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STUDENT'S BOOK

Unit
1
page 8
Title
The global teenager
Topics
Comm unicat i on,
th e environment
Grammar
Present simpl e, present
cont i nuous
Use of English
Error correction
(Part 4)
2
Visions of the future Science-f iction films, Past simple, present Open doze
space t rave l perfect simple and (Part 2)
page 16
continuous
3
The truth is out there Mystery stories Past perf ect simple and Mu lt iple choice
page 24
conti nuous, past doze (Part 1)
conti nuous
Review: Units 1-3 page 32
4
Sunny days The weath er and Futu re (1): f uture Open doze
page 34
th e natural world simple, going to, (Part 2)
present continuous,
pr esent simpl e
5
The secrets of science
Science and Fut ure (2): future Error correction
t echnology perf ect simple, (Part 4)
page 42
future perfect
continuous, f uture
continuous
6
Looking good, Health and fi tn ess, Conditional (1): first Open doze
page 50
feeling good f ood and second (Part 2)
cond itionals
Revi ew: Units 4-6 page 58
7
A good story St ory-te lling Condit ional (2): t hird Mult iple choice
page 60
condit ional, wishes doze (Part 1)
and reg rets
2
8
page 68
Wonders of the world Ancient hi story The passive Erro r cor rect ion
(Part 4)
Contents
Vocabulary Reading Listening Speaking Writing
Describing movement Multiple matching:
Note-taking Pairwork task Transactiona l
Phrasal verbs wi t h summari es
(Part 2) (Part 3) l etter (Part 1)
on and up (Part 1)
Words often conf used
Compound nou ns Mul ti ple matching
Multipl e cho ice Pairwor k task Informal letter
Collocation (computers) (Part 4)
(Part 4) (Part s 3 and 4) (Part 2)
Phrasal verbs wit h get
Part s of speech
Gapped text :
Note-taki ng Inf ormati on gap Short story
Words often confused sent ences (Part 3)
(Part 2) (Part 2)
Phr asal verbs with go
Idioms (t ime)
Words often confused
Prepositi ons (wit h
adjectives and no uns)
Wo rds often conf used
Word bu i ldi ng (f ood)
Phr asal verbs (f ood and
drink)
Word bui ldi ng
Collocat ion (go and have)
Words often confused
Noun suff ixes
Phrasal verbs
wit h up and down
Multiple cho ice
(Part 2)
Multiple matchi ng:
headi ngs (Part 1)
Multi ple choi ce
(Part 2)
Multiple matching
(Part 4)
Multi ple matc hi ng
(Part 4)
Yes/No
questi ons
(Part 4)
Mul t i ple choice
(Part 1)
Mu ltiple choice
(Part 4)
Yes/No
questions
(Part 4)
Mu ltiple
matching
(Part 3)
Photographs (Part 2)
Pairwork ta sk
Photographs (Part 2)
Inf ormati on gap
Planni ng a tourist
brochure
Transactional
letter (Part 1)
Magazine
article (Part 2)
Inf ormal letter
(Part 2)
Short story
(Part 2)
Report (Part 2)
3
Contents
Unit Title Topics Grammar Use of English
9
Star players Sport, famous Reported speech Open doze
page 76
peopl e (Part 2)
Review: Units 7- 9 page 84
10
Fun and games Celebrations and Gerunds and infi nitives Word formation
page 86
festival s (Part 5)
11
page 94
From Columbus to
Concorde
Travel and
transport
Comparati ve and
superlative adject ives
Multi ple choice
doze (Part 1)
12
page 102
Making money,
spending money
Shopping and
consumerism
Relative clauses and
pronouns
Multipl e choice
cloze (Part 1)
Review: Units 10-12 page 110
13
page 112
14
page 120
15
page 128
Smart kids
The world's best, the
world's worst
Work and play
Educati on
The media, crime
Summer j obs
Moda l verbs (1)
Modal verbs (2): moda l
perfect
Clauses of purpose and
reason
Open doze
(Part 2)
Word formation
(Part 5)
Multiple choice
doze (Part 1)
Error correction
(Part 4)
4
Review: Units 13-15 page 136
Communication activities pages 139, 140
Grammar reference page 141
Phrasal verb dictionary page 157
Vocabulary
Antonyms
Words often conf used
Collocation (sport)
Reading
Mul ti pl e matching :
headi ngs (Part 1)
List ening
Note-taking
(Part 2)
Speaking
Information gap
(Part 1)
Contents
Writing
Magazine
article (Part 2)
Countable and Mu ltiple choice Multiple choice Pairwork task Descriptive
uncountable noun s (Part 2) (Part 4) (Parts 3 and 4) composition
Collocation {fun and (Part 2)
games)
Words often confused
Word formation (making Gapped t ext: Note-taking Photographs (Part 2) Report (Part 2)
adjectives) sent ences (Part 3) (Part 2)
Words often confused
Collocat ion (take)
Transiti ve and intransitive Multiple choice Mu ltiple Pairwork task (Parts 3 Transact ional
verbs (Part 2) matching and 4) letter (Part 1)
Phrasal verbs wit h take (Part 3)
Words often conf used
Parts of speech Gapped text: True/False Pairwork task Opinion
Collocation missing questions (Parts 3 and 4) composition
(make and do) paragraphs (Part 4) (Part 2)
Collocat ion (exams) (Part 3)
Word format ion (noun Gapped t ext : Multiple Telling a story using Argumentative
suffixes) missing matching picture prompts composition
Phrasal verbs with break paragraphs (Part 3) (Part 2)
Collocation (law and (Part 3)
order)
Word fo rmat ion (suffixes) Multiple matching Multiple choice Photographs (Part 2) Letter of
Words often conf used (Part 4) (Part 1) applicat ion
Collocation and idi oms (Part 2)
Gobs)
5
6
The Cambridge First Certificate Examination has five papers, each of which tests
a different area of your ability in English. Each paper is worth 20% of the total.
Paper 1 Reading (1 hour 15 minutes)
The reading paper has f our parts, each of which consists of a text and a comprehension task
of some kind. The types of text used include magazine and newspaper articles, reports, guides,
advert isement s and stories. There is a total of 35 questions.
Part Questions Task
1 Multiple matching 6 or 7 You have 10 ma rch headi ngs or su mmary sentences to their
appropriate paragraphs.
2 Multiple choice 7 or 8 You have to choose the correct answer or end of a se nt ence
from a cho ice of four.
3 Gapped text 6 or 7 You aTC' given se ntences or paragraph s whic h have been
removed from the te xt and have to decid e where [he y should
go in the text.
4 Multiple match ing 13- 15 The t ext is di vided into different sections. You arc given sentences
and have to decide which section each Dill' ref ers to.
Paper 2 Writing (1 hour 30 minutes)
The writing paper has t wo parts. Part 1 is compulsory and consists of a transacti onal letter. In Part 2,
you can choose t o answer one of f ive tasks. One of these tasks is always a question on a set book.
Part Questions Task
1 Transactional letter
I
1 You have 10 write a letter that has a specific purpose
(eg to ask for infor mation Of to complain). You arc given
information that you have 10 include in your letter.
2 Aniclc/composi rion/ Choose I of 5 You have to write a text based OIl a ' real life' contex t
rep ort /letter/story / (eg writing an articl e for a school magazi ne ):
book report
Paper 3 Use of English (1 hour 15 minutes)
Thi s paper has f ive parts and tests your knowledge of grammar and vocabulary.
There is a t ota l of 65 questions.
Part Questions Task
1 Multipl e choice doze 15 You arc given a t e xt wi th I S gaps and have to choose the
correct answe r for each gap from a choice of four.
-
2 Open doze 15 You arc given a text with I Sgaps and have 10 fill each gap
wit h an app ropriate word .
Introduction to the Cambridge FCE
Paper 3 continued
3 Key word 10 You a rc given a complete sent ence followed hy a gap pcd
t ran sformari ons sentence. You ha ve to complete the gappcd se ntence us ing
a give n wo rd so that it mea ns the same as th e first sentence.
4 Error correct ion 15 You an,' given a te xt of 15 lines. some of which contain
un necessary words. You have to decide which line s a rc
cor rect . and which contain an unnecessary word.
5 Word formation 10 You arc given a text with ten gaps . You have to fill each
gap using the appropriate form of the wo rd stems given.
Paper 4 Listening (about 40 minutes)
The listening paper has f our parts, each of which consists of a li st ening te xt and a comprehensi on t ask
of some ki nd. The t ypes of listen ing t ext used include intervi ews, conversat ions, news reports, ta lks and
phon e messages. A variety of accents are used, and you wi ll hear each list ening t ext twice. There is a total
of 30 questi ons.
Part Questions Task
1 Mult iple choice 8 You will hear eight short, unconn ected extracts. You have
to answer Cl mul tiple choice que stion about eac h OI1C .
2 Note taki ng/ 10 You will hear a monologue or conversation. You have
blan k filling to complete notes or sentences.
3 Mult iple mat ch ing 5 You will hea r five sho rt extra cts whi ch a re rel ated in some way.
You have to match each extract wi th a given sentence.
4 Selecting from two or 7 You will hea r a mo no logue or conversation. You have to
three possible an swers answer question s which involve choosing between two or three
possible answers (Yes/No, True/False, mu lt iple choice, which
speaker said what) .
Paper 5 Speaking (about 15 minutes)
In the speaki ng paper t here are usuall y t wo candi dat es and t wo exami ners. One of the examiners
intervi ews t he candidates; t he other examiner li stens and assesses t he candidates, but does not joi n
in the i ntervi ew.
Part Time Task
1 Int erview 3 minutes The exa miner will ask you and the ot her candidate to talk about
yourselves (eg where you come from, ere).
2 Talkin g about 4 min utes The exa miner will give you and the ot her candidate two photographs
photograph s each. In tu rn, you have to tal k abo ut your photographs for about
two minut es.
3 Pairwork (ask 3 minutes The exa miner will give you and the ot her candidate a visua l prompt
(cg a photo, a map, a diagram) and wi ll set yOll a task to do.
The task may involve planning somet hing, solvi ng a problem or
rea ching a decision.
4 Discussion 4 minutes The exami ner will ask you and the other candi da te ge nera l
opinion questions about (he topi c of th e pair work task.
7
Reading
o Work wit h a partner. Look at the photograph and discuss
these questions.
What arc these young people wea ring?
2 How do they spend the ir free time? What mu sic do they
listen to?
3 What languages do they speak? Wher e do they learn English?
4 Which satellite TV cha nne ls do they watch? Do they use the
Inte rnet ?
Readthe text and check your answers.
Teenagers of the
world unite!
Will teenagers be the force of the future?
Carol Packer looks at the rise of the global teenager.
4
3
Kids these days can chat on line with friends
thou sands of mil es away. In fact. a teenager in
Ind ia ma y feel they have mor e in commo n with
an Internet friend in Brazil than with ot he r young
peopl e in their own count ry. Young people around
30 the globe are beginning to hang around together
on the Int ern et as they used to on the street.
The popularity of the satellite TV cha nnel MTV is
20 evidence of thi s: the ir pop videos play in every
corner of the plan et , from Stock ho lm 10 Sofia,
from At hens 10 Atlant a, and since most of the
songs are in English, kids from all over the world
learn to sing in English too.
There ma y be a greater readiness to lea rn language
on the streets of cyberspace than in the classroom.
More and more peop le are learning English from
35 their friend s on the Int ernet and it is not always
the same as the English they learn in th e
classroom.
OA
2
The strongest force in int ernational youth culture
today is pop music. Mu sic ha s univer sal appea l.
Wh ile the populat ion of Europe and Ame rica is
growing olde r, those in developing countries are
becoming younger. In th e non-western world,
part icul arl y India, China and Brazil, there is an
5 infl uential generation of teenagers growing up.
These young peopl e' s tastes influence the design
of clothes and cars; whole industr ies ar e appear ing 25
to help tee nagers spend their free time - and their
money.
10 English plays an important part in a teenager' s
world; it is the dominant langua ge in yout h style
and is one way in which teen agers across the
wor ld can communicate with each other and share
a common cult ure. The existence of graffiti wr itten
t 5 in Engli sh in so man y countries is one exampl e of
th is.
8
5
Tim Berners-Lc e. the Brit ish inventor of the
World Wide Web , imagi nes th e effect of the
40 Intern et on a teenage bo y: his sea rch engine
shows him a random select ion of th e 643,768
people around the world whose preferences in
reading are simila r to his own. He knows th at
he may live in a small town in the Netherla nds
45 but he is right in the centre of the mai n trend,
he fee ls he is exactly in tu ne wit h all his
un see n friends.
