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Alliteration : (Figure of Rhetoric). The repetition of the same letter at the beginning of successive words.

timidae tellus tutissima matri (Stat. Ach. 1.211) Anacoluthon : (Figure of Synta ). The lac! of grammatical se"uence# a want of harmony in the construction of different parts of the same sentence. si$ ut dicunt$ omnes %raios esse. (&ic. Rep. 1.'() Anadiplosis : (Figure of Rhetoric). )*oubling bac!.) The rhetorical repetition of a word that ends one clause at the beginning of the ne t. senatus haec intellegit$ consul videt# hic tamen vivit. +ivit, -mmo vero etiam in senatum venit. (&ic. Cat. 1.2) Anaphora : (Figure of Synta ). The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases$ clauses or lines. da nomina rebus$ da loca# da vocem "ua mecum fata lo"uantur. (.uc. /.00123) nec$ "uid 4ymen$ "uid 5mor$ "uid sint conubia curat. (6v. Met. 1.3(7) Anastrophe : (Figure of Synta ). Transposition of normal word involving prepositions and the words they govern. 5nastrophe is a form of hyperbaton. errabant acti fatis maria omnia circum. 8normal order9 circum maria omnia: (+erg. Aen. 1.12) )cur ulla puer iam tempora ducit te sine,) 8normal order9 sine te: (Stat. Ach. 1.12;) Antistrophe : (Figure of Synta ). 5lso called epiphora. Repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses. .aelius homo novus erat$ ingeniosus erat$ doctus erat. (&ic. Rhet. 3.1;) Antithesis : (Figure of Rhetoric). The opposition$ or contrast of ideas or words$ usually in a balanced or parallel construction. tristis felicibus umbris voltus erat. (.uc. /.0(32') Antonomasia : (Figure of Rhetoric). The substitution of epithets for a proper name.

*elius for 5pollo (6vid Met. 1.3'3)# 4ennaea for <roserpina (.uc. /.037)# Tirythius for 4ercules (+al. Flac. 1.170) Aporia : (Figure of Rhetoric). = pression of doubt (sometimes feigned) by which a spea!er (or thin!er) appears uncertain as to what he should thin!$ say$ or do. heu$ "uid agat, (+al. Flac. 1.01) Aposiopesis : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5lso !nown as reticentia. 5 form of ellipse which interrupts a thought and leaves it incomplete. The spea!er comes to an abrupt halt$ seemingly overcome by passion (fear$ e citement$ etc.) or modesty. )illum ego 2 tu tantum hoc caput accipias ...) (+al. Flac. 1.271) )nunc "uo"ue 2 sed tardum$ iam plena iniuria raptae.) 2 )=ven now 2 but it is too late$ the outrage has been done in full.) (Stat. Ach. 1.30) Apostrophe : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5 sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person or personified abstraction absent or present. tu sola animos mentem"ue peruris$ %loria ... (+al. Flac. 1.0/20) Archaism : (Figure of Rhetoric). The use of an older or obsolete form of a word. "ualis tunc epulas ipsum gluttisse putamus induperatorem 8where induperatorem is an old form of imperator: (>uv. Sat. 3.2(2;) Assonance : (Figure of Rhetoric). The repetition of the same sound in words close to each other. 6 fortunatam natam me consule Romam? (&icero) Asyndeton : (Figure of Synta ). The absence of con@unctions between coordinate phrases$ clauses$ or words. 5syndeton is a !ind of ellipsis. veni$ vidi$ vici. (Suetonius) Brachylogy : (Figure of Synta ). 5 general term for abbreviated or condensed e pression$ of which asyndeton and Aeugma are types. Ellipse is often used synonymously. The suppressed word or phrase can usually be supplied easily from the surrounding conte t. 5eolus haec contra. 2 5eolus said these words in reply. (+erg. Aen. 1.0/)

