.7 dBm.
Capacity stays the same Required TCH power = 31.3 dBm. Max PL increased by 2 dB

Required Traffic Channel transmit power = 31.3 dBm (13.3 dBm per user)

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15 Smart Antennas

15.1 Introduction
The ability to provide many separate but connected antennas, leads to the technique of smart antennas. Cost and Physical size are problematic and due to canyon effects cannot be used at street level.

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Diversity

High-order Receive Diversity


WCDMA signals have a high delay spread
Potentially large gains from multipath diversity

Uplink performance benefits from higher-order receive diversity Downlink performance improvement is limited due to the UE
Limited processing power Limited number of fingers on the RAKE receiver

Using Maximal Ratio Combining, MRC


Here all the incoming signals from all the M branches are weighted according to their individual signal to noise ratios and then summed. All the individual signals must be co-phased before being summed. This requires individual receiver circuitry and phasing circuit for each antenna element.

Diversity

Smart Antennas
Objectives
To maximise signal to interference ratio, SIR Providing beam steerage allowing for a choice of desired direction Reduction in side lobes due to beam forming techniques

Assumptions
Time delays can be approximated by phase shifts The signal arrives at the antenna equally. Independent of dimension of antenna

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Diversity

Smart Antennas
Intelligence of the Smart Antenna is in its signal processing The level of intelligence can be defined
Switched Beam Based on best signal power Easy to implement Limited gain Dynamically Phased Array Includes Direction of Arrival DoA Received power is maximised Adaptive Array The DoA of interferes is determined Allowing for nulls to be introduced

Diversity

Smart Antennas - Uplink


Interfering Connection
By using a narrower beam the signal to interference ratio of the beam forming antenna is reduced in comparison with a normal sectorised antenna Active nulls can be generated, reducing the interference from other users

Desired Connection

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Diversity

Smart Antennas - Uplink


By combining the uplink received signal in all beams with appropriate weighting, the uplink performance can be improved.

Beam 2

w1 Signal from
Beam 1 x MRC Combiner x

a
1

Beam 1

a
2

w2 Signal from
Beam 2

Diversity

Smart Antenna Gain 16 beam

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Diversity

Uplink Eb/No reduction


Antenna Configuration 4 MRC 8 beams 4 + 4 array Modified Vehicular A 3km/h. ..50km/h 3.0 dB 4.9 dB 5.5 dB 2.5 dB 5.2 dB 5.7 dB ..120 km/h 2.3 dB 5.1 dB 5.9 dB Pedestrian A 3km/h 5.9 dB 5.9 dB 7.0 dB

Source Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS, Jaana Laiho et al

Gain is relatively insensitive to direction of arrival, DoA Slower speeds and lower multipath interference produce the best results

Diversity

Smart Antennas - Downlink


Beam forming techniques provides spatial filtering
Transmit power can be reduced by the gain of the antenna Reduces interference between users

Multiple users are each assigned a secondary pilot S-CPICH to provide a reliable phase reference Requires the UE to estimate channel impulse response and SIR accurately.
Similar to transmit diversity STTD

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Diversity

Downlink Eb/No reduction


Antenna Configuration 2 beam 4 beam 8 beam Angular spread 10o 2.1 dB 4.5 dB 7.0 dB

Source Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS, Jaana Laiho et al

Gain is sensitive to spread of UEs

Diversity

Why Smart Antennas


Advantages
Higher capacity per site increase in revenue Higher QoS due to reduced interference

Disadvantages Cost Physical size Site Sharing Maintenance Overheads

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Diversity

Planning Smart Antennas


Positioning of Adaptive Antennas
Road side Need to be further away from road to allow beam forming Below rooftop Reduced performance due to canyon effect

New radio models for angular/directional antennas Macro cells rather than Micro cells

Diversity

Smart Antenna Capacity & Coverage


Simplified Conclusions
Improves uplink capacity proportional to the number of antennas in the array, N Improves uplink coverage proportional to N2/gamma, gamma is the path loss exponent Either improves downlink capacity proportional to N, if Node B power is kept the same Or improves downlink coverage proportional to N1/gamma, if Node B power is kept the same Improves downlink capacity proportional to N, and simultaneously increases coverage proportional to N1/gamma, if Node B power is also increased by a factor N.

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Diversity

Smart Antenna v 2 branch Receive Diversity


Capacity Gain
Assuming a load factor in the uplink is 30% then higher order receive diversity performs better than 2 branch receive diversity.

Higher Uplink loading


Loading factor increase 30% to 50% Cell rapidly reaches downlink limited Capacity gain is reduced

Equal Gains in coverage


Higher order receive diversity is better than MHAs No downlink insertion loss

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16 Practical Simulation

16.1 Exercise using MHAs


Case Study - Advanced

Case Study - MHA


Network Cluster of 7 sites, large region putting pressure on coverage 3 sector sites Standard voice users Site A
Uplink limited Noise Rise not pressured Node B power plenty

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16.1.1

Network with no MHAs

Uplink Eb/No failures denote high pathloss for UEs.

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16.1.2

Insert MHA at centre of network

Defined central area.

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16.1.3

All sites with MHAs

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16.2 Downlink Limited case MHAs


16.2.1 Downlink limited case for network without MHAs

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16.2.2

MHA applied to all sites

No solution for this type of problem

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16.3 Transmit Diversity


16.3.1 Voice Traffic NO Tx diversity

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16.3.2

64kbps Service NO Tx diversity

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16.3.3

Tx Diversity Voice Service

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16.3.4

Tx Diversity 64kbps Service

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16.3.5

Tx and Rx Diversity Applied Voice Service

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16.3.6

Tx and Rx Diversity Applied to 64kbps Service

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17 Measuring Success

17.1 Customer Focus


KPI

Customer Focus
Residential Customer
Important to get the message delivered Always on Internet Simplicity of use of application

Business Customer
Detailed service level agreements, SLAs Availability or coverage defined Customisation of interface

Customer mix/clutter will become highly diversified

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KPI

Customer Experience Gap


The customer experience gap is the difference between what the customer wanted and what they got. There is a semantic disparity between what is good for the service provider and what is good for the customer. The problem is:
Parameters that are easy for networks to measure do not translate well into parameters that are understood by the customer Parameters that are readily understood by the customer are not easy for the network specialist to measure.

17.2 Key Quality Indicators KQIs


KPI

Key Quality Indicators KQIs


KQIs provide a measurement of a specific aspect of performance The KQI measurement draws on
Key Performance Indicators KPIs

KQIs provide for an end-to-end service measurement Reasons for end-to-end


Retain high value customers Regulation requires a measure on quality ( end-to-end ) Service levels are being set by regulators Introduction of value added services, require these 3rd party vendors to be monitored.

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KPI

Key Quality Indicators KQIs


KQIs can be divided into 2 types
Service KQIs Product KQIs

Network Elements provide network performance data This data is collected to form KPIs The KPIs are used to produce Service KQIs Service KQIs are used as primary input for internal/partner SLAs Service KQIs provide the main source of data for Product KQIs Product KQIs support the contractual SLAs with the customer

17.3 Key Performance Indicators KPIs


KPI

Key Performance Indicators KPIs


KPIs are calculated from active measurements 3GPP standards define the UE and UTRAN measurements taken KPIs will gather these measurements and calculate an average value
Average Uplink Load

Average Uplink Load =

Ptx RSSI

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17.3.1

Exercise 17.3

Prove the formula for Average Uplink Load using loading factor and Noise Rise.

