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Surge current protection using superconductors

Seminar Report

INTRODUCTION
Damage from a short circuit is a constant threat to any electric power system. Insulation damaged by aging an accident or lightning strike can unloose immense fault currents practically the only limit on their size being the impedance of the system between their location and power sources. At their worst, faults can exceed the largest current expected under normal load the nominal current by a factor of 1 producing mechanical and thermal stresses in proportion to the s!uare of the current"s #alue. All power system components must be designed to withstand short circuit stresses for certain period determined by time needed for circuit breakers to acti#ate $% &' ms(. )he higher the fault currents anticipated the higher will be the e!uipment and also the maintenance cost. *o there ob#iously is a big demand for de#ices that under normal operating conditions ha#e negligible influence on power system but in case of fault will limit the prospecti#e fault current. A de#ice of this kind is called fault current limiter. According to the accumulated intelligence of many utility experts, an ideal fault current limit would+ $i( $ii( $iii( ,a#e zero impedance throughout normal operation -ro#ide sufficiently large impedance under fault conditions -ro#ide rapid detection and initiation of limiting action within less than one cycle or 1.ms. $i#( $#( -ro#ide immediate $half cycle or /ms( reco#ery of normal operation after clearing of a fault. 0e capable of addressing tow faults within a period of 11 seconds. Ideal limiters would also ha#e to be compact, light weight inexpensi#e, fully automatic, and highly reliable besides ha#ing long life. In the past, the customary means of limiting fault current ha#e included artificially raising impedance in the system with air&coil rectors or with high
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Surge current protection using superconductors

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stray impedance of transformers and generators or splitting power&grids artificially to lower the number of power sources that could feed a fault current. 2ut such measures are inconsistent with today"s demand for higher power !uality, which implies increased #oltage stiffness and strongly interconnected grids with low impedance. 3hat is need is a de#ice that normally would hardly affect a power system bit during a fault would hold surge current close to nominal #alue that is a fault current limiter. 4ntil recently most fault current limiter concepts depend on mechanical means, on the detuning of 567 resonance circuit or use of strongly non&linear materials other than ,igh )emperature super conditions $,)*(. 2one is without drawbacks.
TRADITIONAL WAY OF FIXING FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS Device 7ircuit 0reaker -ro#en 8eliable ,igh&impedance 9use widely used simple Advantages Disadvantages 2eeds zero current to break -erformances limited to 1 ,as limited life time 0reeds inefficiency in system $high losses( 0reaks too soon $ha#e too low a with&standable fault current( :ust be replaced by hand Air&core reactor pro#en )raditional *ystem 8econfiguration $bus&splitting( pro#en preferred for ;ntails large #oltage drops 7auses substantial power 5oss during normal operation 8educe system reliability reduces operating flexibility fast&growing areas Incurs high cost of adding line. Adds cost % A

Surge current protection using superconductors

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opening circuit breakers

0efore examining super conducting fault current limiters some characteristics f non&linear material deser#e a closer clock. *uper conductors because of their sharp transition from zero resistance at normal currents to finite resistance at higher current densities are tailor made for use in fault current limiters. ;!uipped with proper power controlled electronics, a super conducting limiter can rapidly detect a surge and taken and can also immediately reco#er to normal operation after a fault is cleared. *uperconductors lose their electrical resistance below certain critical #alues of temperature, magnetic field and current density. A simplified phase diagram of a super conductor defines three regions.

In the innermost, where #alues for temperature, field, and current density are low enough, the material is in its true superconducting state and has zero
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Surge current protection using superconductors

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resistance. In a region surrounding that area, resisti#ely rises steeply as #alues for three #ariables so higher. <utside that area, recepti#ity is in essence independent of field and current density as with ordinary conductors. 4ntil the disco#ery of high temperature superconductors in 1=/., the only material known to super conduct had to be cooled to below %'> $&%1 7(. )he cost of cooling such low temperature superconductor which is mostly metals, alloys and inter&metallic, makes their use in many possible applications commercially impractical. )he high temperature superconductors ha#e a critical temperature in the comparati#ely balmily #icinity of 1 > and can be maintained at that temperature by means of li!uid nitrogen $as opposed to helium( cooling. )he relati#e immaturity of ,)* materials processing and their complex ceramic structures render it difficult to draw them out into long and flexible conductors.