Cacophony : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5 harsh se"uence of sounds. 6 Tite tute Tati tibi tanta tyranne tulisti? (=nnius) Catachresis : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5n incorrect use of a word or term. Chiasmus : (Figure of Synta ). Two corresponding noun2ad@ective pairs arranged in inverted order (a2b2b2a)# so named from the shape of the %ree! letter chi (B). This is a form of hyperbaton. et pacis ornamenta et subsidia belli. (&icero) Circumlocution : see periphrasis. Climax : (Figure of Rhetoric). The arrangement of words$ phrases$ or clauses in an order of ascending power. Fre"uently the last emphatic word in one phrase or clause is repeated as the first emphatic word of the ne t. 5fricano industria virtutem$ virtus gloriam$ gloria aemulas comparavit. (&icero) Ellipsis : (Figure of Synta ). The omission of one or more words of a sentence. hic illius arma 8sc. fuerunt:$ hic currus fuit. (+irgil) Epiphora : See antistrophe. Euphemism : (Figure of Rhetoric). The use of mild or discreet language for unpleasant topics. si "uid mihi humanitus accidisset. 2 -f anything in the human manner should happen to me 8C if - should die:. (&icero) Hendiadys : (Figure of Synta ). The use of two nouns connected by a con@unction to e press a single comple idea$ instead of a noun with an ad@ective or genitive. armis viris"ue 8i.e. for viris armatis 2 with armed men:. (Tacitus) Hypallage : (Figure of Synta ). 5lso !nown as transferred epithet. The grammatical agreement of a word with another word which it does not logically "ualify. 5 very common figure in poetry. umeris gaudentibus arcus gestat 4ylas. (+al. Flac. 1.17;)

Dinoia bracchia tauri. (Stat. Ach. 1.1;2) Hyperbaton : (Figure of Synta ). Transposition of words or clauses from their natural order. Eithin this broad category are included i) anastrophe$ ii) hysteron proteron# iii) chiasmus# iv) tmesis. speluncam *ido du et Troianus eandem. (+erg. Aen. 3.123) Hyperbole : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5n e aggeration for emphasis or for rhetorical effect. ventis et fulminis ocior alis. 2 Swifter than the winds and the wings of lightening. (+erg. Aen. '.11;) da mi basia mille. 2 Fiss me a thousand times. (&atullus) Hysteron Proteron : (Figure of Synta ). ().ater2earlier)) 5n inversion of the natural se"uence of events$ often meant to stress the event which$ though later in time$ is considered the more important. This is a form of hyperbaton. moliri hunc puppem iubet et demittere ferro robora. 8Ehere the trees would need to be felled for timber before the ship could be built:. (+al. Flac.) Irony : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5n e pression of something which is contrary to the intended meaning# i.e. the use of a word or phrase for its opposite. legatos bonus imperator vester non admisit. 2 Gour good (i.e. bad) commander did not admit the ambassadors. (.ivy) Litotes : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5n understatement in which an affirmation is e pressed by its contrary$ often used for emphasis (cf. the =nglish e pression )this is no laughing matter)). "uo num"uam terra vocato non concussa tremit. 2 The =arth never fails to tremble when 8this god: is summoned (.uc. /.03'2/) Metaphor : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5n implied comparison achieved through a figurative (rather than literal) use of words. aures veritati clausae sunt. 2 4is ears are closed to the truth. (&icero) fessos sopor alligat artus. 2 Sleep binds my weary limbs. (+al. Flac. 1.3()

natat ignis in ore. 2 Fire shimmers on his face. (Stat. Ach. 1.1/1) Metonymy : (Figure of Rhetoric). Substitution of one word for another which it suggests. 8<oetic usage often involves divinities and their associated domains# e.g. Hacchus for wine# &eres for food# Dars for war. &f. synecdoche:. valido spumantia pocula Haccho. 2 %oblets frothing with strong wine. (+al. Flac.) nomatopoeia : (Figure of Rhetoric). The use of words to imitate natural sounds# accommodation of sound to sense. at tuba terribili sonitu taratantara di it. (=nnius) xymoron : (Figure of Rhetoric). The apparent parado achieved by the @u taposed use of words which seem to contradict one another. aegrescit"ue medendo. 2 The healing only worsens his sic!ness (+erg.$ Aen. 12.3/) omnia Sullanae ... cadavera pacis 2 all the corpses of SullaIs peace (.uc. 2.101). dulcibus armorum furiis. 2 the sweet frenAy of war (Stat. Ach. 1.1;() stetit an ia virtus. 2 an ious courage hesitated (+al. Fl. 1.2'/) Paradox : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5n assertion seemingly opposed to common sense$ but that ma!es sense in conte t. carminibus magicis opus est herbis"ue$ cadaver ut cadat. 2 Dagical spells and herbs were needed in order for the corpse to die. (.uc. /.(2221) Paraprosdo!ian : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5 surprise or une pected ending of a phrase or series. laudandus$ ornandus$ tollendus. 2 4e must be praised$ decorated ... and tolerated. (&icero on 6ctavian) Paronomasia : (Figure of Rhetoric). The use of words that are close in appearance or sound (often creating a play on words).