17.4 Measurements
KPI

Measurements

The UTRAN may control a measurement in the UE either

By broadcast of SYSTEM INFORMATION And/or by transmitting a MEASUREMENT CONTROL message.

The following information is used to control the UE measurements

Measurement identity: A reference number that should be used by the UTRAN when setting up, modifying or releasing the measurement and by the UE in the measurement report. Measurement command: 1 of 3 different measurement commands. Setup: Setup a new measurement. Modify: Modify a previously defined measurement, e.g. to change the reporting criteria. Release: Stop a measurement and clear all information in the UE that are related to that measurement. Measurement type

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KPI

Measurement Type

Intra-frequency measurements

downlink physical channels at the same frequency as the active set.

Inter-frequency measurements
downlink physical channels at frequencies that differ from the frequency of the active set and on downlink physical channels in the active set.

Inter-RAT measurements

downlink physical channels belonging to another radio access technology e.g. GSM.

Traffic volume measurements


uplink traffic volume.

Quality measurements
downlink quality parameters, e.g. downlink transport block error rate. A measurement object corresponds to one transport channel in the case of BLER.

UE-internal measurements

UE transmission power and UE received signal level.

UE positioning measurements A measurement object corresponds to one cell.

KPI

Measurement Control Messages

Within the measurement reporting criteria field in the Measurement Control message the UTRAN notifies the UE which events should trigger a measurement report. The listed events are the toolbox from which the UTRAN

the reporting events are needed for handover evaluation function, or other radio network functions.

The measurement quantities are measured on the monitored primary common pilot channels (CPICH) of the cell defined in the measurement object.

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KPI

Reporting event 1A: A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range

When an intra-frequency measurement configuring event


1a is set up, the UE shall:

create a variable TRIGGERED_1A_EVENT related to that measurement, which shall initially be empty; delete this variable when the measurement is released.

KPI

Reporting event 1A: A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range

When event 1A is configured in the UE, the UE shall: if "Measurement quantity" is "pathloss" and Equation 1 is fulfilled for
one or more primary CPICHs, or if "Measurement quantity" is "CPICH Ec/No" or "CPICH RSCP", and Equation 2 is fulfilled for one or more primary CPICHs, for each of these primary CPICHs:
if all required reporting quantities are available for that cell; and if the equations have been fulfilled for a time period indicated by "Time to trigger", and if that primary CPICH is part of cells allowed to trigger the event according to "Triggering condition 2", and if that primary CPICH is not included in the "cells triggered" in the variable TRIGGERED_1A_EVENT:
include that primary CPICH in the "cells recently triggered" in the variable TRIGGERED_1A_EVENT.

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KPI

Reporting event 1A: Equation 1

MNew is the measurement result of the cell entering the reporting range. CIONew is the individual cell offset for the cell entering the reporting range if an individual cell
offset is stored for that cell. Otherwise it is equal to 0.

Mi is a measurement result of a cell not forbidden to affect reporting range in the active set. NA is the number of cells not forbidden to affect reporting range in the current active set.

3GPP TS 25.331 version 4.10.0 Release 4 page 838

KPI

Reporting event 1A: Equation 1


For pathloss MBest is the measurement result of the cell For other measurements quantities. W is a parameter sent from UTRAN to UE. R1a is the reporting range constant. H1a is the hysteresis parameter for the event 1a. If the measurement results are pathloss or CPICH Ec/No then MNew, Mi and
MBest are expressed as ratios.

If the measurement result is CPICH-RSCP then MNew, Mi and MBest are


expressed in mW.

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KPI

UE Measurements

The reference point for these measurements is at the antenna connector of the UE

Antenna Gain Body Loss

CPICH RSCP ( Received Signal Code Power ) = -114 dBm PCCPCH RSCP ( handover to TDD only ) UTRA carrier RSSI ( Received Signal Strength Indicator )

Reporting range -100 to -25 dBm

GSM carrier RSSI


Range as specified in TS 45.008, RXLEV at -70dBm

CPICH Ec/Io
Reporting range -24 to 0 dB

3GPP TS 25.133 version 4.9.0 Release 4 page 56-81

KPI

Calculated DL Pathloss

Pathloss in dB = Primary CPICH Tx power - CPICH RSCP.

Primary CPICH Tx power the unit is dBm. CPICH RSCP the unit is dBm.

If necessary Pathloss shall be rounded up to the next higher integer.

Results higher than 158 shall be reported as 158. Results lower than 46 shall be reported as 46.

Source TS 25.331 section 14.1

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KPI

UE Measurements

Transport Channel BLER

Estimate of the transport channel block error rate. CRC checking Estimated over time range 0 to 1

Synchronisation

SFN-CFN observed time difference, range 0 to 9830400 chip SFN-SFN observed time difference, range 0 to 9830400 chip UE Rx-Tx time difference, range 768 to 1280 chip

UE Transmitted Power ( Total on one carrier )

Range -50 to +33 dBm

KPI

UE Transmitted Power Test

Example of test procedure specified in

TS 25.133 version 4.9.0 Release 4 page 138


Value DL Reference Measurement - Channel 12.2 kbps On 0.01

Parameter DCH parameters Power Control Target quality value on DTCH BLER

Parameter CPICH_Ec/Ior PCCPCH_Ec/Ior SCH_Ec/Ior PICH_Ec/Ior DPCH_Ec/Ior Note1 OCNS other cell noise source Note 2

Cell 1 -10 dB -12 dB -12 dB -15 dB

Ior/Ioc Ioc
CPICH_Ec/Io Propagation Condition

0 dB -70 dBm/3.84MHz -13 dB AWGN Note 1: The DPCH level is controlled by the power control loop Note 2: The power of the OCNS channel that is added shall make the total power from the cell to be equal to Ior

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KPI

UE Transmitted Power Test



Set the UE power and Maximum allowed UL TX power to the maximum power for that UE power class. Send continuously during the entire test Up power control commands to the UE. Measure the output power of the UE. The output power shall be averaged over the transmit one timeslot. Check that the reported UE transmitted power is within the specified range. Decrease the Maximum allowed UL TX power with 1 dB and signal the new value to the UE. Repeat from step 3) until the entire specified range for the UE transmitted power measurement has been tested,

the accuracy requirement for the UE transmitted power measurement is specified 10dB below the maximum power for the UE power class.

KPI

UTRAN Measurements

Received total wide band power

If receive diversity is being used then take the average of the power Measurement period 100ms Range is -112dBm to -50dBm

Signal to Interference Ratio SIR

Measured on a DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (RSCP / ISCP) x SF RSCP - Received Signal Code Power (of one code) ISCP - Interference Signal Code Power SF Spreading Factor 256 Measurement period 80ms Range -11 to 20 dB

Source TS 25.133

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KPI

UTRAN Measurements

Signal to Interference Ratio SIR

Measured on a DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (RSCP / ISCP) x SF RSCP - Received Signal Code Power (of one code) ISCP - Interference Signal Code Power SF Spreading Factor 256 Measurement period 80ms Range -11 to 20 dB

Reported value
UTRAN_SIR_00 UTRAN_SIR_01 UTRAN_SIR_02

Measured quantity value


SIR < -11.0 dB -11.0 = SIR < -10.5 dB -10.5=SIR < -10.0 dB .