Surge current protection using superconductors

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MATERIAL ISSUES
5ow&temperature superconducting $5)*( wire has been a#ailable for se#eral decades. Its ac losses ha#e been reduced by the de#elopment of multi filament wire. )he diameter of the filament is of the order of .1@m and they are decouples by a highly resisti#e, normal conducting matrix which also ser#es as thermal stabilization. *ince any magnetic field interacts only with the #ery thin and decoupled filaments, the ac losses in the materials are tolerable e#en at extremely low temperatures $for 5)* application, usually ?.% >, boiling point of li!uid helium(. >ept this cold, the specific heat of 5)* is #ery low, but the current carrying capacity is #ery high $greater than 1
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A7m%(. 7onse!uently any

concei#able *7975 based on 5)* would exceed its critical temperature within se#eral hundred microseconds of a fault. 0y the same token the material is prone to hot spots, which some tiny disturbance can trigger e#en at sub critical current #alues. 0ecause of such properties 5)* material is predestined for the fast heating resistor design. A fast homogenous transmission into the normal conducting state is supported by excellent thermal conducti#ity which together with the low specific heat, leads to rapid propagation of hot spots. 3hile there is only one large program left in the low temperature type of *795, more than 1 maAor proAects are under way worldwide on high temperature type of de#ice. )he main reason in the lower ,)* cooling cost. ;ssentially Aust three types of ,)* materials are a#ailableB all made from bismuth $0*77<( or yttrium&cuprate $C07<( compound. )hey are sil#er sheathed wire $based on 0i %%%'(, thin films $based on C07<( and bulk material $based on 0i %%1%, 0i %%%' or C07<(. 4sable in #arying degrees either resisti#e or shielded core *795s, these materials are #ery poor at conducting heat, unlike
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Surge current protection using superconductors

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the 5)*. In other words, hot spots don"t propagate fast in the ,)* so that electrical stabilization becomes a maAor concern. )he ,)* materials with the highest critical current are C07< films. )hey are typically, 1@m thick and ha#e a current criticality threshold at DD> or up to % >A cm&%. 0ut it is #ery difficult produce C07< films that are either long or extensi#e. 2e#ertheless, se#eral groups are de#eloping limiters based on these materials. 0ecause of their high critical current and the need to conser#e material, any economically Austifiable design will perforce be of fast heating type. )he huge electric field&current density product in a fault will heat the ,)* to the point of normal resistance setting in within a few hundred microseconds. *795s may be categorized as resisti#e or shield core.

Surge current protection using superconductors

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RESISTIVE LIMITERS
In the resisti#e *7975, the super conductor is directly connected in series with the line to be protected. )o keep it superconducting, it is usually immersed in a coolant that is chilled by a refrigerator. 7urrent leads are designed to transfer as little heat as possible from the outside to the coolant. In normal operation, the current and its magnetic field can #ary but temperature is held constant. )he cross section of super conductor is such as to let it stay below critical current density, since its recepti#ity is zero in this regimeB the impedance of the *7975 is negligible and does not interfere with the network. All the same the superconductor"s impedance is truly zero only for dc currents. )he more common as applications are affected by two factors. 9irst, the finite length of the conductor produces a finite reactance which howe#er can be kept low by special conductor architecture. *econd a superconductor is not loss free in ac operation, the magnetic as field generated by the current produces so called ac losses basically, Aust eddy current losses. )hese are hea#ily influenced by the geometry of the conductor and can be reduced by decreasing the conductor dimension trans#erse to direction of local magnetic field. )hey barely contribute to total *7975 impedance but dissipate energy in superconductor, thus raising cooling costs. In case of a fault the inrush of current and magnetic field take the super conductor into the transition region, between zero resistance and normal recepti#ity. )he fast rising resistance limits the fault current to a #alue some where between the nominal current and what e#er fault current otherwise would ensure. After some time, perhaps a tenth of seconds, a breaker will interrupt the current. )he beha#ior of resistic fault current limiter is largely determined by the length of the superconductor and the type of material used for it.
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Surge current protection using superconductors

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SUPERCONDUCTORS AS VARIA LE RESISTORS AND SWITC!ES


*e#eral anisotropic high temperature superconductor show critical current densities which are strongly dependent on direction of an applied external magnetic field. )he resistance of a sample can change by se#eral orders of magnitude by applying a magnetic field. )he current carrying capability of both low temperature and high temperature super conductors decreases with the application of a magnetic field. *ome anisotropic high temperature superconductors in particular the bismuth and thallium based super conductors show a resistance that is highly dependent on the amplitude and direction of applied field.E1,%F

Resistance Fie"d De#endence O$ !TS Wi%e


Anisotropic ,)* materials show a dependence of the critical current density and therefore the resisti#ity, on the direction of applied magnetic field. ,owe#er, if the magnetic field is perpendicular to the ab plane, a steep exponential reduction with field in the critical current density is obser#ed.