6
But compani es like Benetton say they are
also tryi ng to create a yout h agenda la uni te
50 teenagers of the world. Thi s agenda includes
an awareness of the global envi ronment and
human rights. The Benetton message says
teenagers do not always conform to the same
style. Th us, those who wear the ' united
55 colours of Benetton' are encouraged to
cel ebrate together th ei r individua l a nd
cult ural difference.
The global teenager 1
FeE practice: Part 1
e Choose from the li st A-H th e sentence which
bes t summarizes each part 1-6 of th e art icle.
There is one extra sent ence which you do not
need to use. There is an examp le at the
beginning (0).
A A ne w gen eration appears on the world sce ne.
B Compute rs create a new kind of
nei ghbourhood.
C New ways of learn ing English have appea red .
D Teenagers also have language in co mmon.
E A tuneful language th at everyone unde rstands.
F Teenagers like to be different too.
G Education is chang ing to meet the needs of
modern teenagers.
H The man who first though t of th e Web .
oWork wit h a partner and give your own
answers to the questions in exe rcise I.
I am wearing a tracksuit and trainers.
I like listening to music and rollerblading.
oFind words in the t ext that have a similar
meaning to the following.The first letter of each
word is given to help you.
I th e n umber of people who live in a town or
country p' _
2 people of the same age group g _
3 the effect something or someone has
4 th e work and the processes in volved in th e
product ion of goods, es pecially in factories
i _
5 writing and pictures d rawn on th e wa lls of
buildings g _
6 someone who de signs or ma kes new things
i _
7 a fashion t _
8 to do something speci al because some thing
good ha s happened c _
9 to beha ve in the ex pecte d way c _
9
The global teenager
Grammar and Use of English
Present simple, present continuous
11 We use t he present simple to do the
following th ings:
a 10 talk about gene ral scientific tru t hs
b to describe present act ions, eg in
commentaries
c to talk about how often we do things
Mat ch the uses above with these exa mples.
I They go to t he office eve ry day.
2 The ea rt h goes round the sun.
3 Romari o passes the ball; he shoots.
III We use the present conti nuous to do the
following th ings:
a to tal k about things happening now
b to talk about changing situa tions
c to talk about irritat ing things which often happen
Match t he uses above with t hese examples.
I You' re always dropping th ings!
2 It' s stoppe d raining - th e sun's shining.
3 What arc you dning under the bed?
See grammar reference page 141 .
oComplete these sentences using the correct
form (present simple) of the words below.
e Complete these sentences to make quest ions
in the second person for each of the sent ences
in exercise I.
e Now write sentences about yourself and your
countr y using the verbs above.
I comefrom . . .
I Where come from?
2 shine a lot in your country?
3 livc?
4 Whi ch spea k?
5 What your favour ite school
subject?
oChoose the present simple or present
continuous in these sentences.
I work/am working eight hours a day at the
moment, and it starts/is starting to gel very tiring.
2 I alii only working /only work in the computer
department till Meg gets back from holiday.
Usua lly, I work/am working in the toy
depa rtment .
3 Look it 's snowing/snows outside. It never snows/ is
never snowing in November.
4 I live/am living in London. as I have done all my
life, but at the moment I'm staying/stay in Madrid
because we 've just opened a new office the re.
______ an y Internet friends?
_____ often do you use the Int ernet ?
6
7
1 from a country in Latin America.
2 In my country the sun a lot.
3 in a new city wh ich is high abo ve
the sea.
4 Wc a langua ge which is like Italian
and Frcn ch.
5 My favouri te school subject maths.
6 I an Internet friend from England
called Sarah.
7 the Int ernet eve rvday to talk to her!
come shine use speak live have be
10
The global teenager
5 I'm doinqtdo a three-week computer course and
I learn /am learninq word processing and how to
use the Internet.
6 The kettle boils/is boilinq. Can you make the
lea? I talk /am talkillg to uncle Georgc on lhe
ph one.
7 11 takes/is takinq me about half an ho ur 10 gel
to work but sometimes it is taking/ takes longer
whe n the t raffic is bad .
e Decide which of th es e sentences have mistakes.
Then cor rect the mistakes with a partner.
I am hatillq maths lessons.
I hat e maths lessons.
I I suffer a lot from ha y fever in the summer.
2 Ronaldo is taking a shot at goal. and is missing.
3 She is usuall y going to bed before midn ight.
4 The earth sp ins rou nd the sun.
5 She stays in Germa ny thi s week .
6 You arc always complaini ng abo ut your joh.
I ' m sick of listening!
7 The y a re cycling 10 school ev eryda y.
FeE practice: Part 4
oRead the follo wing text . What does John coll ect?
How is he diffe re nt from other boys his age ?
A teenage bedroom
,/ 0 Look at this bedroom. How tid y! The bed's made and even his
they 00 clothes they are folded. and it'S like this all the time. with no nagging
I from Mum! I bet there a ren 't ma ny boys like this . But to be fair
2 to John, he proba bly doesn 't spe nd enoug h time in his bed room
3 to make much of mess. Besides. th e TV's not working, a nd he does
4 like watching TV, so at the moment he's spending mor e time at
5 hi s friend' s house for watchi ng in his frien d' s room instead of his own.
6 He hasn 't got any favour ite things ex cept of hi s nea t displa y of classic
7 model ca rs in the corner of hi s roo m, which he' s been had for quite
8 a long lime; ' I used to get them as presents,' he says : He also has a n
9 unusual collection of crys tal a nimals - unusual beca use of it ' s not t he
10 sort of thing boys us ually collect. But th en this boy is different from th e
11 ot hers. because he' s not keen on th e spo rts and neve r watches footba ll
12 on TV like most of his friends. In fact. he's the academic type who
13 is likes listening to classical music. Do you see the pile of books. and
14 notice the Picasso poster on the wa ll by hi s bed?
oFor quest ions 1- 14. read the text again and loo k carefully at each line.
Some of th e lines are correct. and some have a word that should not be
there. If a line is correct, put a (./) . If a line has a word which should not
be there. write th e word. T he re are two examples (0) (00) at the beginning.
- - --

11
The global teenager
Vocabulary
Describing movement
oMatch t he ver bs in list A wit h t heir meanings in
li st B.
e Co mplet e these senten ces using the correct
form of one of t he phrasal ver bs in exercise 3.
crowd.
6 She reached out to the ba ll but
it was too high for he r.
Phrasal verbs with on and up
oMatch the phrasa l verbs in list A wit h
their meanings in list B.
A B
2 Proteins help children strong .
Can you just while I call the manager?
The y th ei r chi ldre n to be
ha rd -working and respectful.
4 I had to run to with Peter - he had
left five minutes before me.
2 The police a re searchi ng for the two men who
____ the bank.
3 Fast food wa s sta rt ed in Ame rica but it q uickly
_ _ _ _ in other countries.
grow grow up bring up
5 I find it diffi cult 10 working when I' m
tired.
5 They thei r own
vegetables.
3 The giraffe is the tallest animal in the world
a nd to a height of 5.5 metres.
4 What do you plan to do whe n
you ?
Words often confused
e Complete these sentences using the correct
form of one of the verbs below.
_ _ __ my hand so yo u don' t get lost in the 5
I hold up continue doing something
2 ca rry on something beco mes popular
3 hold on reach someone by
wal king faste r yoursel f
4 catch on ask someone to wa it
for a short time
5 catch up threa te n someone
in order to get
money from them
. "
A B
hold to take something suddenly in
your hands
2 catch to have something in yo ur ha nds
or a rms
3 crawl to gel hold of something in your
hands as it is moving through the air
4 carry to hold something in your hands
and take it fro m one place to a nother
5 cree p 10 move 0 11 your hands and knees
6 grab to move carefully a nd quiet ly
so that no- o ne will notice you
o Complete these sentences using the correct
for m of one of the verbs in exercise I.
She into the room on tip-toe in order
not to wa ke anybody up.
2 The policema n t he thi ef as he tried to
creep away.
3 Peter met Mary at the stat ion so that he could
help her her luggage.
4 They int o t he ir tent s to get out of the
rain.
12
Listening and speaking
oLoo k at th e picture of th e rainforest and find
the things below. Which of them would you
use to survive in a tropical rainforest and how?
The global teenager 1
oWhat can we do to help the people of the
rainforests?
o Listen and compare your answers in
exe rcise I wit h the listening text.
oBefore you do the next sect ion, check with
you r t eacher t he meaning of these words.
prescription starve canopy barricade
dart
bee medicinal plants
bow and a rrow grubs
turtle monkey
blowpipe
FCE practice: Part 3
o Work with a partner and do the task
below.
You and your partner were in a plane that
cra shed in the rainforest and it may be some
time before you are rescued. On board, you
find th e art icles below. Discuss with your
partner how yo u could use t hese articles to
survive, using t he words in the box below
to help you. Then agree on th e three mo st
important articles and report back to the class.
..
FCE practice: Part 2
o Li sten again and complete t he notes.
In order in a tropi cal
rainf orest we would have to know which
plants to eat and which to _
2 The people of the rainforest :
use medi cinal plants to _
can follow bees to their nest s to
can lay traps to _
use blowpipes to in th e
trees.
lIse poison and spears to _
o Before you listen to the second part of
the tal k, predict the answers to these questions
wit h a partner. Listen and check your answers.
A hundred yea rs ago th ere were 230 trib es in
Brazil. How many are there today?
2 The Penan tribe live in the rai nfore sts of
Borneo. How do they get rood?
3 Foreign companies arc dest roying th e forest.
Why?
4 The native trib es cannot prove the land is
theirs. Wh y?
5 The poli ce arrest member s uf the tr ibe. Wh y?
6 What will happen to these tr ibes in a few
years?
J
tablets whisky matches
string newspaper penknife
magnifying glass radio
13
The global teenager
Writing
FeE practice: Transactional letter
o Read t he task and the advertisement below.
A frie nd ha s givcn yo u the address of
Grcenpeace. and you a re interested in the
possibility of joi ning. You have decid ed to write
them a letter 10 find out more about the
organization.
Age of vol unteers?
- call for volunteers
Any experience necessary?
I
t

I
Where does worktake place?
Greenpeace exists to defend the environment
wherever it is threatened
Greenpeace tries to come up with solutions
to environmental problems
Greenpeace takes action so that those solutions
are adopted
Greenpeace uses members' money to make
sure there is a future for all of us
Greenpeace will always do everything it can
to protect our world and the creatures we
share it with
Greenpeace needs volunteers to help its fight
to save our planet
Write to us now for more information:
Greenpeace
Canonbury Vill as
London N1 2PN.
What kind of work?
is summer workavailable?
e The following reply
to the advert isement
is in the wrong
order. Number the
paragraphs a-h in
the correct order.
a I would also like to know where thework will take place. Iwould like towork in my
own area if possible. I believe there are a lot of ecological problems in mytown.
b Yours faithfully.
c 'lookforwardto hearing from you.
d , would begrateful if you could tell me what kind ofwork is involved and whether I
would need any special qualifications. Also. how old do volunteers needto be?Iam
sixteen yearsold and 'live in Hull. Ido not have much experience of environmental
work but I like going for walks. , recently started birdwatching as a hobby.
e Finally. could you tell me when the work would beas Iwould prefer summer work.
Igo to school but Ihave a lotof free time in the holidays.
f Dear Sir or Madam.
g Ifthere is anything else Ineed to know please let me know.
h Iam writing toaskfor more information in connection with your'Call for
Volunteers' to help Greenpeace. Iam nota member of Greenpeace but I
would like to know more about how Ican help.
14
oLabel t he letter using the foll owing features
of a letter :
salutation
2 reason for writing
3 closing remarks
4 personal informat ion
5 signing off
The global teenager
e Match the descriptions of the following
organizat ions to the logos below.
A group which helps developing countries.
2 A human rights group.
3 A group which protects endangered wildlife .
4 An environmental group.
15
WWF
fo r the planet for people
earth
War onWant
CAMPAIGN AGAINST WORLD POVERTY
Informatio n you need to include:
why you are writing.
who you arc and what you do.
Is there a bran ch in my co untry?
How much doe s it cost to join?
What kind of activities do they get
involved in?
Is it an independent organi zation?
What do members receive?