UTRAN_SIR_61 UTRAN_SIR_62 UTRAN_SIR_63

19.0 =SIR < 19.5 dB 19.5 = SIR < 20.0 dB 20.0 = SIR dB

KPI

UTRAN Measurements

SIRerror = SIR SIRtarget

Measurement period 80ms Accuracy 3dB Range -31 to 31 dB

Reported value
UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_000 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_001 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_002

Measured quantity value


SIRerror < -31.0 dB -31.0 = SIRerror < -30.5 dB -30.5 = SIRerror < -30.0 dB

UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_062 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_063

-0.5 = SIRerror < 0.0 dB 0.0 = SIRerror < 0.5 dB

UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_123 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_124 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_125

30.0 = SIRerror < 30.5 dB 30.5 = SIRerror < 31.0 dB 31.0 = SIRerror dB

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KPI

UTRAN Measurements

Transmitted carrier power

Ratio of total transmitted power on one DL carrier to the maximum possible power of this DL carrier, range 0 to 100% Measurement period 100ms

Transmitted code power

Measurement of the DPCCH field of any dedicated radio link Measurement period 100ms Range -10 to 46 dBm Reflects the power on the pilot bits of the DPCCH field

Transmitted channel BER range 0 to 1 Physical channel BER range 0 to 1

KPI

UTRAN Measurements

SFN-SFN observed time difference Synchronisation

Measurement period 100 ms Range -19200 to 19200 chip

Round trip time

RTT = Trx Ttx Trx time of reception of DPCCH/DPDCH from UE Ttx time of transmission of DL DPCH to a UE Measurement period 100ms Range 876.0000 to 2923.8750 chip

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KPI

UTRAN Measurements

PRACH/PCPCH Propagation delay

One-way propagation delay of either PRACH or PCPCH Prop Delay = (Trx- Ttx 2560)/2 Trx time when PRACH message from UE arrives, after AICH arrives Ttx time when AICH is transmitted 2560 length of AICH Divide by 2 gives one-way propagation Only RACH messages with correct CRC will be considered Range 0 to 765 chip

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18 Drive Test Measurements

18.1 The concept of Drive Testing


Drive Test Measurement

Drive Test
Pre-construction phase
Primary use of drive testing is to validate a propagation model

Post-construction
Test for coverage Measure Pilot strength Inter-cell Interference i Number of soft handover channels ( active set size ) Effective loading of cells Big problem

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Drive Test Measurement

Drive Test Equipment


Some equipment suppliers
Anritsu http://www.eu.anritsu.com

Portability and ease of setup prove to be the strongest points of the Anritsu scanner. The Anritsu scanner was very simple to set up The information collected, although limited to RSCP, Ec/Io and SIR measurements for up to 32 received scrambling codes. The receiver sensitivity was found to be better than that of the Agilent scanner- measuring RSCP signal levels as low as -122dBm.

Drive Test Measurement

Drive Test Equipmen Equipment


Some equipment suppliers
Agilent http://we.home.agilent.com/

The extensive amount of output information Although more complicated in terms of setup Agilent scanner provides the user with more measured information and additional graphical functionality. A strong solution but has limited sensitivity and is not hand portable.

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Drive Test Measurement

Drive Test Planning


Pre-planning of drive test routes
Knowledge of network Site location Site configuration Knowledge of location Towns Terrain Operator known issues GSM problem areas

18.2 Test mobile Measurements


Pre-planning of drive test routes is essential prior to any active testing. Local knowledge of the environment, with problem areas highlighted will produce better results. Take notice of terrain, and population density ie towns. Consult previous work maybe for GSM drive tests, and pick out relevant areas. Drive tests will have to be repeated at different times of day and days of the week if accurate impressions of the traffic and radio characteristics are to be gained. You may also need to repeat drive tests if building work is on-going and seasonal variations in traffic is expected. For example tourists and special events will change how the network is loaded. 3g UMTS/CDMA is a multi-application platform and as such varying demands are placed on the network when different applications are used.

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Drive Test Measurement

Test-mobile Measurements
A known CPICH transmit power in conjunction with the CPICH RSCP and UTRA carrier RSSI would allow the calculation of pathloss to the cell and allow an estimation of cell dominance in idle mode. Estimate of the orthogonality of the downlink is still problematic Drive test data is essential to validate propagation models.

Drive Test Measurement

Drive Test Measurements


Prediction Assessment
Test Site Comparison
Comparison of model against drive test measurements of site not used in the calibration process

Drives vs. Predicted Best Server


Comparison between predicted and measured best servers

Drives vs. Predicted Pilot Pollution


Comparison between predicted and measured pilot pollution

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Drive Test Measurement

Drive Test Measurements Analysis


Test Site Comparison
Drive Test data compared with 3g calibration tool Analysis should provide both mean and standard deviation agreement
For example Mean error of 1.8dB S.D of 7.9 Is a good practical fit

Drives vs. Predicted Best Server


Exposes discrepancies with map data and local features
Mud banks, rocks,

Exposes limitations in antenna models and propagation model

Drives vs. Predicted Pilot Pollution


Will highlight regions of multipath interference, difficult to calculate

Drive Test Measurement

Drive Test Measurements Analysis


Suggested Improvements
Use of multiple propagation models for terrain. Flat areas Hilly areas Urban areas

Accurate clutter definition Drive test to be repeated in some areas where major discrepancies occur

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Drive Test Measurement

Test-mobile Measurements Measurements


The commonly identified KPIs are not in themselves appropriate for pre-launch optimisation and acceptance Test-mobile measurements, depending on the availability of engineering mobiles, should allow measurement of:
CPICH and P-CCPCH availability DCH - Dedicated channel DL performance Cell dominance Active set size Required UL Tx Power

These measurements would be possible under both loaded and unloaded conditions

18.3 Interpretation of Measurements


It is not sufficient to know what measurements can be made. The optimisation engineer needs to be able to interpret measurements to identify problems, choose the most appropriate measure to rectify the problem, and identify the best method for enhancing network performance. This will often entail taking a number of KPIs in conjunction. For example, it is often necessary to know the condition of the uplink and of the downlink when choosing between alternative proposed methods of network optimisation. For example, a drive test in undertaken during the busy hour in a live network. The test route is 100 metres in length along a route such that the distance to the nearest cell remains approximately constant. The following KPIs are extracted from the measured data.