Surge current protection using superconductors

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0y rotating a ,)* wire sample along a&axis in a constant magnetic field, the #oltage #aries as a function of angle as shown in figure below.

Goltage drop in a 0*77< sample as a function of external magnetic field angle. )he measured #oltage drop is directly proportional to the resistance of the samples because the current is constant. )he resistance of the samples shows, to the first approximation a sinusoidal dependence on angle, which is formed by the c axis and the direction of external field. )he sample resisti#ity is the highest, when the field is parallel to the c axis $ H (. 3hile the #oltage drop and resistance #alues of the samples shown in figure abo#e $measurements made at D1k. )est sample was 1 cm long 0*77< tape with a sil#er sheath( are rather modest, larger #alues can be achie#ed with longer sample length. )he G&1 characteristics of thallium based short sample is shown in figure below for a field of #ariable strength parallel to the c&axis.E'F.

Surge current protection using superconductors

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)he sample, which is commercially a#ailable is 1 cm long and is formed in a meander line fashion. )he super conduction is )1%%1%% an 5anthanium Aluminates substrate. )he figure clearly shows that, with increasing magnetic field, the critical current of sample decreases. 3hile sample can carry a current of .?A in superconducting state with no background field, the current capability is reduced to .1A with an applied external field of % Iausses. )he resistance of the sample in flux flow state is limited by the resisti#ity of the sheath or substrate material. )he resisti#ity of sheath or substrate should be high to achie#e a large resistance ratio between the resisti#e and the superconducting state. 4se of field dependent resister in the form of a #ariable resistor and switch can be used for fault current limiters. A natural application of the low and high resistance state of a ,)* wire is as a fault current limiter. A fault current limiter is a de#ice that reduces current in short circuit in an ac system to a determined allowable lower #alue. During normal operation the ,)* wire, installed in each phase of a power system has no external field applied.
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Surge current protection using superconductors

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)he resistance #alues of the super conducting were is extremely low. If a fault occurs in the system, the fault current is sensed and background field for the ,)* wire is turned on, which results in a resistance increase in the circuit and in a reduction of the fault current. A simplified in diagram of a fault current limiter is gi#en below.

Included in the figure is a current sensing unit which measures the initial current rise of the fault current and triggers the current flows for the background magnet controlling the #alue of the background field adAusts the resistance of the superconducti#ity were and the fault current le#el.

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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T!E S!IELDED CORE SCFCL


)he shielded core fault current limiter basically a shorted transformer is the other basic category of *7975s. ,ere, the superconductor is connected in the line not gal#anic ally but magnetically. )he de#ice"s primary coil is normal conducting and connected in series to the line to be protected, while the secondary side is superconducting and shorted. $0ecause of the inducti#e coupling between the line and superconductor the de#ice is sometimes also called and inducti#e *7975(. In normal operation, the iron core sees no magnetic field because it is completely shielded by the superconductor hence the name of shielded core. Depending on the turn ratio between primary and secondary side, the nominal current and #oltage will be transformed to type secondary side as the product of turn ratio and current and ratio of #oltage to turn ratio. )he superconductor on the secondary has to be designed for this #alue. Assuming an ideal transformer, the shielded core *7975 will beha#e exactly like a resisti#e *7975. *ince the turn of the secondary winding may be far fewer than on the primary winding only short superconductors are needed and the total #oltage drop in the cryogenic part of the de#ice is small. In most approaches in fact there is Aust one secondary turn that is the superconducting winding is a tube as shown in figure.

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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D&na'ica" '(de"
In principle our *7975 is a transformer, with a short circuited, strongly temperature dependent and highly non ohmic secondary winding $9ig. .(. If we label primary $normal( and secondary $superconducting( side by number 1 and % respecti#ely the e!uation describing the *7975 can be written in following way.

