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Obtain from my StatData page KJ.dat and Potthoff.dat. From my SAS Programs page, obtain CorrRegr.sas. After being sure that the program file correctly points to the location of the data file on your computer, submit the program file. Look at the program and the output as I explain both. Bivariate Analysis: Attitudes About Animals Predicted from Misanthropy One day as I sat in the living room, watching the news on TV, there was a story about some demonstration by animal rights activists. I found myself agreeing with them to a greater extent than I normally do. While pondering why I found their position more appealing than usual that evening, I noted that I was also in a rather misanthropic mood that day. That suggested to me that there might be an association between misanthropy and support for animal rights. When evaluating the ethical status of an action that does some harm to a nonhuman animal, I generally do a cost/benefit analysis, weighing the benefit to humankind against the cost of harm done to the nonhuman. When doing such an analysis, if one does not think much of humankind (is misanthropic), e is unlikely to be able to justify harming nonhumans. To the extent that one does not like humans, one will not be likely to think that benefits to humans can justify doing harm to nonhumans. I decided to investigate the relationship between misanthropy and support of animal rights. Mike Poteat and I developed an animal rights questionnaire, and I developed a few questions designed to measure misanthropy. One of our graduate students, Kevin Jenkins, collected the data we shall analyze here. His respondents were students at ECU. I used reliability and factor analysis to evaluate the scales (I threw a few items out). All of the items were Likert-type items, on a 5-point scale. For each scale, we computed each respondent's mean on the items included in that scale. The scale ran from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). On the Animal Rights scale (AR), high scores represent support of animal rights positions (such as not eating meat, not wearing leather, not doing research on animals, etc.). On the Misanthropy scale (MISANTH), high scores represent high misanthropy (such as agreeing with the statement that humans are basically wicked). Look at the OPTIONS statement in the program. FORMDLIM = '' tells SAS to put page breaks in the output file. This may waste some paper, but it will prevent plots from being split between pages. Please note that what looks like a double quotation mark here is actually two single quotation marks with null between them. Another way to prevent plots from being split between pages is to copy and paste your output from SAS into a Word document, and then, in Word, put the page breaks where you want them. If you do this, you will probably want to reduce the Word margins from your normal settings and increase the font size from that SAS uses (just do not choose a proportional font).

CorrRegrSAS.docx

2 Now, look at the input statement in the program. The questionnaire had 119 items, and the score on each item took up only one column in the data file, with no blank spaces between one score and the next. It would be a real pain to write an input statement that listed each variable followed by the column in which its scores were located (Item1 1 Item2 2 Item3 3, etc.), so I used formatted input. INPUT (Q1-Q119)(1.) tells SAS that the variables Q1 through Q119 each take up one column. I used a comment statement (a statement that starts with an * and is not executed) in the program to show you the lines that were used to reflect the scores on a few of the items. Reflecting means reverse scoring. For example, suppose I had a questionnaire on which high scores were supposed to mean that one likes Italian food. If one item asked one to indicate degree of agreement with the statement "Thinking of pizza makes me want to puke,' with a response scale of 1 = "strongly disagree," 2 = "disagree," 3 = "neutral," 4 = "agree," and 5 = "strongly agree" (a Likert scale), we would want to reverse score that item, so that agreement would yield a low score, and disagreement a high score. To reflect an item like this, simply subtract each score from a constant that is one point higher than the highest possible score. The MEAN(OF ) statement is used to compute subjects' scores on the three scales (animal rights, misanthropy, and a third scale, idealism, which I shall explain later). PROC CORR is then used to obtain correlation coefficients between the scales. Look at the output. PROC CORR gives us some simple, univariate (single variable) statistics, and then the correlation coefficients, each with a p testing the null hypothesis of no correlation in the population. Note that the only correlation that is statistically significant is that between misanthropy and animal rights, and that correlation is small in magnitude. I generally use = .3 as my definition of the smallest correlation coefficient that is large enough to be worth my attention. Here our small r is statistically significant because our sample size is fairly large, giving us so much power that even a small correlation is statistically significant, that is, large enough to convince us that the correlation in the population is not zero. The PROC REG statement asks for a regression analysis for each of two models. The LINEPRINTER option is used to produce simple rather than graphic plots. If that option were not used, our plots would be produced by SAS GRAPH. The first model is for predicting AR from MISANTHropy. The output gives us the intercept (1.97) and slope (0.175) for the least squares regression line, and tells us that the slope is significantly different from zero. Notice that the square of the t (2.79) for testing the slope is equal to the ANOVA F (7.78). Both test the same null hypothesis. The R2 indicates that the model explains only 4.87% of the variance in AR. Sample R2 tends to overestimate population 2, so SAS also gives us the ADJusted R2, also known as the shrunken R2, a relatively unbiased estimator of the population 2. For a bivariate regression it is computed as:

2 rshrunken 1

(1 r 2 )( n 1) . ( n 2)

Use my program Conf-Interval-r.sas to put a 95 confidence interval on the value of r relating misanthropy to attitude about animals.

Trivariate Analysis: Idealism as a Second Predictor I also asked for an analysis based on a second model (model b), with which I predicted AR from misanthropy and from idealism. Such an analysis, where we have two or more predictor variables, is called a multiple regression. So, what is idealism? D. R. Forsyth (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1990, 39, 175-184) has developed an instrument that is designed to measure a persons idealism and relativism. It is the idealism scale that is of interest to me. The idealist is one who believes that morally correct behavior always leads only to desirable consequences. The nonidealist believes that good behaviors may lead to a mix of desirable and undesirable consequences. Hal Herzog, at Western Carolina, has shown that animal rights activists are more idealistic than are other people, so maybe we can do a better job of predicting attitude about animal rights if we add to our model, which already contains misanthropy, a measure of idealism. When you look at the output for the multiple regression, you see that the two predictor model does do significantly better than chance at predicting AR, F(2, 151) = 4.47, p = .013. The F in the ANOVA table tests the null hypothesis that the multiple correlation coefficient, R, is zero in the population. If that null hypothesis were true, then using the regression equation would be no better than just using the mean AR as the predicted AR for every person. Clearly we can predict AR significantly better with the regression equation rather than without it, but do we really need the idealism variable in the model? Is this model significantly better than the model that had only misanthropy as a predictor? To answer that question, we need to look at the "Parameter Estimates," which give us measures of the effect of each predictor, above and beyond the effect of the other predictor(s). The regression equation gives us two slopes, both of which are partial statistics. The amount by which AR increases for each one point increase in misanthropy, above and beyond any increase associated with idealism, is .18479, and the amount by which AR increases for each one point increase in idealism, above and beyond any increase associated with misanthropy, is .08598. The intercept, 1.63698, is just a reference point, the predicted AR for a person whose misanthropy and idealism are both zero (which are not even possible values). The "Standardized Estimate" (stb, usually called beta, ) given here is the slope in standardized units, that is, how many standard deviations does AR increase for each one standard deviation increase in the predictor, above and beyond the effect of the other predictor(s). The regression equation represents a plane in three dimensional space (the three dimensions being AR, misanthropy, and idealism). If we plotted our data in three dimensional space, that plane would minimize the sum of squared deviations between the data and the plane. If we had a 3rd predictor variable, then we would have four dimensions, each perpendicular to each other dimension, and we would be out in hyperspace. The t testing the null hypothesis that the intercept is zero is of no interest, but those testing the partial slopes are. Misanthropy does make a significant, unique, contribution towards predicting AR, t(151) = 2.91, p = .004), but idealism does not.

4 Please note that the values for the partial coefficients that you get in a multiple regression are highly dependent on the context provided by the other variables in a model. If you get a small partial coefficient, that could mean that the predictor is not well associated with the dependent variable, or it could be due to the predictor just being highly redundant with one or more other variables in the model. Imagine that we were foolish enough to include, as a third predictor in our model, students score on the misanthropy and idealism scales added together. Assume that we made just a few minor errors when computing this sum. In this case, each of the predictors would be highly redundant with the other predictors, and all would have partial coefficients close to zero. Why did I specify that we made a few minor errors when computing the sum? Well, if we didnt, then there would be total redundancy (at least one of the predictor variables being a perfect linear combination of the other predictor variables), which causes the intercorrelation matrix among the predictors to be singular. Singular intercorrelation matrices cannot be inverted, and inversion of that matrix is necessary to complete the multiple regression analysis. In other words, the computer program would just crash. When predictor variables are highly (but not perfectly) correlated with one another, the program may warn you of multicollinearity. This problem is associated with a lack of stability of the regression coefficients. In this case, were you randomly to obtain another sample from the same population and repeat the analysis, there is a very good chance that the results would be very different. Perhaps it will help to see a Venn diagram. Look at the ballantine below.