6rchomenos"ue fera ... Dessene"ue fero . 2 fertile 6rchomemus and fierce Dessene. (6vid Met. /.31/20) hunc avium dulcedo ducit ad avium. 2 The attraction of birds leads him to the untrodden woods 8where the first occurrence of avium is genitive plural of avis (bird)$ the second accusative singular of avius (untrodden). The two occurrences of avium are homonyms$ e cept for the "uantity of the a$ which is short in the first instance and long in the second:. (&icero) Periphrasis : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5lso !nown as circumlocution. 5n indirect or roundabout e pression$ usually using more words than are strictly necessary. innumeros"ue gradus$ gemina latus arbore clusos$ aerium sibi portat iter ... (Stat. Theb. 17.(3122) )4e procured an airy path$ countless steps enclosed between twin trees) 2 i.e. a ladder. Personification : (Figure of Rhetoric). The attribution of personality to an impersonal thing. laeta recurret ... ratis. 2 the vessel shall hasten @oyfully home. (+al. Flac. 1.1072 1) Pleonasm : (Figure of Synta ). The use of full$ redundant$ or emphatic form of e pression$ often enriching the thought. erant itinera duo$ "uibus itineribus e ire possent. 2 There were two ways by which ways they might depart. (&aesar) Polysyndeton : (Figure of Synta ). The repetition of con@unctions in a series of coordinate words$ phrases$ or clauses. omnia Dercurio similis$ vocem"ue colorem"ue et crinis flavos et membra decora iuventae (+erg. Aen. 3.''(2;) Praeteritio : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5lso !nown as apophasis and paraleipsis. 5 pretended omission for rhetorical effect.

Prolepsis : (Figure of Synta ). The anticipation$ in ad@ectives or nouns$ of the result of the action of a verb# also$ the positioning of a relative clause before its antecedent. per"ue cavas terrae$ "uas egit carmine$ rimas manibus inlatrat. 8where cavas aniticpates the verb egit: (.uc. /.02() "eticentia : see aposiopesis. #imile : (Figure of Rhetoric). 5n e plicit comparison between two things (usually using coordinated clauses$ which are often introduced by ut ... sic). ut facibus saepes ardent$ "uas forte viator vel nimis admovit vel iam sub luce reli"uit$ sic deus in flammas abiit ... (6v. Met. 1.3;12') #yllepsis : (Figure of Synta ). The application of one word to two others$ though it is strictly appropriate to only one of them. Syllepsis is sometimes used interchangeably with Aeugma. seu pacem seu bellum geram 2 Ehether - shall wage peace or war. (+erg. Aen. ;.20;) )imbrem et tenebras saevum"ue tridentem iam iam ego et ... torsissem coniugis ignem.) 2 )5lready would - have hurled the rain and the shadows and the savage trident and the firebrand of my husband.) 8Ehere torsissem$ hurl$ is not strictly applicable to tenebras or imbrem: (+al. Fl. 1.11'2/) #ynecdoche : (Figure of Rhetoric). The use of a part for the whole$ or the whole for the part$ of the specific for the general$ or the general for the specific. (&f. metonymy.) statio male fida carinis. 2 5 station unsafe for ships 8where carinis C navibus:. (+erg. Aen. 2.21) #ynesis : (Figure of Synta ). 5lso !nown as constructio ad sensum$ or construction according to sense. The agreement of words according to logic$ and not by the grammatical form# a !ind of anacoluthon. pars certare parati. 2 5 part (i.e. some) willing to contend 8Ehere parati is plural$ conforming to the plural sense of pars$ )some):. (+irgil)

$autology : (Figure of Rhetoric). The repetition of an idea in a different word$ phrase$ or sentence. )Eith malice toward none$ with charity for all.) (.incoln) $mesis : (Figure of Synta ). The separation of the parts of a compound word. This is a form of hyperbaton. nec prius respe i ... "uam venimus. 2 - did not loo! bac! before we arrived 8Ehere prius"uam is the split word:. (+erg. Aen. 2.03121) %eugma : (Figure of Synta ). The use of one word which refers to two or more other words$ but which is understood differently in the different conte ts. The effect is often humorous (cf. )Gou held your breath 2 and the door for me.) 5lanis Dorisette). Jeugma is sometimes used interchangeably with syllepsis. consiliis non curribus utere nostris. 2 )Ta!e my advice 2 not my chariot?) (6vid$ Met. 2.13/) clamorem omnes ... tollunt 8et: gaudia. 2 They all raise a shout and their spirits. (+al. Fl. (.2;'2/)