UNITED KINGDOM
AMNESTY
INTERNATIOl\AL
oNow it's your turn. Write your letter to any of
the organizations above using the model and
these questions to help you.Write between
120 and 180 words.
oCorrect these mistakes from a student's letter.
1 I wa nt more informations.
2 I write to ask for de tail s.
3 I have fifteen years and I am go ing to school.
4 Tell me what kind of wo rk do you do.
5 I am 110t having much experience.
6 At last . I would like to ask for the membership.
7 I am look forward to hear from you.
8 I have read your lea flet in a magazine rece nt ly.
A
oWork wit h a partner. Look at the
photographs and answe r these questions.
I Do you know which films they are from?
2 What do they have in common?
8 Read the te xts quickly and match each text
with one of the photographs.
Reading
60 boy who would one day become Darth
Vader. In Episode I, we saw him as a
hopeful nine-year-old, dreaming of a
bright future. The Jedi knights Qui-Gon
Jinn and Obi Wan Kenobi weresent on a
65 secret mission to Anakin's planet,
Tatooine, and Qui-Gon Jinn began to
suspect that Anakin might be a Jedi.
Darth Maul, one of the mysterious and
evil Sith, arrived to fight a deadly battle
70 against the Jedi Knights.
D
BLAOERUNNER, WHICH FIRST APPEAREO IN
1982, was inspired by the novel Do
Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
written by Phillip K. Di ck. The film
75 describes a 21st century where nuclear
war has made the earth an unsafe place
to live. The government encouraged
people to goand live onother planets by
offering them non-human workers called
80 repficants to serve them. Some of these
replicants then killed their masters and
escaped back to earth, where they
pretended to be human inorder not to be
discovered. Deckard (Harri son Ford) was
85 employed to find and dest roy these
replicants. Things became difficult for
him when he fell in love with a replicant
called Rachel.
1
On board the Starshipthe crewincluded
many varieties of human and non-
human individuals. In command of the
Starship was Captain James T. Kirk,
followed by his half-Vul can first officer,
Spock. Those early years of Star Trek
gave the worldaphenomenonwhichhas
yet to be matched by any other single
televi sion series; it has been sold all
around the world and has inspired
millions of fans. From that first series
has sprung an incredible number of
spin-otts: an animated series, three
television series, numerous feature
films, and hundreds of novels and
consumer products.
c
STAR WARS EPISOOE I: THE Phantom
Menace, took us to the beginning of the
Star Wars story. The original Star Wars
trilogy followed the adventures of Luke
Skywalker, a young farm boy who
became a Jedi knight, fighting Darth
Vader and the evil Empire. In the last
55 episode, Vader finally revealed to Luke
theterrible news that he was the young
Jedi 's fat her. The latest Star Wars trilogy
went back intime ageneration totell the
story of Anakin Skywalker, the innocent
B
I THE MISSION HASN'T MADE ANY HEADLI NES,
and everything has gone perfectly. After
three days in space, three Apollo
astronauts including Jim Lovell (Tom
5 Hanks) have nearly reached the Moon.
Back in Houston, astronaut Ken
Matlingl y considered himself the 35
unluckiest man on earth. Two days
before launch, he was left out of the
10 Apollo 13 crew for medical reasons. And
so Mattingly was in Mission Control
when Jim Lovell sent this terrifying 40
message: 'Houston ... we've got a
problem. Something has gone horribl y
15 wrong. Power and guidance systems are
down, and the suppl y of oxygen is
rapidly running out ... ' The crew now 45
faced a horrifying real ity - their
spaceship, stranded miles away in
20 space, might never return to earth. With
time running out, the crew made a
dari ng attempt to guide the spaceshipto
earth. For threedays, the world watched
in anxious silence, not knowing whether
25 the men of Apollo 13 would come home 50
ali ve.
THEREHAVE BEEN MANY STARTREKFILMS, BUT
it all began with aTV series. The classic
Star Trek featured the adventures of the
30 crew of the Starship Enterprise on its
five-year mission to explore outer space.
16
Visions of the future
FeE practice: Part 4
oRead the text s again. For questions 1-10 choose from
the texts A-D. Some of the texts may be chosen more
than once. W hen more than one answer is requi red,
these may be given in any order. There is an example
(0) at the beginning.
Which of th e films:
2
o is about a journe y to the moon?
shows th e heroes facin g death?
2 began as a television programme?
3 is abo ut a sta rship looki ng for ne w worlds in
space?
4 began as a book?
5 was the first of its kind?
A
4
6 is part of a series?
7 is about a race against time?
8 de scribes people who choose to live on different
planets ?
9 shows a spaceship unable to come back to ea rt h?
10 describes the childhood of th e main cha racters?
et Discuss these questions.
Have you seen any of th ese films or any others?
2 Wh en did you see it?
3 What did you th ink of it?
4 Which of the films sounds most in terest ing?
e Co mplete these senten ces using words from t he text.
The first letter of each word is given to help you.
Their m wa s to land on the moon.
2 We have nearl y r Victoria sta tion a nd will be
arriving in ten min utes.
3 How would you spend the time if you were s _
alone on a desert island?
4 I can' t wa it to see th e ne xt e of Star Wars; I' ve
seen all the previous on es.
5 What i the dire ctor to make the film? Was it
based on real events?
6 Would you rat her see th e film or rea d th e n on
which it is ba sed ?
7 British farmers had to d many sick cows to sto p
the disea se from spreading.
17
Choose the correct t ense in t hese sentences.
Visions of the future
Grammar and Use of English
Past simple, present perfect simple. present perfect continous
Past simple, present perfect simple
Look at these sentences and decide which use
the past simple and which use the present
perfect simple.
I I ha ve never seen a Star Wars film.
2 Neil Armstrong landed on the Moon in 1969.
3 My father took me to the cinema every week
when 1 was a chi ld.
4 We've got a pro blem. Something ha s gone
horribl y wrong.
Now match the sentences to one of these
uses.
a a fini shed eve nt in the past
b eve nts wh ich form part of our life expe rience
c a past eve nt wi th present importance
d habit s in the past
See grammar referencepage 142.
I I haven't had/didn't have time to talk to h im yet.
2 You have worked/worked for a bank since 1985,
haven 't you?
3 Haveyou ever visited/Didyou ever visit Pari s?
4 She has been deciding/has decided to learn
phot ography th is year.
5 Didyou finish/Have you finished ea ting yet?
6 I felt/have been feeling ill since last night.
7 When the traffi c ligh ts turned red, he has
stopped/stopped th e car.
Compl ete these sentences using the words or
phrases below.
ever still before a few days ago
last year yet in 1895 never
Wells wrote The Time Machine _
2 The nightmare Wells predicted has _
not come abou t.
3 People have not colonized othe r planets
____ , but perhap s they will one day.
4 [ finish ed the book and gave it back
to John this morning.
5 Do you think alien s have visited
Earth?
6 I've read a scien ce fiction book before;
thi s is my first one.
7 Have you ever seen a film like this ?
8 I saw a science fiction film
____ but I can't remember
anything about it.
Present perfect continuous
11 Explain t he difference in meaning betwe en
thes e pairs of se ntences.
a I' ve been living in Oxford during my English
course.
b I've lived in Oxford all my life.
Wh ich sentence describes a tempor ary action ?
Wh ich se ntence describes a more perman ent
situat ion?
c She's written a novel.
d She's been writing a novel.
w hich sentence emphasizes the durat ion of
the action?
In which sen tence is the action complete?
e Sorry I' m lat e - I've been to the doctor.
f I've been goi ng to the doctor.
Which sentence suggests I visited the doctor
several times?
Which sen tence sugges ts I visited t he doctor
recent ly?
See grammar reference page 143.
e Complete t his text using t he correct form
(past simple, present perfect simple or present
perfect continuou s) of the verbs in brackets.
The Martians are not coming
I (1) (rea d) science fict ion stories for
man y years now and I (2) (j ust/ finish)
2001: A Space Odyssey by Arthur C. Clarke . I
(3) (always/ find) their predi ctions
about the future interesting but most of the
predictions made by writers of science fi ction
(4) (never/come) tr ue. We (5) _
(wa it) for Big Brother since Orwe ll (6) _
(write) 1984 but he still (7) (not/come ).
The Time Machine which Wells (8) _
(predict) over a hundred years ago (9) _
(not/appea r) yet. Nove lists (10) (write)
thousands of stories about Martians and though
we (11) (alreadylla nd) spacec raft on
Mars no -one 12 (ever/visit) Mar s and
I (13) (never/s ee) a Martian
in my back gard en or anywhe re
else, though I (14) _
(wait) lor them to tu rn up
since I was a girl.
Visions of the future
Answer these questions.
Wh at's the most int e resting co untry you have
ever visited?
2 When did you last go to a resta ura nt? Where
did you go?
3 How man y science fict ion films have yo u seen?
4 How long have you been learn ing English?
Compare your answers with a partner. Do you
have anything in common?
FeE practice: Part 2
Answer these questions.
What do you know
abou t this man?
2 Can you guess his job?
3 Was he a good stude nt
at school?
4 Is he rich or poor?
Is he famous?
Read the text and check your answers.
Mr Microsoft
William Henry Gates, known as Bill Gates,
is probably t he richest man in Amcrica. He
(0) studied engineering and ( 1) now
become the world's most famous comp uter
engineer. Wh en he was 15, he (2) _
a system for controlling tr affic in Seat tle.
In 1975 he (3) a book on the compute r
language BASIC. He (4) Harvard in the
same year and (5) writing compu ter
programs. In 1977, he (6) Microso ft
with a friend an d created DOS, an opera ting
system for compute rs. In 1981 Microsoft
(7) a giant step lorward when IBM
adopt ed DOS for its personal compu ters .
Nowad ays, there can be few people who have
not (8) of Bill Gales . He has (9) _
two books, bot h of which have (10) _
bestsellers. He has no t ( I 1) the age
of 40 yet, bu t Gates has alread y (12) _
a fortune in exce ss 01 30 billion dollars.
For questions 1-12, read the text again and
think of the word wh ich best fits each space.
Use onl y one word in each space. There is an
example (0) at the beginning.
19
Visions of the future
Vocabulary
Compound nouns
We can combine two nouns to make a compound
noun, eg computer + program. We can combine an
adject ive and noun to make compounds, eg
personal + computer. Compound nouns are
sometimes written as two words (sciencefictions
and somet imes they are written as one word
(hardware). More rarely, the two pans are
connected with a hyphen (pen-friends, There are
no rules, so check with the dictionary if you are
110t sure.
oComplete these sentences using one of the
words or phrases in exercise 2.
He spe nds hour s the Web.
2 You can at certai n cafes which provide
computers for pu blic use.
3 If a file is big. it can ta ke a long time to
___ it.
4 You use a mo use 10 different icon s at
the 101' of your scree n,
oComplete this text using the words in the box
to make appropriate compound nouns.
numbers paper personal office poSt
electronic address pen race cards
Phrasal verbs with get
oMatch the phrasal verbs in list A with their
meanings in list B.
A B
Dear Sylvia ,
' Did you remember to send those post (1) _
me?'
escape
return to a place
have something
retu rned to you
have enough mon ey to
buy the things you need
have a friend ly
rela tionship with
someone
get over something
2 get on with someone
3 get away
5 get somet hing back
4 get back
for
::=--
-
etc etc.
Are you on e-mail?
'I haven't been to the post (2), yet .'
'Has the (3) man come yet?'
'We've run out of writing (4) _
0 -
e Complete these sentences using the correct
form of one of the phrasal verbs in exercise 4.
The po lice tri ed 10 catc h the robbers but they
2 We'r e going 10 the cinema but we' ll probabl y
____ _ by ten o'clock.
3 She's still looking feveri sh . Are you sur e she's
_____ the flu?
I wonder how much longer such conversations
will be heard in hares around the world? The human
(5) has been writing letters for centuries .
Young people write to (6) -friends in other
countries - but nowadays many of them have their own
(7) computer .
E-mail or (8) mail is a system which allCMS
people to send each other messages by computer .
Today, it is more common to ask for someone's e-mail
(9) than for t heir postal address . Perhaps
telephone ( 10) , like 'postmen' are also
threatened with extinction.
6 get by recover from an illness
4 Did you your money ?
5 She only has her pension so she finds it difficuh
10 _
7 My mum has just had an operation and the
doctor has told her not 10 go to work for three
weeks in order to it.
8 My parents only give me five pound s pocket
money a week. but it' s eno ugh for me to
Collocation (computers)
8 Match a ve rb fro m list A with a noun phrase
from list B.