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Ec/No Serving Cell Ec/No Neighbour 1 Ec/No Neighbour 2 Average Uplink Channel Power Average Downlink Total Traffic Channel Power

-11 dB -20 dB -22 dB +21.4 dBm +39.6 dBm

Note the maximum uplink channel power is 23 dBm and the maximum total downlink channel power is 42 dBm. What can an intelligent look at such results reveal? Firstly, the cell is under stress (which is probably why the drive test was performed). We can see from the pilot measurements that there is only one dominant serving cell. We are near the edge of the cell from the uplink coverage viewpoint (dangerously near judging by the uplink power levels recorded). Let us assume that the reason for carrying out the drive test was because coverage levels were reported as poor in this particular road. What methods would you recommend for improving this coverage? We should consider the cost-benefit implications of any possible solutions: Additional Site Mast Head Amplifier Uplink Diversity Very expensive last resort Cheapest Solution probably More expensive than MHA but capacity benefits

If we narrow down the possibility to either installing an MHA or implementing uplink diversity we need to establish the benefits that each would bring. When considering UL diversity, the possibility of increasing capacity must be assessed. In this circumstance a load will be transferred to the downlink. However, the data received shows that the downlink traffic power is near its limit and that the downlink would become the limiting factor if UL diversity was implemented. The MHA appears to be an attractive, rapid, relatively cheap solution but would it work? It is possible for the MHA to offer no improvement at all. Remember that a MHA only offers improvement if there is a noise problem to start with, probably caused by high feeder loss. If such circumstances exist, then an improvement of about 2 dB can be expected (an exact calculation is possible). This level of improvement should reveal itself through a

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subsequent drive test with the UE transmit power being lower than before the MHA was installed. Alternative solutions: a still-cheaper solution would be to simply reduce the Noise Rise limit of the cell by 2 dB or so. It is significant that the test was done at the busy time of day when the cell Noise Rise level would be at or near its limit. Reducing the limit will have a coverage benefit but will reduce the capacity. It is important to realise that the amount by which it reduces the capacity depends on the original setting. If the original setting was 3 dB then reducing it by 2 dB would reduce the maximum loading factor from 50% to 21%. If however the original setting was 10 dB then the loading factor reduction would be from 90% to 84%, a much less severe reduction. If coverage is crucial to the area under test and is being judged as unsatisfactory, this might well be the short term solution to adopt whilst an MHA is ordered and installed.
Drive Test Measurement

Interpretation of Measurements

It is not sufficient to know what measurements can be made. The optimisation engineer needs to be able to interpret measurements This will often entail taking a number of KPIs in conjunction. For example, lets imagine a drive test

The test route is 100 metres in length along a route such that the distance to the nearest cell remains approximately constant.

The following KPIs are extracted from the measured data.


Ec/No Serving Cell Ec/No Neighbour 1 Ec/No Neighbour 2 Average Uplink Channel Power Average Downlink Total Traffic Channel Power -11 dB -20 dB -22 dB +21.4 dBm +39.6 dBm

maximum uplink channel power is 23 dBm


maximum total downlink channel power is 42 dBm.

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Drive Test Measurement

Interpretation of Measurements

The cell is under stress

Uplink power is close to maximum

There is only one dominant serving cell.

Pilot levels of other cells are much lower than main cell

We are near the edge of the cell from the uplink coverage viewpoint

Uplink power is close to maximum

Let us assume that the reason for carrying out the drive test was because coverage levels were reported as poor on this particular road.

What methods would you recommend for improving this coverage?

Drive Test Measurement

Interpretation of Measurements

Mast head Amplifier

Only reduces feeder loss and can introduce DL problems due to insertion loss

Transmit Diversity

Will increase load on DL and with fast moving traffic has little effect.

Additional Site

Very expensive option and should be last on list

Reduce Noise Rise Limit

Reduction of noise rise limit will increase coverage but will reduce total capacity.

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18.3.1

Using Measurements to Validate Improvements

Let us now consider a different situation. Suppose we are building a network to cover a city-centre area. Site density is going to be high and so coverage will not be a problem. We are in an interference-limited situation. Before the network is switched on, it is suggested that the improvement that can be expected from implementing uplink diversity should be investigated. Accordingly, a drive test is carried out without diversity and then repeated with diversity activated on the uplink. We are to confirm that the diversity receiver is working correctly and, further, we are to comment on the improvement that will be offered by such a network. The problem is one of checking that a reduction in uplink Tx power results from enabling diversity, then using such results to predict an increase in capacity. If we are in a situation where coverage is not an issue, then the improvement in uplink capacity will be in proportion to the reduction in required transmit power. For example, if the reduction is an average of 3.5 dB, then we can assume that the target Eb/No reduction is also 3.5 dB. This is a ratio of 2.2 and a capacity improvement by a factor of 2.2 could be expected. Remember, MHAs would do no good whatever in this situation as they do not increase the pole capacity. However, the question must be asked regarding the downlink capacity. Our previous analysis (section 12) suggests that the downlink may well prove to be the limiting factor in such a situation. Again, downlink measurements can be put to good use.

18.3.2

Comparing Uplink and Downlink Capacity

If the network is quiet, then the uplink loading factor measured by the UTRAN should be a reliable indicator of uplink capacity in terms of similar users to the single user conducting the drive test. On the downlink, it can be assumed that the downlink Tx power was required to overcome the interference effect of the common and pilot powers. Suppose the data available, when there is a single user present on the network, showed the following average levels (without diversity being implemented). Downlink: o Pilot 33 dBm o Traffic Channel 20 dBm o Total Transmit power 37 dBm Uplink: o Loading factor 4%
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The uplink record simply suggests that, at pole capacity, 25 connections could be made. On the downlink, at low levels of path loss it is reasonable to ignore thermal noise. The traffic channel power to total transmit power ratio is -17 dB. 17 dB is 50 as a ratio. This puts a pole capacity of 50 channels on the downlink. However, if we have a constant transmission at +37 dBm, and the maximum total transmit power is 43 dBm, then the maximum noise rise on the downlink will be 6 dB and the maximum loading factor 75%. This puts a limit of 38 simultaneous connections. If this was the case, we can say that we are in an uplink-limited situation (if simultaneous traffic is to be used) but implementing UL diversity might well lead to a doubling of uplink capacity that would reverse the situation and make it downlink limited.

18.4 Using Measured Data


One of the biggest 3GPP documents is TS25.331 v4.10 Release 4, Radio Resource Control RRC protocol specification. At 942 pages this isnt a document that you print out and have sitting on your desk. We are going to use this document as an online reference and investigate drive test message flow data.
Drive Test Measurement

System Information Structure



Measurement data which can be recorded are in the form of message flows. These message flows indicate which blocks of information have been transmitted and from which channel. Broadcasy Information is organised into a structure

Master Information Block MIB


Scheduling Block SB System Information Block SIB

RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD

10:44:24.384 10:44:24.414 10:44:24.454 10:44:24.504 10:44:24.554

BCCH_BCH BCCH BCCH BCCH_BCH BCCH

SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH MASTER_INFORMATION_BLOCK SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_1 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH SCHEDULING_BLOCK_1

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Drive Test Measurement

System Information Blocks SIBs

18 SIBs defined by ETSI TS 25.331 Release 4

Type 1
NAS system information as well as UE Timers and counters URA identity Parameters for cell selection and re-selection Same as Type 3 but in connected mode Parameters for configuration of common physical channels Same as Type 5 but in connected mode

Type 2

Type 3

Type 4

Type 5

Type 6

Drive Test Measurement

System Information Blocks SIBs

18 SIBs defined by ETSI TS 25.331 Release 4

Type 7
Fast changing parameters for UL interference Only for FDD static CPCH information to be used in the cell Only for FDD -- CPCH information to be used in the cell Only FDD Used by UEs having their DCH controlled by a DRAC. DRAC Contains measurement control information to be used in the cell Same as Type 11 but in connected mode