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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;!ui#alent circuit

G1 < ,

H H H

81l1J511 8%I%J51%
nl1 + 1% h

dI 1 dI + L1% % dt dt dl1 dl + L%% % dt dt

cdT % = R% l % Pc dt

3here I1 H 7urrent in normal conducting coil 81 H 8esistance of coil I% H 7urrent in super conducting tube 8% H 8% $I%, ,, )( H resistance of superconductor : H :agnetic field due to I1 and 1% ) H )emperature of superconductor n H 2umber of primary turns
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Surge current protection using superconductors h H ,eight of primary coil and superconductor c H 7apacity of heat of superconductor -c H ,eat power transferred to li!uid nitrogen In approximation of long coil the inductance coefficients are
L11 $ H ( =

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o n % [r -r + $$ H ( 1( r % co] h

L1% $ H ( = L%% $ H ( =

o n % [ r sc + $ $ H ( 1(.rco % ] h
o % L [ r sc + $ $ H ( 1(.rco % ] = 1% h h
B

3here $h( H $ H ( is the effecti#e permeability of the iron core and o rpr, rsc and rco are the radii of the primary coil, the superconducting tube and core respecti#ity. )he set of e!uations can be mapped exactly onto the e!ui#alent circuit shown in fig. D in which 5s to study impedance which is approximation of a long coil is.
5s H

o n % ( rpr % r % sc ) h

As with the resisti#e *7975 can be tailored by #arying the electric field induced along tube"s circumference during the fault. )he decisi#e parameters for this *7975 design are the number of primary turn and the height, diameter and wall thickness of the superconducting tube. )he cross section of the iron core is designed almost as with a transformer. 9or efficient magnetic coupling between primary and secondary and optimal use of the amount of iron, the core should be designed to stay Aust below saturation during the fault. A gi#en induced field in the superconductor, a gi#en net fre!uency and a gi#en insulation distance between core and super conducting tube, determine the diameter of core and tube.

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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)he number of primary turns is then determined by nominal #oltage. )he tub"s iron section $thickness times height( as in case of resisti#e de#ice has to be chosen to ensure that at the nominal current, the conductor stages superconducting. Again, remember that in normal operation the superconductor is exposed to magnetic field in this case the sum of the field of primary coil and the field of the superconducting tube. 3ith the cross section fixed, the thickness and height of the tube can still be #aried. Adding to its height in effect subtracts from the magnetic field and permits a thinner wall, so that ac loses are far less on the other hand, the de#ice is hea#ier. )he de#ice will show some small reactance under normal operation essentially the short circuit reactance of a transformer, proportional to the gap between coil and tube. *ince this gap is determined by the thermal and electric insulation, it is generally difficult to keep the reactance as small as for the resisti#e de#ice. )he fact that the iron core is not exposed to magnetic fields in normal operation cuts costs in comparison with a real transformer. )he core need not be made of expensi#e transformer steel but of rather cheap and thick construction steel sheets. $0ut insulated sheets are still re!uired for the Aob of interrupting screening currents in the iron during the fault(. Also, the core need not be closed, since the magnetic coupling pro#ided by and open core usually suffices for the current limitation process.

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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COMPARISON
0oth the shielded core and resisti#e types of *7975 use the same amount of superconductor material to achie#e a gi#en limitation beha#ior. )his is because the rated power per #olume of conductor is determined by the product of fault induced field and critical current, which is the same for both de#ices assuming the same type of superconducting material, is employed. )he shielded core limiter works only with ac currents and is much larger and hea#ier than the resisti#e *7975. 0ut it needs no current leads, and uses short conductors with high rated current $o se#eral superconductors in parallel(. Its independence of current leads is especially attracti#e where the protection of high current systems is in#ol#ed. And a#oidance of a #ery long superconductor with rather low rated currents answers problem that afflicts *7975s of the resisti#e type+ hot spots. It war earlier assumed that while a fault current is being limited, the #oltage drop is uniform throughout the conductor. 0ut in practice superconductors tend to de#elop thermal instabilities, called hot spots, connected with the strong current and temperature dependence of their resisti#ity in the transition state. If a part of the superconductor sees a greater #oltage drop than the rest, as a result of an in homogeneity, this part will heat up faster, leading to an e#en greater #oltage drop at that point and further accelerated heating 0urn& through can result. )he common cure is to attach a normal conducting by pass in close electrical contact to the superconductor, so that the current may by pass the hot spots. 0esides its electrical effect, the bypass adds to the thermal mass of the conductor and thus further enhances its stability. 0ut of course such thermal such thermal stabilization of super conductor reduces its total normal resistances, which might ha#e to ne lengthened in compensation.
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Surge current protection using superconductors

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!Y RID CURRENT LIMITER


)he ad#antages of this scheme are the reduction of superconducting weight and current compared to the resisti#e system. It consists of a series resisti#e transformer whose primary winding is inserted in series in the line and whose secondary winding is inserted in series in the line and whose secondary windings are connected to non&inducti#ity wound conducting coils in two essentially different ways as shown.