A B
explore a file
2 surf an icon/menu
3 downl oad the Web
4 click on the Int ernet
6 ____ John very well - he's my best friend.
20
Visions of the future
Listening and speaking
21
6 How are astrona uts chosen? They sho uld be
A intelligent peop le.
B able to work with ot hers,
e brave.
I'd like an android that can .. .
My ideal andro id would be able to . . .
I think we really need an android that
can . ..
What I would find most useful is if it
could .. ,
It would be useful if it could .. .
Wouldn't it be great if it could .. ,1
How about if it was able to .. ,1
Do you think it would be good if it
could, .. 1
o CD:: Discuss thi s question,
What kind of androids do
yo u think there will be in
th e Iut ur e?
FCE practice: Parts 3 and 4
e CD:: Work with a partner and do the
task below. Use some of the
expressions from the box below,
You and your partner have 10
design an android which will
help humans in S0I11e way.
Use th e following quest ions
to help you dec ide what
ki nd of an android
you need.
Wh at is the androi d
going
10 look like?
What kind of jobs is th e
android going to do?
Does it need to be able to
get lip and do wn stairs?
Does it need 10 be able
10 tal k?
How many people applied for t he job of
astronaut?
2 Before she got th e job Helen
A had already worke d in space.
B had never worked in space.
C had done research in space exploration.
3 Helen was brough t up
A in an unusual way.
B like any other child of he r age.
C by remarkable parents.
4 Afte r her journey what seemed
important to Helen?
A Personal relati onships.
B To earn a bigger salary,
e To get a new Ilat.
5 How does she feel now?
A J\10fC anxious,
B More rel axed .
e Nostalgic.
A 3, 000.
B 30, 000.
e 13,000.
FCE practice: Part 4
e Li sten again. For questions 1-6. choose
the best answer A. B or C.
o Li sten to the ta pe and tick the questions
which the interviewer as ks Helen.
What were you doing before you became
an astronaut?
2 What ma kes a good astronaut? _ _
3 Did the experience change you in any way?
Visions of the future
Writing
FeE practice: Informal letter
An informal lett er is simi lar in style to
someone speaking. but don't be too conversational.
use contractions
make it interestingand amusing
be enthusiastic (unless something terrible has
happened')
start your letter with Dear+ first name
end your lett er with Best wishes/Love + your first name
e Now read this model answer. Label the
paragraphs using the following summar y
headings:
derails of flight
2 enjoya ble visit
3 closing comments
4 invitati o n
5 sign ing off
oRead t his task.
You ha ve ju st got back home after stay ing
with a pen-friend in Brita in. When you gel
back home you find this e- ntai l message
wai ting for yo u. Write a letter to say thank
you to your friend. Descr ibe wha t yo u liked
abo ut your visit, the journey back home and
wh at you' re doing at the moment. Invite your
friend to visit your co un tr y in the future.
Bob
Bes t wis hes ,
{or 'J';)t...f W"'- I
1--0 CI-!. s",6\- 1 bo-tk .. 1ll"l'jvJto."' l \ ,..,
vv'\ 'h", 9 +'-' 1'5 \ dhr \0"1 '] e- .... "" l t
wo(k;... .... )\-...Io\"'jO ' . .
AVlj".)"-"j l \ h, rA Col ottt,tl
J
t l1i( wttl, J0 v.. .
I tov't. c.1 ll.1I -tt..e ..f.e. .... "P,,-U - r"'("s> u,lo.d tt-e.
\ \;l,d t>....,- bl'l. V"\'o..Qj
v..t-O-/" t\...e \.. .. A.... a.. -tl..e +>oJ, . vJr...S IllVf.'j "
...\ \ ' ..., ....s.tJ.. fo , I," \o,)t.,5 1.
bG.l k. wc...S "-'tH I"Uc.. S 0.... ..
",I- -\\'t tllt'i0.( b"., \ ..Je j ot "WtA'j o..(-tlU 0. .....
holM' OV i Q \ ' VlI \aQ.e.v. s i.... u. \ bQ.c..k)
is IXI\"t1-.t< V,U''VI \ "'''-'.1(. 1<'\ . \0- Wv'lnt.N\
.. tJ" t\'\,-.... ........... tJv, "",,-1 (.\..... si...<.R. I Wt...t-
'lW <lj " ""j \i\\-\" sfs-tu- Skill 6o..fOV",J vJih...
tl "'1'vl lA' '<lIAr 5\...( 'brol&O'1 s:
Q,\\ "",ov.) . $"\)0 ..... G..",ol de ..... i
ro s...j "'-i to l' r ........ c . frv..c:l 'J""' ( ","", u ,,", r).

wi I
e Read the lett er again and find example s of the
following:
I use of th e de finite article
2 short adje ctive
3 contraction
4 phrasal ver b
5 short, everyday connector
6 repe titi on of words
7 chatt y style
-
-
In bOM
De ar Sylvia
Hi . I just thought I'd send
you t hi s message t o s a y
hello. Di d you get back
a l l r ight? Was t he flight
smooth? I hope there
weren ' t t oo ma ny del ays .
I t was great having you
here . I hope you had a good
t i me t oo a nd t hat it wasn ' t
t oo col d f or you , a ft e r t he
hot weat her in your country .
Anywa y , you' re a lways we l c ome
to c ome ba ck, a ny t i me.
Wr ite soon.
D
22
oIn a letter to a friend we use many
expressions common in everyday
speech. Read this lette r and choose
the most appropriate form.
" Now it 's your turn.W rite your
lett er following these instructions.
You have received thi s postcard
from a friend . Write a let ter 10
your English friend explaining
how your life has changed since
you started universi ty in
England. Sugges t a time whe n
you can meet in London . Writ e
be tween 120 and 180 wo rds.
using t he plan below to help you.
Visions of the future
Dear LUke,
Hi. Sorry I ( I) h
I' aven '!!ha .
ve been (2) a bit/rath \ e not wrirten for So 10
ro/aUendino er busy. I've Srarted (3) . ng but
ISCOurse at OUr J
(4) ill:es/a lono tim ocal College and ir r k
Id ero readall aes me
n eed/AcluaIl.\:, I don' I my e-mail messages. (5)
even bOther to
Anyway, (6) thanks/tha k open Some of rhem.
come . n VOU fi h .
over. (7) It's really nice/ . or r e Invitation to
would love ro just jum of you and (8) I'd/I
over lhere ( I P On the (9) mane!
. 0) The problem is/M . . and fly
gOt a COuple of a . . \ pnma .
. SSlgnme r . I ' .
adVISable rOlI'd b n s to finIsh and I rhink ' . ve
before I (13) . eUJ;[ get rhose (12) !fune/ (11) l1..li
gart/commen I ' ffimpl er\:l1
ce re aXing
Thar's enOugh (14) .
you and the family? ( 15) me - how are
Well, rhar's all' n ood heahh . I hope
lor now .
\Vrite Soon. .
POST CARD
c,.b.. s
,.a. R cJ.
SO..lforcl.
H:
Hop. J'" t . M
o . tl....t,. u.. ;
l: k.! t1'f' 0. " l t !
of ,,:,. ( p\o. . "" ",
..... (. .1...0 \000) 0'\ to) l-"cl."''''"
t\'\e I::.: ? \\'It.'(. ,..,re. h """e.
.. o.t. ce oe e, .. tJ 0 ...
M"'l. "'--"Co... ; $ o\,::tl ".lol,S!%. .
L.ve
Pnagraph I
Say thanks.
When did you gethis letter? _
Why haven't you written? _
Paragraph Z.
What's Manchester like?
Ilave you met any nice people?
What arethe lectures like?
Paragraph S
Thank Tony for inviting you tolondon. __
When can you visit him?
What would you like to do there?
Paragraph ...
Close the letter,
(16)
Ozzie
23
Reading
oWork with a partner. Look at t he
photographs and discuss these questions.
I What do you know about thi s person?
2 What role is she playing? Who is her
partner?
3 What do you th ink she is like in real life?
e Read the text quick ly and check your
answers.
24
Gillian Anderson
Gillian Leigh Anderson was born in Chicago,
Illinois on 9 August 1968 but during the early
years of her life she moved around a lot because
of her father 's work. 0 B Then the family
5 moved to London.
When Gillian was nine years old, they moved
back to the US. This was a difficult time because
Gillian had problems making friends at her new
schooL I As a result, she became
10 rebellious. At high school, she was often in
trouble for arguing with the teachers, and once
she was even arrested for breaking into the
school at night. As a teenager, Gillian became
a punk. When she got a nose-ring, her father
15 became furious , and Gillian admits that she
fainted while she was having it done.
Despite her trouble at school , Gil lian was a
talented girl, and showed early signs of acting
ability. At the age of 14, she took part in a school
20 production of Shakespeare's Romeo and Jul iet.
2 However, at this time, Gillian didn't
want to become an actress; she had wanted to
be an archaeologist, and it wasn't till later in her
school career that she changed her mind.
25 3 After graduat ing from u nive rsit y,
Gillian went to New York to start her acting
career. Her first big opportunity came when
she was chosen to act in Alan Ayckbourne's
play Absent Friends for which she won a World
30 Theatre Award in 1991. However, she had been
working as a waitress for some time before she
was offered another good acting job.
Gillian had sworn that she would never work
for television. 4 The TV series shows
35 Mulder a nd Scully as having a close working
relationship, and it always suggests that romance
may develop between them. However, there have
been rumours that GiIlian and David Duchovny
can't stand each other in real life. In fact , it was
40 another member of the X-files team that captured
Gillian's heart.
Although she says she didn't fall in love at
first sight, what had attracted her to Clyde
Klotz (assistant art director for the show)
45 was his smile and his intelligence. They got
together during the first X-files series, and
before too longI she learned that s he was
pregnant. Chris Carter had t o rewrite the
final episodes of the series so t hat t heir
50 female star was still able to act w hile s he
grew bigger and bigger. 5
How ever, Gill ian was soon back on locati on
to cont inue with The X-f iles. Today, Anderson
is st ill pl aying Scully and t he series continues
55 t o be a bi g s uccess, both on TV and on the
bi g screen. The film Th e X -files: Fight the
Future has been a box-office hit in the US and
throughout the world.
The truth is out there
FeE practice: Part 3
oRead the article again. Six senten ces have been
removed from the text. Choose from th e
paragraphs A-G the one which fit s ea ch gap
1-5.There is one extra paragraph which yo u do
not need to use. There is an exampl e at th e
beginning (0).
A Her mother, Rosemary, says ' Whe n she
performed a scene from the play for me, I was
absolutelv astonished.'
B She spent th e first two years of her life in
Puerto Rico.
C She moved on to study act ing at DePaul
University's Goodman Theatre , and gaine d a
degree in Fine Art s.
D Her daughter, Piper Maru, was born in
September 1994.
E However, she auditioned for t he part of Special
Agent Dana Scu lly in Ch ris Carter's TV-series
The X-fi les an d was successful.
F She lived in a world of he r ow n.
G Part of th e probl em wa s that she had start ed to
speak with an English acce nt while her famil y
were livi ng in England. which made her so und
dif ferent.
oDo you think Gill ian Anderson was an easy
child to bring up? Why? Why not?
" Complete these sentences using words from
the text. The first letter of ea ch word is give n
to help yo u.
We m house because our old house
was too small.
2 The player wa s given a red card for a _
with the ref eree.
3 She was so sho cked by the Sight of so mu ch
blood that she f _
4 After g from university I want to have
a yea r travelling round th e world.
5 When the teacher sho uted, it c the
students' attention immediatel y.
6 Jil! and David are gell ing very close. Do you
th ink th ey are having a r ?
7 Do yo u th ink tha t song wi ll be a h ?
Per sonall y I don ' t th ink it's very good,
25
The truth is out there
Grammar and Use of English
Past perfect simple. past perfect continuous. past continuous
26
Past perfect simpl e
aUnderline examples of th e past simple and
past perfect simple in these sent ences.
Gillian didn 't wa nt 10 b eC0I11e an actress; in
fact she had wanted to be an archeologist.
2 Chris Cart er rewrote the final episodes of th e
series because Gillian had learned th at she wa s
pregnant.
Loo k at thi s sen tence and then complete the
rul e for t he past perfect simple:
First Gillian teamed she was pregnant. Then Chris
Carter rewrote the episodes.
We use the pa st perfect simple to show th at
one event in the pa st happened _
another event in the pa st, which is marked by
the te nse.