Type 8

Type 9

Type 10

Type 11 Type 12

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Drive Test Measurement

System Information Blocks SIBs

18 SIBs defined by ETSI TS 25.331 Release 4

Type 13
Used for ANSI-41 Only TDD UE positioning method for example GPS Radio bearer, transport channel and physical channel parameters to be stored by UE for use during Handover HO Only TDD Contains PLMN identities of neighbouring cells

Type 14 Type 15 Type 16

Type 17

Type 18

Drive Test Measurement

Example 3g Message Flow


RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD 10:44:24.675 10:44:24.725 10:44:24.775 10:44:24.795 10:44:24.825 10:44:24.855 10:44:24.885 10:44:24.935 10:44:24.985 10:44:25.035 BCCH BCCH BCCH_BCH BCCH BCCH BCCH BCCH BCCH_BCH BCCH_BCH BCCH_BCH MASTER_INFORMATION_BLOCK SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_1 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_2 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_3 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_7 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_18 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH

Exercise

Check the SIBs with the descriptions in the ETSI TS 25.331 document

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Drive Test Measurement

Example 3g Message Flow


RRCU RRCD RRCU L3U RRCU L3D RRCD L3U RRCU L3D RRCD RRCD RRCU 10:36:28.320 10:36:28.660 10:36:29.461 10:36:29.531 10:36:29.531 10:36:29.842 10:36:29.842 10:36:29.862 10:36:29.862 10:36:30.162 10:36:30.162 10:36:30.733 10:36:31.444 CCCH CCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP DCCH_RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE CM_SERVICE_REQUEST INITIAL_DIRECT_TRANSFER CM_SERVICE_ACCEPT DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER SETUP UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER CALL_PROCEEDING DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER RADIO_BEARER_SETUP RADIO_BEARER_SETUP_COMPLETE

In this segment a call is established

Check the SIBs with the descriptions in the ETSI TS 25.331 document

Drive Test Measurement

Example 3g Message Flow


RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCD 10:38:48.651 10:38:48.922 10:38:48.932 10:38:49.403 DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH MEASUREMENT_REPORT ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE_COMPLETE MEASUREMENT_CONTROL

During Call is message flow is repeated over and over


L3U RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCU RRCU 10:44:23.433 10:44:23.433 10:44:23.713 10:44:23.753 10:44:23.884 10:44:24.034 DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH IMSI_DETACH_INDICATION UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE

Call detach sequence

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19 Cluster Identification

19.1 Procedure and Measurements


Clusters

Optimisation of Site Clusters


Procedure
Identify size and location of clusters Define primary, secondary clusters. Define Cluster characteristics
Coverage, Interference, Handover region size and location Neighbour list assessment Access, handover and call failures

Take Measurements
Drive tests EC/Io, pilot power, UE TX Power, Neighbours, call success drops and Handover stats. Service allocation, FER/BLER, Throughput, Max and Av. BER, Delay

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Clusters

Cluster Defining
Identify Clusters of sites
Based on Terrain Traffic distribution

Characterise clusters in terms of primary/secondary clusters Network is to be optimised in clusters based on external interferers This method provides for
Work delegation Progress tracking Minimises tool processing time

Clusters

Cluster Defining

Datafill Eg Scrambling Codes Node B Parameters

Network Acceptance Cluster Approval Site Approval

Network of clusters

Cluster of sites

Site

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Clusters

Cluster Defining
Once Clusters have been defined then external interferers are found Using 3g simulation tools based on pilot coverage Report on each cell within a cluster
The Interferer Signal Level Assume interference occurs when interfering signal is within 10dB of the reporting cell

The Interference Area Threshold Other cells which interfere with the reporting cell area can be graded according to how much of the area is affected. Less than 5% can be regarded as insignificant within the overall simulation tolerances

Clusters

Cluster Defining
Simulation can then be filtered to cluster regions including other cell interferers Your network can then be analysed Lets develop a method .

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Pilot Coverage

Pilot Coverage
Simulate existing network to determine pilot coverage
At this stage no traffic loading is required

Support results with cross reference to drive test data Pilot coverage identifies
Indication of high levels of interference between sites Non-dominance issues Uneven service area distribution between sites New site requirement for areas which lack coverage. Expected pilot coverage levels, may indicate that initial pilot power is too high. Pilot power reduction
more power to users Less interference

Network Acceptance
Live traffic network loading Regionally based Measurements
OMC stats KPIs Drive tests Sample drives Iu analysis Specific problems Call trace Specific problems

Highlight Poor Areas


Resolve or negotiate

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Tool Requirement
Planning Tool Network Simulator OMC data download and analysis Network Configuration Management Drive Test mobiles. Drive Test data analysis software Band monitors

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20 Scrambling Code Example

20.1 Case Study


Scrambling Codes

Scrambling Code/Pilot Pollution


Rake Receiver
Typically 3 fingers Can only receive the best 3 RF signals Additional signals will cause interference

Design consideration
Provide a single strong signal Make sure cells have at most an additional 2 signals which meet selection criteria, eg -3dB down from main signal

Footprint of cell
Should have a defined area Useable signal at cell boundary No sputtering of signal outside of main area Determine number of pilot signals above threshold

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Scrambling Codes

Scrambling Code/Pilot Pollution


Best Server by Pilot

Scrambling Codes

Scrambling Code/Pilot Pollution


Signal to Interference Ratio SIR, and Active set size

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Scrambling Codes

Scrambling Code/Pilot Pollution


Downlink Interference
High Inter-cell Interference i

Solutions
Increase downlink power to maintain Eb/No on user channel Introduce Transmit Diversity into offending cell Consider soft handover with cell2 Change carrier frequency ( GSM type solution )

Implications
Raises the value of i in cell1 and in cell2 Increases the Node B cell power in cell1 and cell2

Scrambling Codes

Limitations
12.2 kbps speech uses a spreading factor of 128 Making allowances for control and handover channels, this reduces to a maximum of 98. Reducing speech rate to 7.95 kbps or below will increase this maximum to 196 channels.

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Scrambling Codes

Use of Multiple Spreading Codes


Adopting sophisticated signal processing techniques reduces target Eb/No. Target Eb/No can become negative resulting in very high pole capacities. E.g. Uplink Eb/No -2 dB. i = 0.5 pole capacity 4065 kbps Downlink Eb/No -0.5 dB. i = 0.5; = 0.6 pole capacity 4801 kbps Throughputs in excess of 2 Mbit/s achievable.

Scrambling Codes

Use of Multiple Spreading Codes


Suppose we want to service 160, 12.2 kbps voice users on such a cell. We need more than one scrambling code. A secondary code would be allocated. No orthogonality between scrambling codes making downlink analysis more complicated. Suppose 98 users are on the primary channel and 62 users on the secondary channel.

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Scrambling Codes

Use of Multiple Spreading Codes


From viewpoint of mobile on primary channel. Loading factor from other primary channel users

9812.2 = 24.9% 4801

Pole capacity with no orthogonality = 12.2 +

3840

100.05 = 2881kbps 1.5

62 users represent a loading factor of 26.3%. Total loading factor 51%. Noise Rise 3 dB.