The top circle represents variance in AR, the right circle that in misanthropy, the left circle that in idealism. The overlap between circle AR and misanthropy, area a + b, represents the r2 between AR and misanthropy. Area b + c represents the r2 between AR and idealism (but I have not drawn it to scale to represent the associations found in the current analysis). Area a + b + c + d represents all the variance in AR, and we standardize it to 1. Area a + b + c represents the variance in AR explained by our best weighted linear combination of misanthropy and idealism, 5.59% (R2). The proportion of all of the variance in AR which is explained by misanthropy but not by idealism is a a equal to: a. abc d 1 Area a represents the squared semipartial correlation for misanthropy (.053). Area c represents the squared semipartial correlation for idealism: Of all the variance in AR, what proportion is explained by idealism but not by misanthropy. Clearly, area c (.007) is actually smaller than I have drawn it here: Very little of the variance in AR is explained by idealism but not by misanthropy. It would appear that using a combination

5 of misanthropy and idealism to predict AR would not be much better than just using MIS alone. Although I generally prefer semipartial correlation coefficients, some persons report the partial correlation coefficient, which is also available from SAS, but I did not obtain it. The partial correlation coefficient will always be at least as large as the semipartial, and almost always larger. To treat it as a proportion, we obtain the squared partial correlation coefficient. In our Venn diagram, the squared partial c correlation coefficient for idealism is represented by the proportion . That is, of the c d variance in AR that is not explained by misanthropy, what proportion is explained by idealism? Or, put another way, if we already had misanthropy in our prediction model, by what proportion could we reduce the error variance if we added idealism to the model? If you consider that (c + d) is between 0 and 1, you will see why the partial coefficient will be larger than the semipartial. If we take idealism back out of the model, the r2 drops to .0487. That drop, .0559 - .0487 = .0072, is the squared semipartial correlation coefficient for idealism. In other words, we can think of the squared semipartial correlation coefficient as the amount by which the R2 drops if we delete a predictor from the model. The nonsignificant partial t for idealism tells us that this drop in R2 is not significant. In other words, idealism does not add enough to the models predictive ability to make it worth retaining idealism as a predictor. We can just go back to the simple one-predictor model. If we refer back to our Venn diagram, the R2 is represented by the area a+b+c, and the redundancy between misanthropy and idealism by area b. The redundant area is counted (once) in the multiple R2, but not in the partial statistics. The PLOT statement asks for a plot of the residuals (r., the difference between actual AR and AR predicted from the model) versus the predicted scores (p.). Please draw, by hand, a horizontal line at resid = 0. If the normality assumption of the test of significance has been met, then a vertical column of residuals at any point on that line will be normally distributed. In that case, the density of the plotted symbols (numbers in this case, with '2' representing 2 residuals at the same space on the plot) will be greatest near that line, and drop quickly away from the line, and will be symmetrically distributed on the two sides (upper versus lower) of the line. If the homoscedasticity assumption has been met, then the spread of the dots, in the vertical dimension, will be the same at any one point on that line as it is at any other point on that line. Thus, a residuals plot can be used, by the trained eye, to detect violations of the assumptions of the regression analysis. The trained eye can also detect, from the residual plot, patterns that suggest that the relationship between predictor and criterion is not linear, but rather curvilinear. I have commented out (prevented from being executed, by preceding with an asterisk) the statement which would compute confidence intervals for predicted scores. That would just use up too much paper with this relatively large data set. Use Steiger and Fouladis R2 program to put a 95% confidence interval on the multiple R2 from our trivariate regression.