Past perfect conti nuous
III The past perfect continuo us is used to
emphasize th at somet hing happened for a
period of time before another event (in the
past simple) .
She had been working as a waitress for some time
before she was offered another good acting j ob.
(She started work as a waitress at some time in
the pa st and cont inued to do t his until she
foun d a new act ing job .)
Complete t his question:
How lon g before she got
ano ther act ing job?
See grammar reference page 143-4.
oComplete the se ntences os ing the correct form
(past simple or past pe rfect simple) of th e
verbs in brackets.
I (always /wonder) who _
(live) in that old house.
2 She (te ll) me th at she _
(never/vi sit ) the US before.
3 Wh en all the pa ssenger s (get off) the
train. it slowly (move) away from the
station.
4 Rornco was disappoi nted. He _
(imagine) that Juliet would be much more
beautiful than she was.
5 I (intend) to go away for th e
we ekend. but I (realize) I had too
much work 10 do.
oCorrect th ese sentences by changing the
und erl ined verb into t he past perfec t
co nt inuous. Make any othe r changes necessary.
She mawake for severa l hours before she
managed to get to sleep.
2 She had a ni ghtmare whe n the tele phone rang.
3 She op ened the curt ain. It rai ned all ni ght.
4 He crashed th e car be cause he drank a lot of
be er.
5 Before Scu lly met M ulder. she worked as a
med ica l do ctor.
6 He worked 011 his boo k all night so he look ed
very tired the following morning.
Past continuous
11 Look at these sentences and match them
to the correct use of the past continuous.
I They were living in England at the time.
2 He was dr ivin g down the motorway when he
passed a young wo ma n.
3 Some people were danci ng while others were
liste ning to music.
a simultaneous co nt inuous act ions in the past
b temporary actions or situ at ions in the past
c an act ion in progress in the pa st which is
interrupted by another act ion
See grammar reference page /44.
oThe past simple, past conti nuo us,
past perfect simple and past
perfect continuou s are useful
when we are telling stor ies. Here
is a mystery. Complete the st o ry
by choosing the correct tense.
The truth is out there
The mystery of the Nonogoods and the Goodgoods
Profe ssor Dani elle Jones. the famou s explorer. was ex hausted.
She ( I ) had been travelling/ travelled through the jungle for a
week. She (2) had not eaten/wasn't eating for two days and she
(3) had j ust drunk/just drank the last of her wa ter supply. She
(4 ) was looking/had looked for a village called Mapondo whe re a
tribe cal led the Goodgoods (5) lived/had been living. This tr ibe was
famous becau se its people alwa ys (6) told/were telling the truth.
Nea rby, ther e wa s an other village where the inhabi tants. the
Nonogoods, always (7) told/had been telling lies. As she (8) was
walkinq/had been walking along, she (9) was meeting/met a na t ive.
Since she (10) had never met/was never meetinq a Goodgood or
a Nonogood before, she (11) had not known/did not know which
tri be he belo nged to.
Professor Jones can ask one question in order to find the way,
but how will she know if the man is telling her t he t rut h o r
whet her he's a liar?There is one ques tion which will solve
her probl em. W hat is it ? Check wit h you r t eacher.
FeE practice: Part 1
oFor quest ions 1-1 2, read thi s text and decide which answe r A, B, C or D best fits each space.
There is an example (0) at th e beginning.
Taken away and brought back
Have you ever wondered what happens to people who just disappear? Some go forever. and others
(0) lUrn up again. Those who do come ( I) arc able to clear (2) the mystery of their
strange absence. But those who do not return, will continue to (3) us . Some of the most
common (4) arc: ' murdered by a colleag ue' or (5) , away by aliens in a spaceship.'
There was the (6) in Warwi ckshire, where a littl e girl of eight disappeared mysteriou sly. Her
parents had died when she wa s a bab y, and her uncle had been (7) after her. At the age of
eighteen, she wa s going to inherit the family wealth and propert y. The uncl e wa s (8) to find
her and panicked: he decided to (9) up another litt le girl an d (10) she wa s his niece.
Police invest igati on s discover ed wha t he had don e and he was ( I I ) wit h murder. He was
( 12) guilty and in those days that mea nt the death penalt y.
OA come B turn C make D get
lA in B ou t C back D away
2A away B up C down D by
3 A deceive B wonder C puzzle D question
~ 4A replie s B ex cuses C [acts D ex planations
::;:. \r:::: \i-
~ ~
5 A taken 13 give n C moved D dr iven
:;-;; ~ .
6A happening B crime C case D time
7 ~
~ . ~
7A taking B running C looking D caring
--u- ~
. ~ ~
SA made B failed C impossible D unable
.....-: ~
9A make 13 look C dress D ring
~ . ~
lOA believe B pr et end C like D look like
' ,-" ~
; ~ . ~
11 A accused B charged C punished D taken
/ ~ ~
12 A discovered B not C dec ided D found
~ . ~ ~
:...-!. ~ : . . . . ; ~ . : : ; . . . - ..
27
The truth is out there
Vocabulary
What's next door? They ' re making a
101 of noise.
oComplete these sentences using the correct
form of one of the phrasal verbs in exercise 4.
Phrasal verbs with go
oMatch the phrasal verbs in list A with their
meanings in list B.
A B
sto p liking something
begin to do something you
plan ned to do
when time passes
when something is happeni ng
cont inue to do somet hi ng you
planned to do. even when
it is unpleasant
experience some thing 6 go on
go ahead
2 go by
3 go through with
4 go through
5 go off
2 I told him not to accept the job but he still
____ and took it.
3 It's already 5 o' clock. Doesn 't time _
qu ickly sometimes!
4 I've Leo DiCaprio - I don 't think he 's
part icularly good-looking.
5 She 's a rea lly hard time lately.
6 He wi th the parachute jump,
altho ugh he was ve ry frigh tened.
Words often confused
e Complete the sentences using the appropriate
form of the words below.
control check investigate inspect
Mu lder and Scully were a new case.
2 Schools are to see that they ma intain
high standards of education.
3 The roads were icy and she couldn' t _
the car.
4 The woman that she had turned off
the lights before leaving the house.
They have been for a cure for G IIlCC[
for years.
2 The Tita nic for America in 1912.
3 Who were the first people to Everest?
4 The on the door said that the shop
was closed.
5 The for the girl ended when she just
turned up at the police station.
6 Do you think famous people like _
autographs?
e Here are some more words we can use as
nouns or verbs . Complete the sentences below
using the appropriate form.
sail sign climb search
Parts of speech
The sa me word ca n often be us ed as a verb and a
noun, eg order:
Tile qeneral ordered tile soldiers to attack.
'Do as I tell you: said tile qeneral. 'That's all order!'
o Here are some more examples: return, start,
control. Are they used as verbs or nouns in the
sentences below?
1 I've had problems with this car from the start .
2 I can' t get the car (0 start.
3 Can' t you control your bad temper?
4 She is in complete control of the situation.
S You must return the money you borrowed
immediately.
6 On their retu rn from holi day, th ey found the
hou se had been broken into.
28
The truth is out there
captains had been _
2 However, the Ameri can aut horities be lieved
Briggs was not the kind of ma n to cause
3 The court could not decide why the crew
______ __ the ship.
4 People became interested in the mystery when
Conan Doyle wrote _
5 Conan Doyle said the ship's _
was there , but in fact it was mi ssin g.
6 According to the writer the ship may have hit
_______ _ under the surface of the
FeE practice: Part 2
o List en again and complete the sentences.
Briti sh officials believed there had been a
___---,- on board, or that the two
I think it 's most likely that .. .
It's diffi cult to say, but I'd guess (that) .. .
From the evidence, I reckon (that) .. .
Well, you could be right, but .. .
That's a good point, but on the ot her hand . . .
I don't think that's right because ...
Work in pairs. Student A read the informati on
on page 139. St udent B read the informati on
on page 140. Tell each ot he r your informati on ,
the n discuss the foll owing theories for why the
cre w abandoned the Mary Celeste. Whi ch is the
most likely, according to your information ?
There had been a mut iny on board.
2 The two captains had planned the ' accident'
together to mak e money.
3 The crew had got drunk, killed the capta in and
esca ped in the lifeboa t.
4 The crew had abando ne d th e ship becau se they
believed it was going 10 sink.
They might have .
They must have .
There can't have been (a mutiny) because .. .
o Before you li st en t o t he rest of the story
you are going to t ry to solve t he mystery. Do
the task below.
Listening and speaking
oThis is a pictu re of the Mary Celeste.W hat do you
know about the mystery surrounding t his ship?
e Listen to the first part of t he story and
discuss the questions.
I Where does the story take place?
2 What probl em did the Mary Celeste have?
3 Where had the captains met befo re?
4 What was the MalY Celeste carrying?
5 What co ndition was the ship in?
I think you're right.
I agree with you.
I'd go along with that.
o Li sten to the next part of t he story.
W hich one of t he explanat ions in exercise 3
is t he most likely, accordi ng t o the speaker?
sea.
7 Wh y didn' t t he crew return when t hey rea lized
it was no longer ?
The speaker mentions 'one explanation wh ich
covers all t he facts.' Can you guess what it is?
Check wit h your t eacher,
29
The truth is out there
Writing
FeE practice: Short story
The main features of a good story are that it tells the events clearly and has a beginning.
middle and end. and that it is interesting to read. When wr iting a story. remember to:
organize your ideas into clear paragraphs
begin bysetting the scene ; give some details
about when and where the story takes place
and who the main characters are
use a variety of past tenses
use a mixture of direct and reported speech
use sequencing words
use adjectives to make the story more
exciting
bring your story to a definite conclusion
oLook at the pictures and put these sente nces in the correct order.
a Sud de nly, a child appeared at the windsc ree n.
b Relieved. she got back into her car.
c Wh cn she got closer. she saw th at it was just a big doll that had been th rown
out or a passing car.
d A woman was driving home alone one dark night.
e Thinking the child had bee n in an accident. th e woman stopped and got out of
the car.
30
Before you write you r story, do the
following exercises.
oComplete this story using the appropriate form
of the verbs in brackets.
e You are going to wri te a story following t hese
instructions.
You have decided to enter a sho rt story
compet ition. The rules say that the story
must end with the following wo rds: ' Finally,
I had ma naged to expl ain the mystery.'
Writ e between 120 and 180 wnrds.
. ht inDecelllber. The road
It was a wild, storlllY ",g d there were nostreetlalllps.
m (be) an I a few Illinutes, when
(drive) for onY h'
She (2) _ - - - (notice) a car following her, flas Ing
she (3) (drive) faster. She
its headlights. She (4) before ona lonely road at
(
5 ) (attack) once . (be) still
h behind (6)_---:-:
night. However, t e car (reach) her house
close. In a panic, she (7) (try) to overtake her. In. the
as the car (l?) shadowY figure, waving his
driver's seat there was a (stop) the car,
hands around wildly. She ('I) d (Ill (run)
(jUlllp) out an
(10)_--- Th Illan inthe other car (12)_---
to the front door. e 'WaitI I (13) (try)
(leap) out and shouted . d onthe 1ll0torwaY, sOllleone
to warnyou! When you) of your car: The WOlll
an
(get In e (see)
(l4) - ---(look) round and (16) _---
(IS) . down the road.
a dark figure running away
scream
dash grab
push
bang
notice
marc h
oRewrite these sentences to make
t hem more vivid and interesting
for t he reade r. Repl ace the
und erlined wo rds wit h words
from the box. Make any changes
necessary.
The truth is out there
I look ed out of the window and
I saw somet hing strange.
2 I quickly ran to the door.
3 He took me by the ann.
4 The stranger opened the door.
5 Suddenly. she heard a loud no ise.
6 She walked angrily out of the
room.
7 She shou ted as loud as she could.
e Connect the following sentences
with the sequencing words in
brackets. Make any cha nges
necessary.
I wa s just gelling into bed.
I heard a tap at t he window.
(when)
2 I decided to ignore it. I heard it
again. (but/after a whi le)
3 I switched t he light off. I heard
a scratching sound coming from
the wal l. (as soon as)
4 I got up . I went over to the
window. The sound had stopped.
(by the time)
5 I tried to wake the ne ighbours
up. I decided to call the police.
(later l fina lly)
" set the scene
oLook at the checkl ist
be low and find
examples of these
feat ures in t he story.
"_varied use of past tenses
" descriptive adjectives
" direct speech
Now wri te your story and
remember to use appropriate
tenses, seq uencers and expressive
vocabulary.