Scrambling Codes

Use of Multiple Spreading Codes


From viewpoint of mobile on secondary channel. Loading factor from secondary channel users

6212.2 = 15.8% 4801 9812.2 = 41.5% 2881

98 users on primary channel represents a loading factor of Total loading factor is 57%. Noise Rise is 3.7 dB.

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Scrambling Codes

Use of Multiple Spreading Codes


Mobiles receive the same wideband power but experience different noise rise.

To equalise Noise Rise, the users must be equally split between codes.

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21 Neighbour Planning

21.1 Neighbour Lists


Neighbour Planning

Neighbour Planning
For 3G cells, neighbour lists can consist of upto
32 co frequency neighbours 32 adjacent frequency neighbours 32 gsm neighbours

The RAN broadcasts the initial neighbour cell lists of a cell in the system information messages on the BCH. In SHO state, neighbour lists from the active sets are combined in the RNC and sent to the UE on the DCCH.

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Neighbour Planning

Neighbour Planning
To identify a UMTS neighbour cell, this list includes the following information:
Global RNC identifier (PLMN identifiers, RNC identifier) Cell identifier LAC RAC Channel Number Scrambling code of the Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH)

For a GSM neighbouring cell, the following information is sent:


Cell Global Identification, CGI=MCC+MNC+LAC+CI BCCH Frequency BSIC

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21.1.1

Initial Neighbour List Generation


Neighbour Planning

Initial Neighbour List Generation


The initial neighbour lists for a new system or portion of a system can be generated as follows:
generate a best server array plot run the neighbour creation.

While carrying out post analysis, the neighbour lists for each cell can be prioritised according to the boundary lengths (longest boundary first). Do not be tempted to add more distant sites to the neighbour list just in case. The objective is to keep the neighbour lists to the minimum length and hence reduce search times. For intra-frequency neighbours, where SHO and softer handover are also possible, keeping neighbour list to a minimum can also help in reducing the overall network load by avoiding unnecessary SHO.

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21.1.2

Optimisation of Neighbour lists:


Neighbour Planning

Optimisation of Neighbour Lists


Neighbour lists should be made as accurate as possible.
Because if there is a situation when the mobile detects a candidate cell, which is not, defined in the neighbouring cell. Then the mobile has to decode the cell, to identify the cell and report it back to RNC.

Secondly, handovers can only be performed from one cell to another if the target cell is a neighbour to the serving cell. So, even if a mobile receives pilot signal from a neighbouring cell which is fulfilling the handover criteria but that cell is not defined in the neighbour list of the serving cell, handover will never occur.

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Neighbour Planning

O ptimisation of Neighbour Lists Optimisation


Different approaches can be used for different areas depending on the importance of the area and the complexity of the network. For most critical areas, pilot strength measurement messages sent by UE to the network can be accessed through OMC. These measurements can be taken over a specified period of time and can be analysed on cell by cell basis. Overall trend (more frequently occurring) of the cells reported by the mobile can be compared with the original neighbour lists. By removing the discrepancies in the two lists, an accurate neighbour plan can be obtained.

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21.1.3

Inter-freq & Inter-system Neighbour Planning:


Neighbour Planning

Inter-frequency & Inter-system Neighbour Planning


Inter-frequency and inter-system neighbour measurements are triggered by RNC. Depending on the network configuration (frequency/carrier allocation, neighbour cell definitions, cell layers etc), the RNC recognises the possibility of an inter-frequency or inter-system handover. Handovers to inter-frequency and inter-system neighbours can be based on the imperative situations, which can arise when
Average DL transmission power of radio link = maximum DL power. Quality deterioration report from uplink outer-loop control is generated. Quality deterioration report from MS is generated. Unsuccessful SHO procedure. Unsuccessful radio access bearer setup

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Neighbour Planning

Inter-frequency & Inter-system Neighbour Planning


To avoid frequent SHO, disabling SHO capability in certain cells can be performed. Load sharing and best use of the resources can be obtained through the handover criteria between neighbours. For instance, when the coverage areas of UMTS and the GSM system overlap each other, speech connections can be handed over to the 2G system. In a similar fashion, for different frequencies in 3G, load sharing can be controlled through neighbour planning. Different weight values can be used to direct traffic to specific cells.

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22 Automation Topics

22.1 Modelling
Automation

Automation of Network Modelling


Dynamic nature of 3g networks
Many new services Different data rates Different terminals

Rapid operational optimisation Increase in complexity increases the time for analysis Should the process be automated ?

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Automation

Automation of Network Modelling


How can we automate ? What can we tune ? How do we validate the results ?

Automation

How can we automate ?


Default parameters provided by manufacturers ( starting point ) You then optimise cell by cell, within clusters Take the KQI KPI history, and QoS targets Alter parameters in the RNC and Node B Feedback of new KPIs will enable the quality manager to evaluate new QoS This cycle can be automated.

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Automation

What can we tune?

Total Power P-CPICH power Dedicated NRT/RT capacity

Automation

Total Power Target


Powertx_target
Transmitter target power

Powerrx_target
Receiver target power

Powertotal_tx
Total transmitter power

Powertotal_rx
Total receiver target power

Sets the capacity/coverage of the cell Determines the admission of users

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22.2 Total Power Targets


Automation

Total Power Target


Call accepted if
Load control and admission control say ok Powertotal_rx < Powerrx_target

So higher the Powerrx_target the greater the capacity of the cell Setting a lower Powerrx_target will provide greater coverage, due to lower interference.

Automation

Total Power Target


Optimisation can occur between Powerrx_target and Interference Margin
Power Receive Target
Interference Margin Powerrx_total
Power Distribution

Blocking Prob 95% Powerrx_target

Node B Power

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Automation

Total Power Target


Setting the interference margin defines the coverage/capacity

If we set Powerrx_target below the interference margin


Coverage is reduced Capacity is reduced

Automation

Total Power Target


Including NRT traffic pushes the Powerrx_total to the right
Power Receive Target
Interference Margin Powerrx_total (RT+NRT)

Packet Load Power Distribution

Blocking Prob 95% Powerrx_target

Node B Power Packet Capacity

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23 Future Impact of Standards

23.1 Observations of Release 5 and beyond


Release Impact on Optimisation

DCH rate control


DRNC release 99
No way of requesting rate reduction from SRNC

DRNC release 4
Signals SRNC with current allowed maximum rate of a DCH TR 125.935 V4.1.0 (2002-03)

SRNC uses R99, DRNC uses R4


DRNC will never receive a guaranteed rate of a DCH and will assume the maximum rate is the guaranteed rate. DRNC will not apply restrictions SRNC will reject the request if made by the new DCH rate control

SRNC uses R4, DRNC uses R99


DRNC will discard any rate restrictions SRNC will never receive any rate restrictions

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Release Impact on Optimisation

Cell Loading
SRNC admission control requires knowledge of cell loading to be useful
SRNC controlling mobility within its own RNS no problem SRNC controlling mobility between own cell and DRNC controlled cell SRNC has no parameter in R99 to establish load in other cell SRNC has no idea as to the loading of either cell SRNC controlling mobility between two cells controlled by DRNC