6 Predicting Animal Rights From Misanthropy in Idealists and in Nonidealists So far, this lesson should have helped you understand correlation and regression analysis, but the analysis done so far has not really addressed the hypothesis that I set out to test with this research. The idealist is one who believes that morally correct behavior always leads only to desirable consequences; an action that leads to any bad consequences is a morally wrong action. Thus, one would expect the idealist not to engage in cost/benefit analysis of the morality of an action -- any bad consequences cannot be cancelled out by associated good consequences. Thus, there should not be any relationship between misanthropy and attitude towards animals in idealists, but there should be such a relationship in nonidealists (who do engage in such cost/benefit analysis, and who may, if they are misanthropic, discount the benefit to humans). Accordingly, a proper test of my hypothesis would be one that compared the relationship between misanthropy and attitude about animals for idealists versus for nonidealists. Although I did a more sophisticated analysis than is presented here (a "Potthoff analysis," which I cover in my advanced courses), the analysis presented here does address the question I posed. Look at the program statements below the line of asterisks. I bring in a data file where I have transformed the idealism variable into a dichotomous variable. Based on a median split, each subject is classified as being either an idealist or not an idealist. Then for each group (sorted and analyzed "by ideal') I test the model that attitude towards animals can be predicted from misanthropy. Note how I use the OVERLAY option on the PLOT command to produce a plot on which the observed values are plotted with the character 'o' and the predicted values with the character 'x'. If you draw a straight line (as best as you can) through the x's on the plot, you have the regression line. I think the question marks are points where an observed value fell right on top of a predicted value. I used the SIMPLE and CORR options with PROC REG to get simple statistics and correlation coefficients without using PROC CORR. The output for the nonidealists shows that the relationship between attitude about animals and misanthropy is significant ( p < .001) and of nontrivial magnitude ( r = .36). The plot shows a nice positive slope for the regression line. With nonidealists, misanthropy does produce a discounting of the value of using animals for human benefit, and, accordingly, stronger support for animal rights. On the other hand, with the idealists, who do not do cost/benefit analysis, there is absolutely no relationship between misanthropy and attitude towards animals. The correlation is trivial ( r = .02) and nonsignificant ( p = .87), and the plot shows the regression line to be flat. Importance of Looking at a Scatterplot Before You Analyze Your Data The final section of our program is designed to convince you that it is very important to look at a plot of your data prior to conducting a linear correlation/regression analysis. If you will look at the output, you will see that for each of our four pairs of variables (x1, y1; x2, y2; x3, y3; x4, y4), all of the statistics (mean and sd of X, mean and sd of Y, the r, the slope, the intercept, etc.) are the same as they are for the other three pairs -- but the plots show that the relationship between X and Y is really quite different across these pairs. In the first set, we have a plot that looks about like what we

7 would expect for a moderate to large positive correlation. In the second set we see that the relationship is really curvilinear, and that the data could be fit much better with a curved line (a polynomial function, quadratic, would fit them well). In the third set we see that with the exception of one outlier, the relationship is nearly perfect linear. In the final set we see that the relationship would be zero if we eliminated the one extreme outlier -- with no variance in X, there can be no covariance with Y. Do note that my removing the LINEPRINTER option resulted in the plots being produced by SAS GRAPH. Additional Analyses The analysis we just completed suggests that nonidealists differ from idealists with respect to the relationship between misanthropy and attitude towards animals, with the r and the slope being higher for the nonidealists than for the idealists -- but we have not yet directly tested the null hypotheses that these two groups do not differ on r and slope. Please read my document Comparing Correlation Coefficients, Slopes, and Intercepts to see how to test these hypotheses. You can find a paper based on these data at: http://core.ecu.edu/psyc/wuenschk/Animals/ABS99-ppr.htm Please note that the relationship between X and Y could differ with respect to the slope for predicting Y from X, but not with respect to the Pearson r, or vice versa. The Pearson r really measures how little scatter there is around the regression line (error in prediction), not how steep the regression line is. [See relevant plots] On the left, we can see that the slope is the same for the relationship plotted with blue os and that plotted with red xs, but there is more error in prediction (a smaller Pearson r ) with the blue os. For the blue data, the effect of extraneous variab les on the predicted variable is greater than it is with the red data. On the right, we can see that the slope is clearly higher with the red xs than with the blue os, but the Pearson r is about the same for both sets of data. We can predict equally well in both groups, but the Y variable increases much more rapidly with the X variable in the red group than in the blue. Additional Reading Biserial and Polychoric Correlation Coefficients Comparing Correlation Coefficients, Slopes, and Intercepts Confidence Intervals on R2 or R Tetrachoric Correlation -- what it is and how to compute it. Producing and Interpreting Residuals Plots in SAS Return to my SAS Lessons page. Copyright 2011, Karl L. Wuensch - All rights reserved.

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