" int eres ti ng ending
31
oComplete the sentences using an appropriate
word, The first letter of each word is given to
help you.
Mar coni is famo us for bei ng the i _
of th e radio,
2 Today's g have more freedom than
in the past.
3 For most young people, thei r frien ds have the
biggest i on the m.
4 The USA has huge car and computer
i wh ich employ million s of people,
5 The p of Birmingha m is about onc
milli on,
6 Some teenagers express th eir feelings by
wr iting g on the walls of public
bui ldings,
oRead the definitions below, then write the word
they describe.The first letter of each word is
given to help you,
an important job that someone has bee n given
to do m _
2 onc of the parts of a TV programme with a
sto ry e _
3 an ex citing experience in which dangerous
things may happen a _
4 a book containing a long story n _
5 a way of pronouncing wor ds beca use of wh ere
someone comes from a _
oChoose the best tense in the following
sentences.
UNIVERSE
MYSTERY
DIFFER
SUCCESS
BEGIN
MEDICINE
ATTRACT
ACT
WAIT
INTELLI GENT
5 I still haven '( finished/didn ' t finish writing the
test; I need a few more mi nut es.
6 She ha s been writinqtwritten lett ers for hou rs and
she still hasn' t finished.
It' s raini ng/i t rains outside - why don 't you wait
till it stops?
2 I applied fnr the j ob. no w I wait/am waiting to
sec if I get it.
3 It's no t that I don 't like/am not liki nq the job, it ' s
ju st that the hours are too lon g.
4 I am not going to sec the ti lm again - 1saw/have
seen it when it first came ou t.
7 Ju st as I got there, the train was leaving/left the
stat io n.
catch hold grab crawl creep carry
The thi ef her bag and ran off
down the street.
2 Can you the baby while I go to the
ph on e?
3 I'll throw th e ball in the air and you try an d
_____ it.
4 Before a bab y learns to wa lk it on
the floor.
5 The bur glar up the stairs in the
dar k.
6 I asked the port er to my bags to
the tax i because t hey we re too heavy.
e Read the questions 1- 10. Use the word given in capitals at the end
of each line t o form a word that fits the space in t he same line.
The Int ernet has (I) appeal for teen ager s around the globe.
The Sith arc a (2) and evi l force who wa nt to destroy the Jedi.
What ' s t he (3) between teenager s today and in th e past?
She completed the test (4) and was given the job.
At the (5) of t he story, we meet the hero, Luke Skywalker.
Some roo ts in the rai nforest arc used for (6) purposes.
Gillian Ande rson was (7) by her husband ' s smile.
Tom Hanks is one of the most successful (8) today.
She used to be a (9) in a restaurant.
You' ll have to use your ( 10) to solve the problem.
e Complete these sentences using the correct
for m of the words below,
32
oMatch the words in list A with the words in list B to form acceptable pairs of words .
Some pairs can be writ t e n as one wo rd and others as two.
A c-mail post writing pen down
B card paper load address friend
Now compl ete t he se se ntences with an appropriate phrase from above .
I It can tak e a long time to files from the Int ern et.
2 If you give me your I ca n se nd you a copy of the text right away.
3 I always send a 10 each of my friends whe n I go on holiday.
4 When my siste r was te n, she had a who lived in Ital y.
5 I wa nt to write to my gra ndmothe r but I haven' t got any _
8 Repl ace the underlined wo rds in these sentences with the correc t
form of a phrasal verb wit h get or go. Make any othe r change s necessary.
I You can leave the office but please try and return before the manager gets here.
2 The holiday was cancelled so now we've got to try and have our money returned.
3 Wh en Bell y was in hospital we had ID cont inue wit h the job wit hout her.
4 I' ve had thi s flu for weeks a nd I still have n' t recovered from it.
5 The teacher tol d the m ID be qui et but they cont inue d to talk.
6 I' ve ex perienced similar problems so I know how you feel.
oFor questions 1-14 read the text and decide which answer A B, C or D best fits each space.
Secret Agent Pond
Charles Pond had been working lat e tha t night. The only sound that could be hea rd was the
sound of hi s fingers on th e (I) . He had be en (2) 10 finis h his report and
now time was running (3) . He had to finish before they got there. He (4) _
the last paragraph o n the computer when suddenly he (5) a noise just outside the
window. Pond knew Capuccinos men were (6) for hi m but he hadn't expected
them ID (7) up so quickly. He ignored the sound and (8) on wri ting. Then
he heard foot steps. He immediately (9) th e text and went over to the window 10
(10) . He d rew the curta ins as ide . Pond co uld see from the we t roads tha t it
( I I ) all ni ght. He could see nobody, bu t th ought he'd bett er go out a nd ( 12) _
j ust in case. He opene d the door a nd ( 13) slowly int o the garden. Then he saw
someone running ( 14) in th e dar kness.
:0
ID

.....
ID

-.
et
I A ha rd disk B scree n c keyboa rd D processor
2 A incapable B una ble c managin g D unlucky
3 A off B a way c out D up
4 A had fini shed B was finishi ng c has fini shed D finished
5 A listened B noti ced c Ielt D heard
6 A making B running c sea rching D seeing
7 A go B get c run D turn
8 A continued B took c went D pushed
9 A saved B pressed c loaded D sent
ID A control B test c investigate D inspect
I I A rained B has rained c was raining D had bee n raining
12 A check B watch c inqui re D control
13 A walked B climbed c ran D fell
14 A towa rds B up c out D away
33
Reading
oWork with a partner.
Describe what happens
during an eclipse, using these
photographs to help you.
e Read the text quickly and
chec k your answers.
Don't r,l( .'(
sun's
An eclipse is simply when the between the earth and the sun, It is even dangerous to look at a
shadow of one planet or moon and will eventually end up by
55
partial eclipse. In the first place,
falls on another. In ancient 30 covering the whole of the sun, if you don't look up at the sky
times, an eclipse in broad but this will only be visible from you won't realize it's happening,
5 daylight was a bad omen. In a few places around the world; since your eyes get used to the
some parts of the world even observers in certain parts of the lower level oflight. And then
today, an eclipse of the sun is a country will see the eclipse
60
people mistakenly think that
si gn that something is not right 35
begin at one time, but in other since two-thirds of the sun are
in nature. It may not be that the places it will start a bit later. covered, it will be all right to
10 gods are dissatisfied with look at it.
mankind but it does seem that
The whole spectacle starts at
the end of the world might be
about 2 pm and ends at about There are always cases of people
coming.
4 pm.The advice from Or John 65 who have been foolish enough to
40 Mason, an astronomer, is: 'If look at the sun through small
Nowadays, astronomers can you're going to look at an telescopes or binoculars. At the
15 predict very accurately the time eclipse, avoid looking at it very best, they will cnd up with
that an eclipse will take place directly, even with glasses, since a permanent blind spot on the
and how long it will last; they you can do your eyes serious 70 back of the retina. At the very
can also tell us whether it will 45 damage. I'm taking my kids out worst they will blind
be total or partial. This year, to see it to make sure they don't themselves.'
20 like every year, there will be at stare at the sun.
least two eclipses of the sun and
A total eclipse is a rare thing.
in some years there may be as
The safest way to look at an The last time people in Britain
many as five.
eclipse is to project the image 75 saw one was on 11 August, 1999.
50
on to a light surface with However, there will be 56 partial
As most people will know by binoculars or a telescope, but or total eclipses between now
25 now, there's going to be an without looking through the and the year 2020, so be ready!
eclipse today. At a certain time, lenses directly.
the moon will pass directly
34
FeE practice: Part 2
e For questions 1- 6, choose t he correct answer,
A, B, C o r D.
In th e past people beli eved an eclipse was
A th e sha dow of one pla net on another.
B a sign th at the gods were happy.
e a sign that something bad was going to
happen.
D a natural disaster.
2 Every yea r there
A is at least one partial eclipse .
B are usuall y several eclipses.
C is at least one total eclipse.
D are about five ecl ipses.
Sunny days 4
3 Today' s eclipse
A will be a tota l ecl ipse in some places.
B will be see n several times in a few plac es.
C will only be seen in one place.
D will be a partial ecl ipse all around the world.
4 You sho uld look at an eclipse
A usin g glasses.
B through a telescope len s.
C in photographs only.
D reflected onto a surface.
5 Duri ng a partial ecl ipse
A it gets complete ly dark.
13 the ligh t cha nges colour.
e you may not not ice anything.
D you I1111 st use binocul ars.
6 Looking directl y at an ecli pse
A is best through a small telescope.
13 will harm your eyesight.
C wi ll make you go blind .
D is all right for a short time.
oDiscuss th ese questions.
1 Have you ever see n an eclipse?
2 Wh at are the benefits of th e su n?
3 What are th e dangers?
oFind words in t he t ext that have a similar
meaning to the following. The first letter of
each word is given to he lp yo u.
a sign that something bad is going to happen
0, _
2 complete
3 some thing than can be seen v _
4 th e ou tside or top layer of something
s, _
5 in the end. after a long time e' _
6 peopl e who watch or noti ce some thing
0' _
7 harm d _
8 to make an image appea r on a scree n usi ng
light 1' , _
35
4 Sunny days
Grammar and Use of English
Future (1): future simple, going to, present continuous, present simple
11 Unde rline the future forms in these se ntences,
the n match th em to t he correct use.
I I'm havi ng my hair cut next weekend.
2 It's definitel y going to snow - look at those
dar k clouds.
3 We wi ll probabl y see th e total eclipse
tomorrow, if there arc no clouds.
4 My trai n leaves a t 4 pm, so I need to leave
at 3. 30 pm to get there o n ti me.
5 I think we are going to go shopping tomorrow.
a to make predictions about the fut ure
b 10 talk about things whi ch we have arranged
for t he future
c to tal k about the future according to a fixed
sched ule of event s, eg tim etables
d to talk about our inte nt ions for the future
e to talk about things which are certain to
happe n in th e futu re, eg for which we have
present ev ide nce
See g"'lIIlIIar reference p,'ge 145.
oLook at the pictures and complete the sentences
below using an appropriate form of the future.
8 Complete these sentences using the future
simple or going to. In which sentences can you
use both the future simple and going to with
little change of meaning?
____ get a new pai r of sung lasses
tomorrow.
2 Look a t t he sky. Th e sun come out in
a minute.
3 The sun ex ist for another five billion
yea rs.
4 That building fall down soon. Look at
th ose cracks in the wa ll.
5 Th ey re-decora te th eir house d uring
the holiday.
6 The sun continue to shine forever.
7 Wh en th e ligh t from th e sun sto ps, life on the
ea rt h end.
8 You must decide soon what yo u st udy
at university.
(1) _
snow.
36
(2) _
bu y a hou se.
(3) _
at 9 pm.
(4) _
th e lottery.
e Complete th is dialogue by choosing the best
form of the future for each sentence.
A I ( I ) am driving/drive down to Dover on
Saturda y !O see th e eclipse with some friends.
(2) DoyOIl come/Are yOIl coming?
B I'd love !O but I can' t. I (3) am taking/will take
John to the mat ch on Saturday. It 's his big day.
Their team (4) will play/is playing aga ins t
anot her school in the semi-finals.
A That ' Sa sha me, perhaps you (5) will be/are
being able to come lat er. What time (6) is the
game finishing/does the game fi nish?
B About 5 o' clock.
A The paper says the eclipse (7) will start/ is
starting to he visible from Dover around
lunchtime.
B How long is t he eclipse (8) going to last/lasting?
A It (9) wi ll last/is lasting about two and a half
hours.
B You ( 10) are not going to/will not look at it
directly, arc you?
A No, that would be stupid. I (11) am going to
make/ will make a littl e pinhole came ra out of
card. You j ust ho ld it to the window.
B Sounds like it (12 ) is going to be/is being quit e a
spectacle!
A Right. And the next one won't be till 2090.
B Wow! I do n' t think I' ll be around for that one!
Sunny days
oComplet e t hese sentences about yourself.
I This weekend
(wri te about your plans)
2 Whe n I finish school _
(write about your intentions)
3 I can' t go 10 the cinema tonight/tomorrow
becau se
(write about what arrangements you have
made)
4 In ten years' time,
(make a prediction about your family)
FeE practice: Part 2
oAnswer t hese questions.
I What is the 'greenhouse effect'?
2 Is the ea rt h going to get wa rmer or cooler?
3 Read th e text quick ly. What does the aut ho r say about thi s?
Global warming or global cooling?