Radio Resource Management Optimisation for Iur and Iub TR 125.935 V4.1.0 ( 2002-03) release 4
Vendor specific calculations of load passed over Iur to SRNC

Release Impact on Optimisation

AAL2 QoS Optimisation


No way under Q2630.1 to establish priority in the AAL2 type Use of Q2630.2 provides for a method of prioritising UMTS QoS optimisation for AAL2 type 2 connections over Iub and Iur interfaces TR 125.934 V4.0.0 (2001-03) release 4
Assumes the SRNC can reschedule data frames with CFN numbers in the future to optimise the bandwidth requirements for the ATM link Example given

Old method required 2.8Mbps New method requires 0.37Mbps

Radio link is unaffected by this change

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24 From Initial Roll-Out to Mature Network

24.1 Introduction
Optimisation procedures should be incorporated into every stage of development of a UMTS network. Bearing in mind the different priorities that are likely to affect the different stages, it is possible to be alert to opportunities to implement the best possible network in all circumstances from the initial roll-out to targeting specific services and traffic loads in a mature network. This section follows the development of a network highlighting the possible different strategies that can be employed.

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24.2 Initial Roll-Out


Here the priority is probably to obtain the maximum coverage as quickly as possible for a minimum investment. GSM operators will want to make the best use of existing sites. The issues here will be:
Does operator have GSM network? Is GSM network 900 MHz? 1800 If yes, possible to provide good coverage at 64 kbps. Coverage problems need to be addressed. Data rate and Eb/No will affect coverage.

What is the benchmark service?

Questions that have to be answered include:


How many antennas per site What capacity can I expect per cell? 1, 3 or 6? Initially 300-400 kbps but heavily dependent on service and configuration. Will help with UL coverage Can lead to coverage being DL limited. These will add substantially to cost and will probably be left until demand justifies them. This will increase the cell power requirement.

Should I deploy MHAs? Should I use the Optimised Configuration for Roll-out? Should I use diversity or Smart Antennas? Should I plan to asymmetric services? provide for

24.2.1

The Initial Plan

Initially, coverage will be dictated by the limitations of the uplink. Key parameters are the transmit power of the mobile, Eb/N0, bitrate, antenna gains, noise rise limit. However, when planning a UMTS network it must be born in mind that the capacity of the network will be influenced by the location of the users. If the traffic density is uniform, then there isnt a problem. But, if there are clearly identifiable hotspots within a network then the position of sites with respect to these hotspots will affect the capacity substantially. A hotspot that is located very close to the Node B will: a) be able to communicate with the Node B with low levels of UL power. This will lead to a high value of Frequency Re-use Efficiency being realised.
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b) require only low levels of DL power thus increasing the capacity in this direction and also reducing DL interference. Often, it is not possible to relocate a Node B to assist in this matter. However, it should be noted that merely re-directing antennas can help in this situation. The difference between the link loss to a location at the border between two, co-located, cells and the loss to a location at the same distance but in the principal direction of the antennas will be as much as 6 dB. This will allow the mobile power and cell power to be reduced. Additionally, because the users will be experiencing much less (downlink) interference, the pole capacity on the downlink will increase. Uplink coverage problems can be overcome by: Reducing the Noise Rise limit. Installing MHAs. Using lower loss feeder. Implementing diversity reception at the cell. Implementing Multi-User Detection at the cell. Using higher gain cell antennas. Reducing bitrate and/or Eb/N0 value offered. Using a second carrier to allow further reduction in NR limit.

24.3 Evolution of the Network


The result of the initial plan should be to provide continuous coverage over a specified area for a specified service. The next stages in network development will be to: Increase network capacity. Increase coverage range for higher resource services. Provide specifically for provision of asymmetric services. Network capacity can be increased by: Sectorising sites (1 to 3; 3 to 6). Implementing MHAs to allow NR limit to be increased. Implementing diversity reception and transmission. Implementing Multi-User Detection. Increasing cell transmit power. Adding micro-cells. Incorporating extra sites into a macro-cell layer. Adding extra carriers. Reducing mutual interference between cells.
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Coverage range for higher-resource services can be increased by Reducing the Noise Rise limit. Installing MHAs. Using lower loss feeder. Implementing diversity reception at the cell. Implementing Multi-User Detection at the cell. Using higher gain cell antennas. Provision specifically for asymmetric services can be helped by: Ensuring external interference is a minimum at traffic hotspots. Planning to minimise link loss to traffic hotspots. Increasing cell power. Implementing transmit diversity at the cell. Being able to quantify the improvements that will result from a specific strategy is crucial to being able to evaluate alternative approaches. The end result should be the best value for money and the best return on investment.
Network Implementation and Evolution

Network Implementation and Evolution


Optimisation is about undertaking every task so as to achieve the maximum benefit for a given investment of resource. This applies to the initial network implementation as much as it does to deciding on micro-cell implementation strategies. We should be aware of the possible alternative approaches to solving problems and be able to evaluate these alternatives.

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Initial Roll-out
Issues:
Is there an existing GSM network? Is it 1800 MHz or 900 MHz What is the benchmark service How many cells per site? What will be the capacity per cell? Should MHAs be deployed What about Optimised Configuration for Roll-out (OTSR)? Should diversity or even smart antennas be used? Should we plan for asymmetric services?

Questions

Network Implementation and Evolution

Initial Roll-out
Initial Priorities:
Coverage: determined by UL budget Key parameters: Tx Power of Mobile NR limit Antenna gains Eb/No Bitrate

Capacity issues arise:


How can mutual interference be minimised? Is the subscriber density uniform?

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Optimising the Initial Roll-out


Low Link Loss: Low Tx power;

Minimising mutual inteference


Pay careful attention to the radiation from each cell. Downtilting of antennas.

High DL capacity; High FRE.

Minimise the link loss to traffic hotspots. If the loss is low, UL power will be low; FRE will be high. Requirement on DL power will be low, thus increasing DL capacity.
High Link Loss: High Tx power; Low DL capacity; Low FRE.

Network Implementation and Evolution

Optimising the Initial Roll-out


Low Link Loss: Low Tx power;

Optimising the situation is possible without moving sites.

High DL capacity; High FRE.

Re-directing the antennas on a site can affect the link loss by up to about 6 dB.

Also, if there is one dominant serving cell, mutual interference is reduced.


High Link Loss: High Tx power; Low DL capacity; Low FRE.

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Optimising the Initial Roll-out


Overcoming coverage problems.
Reduce NR limit Install MHAs Use lower loss feeder Implement diversity reception Implement MUD Use higher gain cell antennas Reduce bitrate Reduce Eb/No Use a second carrier to aid in NR limit reduction

Network Implementation and Evolution

Network Evolution
As network evolves, we need to:
Increase network capacity. Increase coverage range for higher-resource services. Provide specifically for asymmetric services.

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Optimising Capacity
Capacity can be increased by:
Sectorising sites Implementing MHAs to allow NR limit to rise. Implementing diversity in both directions Implementing MUD Increasing cell Tx power Adding Micro-cells Incorporating extra sites into a macro layer Adding carriers Reducing mutual interference

Network Implementation and Evolution

Optimising Coverage Range for New Users


Increasing coverage range for higher resource users.
Reducing NR limit. Installing MHAs. Using lower loss feeder. Implementing diversity reception. Implementing MUD. Using higher gain antennas.