*chemes for hybrid superconducting limiters. )he transformer has two functions. A fa#orable ratio of the primary series turns o#er total secondary turns reduces the secondary current and hence the superconducting current compared to the line current. )his point is important taking into account the difficulties encountered when a high ac current is passed through superconducting cable. )he transformer reduces the necessary

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superconducting #olume needed compared to resisti#e limiter of same characteristics $line current and #oltage(. )his possible reduction is brought about by the #ariation of the magnetic coupling between primary and secondaries. )he #ariation of magnetic coupling may be may be performed by a saturable magnetic circuit. In steady state operation the primary and secondary winding should be magnetically coupled #ery well in order to reduce the self inductance of the de#ice and hence its #oltage drop under rated operation. 4nder fault operation the coupling is decreased in order to reduce the thermal dissipation in superconducting coils thanks to lower secondary #oltages. )he magnetic circuit is not saturated under rated operation as the field is low in relation to the reduced #oltage drop across the primary $some K of line #oltage( and the coupling between the windings is good. 4nder fault operation, the high #oltage across the primary $1 is reduced in a natural and automatic way. )he numerous secondary windings reduce the dielectric stresses on them and the superconducting windings. As the #oltage de#ices from the magnetic field, these !uantities if sinusoidal are in !uadrature and the maximum #oltage occur when the field is low and they are not affected by the reduction of coupling under fault operation. *o secondary #oltage are proportional to the ratio of the series turns. 3ith only one secondary, the reduction by ten for superconducting current leads to o#er #oltages reaching ten times the line #oltage for scheme $b( and fi#e for scheme $a(. this is hardly acceptable se#eral secondaries sol#e these problems but they increase the cryogenic loss related to current leads. *cheme $a( is particularly adapted for o#er #oltage reduction. K of line #oltage, neglecting the line impedance( increase the field in the magnetic circuit, saturate it and the coupling

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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MAGNETIC S!IELDING TYPE SUPERCONDUCTING FAULT CURRENT LIMITER


)he limiter uses a superconductor to shield the magnetic field generated. )he design is based on using a superconducti#e cylinder to shield the iron core from A7 magnetic field generated by the primary winding. During a fault caused, the magnetic field penetrates the superconducting shield at large impedance.

$a( schematic diagram of a *7975

Surge current protection using superconductors

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$b( )he photograph )he magnetic shielding type *7975 consists of limiting element, an iron core and a control ring. )he fault current limiting element is a superconducti#e cylinder around which a co#ered copper wire for 1mm in diameter is wound. )he wound part extends . mm with two layers of 11' turns. )he iron core is made from a silicon steel plate $L) 1 , .1t( and is cut at the centre. )he iron core is '/ mm in diameter, =/mm in width and 1D?mm in length. )he control ring is added to control the currents of superconducti#e cylinder in fault conditions. )he control ring is a copper cylinder of ?1 mm in diameter, 1.1mm in thickness and 1mm in length.

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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EXPERIMENTAL AND RESULT


S)(%t ci%c*iting test )he test circuit consists of a power source, a protecting resistance for the source, a circuit breaker $70( a *7975, a load, and a short circuiting switch. *hort circuiting tests were carried out with the *7975 socked in li!uid nitrogen without the control ring. )he #oltage and fre!uency of the source were 1 G and 1 ,z. )he circuit took a current of 1A in normal operation and the short circuiting switch was closed in fault condition. )he load was adAusted so that current in fault conditions may be about 11 times as high as normal operations.

)est 7ircuit )he wa#e forms in tests of *7975 are shown in figure below

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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0roken lines are wa#eforms without *7975. After a fault occurs, the peak current in first cycle was about ' A peaks. )he current of 0i%%1% decreased rapidly after the first cycle. )he limiting to the first peak current is caused by increase of reactance for lowering the shielding effect. 0ut after the first peak current as the superconducti#e cylinder !uenches completely, the limiting is caused by increase in resisti#ity. )he limiting of 0i%%1% has been achie#ed in about 1 m*. After a fault occurs, the impedance characteristics at the start point of second cycle are as shown. 8atio of Impedance 0i%%1% 1? .% 8atio of resistance 1'=.1 8atio of reactance 1?/.=

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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Rec(ve%& ($ S*#e%c(nd*ctive State


9or purpose of reco#ering the super conduction state in a shorter time, a control ring is added to the superconducti#e state of *7975. 8eco#ery test were performed as follows three cycles after the occurrence of a fault, a 70 was opened and after certain time it was closed. 3hen the 70 is closed, if the *7975 has reached the superconducting state the time between the openings to closing of 70 is defined as reco#ering time.