Scientists have warned that the eart h is turning ( I) a kind of giant
green ho use and in the futu re there (2) be a rise in temperatures everywhere.
But some scient ists disagree. They say that certai n (3) of the earth are no t
(4) to get warmer but arc going (5) get coo ler. Globa l cooli ng over
part s of Europe (6) probably be grea ter (7) global wa rming. The
reason is simple: clouds. Warmer temperatures will (8) more water evaporate
and (9) will lead to more clouds. These (10) will shade the earth
from the sun, leading to coo ler temperatures ( I I ) the day. Ecologists,
however, ins ist that global warming will continue, in ( 12) of increased
cloudiness - and it (13) not goi ng to be a good thing.
oFo r questions 1- J 3. read t he t ext again and t hink of the word which best fits t he space.
Use onl y o ne word in each space .
37
4 Sunny days
Vocabulary
Idioms (time)
oIdioms and expressions with time are very
common in English. Study these idioms with
time and then complete the examples.
6 It's not worth queuing because they're sold out.
Don't because they're sold
out.
7 Don 't hurry, you've got plent y of time!
______ __ , ther e' s no need to hurry.
_ _ _ _ her next birthday, she' ll be sixteen. 3
in on at
I I'mgoing swimming _ 2pm.
2 They should leave _ a few minutes.
1 My birthday's _ Friday.
4 It gets hotter _ summer.
S He's leaving _ Sunday.
6 I eat lunch _ midday.
7 There was a total ecli pse _ 2000.
I' m going to get up about ten o'clock
tomorrow morning.
2 We're thinking of red ecorat ing the hou se
____ the spring.
2 When does time go by more quickly for you -
when you are playing or workin g?
3 What kind of things do you usua lly put off
doi ng?
4 What time do you set off for school every day?
5 What can you do to avoid running out of time
du ring a test ?
4 I wonder where we ' ll be the year 201O?
5 What are you doing the weekend?
6 I' ll give you t he book back a couple
of days.
oAnswer t hese questions about yourself, t hen
discuss your answers with a partner.
How much time doe s your homework take up
every day?
oComplet e these sentences using one of the
prepositions from exercise 3.
Words often confused
oCom plet e t hese se ntences by ticking the
correc t pre pos ition in the chart be low.
I had a 1 on
holiday.
You need to leave for the
airport in 2 time
in order to check in early.
We only watched TV to
5 the time.
I was 6 of time ,
so I didn 't stop to cha t.
You need to wor k quickly,
if you don't want to
7 of time.
3 was te your lime.
Do something useful!
have a good time Take 4 time
- don't hurry.
be short of time
in good time
waste one's lime
pass the time
take one's time
run out 01' time
4 They really enjoyed t hemselves at your party
last night.
They had a at your party
last night.
5 He advised them that leaving promptly would
help them avoid the traffic.
He told them to leave in
order to avoid the traffi c.
e For questions 1-7, complete the second
sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the co rrect form of
one of the phrases in exe rcise I.
I! you don't have much time, take a taxi.
I! you are , take a taxi.
2 She read her book so she wo uldn' t get bored.
In order to she read her
book.
3 He didn 't finish the exa m because he didn't
have enough time.
He didn' t finish the exa m because he
________ time.
38
Sunny days
Listening and speaking
oW hat is the weather like at the moment where
you are l W hat will it be like in December? July?
The weather Britain Norway Greece
I cold and wi ndy
1 shower!
J heavy rain
4 covered in snow
5 snowstorms
6 boi ling hot
7 fairly cold
8 mild
e Listen to the tape. Tick the chart to show
which country the expressions in exercise I
describe.
FCE practi ce: Part 4
e Li st en again. Fo r each question 1-7, deci de
whether the answer is Yes or No.
I Will t he weather be better later on in the week?
2 Is Alice disappointed by the weather?
3 Would Isabell c enjoy going shopping?
4 Is Wi nd sor po pular with tourists?
5 Does Bjorn go home oft e n?
6 Is th e wea ther in Greece hot at th is time of
year ?
7 Is Alice going to go away for Christmas?
oWhat is the weather going to be like in your
co untry tomorrow?
FCE pract ice: Part 2
o <;;jj:: Loo k at t hese phot ograph s of different
beaches. Choose two an d compare and contrast
them. W hich beach would you most like to visit?
Why?
oDiscuss these questions.
I Wh ich is yo ur favourite beach? Why?
2 Wh at th ings annoy you whe n yo u go to the
beach ?
In comparison to photo I, photo 2 is .. .
In this picture while in the other picture .
In this photo whereas in the other one ..
The biggest difference between the two
photos is . ..
Pi cture I is very different because .. .
2
39
4 Sunny days
Writing
ctional letter F
eEpractice: Transa d the st udent's letter.
d t below, then rea
O
R d t his task and the aver . L in an interna tional
ea r., interes ted in ta king pa r l: advertisement
Your basketball tea m IS ng people bu t onl y ha s tne c
lent for you .
spo rts to urnan ~ .. is more informati on.
shown below and nee,
What are the dates exactly?
. ?
AccommodatLon.
. the letter which
A Fi nd words and phrases .m .
V h the following functions :
aye .. 0
whv vou are wnung I to say r
2 to say who you are
ask for information
3 to . I
d t he lett e r to a C ose 4 to raw
DearSir or Ma;(am,
I sawyoura;(vertisementfor the
Intemationalsports Conventionin Tutal
Sport m"3azine an;( I am writi"!!for more
information. I am a member ofa basketball
teaman;( we are all keen to takepart in
the v ~ but reruireprther cr'etails.
First ofall, whichSf'orts w,11the event
involve?We hOj1e basketballis one ofthem.
We wou/,f also liketoknow the exact ;(ates
ofthe Convention. We are,jOli:J tobe tak'i:J
exams ftll the en;(of June an;(so the
members of our team Wtll befeef om
'July onwanls.
We wou/,fliketobni:J a totalof seven
peOj1Ie, inclutlti:J our coach; will this be
acc"l'ta6le?Also, therewerenocr'etails about
accommo;(ation inyour a;(vertisement an;(
it wou/,fbe useplfor us toknow what the
Oj1tions are an;( whether bookti:Js are macr'e
I;yy ou or I;y thepartiCtfanfs themselves.
Finally, cou/,fy oupleasesen;(us an
informationpack, inclutlti:J "I'plication forms
an;(a"9'other useplinformatio
n
about
the Convention an;( the Ctty ofBarcelona.
I look forwar;( toreceivti:Jyouranswer;
Yours faithplly,
SOj1hie I1jss
calling all sports enthusiasts
everywhere
th of the world bringing the you
together! .
. . . vited In an
participat'O"d is In
rts
festival
athletics an spa
nd more lication forms a
for app. 11 or write to:
information ca
INTERNATIONAL
SPORTS CONVENTION,
BARCELONA
Mr R Valera
Calle Santa Ro
Barcelona 725
,
ask for information pack
Which
sports?
How many
people per
team?
40
oNow read the second letter which contains
mistakes in the areas listed below. Can you
fi nd t hem?
I tenses
2 word ord er
3 vocabul ar y
4 spelling
5 style
Sunny days 4
o Now it's your turn. You are going to write a
letter following these instructions.
Your debating team at schoo l is intereste d in
att ending an Intcmati onal Youth Confere nce
Debat e on globa l wa rming hut yo u onl y have
th e advert bel ow a nd so need more
in forma tion. Writ e a lett er in an appropriate
style of bet ween 120 and 180 words.
Read the advert, then write your letter covering
the points in your notes and any relevant
infor mation about you and your Debating Club.
Venue: Milton conference centre
Age limit?
How many people
per team?
Participants may argue for or against
the motion.
Can you beat the best young speakers
in the world?
nal debating soci ty:
bating competiti n
Calling school debating clubs
everywhere!
Your chance to show your forensic skills
and help fight global warming
Join the debate on:
Is global warming going to get better or worse?
To be accompanied
by a teacher?
Dear Sir or Madam,
Iam writing to ask for more
informations for the International Youth
convention which Isaw advertised in Total
~ r t Magazine. In fact, my team-mates
and Iwere thrilled when we have seenthe
advertisement butthere are some things
we 'dlike you to inform us on. To begin, I'd
like to know what are the exact dates of the
tournament, as some of the dates won't be
convenient for some of us, dueto school
exams. Secondly, as accomodation wasn't
mentioned in your advertisement, I'd
appreciate some information concerning
hotels in the area where the tournament
is going to take place. In addition to these,
I request information on the number of
players that are allowed for each team and
I, also, didn't understand whether there is
anage limit or not? Finaly, we want to know
whether the games are knock-out or
whether there will begroups consisting of
a number of teams, and how many teams
are expected to participate.
I look forward to receiving ananswer;
That's all for now!
Kind regards,
Rafael
Accommodation provided?
41
42
Reading
oWork with a partner. Look at the photographs
and discuss these questions.
I This sheep is famo us - do you kn ow why?
2 What do the pictures have in cornmon?
e Do you think t hese statements are true or
false!
By the year 2050 we will all have a clone of
ourselves.
2 Cloning experi ments have been banned in
some European countries.
3 Wi thin ten years scient ists will probabl y have
cloned a human be ing.
Read the text quickly and check your answers.
Cloning: future perfect?
Think abo ut t he fo llowing scene: yo u are
wal ki ng down t he st reet and you see a
mother and her chi ldren wa lking side by
side. The chi ldren look ident ical, but th ey
5 are diffe rent ages. If human cloni ng
becomes normal, scenes li ke t his wi ll have
become normal by t he year 2050.
2
A clone is an exact copy of a pla nt or
animal pr oduced fr om anyone cell. Si nce
10 Scott ish scient ists report ed that t hey had
managed t o clo ne a sheep named Doll y in
1997, research i nt o cloni ng has grown
rapi dly. In May 1998, scientists in
Massachusetts managed to create two
15 identical calves using new cloni ng
t echnol ogy. A mouse has also been cloned
successfully. But the debate ove r cloning
humans reall y started when Chicago
physicist Richar d Seed made a sensational
20 announcement: ' We wi ll have managed to
clone a human bein g within the next two
years: he to ld the world.
3
Seed's announcement provoked a lot of
media attention , most of it negat ive. In
25 Europe, nin et een nat ions have al ready
signed an agreement ban ni ng human
cloni ng and in the US the President
announced: 'We will be introducing a law t o
ban all human cloning and ma ny states in
30 th e US wi ll have passed ant i-cloni ng laws
by t he end of t he year:
4
Many researchers are not so negative
abo ut clo ni ng. They are worried t hat laws
banning human cloning wi ll threaten
35 i mportant research. In March, The New
England Journal of Medicine called any
The secrets of science
plan to ban research on clon ing humans
seriously mistaken. Many researchers also
believe that in spite of attempts to ban it ,
40 human cloni ng will have become routine by
2010 because it i s impossible to stop the
progress of scien ce.
5
Is there reason to fear that cloning wi ll lead
to a nightmare world? The public has been
45 bombarded with newspaper articles,
television shows and films, as well as
cartoons. Such information is often
misleading, and makes people wonder what
on eart h t he scientists wil l be doi ng next.
6
50 Wi thi n the next five to ten years scientists
will probably have found a way of cloning
humans. It could be that pretty soon we will
be able to choose the person t hat we want
our chi ld to look li ke. But how would it feel t o
55 be a clone among hundreds, the anti-cloners
ask. Pretty cool, answer the pro-cloners.
FeE practice: Part 1
e Choose the most suitable heading from the list
A-G for each par t 1- 6 of the ar ti cle.There is
one extra heading which you do not need to
use.
A The right to choose
B A common sight
C Anx iety about the future
D Teenager s in favou r of cloning
E Arguments in favour of cloning
F Wh at is cloning?
G Strong reactions
oRead the text and underl ine the arguments for
and against cloning.
" Find words in the text that have a simi lar
meaning to the following. The first letter of each
word is given to help you.
a picture of a place s _
2 the bab y of a cow (plural) c _
3 a di scussion on an important subject d _
4 somet hing said in publi c a _
5 caused something p, _
6 to pass a law to say something is not permitted
b _
7 the wa y something develops p, _
8 7
14
43
The secrets of science
III The future perfect continuous takes the
following form: will have been + verb + ing. It is
used to describe an act ion t hat will be in
progress up t o a particular point in t he future.
I will have been Iivillg herefor ten years this July.
See grammar reference page /45.