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Asymmetric Services
Provision for Asymmetric Services
External interference at hotspots is kept to a minimum. Minimise link loss to hotspots. Increase cell power. Implement transmit diversity.

Network Implementation and Evolution

Optimising the Network


Demand for downlink-dominated services are not likely to be uniformly spread. The ease with which demand can be met is very dependent on the location of the mobile user. It is important, when network planning, to be able to identify the good and the bad areas quickly.

Variations in Traffic Density

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Optimising the Network


We need an indicator that will predict downlink performance and is quick and easy to predict. The pilot SIR (Ec/I0) serves as a suitable indicator. If the pilot power is +33 dBm, the pilot SIR shows the SIR for any traffic channel that is given 33 dBm of power. For a given Eb/N0 value, the necessary processing gain and hence maximum bitrate can be found.
Traffic Power Pilot Power

Network Implementation and Evolution

Optimising the Network


As an example, suppose the pilot SIR at a point is found to be -12 dB. If the Eb/N0 required is +4 dB, then 16 dB of processing gain will be necessary. The maximum bitrate possible for a power of +33 dBm is then 96 kbps. If the pilot SIR is -6 dB then 384 kbps would be possible.

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Determining pilot SIR


AIRCOMs 3g tool allows you to display pilot SIR for various levels of network loading. The display predicts the result of a drive test through a network, examining each pixel in the coverage area.
Pilot SIR -1 dB Pilot SIR -7 dB

Pilot SIR is seen to be very dependent on location and the loading level of the network.
Lightly Loaded network (Traffic Power 35 dBm)

Network Implementation and Evolution

Determining pilot SIR


We are probably more interested in the situation with a heavily loaded network. Variations in pilot SIR at a given distance can be as much as 6 dB. This represents a factor of 4 in the bits per second per milliwatt possible on the downlink.
Heavily Loaded network (Traffic Power 41 dBm) Pilot SIR -5 dB Pilot SIR -11 dB

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Determining pilot SIR


Over the coverage area of a cell the pilot SIR varied by about 10 dB. Thus the bits per second per milliwatt factor would vary by a factor of 10 or more. The implications for cell siting and antenna orientation are clear. Note: simply re-orientating antennas can improve throughput by a factor of 4.
Pilot SIR -14 dB

Pilot SIR -4 dB

Heavily Loaded network (Traffic Power 41 dBm)

Network Implementation and Evolution

Limiting Factors
Even if there is zero pathloss, pilot SIR will be limited by the interference effect of the other channels, mainly the traffic channel power. Traffic channel power of 41 dBm reduced to effective interference power of 37 dBm if the orthogonality is 0.6. Comparing this with 33 dBm pilot power suggests that the maximum value of pilot SIR will be -4 dB.

Pilot SIR -14 dB

Pilot SIR -4 dB

Heavily Loaded network (Traffic Power 41 dBm)

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Limiting Factors
If orthogonality is 0.9, the pilot SIR is improved by approximately 4 dB relative to a value of 0.6. If orthogonality is 0.2, the pilot SIR is worsened by approximately 3 dB relative to a value of 0.6. This 7 dB swing represents a capacity variation by a factor of 5. Further work: site location so as to optimise orthogonality?
Heavily Loaded network (Orthogonality 0.9)

Network Implementation and Evolution

Summary
Approximate methods of predicting network downlink capacity can be used in preliminary planning stages. The accuracy can be enhanced if simulations are available for a known data throughput. Rapid analysis methods using AIRCOMs 3G planning tool will allow a nominal plan to be assessed and optimised. Improvements in capacity by a factor of 10 are possible by correctly locating sites and pointing antennas.
Heavily Loaded network (Traffic Power 41 dBm)

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24.4 Concluding Remarks


Network Implementation and Evolution

Concluding Remarks Why are we bothering? To make or save money. How do operators make money? By transferring data from one point to another

Network Implementation and Evolution

Concluding Remarks
Revenue Gains Suppose revenue of $ 0.1 is received for every megabit of data transferred. A cell whose capacity is increased by 500 kbit/s (per carrier) can be expected to earn approximately $ 200000 per carrier per year extra (depending on occupancy rates).

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Network Implementation and Evolution

Concluding Remarks
Revenue Gains If an engineer takes responsibility for 60 cells, each with a single carrier, the potential gains add up to $ 12 million per engineer. Go and make an extra $ 12 million per year.

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25 Appendix

25.1 Amplificadores MHA

UMTS Masthead Amplifier


FEATURES

ALP Enabled

TM

ISSUE : UMTSMHA002a/100800

Market leading low noise performance Simple to install Bypass in "power down" mode Rugged and highly reliable Excellent lightning protection Full water immersion (IP68) specification

BENEFITS
REMEC Masthead Amplifiers help reduce the cost of base station deployment by extending cell coverage. They also significantly improve call quality and reduce the number of dropped calls, which is the number one reason for customer churn.

Extends cell coverage Reduces bit error rate vital for data applications Significantly reduces roll out costs Improves call quality Reduces dropped calls Enhances in-building coverage

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REMEC MHAs improve in-building coverage and reduce overall system bit error rate, which is vitally important for data applications. These units have the best noise and lightning performance available and are IP68 rated for full water immersion. Time and time again network trials have proven these units to significantly improve network performance, providing the largest improvements margins in competitive benchmarking. Over fifty networks worldwide have improved their performance using REMEC MHAs.

Increases handset battery life

Tx Characteristics Frecuency Range Bandwidth Insertion Loss Ripple Max Power Handling Return Loss (VSWR)

Specification 2110-2170 MHz 60 MHz <0.6 dB 0.2 dB 52 dBm CW 62 dBm Peak >18 dB (<1.29)

Rx Characteristics Frecuency Range Bandwidth Noise Figure (Typical) Gain Variation Over Frequency & Temperature Gain Variation with Frequency Output 1dB Compression Output IP3 Return Loss (VSWR)

Specification 1920-1980 MHz 60 MHz <1.4 dB 12.00.9 dB 0.5 dB >= 10 dBm >= +22 dBm >18 dB active (<1.29) >12 dB in bypass (<1.67) >80 dB

Rx to Tx Rejection (Over Operating Band) System Characteristics Intermodulation (2 Tx Carriers at +43 dBm Products in Rx Band) DC Supply Voltage* Current (Nominal)* *Other Options Available ANT Port EMC MTBF Specification <-120 dBm +12V1VDC 125 mA normal 175 mA alarm Environmental Characteristics Operating Temp. Range Storage Temperature Relative Humidity Enclosure Protection Lightning Protection BTS Port (Bias Tee)

Specification -40C to +65C -40C to +85C 5 to 95% IP68 8/20 S 10Ka Pulse IEC-801-5 DC Grounded ETS 300 342-3 compliant >800,000 hrs.

Mechanical Characteristics Dimensions Weight Volume RF Connectors BTS ANT

Specification 312 x 162 x 77 mm <4kg 3.9 Ltr 7/16 female 7/16 female

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