3a#eform for the reco#ery test.

8eco#ery characteristics of the *7975


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Surge current protection using superconductors

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9rom the result of tests it is obser#ed that the reco#ery time with the control ring added was shorter than that without the control ring. )he reason is that control ring shares the energy for limiting, to keep down the rising temperature of the superconducting cylinder and makes the time for reco#ery shorter.

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IDENTIFICATION
LTS
8esistance *7975s $fast heating type( )oshiba corp. >awasaki, Mapan together with )okyo utility )epco has built a 1'.% :GA $..>GN% phase prototype a %&? IGA de#ice is under de#elopment. I;7 Alstom along with ;lectrocute de 9rance $;D9( de#eloped and tested a D.. :GA $'1>GN%1 A( single phase de#ice. A( single

!TS
American superconductor corp. $A*7( and sumitomo electric Industries ltd ha#e produced ling lengths of sil#er sheathed wire based on 0i %%%' with a critical current at DD> on the order of 1 >Acm&%. )his wire might suit cable, motor and transformer applications but is poorly suited for *7975 because its high sil#er content gi#es it a low normal resistance. At this stage of material de#elopment the sil#er sheath must be rather thick if it is not to leak 0i%%%' during processing. )hus #ery ling lengths are needed to build up the resistance for fault limitation. *o used only for constant temperature resisti#e type of *7975. )he situation will change if resist#ity of sil#er matrix can be raised. A proAect along these lines led by A00 in partnership with A*7 and ;lectricite de 9rance has been launched to de#elop a current timely transfer. *iemens ha#e demonstrated a resisti#e 1 >GA model base?d on C07<

9ilms. )he were deposited on flat ceramic substrates, co#ered with a gold bypass, and patterned into meander. As a next step the company has planned to de#elop a I:GA de#ice. *e#eral groups are in#estigating methods for fabricating C07< film on ling and flexible metallic substrates. 0ased on such preliminary flexible

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Surge current protection using superconductors

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conductor a small 975 demonstrator has been built by sumitomo electric in co operation with )epco. )o date, the largest 975+ photo types designed around the high temperature superconducting phenomenon utilize so called bulk ceramic parts A00 has based a three phase 1.% :GA prototype on 0i%%1% material $critical current of about %>Acm&% at DD>(. )he de#ice operated for one year under actual conditions in *wiss hydroplant

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CONCLUSION
)he purpose of this paper was the study of surge current protection using superconductors. )he *7975 offers efficient ad#antages to power system and opens up a maAor application for super conducting materials.

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REFERENCES
+, www.superconductors.com -, >; Iray, D; flower&Osuperconducting fault current limiterP ., I;;; transaction on Applied superconducti#ity #ol.', march 1==D /, www. I;;;.org

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A STRACT
)he recent growth of power circuit capacities has caused fault currents to increase. *ince the protection of power systems from the fault currents is #ery important, it is needed to de#elop a fault current limiter. A fault current limiter is re!uired to assure $1( rapid reaction to fault currents, $%( how impedance in normal operation and $'( large impedance during fault conditions. A super conducting fault current limiter $*7975( can meet these re!uirements superconductors, because of their sharp transition from zero resistance at normal current to finite resistance at higher current densities, are tailor&made for use in 975s. *uper conductors are of two types&high temperature superconductors $,I)*( and low temperature superconductor $5)*(. )he ,)* are substances that lose all resistance below temperature main tamable by li!uid nitrogen. 5)* are substances that lose all recepti#ity close to ?k, a temperature attainable only using by using li!uid helium. 7ost of cooling 5)* $which are mostly metals, alloys and intermettalics( makes their use in many applications commercially impractical. ,)* material a#ailable are all made of bismuth $0*77<( or yttrium&cup rate $C07<(. *o far, #arious types of *795* ha#e been de#eloped $resistance, shield core type, hybrid etc.(. )he *7975 offers efficient ad#antages to power system and opens up a maAor application for superconducting materials.

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