2-4pm
. Spm
2.15pm
2.30pm
4-6pm
. . 7pm
. . Bpm
S-9 .30pm
. . . . . lOam-2pm
Saturday 1July
find--tems at- campsite
eat sandwiches outside tents
bungey jump off Eiffel Tower
return to tents to recover _
depart for river-front bar .
oyster-eating competition
all-night dancing at
local club _ . . . . . . 9. 30pm- 5. 30am
u n d ~ 2 July.
hunt for Hunchback of
Notre Dame . . . . .
scuba diving in the
River Seine
depart Paris . . . .
A weekend in Paris
Grammar and Use of English
Future (2): future perfect simple,
future perfect continuous, future continuous
If human cloning becomes normal, scenes like
thi s normal by the yea r 2050.
(beco me )
2 ' We 10 clone a human being within
the ne xt two years : (ma nage)
3 ' We a law 10 ban all human cloning:
(introduce )
4 ' Many states in th e US anti-cloning
laws by the end of the year: (pass)
5 Huma n cloning routine by 2010.
(become)
e Complet e these sentences using the
appropriate for m of the ver b in brackets.
By 2050. we on the Moo n. (Jive)
o Complete these sentences with an appropriate
fo rm of the future. Check your answers wit h
the text.
11 Look at these sentences from the text and
answer the questions below.
We will have ma naged to clon e a human being
within the ne xt two years.
2 We will be int roducing a law to ban all human
cloning.
Which sentence:
is in the future continuous?
is in the future perfect simple?
means an action that is expected to happen
at some point in the future?
mean s an action tha t will be completed by
a parti cul ar time in the future?
2 Don 't try calling her. She for th e
airport by now. (leave)
3 Scientists in cloning their human
bein gs wi thin the next five to te n yea rs.
(succeed)
4 In t he next five years, everyone the
Internet. (use)
5 Thi s t ime next week we on holiday
lying on a beach! (be )
oUsing the informati on in t he itinerar y above,
complete these sentences using t he correct
form (futu re perfect simple, future continuous
or fut ure perfect continuous) of the verbs in
brackets.
The y their tents by 2.30 pm. (find)
2 At 2.30 pm th ey sandwiches outs ide
th eir tent s. (eat)
44
The secrets of science
3 By 7.30 pm they to their tent s to recover. (ret urn)
FeE practice: Part 4
oDiscus s th ese questions.
How long, on average, do people live nowadays?
Men in my country _
Women in my country _
2 In which co unt ries of th e world do people live lo ngest ?
oRead the follo wing passage and answe r t hese qu esti ons,
How long will people be living by 2020?
2 Why do some peopl e pay to be frozen when they die?
4 At 8 pm t hey for the riverside bar. (depa rt)
5 Between 8 pm a nd 9.30 pm th ey oyst e rs. (ea t)
6 By the end of Sat urday they eight hours da ncing.
(spe nd)
7 By 2 pm o n Sunday they looking for t he Hunchback.
(finish)
8 By 4 pm they in the River Seine for two hours. (scuba
dive )
oAnswer these questions abo ut yo urse lf.
I What will yo u be doi ng on yo ur next birt hd ay?
2 What will ha ve cha nged in your town by the yea r 202 0?
3 How lo ng will you ha ve been st udy ing Eng lish by t he time yo u
ta ke t he FeE?
The secret of life
1 Scie ntists have been bei ng looki ng for th e secret of eterna l life
2 for centuries but IlO W mode rn scie nc e is on the brink of solving
3 one of the more great myst e ries of human ex iste nce. Researchers
4 say that ve ry soon th e y will ha ve been found th e ' elixir of life' and
5 tha t by 2020 people will have be livi ng 20-50 years longe r tha n
6 they did in the 20t h century. Scientists believe that even by 2010
7 human beings aged 115 will st ill be feci young and heal t hy. Old age
8 wi ll, at last , have had been conquered. Our ' biological clock' will
9 be be ing movin g more slowly in th e fut ure a nd old age will be
10 a rr iving much la te r. Techniqu es of hypnosi s a re improving a ll th e
1I time so that someone could 'fall asle ep' and wake li p man y ye ars
12 late r, w hen scientists will have had di sco ve red cures for 'inc urable'
13 diseases. At presen t, there arc about 30 human bodies frozen at a
14 temperat ure of -1 96 degrees, wa iting for the moment when science
15 wi ll have been found a way to bring them back to life ,
G For questio ns I-I S. read t he text again and look carefully at each line.
Some of t he lines are co rrect. and so me have a word that shoul d not be
t he re . If a line is correct. put a t ick (.f). If a line has a word which should
not be th ere. write the wo rd.

(
)
45
46
The secrets of science
Vocabulary
Prepositions
No uns, verbs and adject ives can be used with
particular preposit ions. We say congratulate 01/,
lIen'OIlS about, a!]ree with, speak to. You have 10
learn which words go wi th w hich preposi tions
because there are few rules to hel p yo u choose
correctl y.
o He re are some commo n uses of prepositions
with verbs. adjectives and nouns. Comp lete the
chart using the words in t he box below.
example believe answer nervous different
interested approve discussion insist
in on of about to
noun research lecture
verb chat refe r
adjective keen afraid
e Compl ete thi s text us ing appropriate
prepositi ons.
Twins
My younger sisters, Jenny and June, arc
identi cal twins. Although they are very similar
( I ) each other in many wa ys. they
differ (2) other ways. They agre e
(3) many things; for example they a re
both fond (4) animal s. so they have
a lot to talk (5) . Wh en th ey first went
(6) school our Mum a nd Dad insist ed
(7) th em being put (8) _
different classes. Jenny is now good
(9) gymnastics and art but June is
hopeless at anything practi cal. June knows a
lot ( 10) hi story and geography but is
not int erested ( I I ) sport. Her tea chers
say Jenny is probably going to succeed
( 12) somethi ng artist ic like pa inting -
a nd June wi ll probably end up doing some
kind of research work .
Words of te n confused
e Correct these common mistakes with
prepositions.
Patricia will have arrived to the station.
Can you fetch her?
2 John will be goin g in a ne w school this yea r.
3 I would like to live in a desert island for
a while.
4 Can you ge t th e phone? I a m to th e bathroom.
5 There is so mebody in the door.
oCompl ete these rul es using th e prepositions
ot, on, in, to.
___ is used with verbs of movement.
2 is used to describe someone 's posi tion
at a point or place.
3 is used to descri be 50111<.' One's posi tion
inside a place. It is also used with cities, towns
and countries.
4 is used to describe the positi on of
some thing 0 11 the sur face of another th ing.
" Choose the corre ct preposition in t hes e
se ntences .
I They met to /a t a pa rt y.
2 The teacher wa s sta nding at /on the blackboard.
3 The teacher wrote our homework t%n the
blackboard.
4 She spent weeks at/ in hospital after the accident.
5 Childre n feel nervous about go ing in /to school
for the first time.
6 How would you feel about living to /in a sma ll
village all yo ur life?
The secrets of science
I What will life be like?
2 What will peopl e be doing?
3 How wi ll life have cha nged?
e The English language is changing all t he t ime.
Th ese express ions came into t he English
language recentl y. Mat ch an express ion from
list A with it s meaning in list B.
A B
4
ge ne tic
engineering
2 tcchno
4 vi rt ua l realit y
3 multi-media
using a mi xture of so und,
pi ctures, Iilm and writing
to give information
usin g comp uter images and
so und to make thi ngs seem
real when they are not
when scie ntists change the
ge nes of a person, plant or
animal in order to impr ove it
electronic dan ce music w ith a
strong, fast beat
o C]l; Look at these pictures of possible future
technologica l developments. Discuss these
questions with a partner.
2
Listening and speaking
You overh ear this co nversat ion. Wh y is the
woma n surprised?
A Her husband has done something unusu al.
B She has forgott e n something.
C She reali zes it is a n impo rta nt da y.
2 You hear a man talking ab out hi s job. What is
he looki ng forward to?
A Finding a ncw job.
R Relaxing.
C Having a party.
3 You hear a radio a nno uncement which gives
det ails of a fut ure programme about
photographs. What will th e exp erts be doing?
A Giving out prizes.
B Choos ing photogr aphs.
C Showing thei r best photographs.
4 You overhear thi s couple tal kin g. Why is the
woma n unhapp y?
A Thei r friends are going to be late.
B Her husband's go t to go a nd get their car.
C Her husband did n't te ll her some thing.
5 VDU hear a man being int ervi ewed in the street.
What 's hi s opinion of human cloning?
A It has adva ntages a nd disad vantages .
B He un de rstands the reasons for it.
C It goes against nature.
oAnswer these questions before you listen.
I How long will your parents have been marri ed
OIl thei r ne xt anniversary?
2 How wi ll you be ce lebrating yo ur next
birthday?
3 Which of t he photographs th at you have at
home is yo ur favour ite? Why?
4 How long does it ta ke you to ge t ready whe n
yo u arc going out?
FeE practice: Part 1
8 You will hear people ta lking in five different
situations. For questions 1-5. choose the best
answer A, B o r C.
47
The secrets of science
An article is a text on a particular subject which has been
written for a newspaper or magazine. Here are some tips
on writing an article:
think of a good title for your article - you want to
attract the reader's interest
make sure that the first sentence of the article is
linked to t he title and introduces the topic
organize your ideas into paragraphs: each new point
should start a new paragraph
make sure that the last paragraph brings the article to
a defi nite end; depending on the topic,the last
paragraph can summarize the topic. reach a
conclusion or express your opinion on the topic
e You are going to wr ite an article following these instructions.
Before you begin. do the exercises on page 49.
An internationa l yout h magazine ha s asked for
articl es on how readers see th emselve s
changing in the ne xt 5- 10 years.
Wr ite between 120 and 180 wo rds.
Writing
FeE practice: Magazine article
oLook at the pictures. Make predictions about
t hese children and the adults they will become.
In ten years' time, she will be travelling all over the
world.
By the time he is 35 he will have earned billions
of dollars.
48
A
t the moment, my l ife is
a bit boring. I spend
most of my time at
school and I don't have much
free time or mo ney. The only
bright spot i n my life is
basket bal l tra i ni ng two or
t hree times a week.
I hope I' l l be doing more
excit ing t hi ngs in the fut ure.
First of all, in f ive years' t ime
I hope I will be studyi ng at
university. Then, If I'm lucky,
I'll be studyi ng architecture in
France. If I work really hard, I
might graduate with a first
class degree, which will
inc rease my chances of
getting a good job
afterwa rds.
By t he t ime I am working,
I will have more free ti me than
I do now. I hope that I'll
have lots of money too, so
t hat I'll have the t ime and
resources to t ravel - in South
Ame rica, for inst ance. In
about ten years' t ime, as a
result of my hard work, I will
also have found a well-paid job
and I wi II have bought my
f ir st Alfa Romeo.
Finally, I expect to have
become t he most famous
arc hi tec t in th e wor ld
because I wi ll have designed
t he f ir st sports stadium i n
space.
To sum up, I think I will be
living a rat her excit ing life
over t he next ten years . I wi ll
have completed my st udies
successfully and I wi ll have
become r ich and famous.
The secrets of science
oRead this student's article
and label the paragraphs
using the headings below.
There is an extra heading
that you do not need to use.
A Studying abroad
B Concl usion
C My working l ife
D A big ach ievement
E Introduction
F Fami ly li fe
oRead the article again and
find words and phrases
which have the following
functions:
1 10 list points
2 10add poi nts
3 10 expr ess cause and effect
4 to give exa mples
5 to ex pr ess a personal opini on
6 10 slim li p
oNow complete these sentences using linking expressions from
the article.
There are a 101 of things I'd li ke to do i n my li fe. I'd like (0 travel
rou nd the worl d, _
2 Sarah gOI 10 Oxford Univers i ty her exam results were
excellent.
3 I want 10 study languages at uni versi t y 1 will have the
ski lls 10 work in a travel business.
4 In this article, I have given arguments for cloning but I have
____ given several good arguments against clon ing.
oNow it's your turn. You are goi ng to write your own magazine
ar t icle on what your life will be like in ten years' time. Fir st discuss
these quest ions with a partner and make notes.
What are you doing now?
How do you see yourself changing in the next few years?
What wi ll you be doing?
what wi ll you have done?
Whe re will you be li vi ng?
Wi ll you have got married?
Will you have tr avelled a 101?
49
2
50
Reading
Are you
looking
after
yourself?
In the hectic world of today, people are always
searching for more ways of keeping fit and
healthy. Susan Jones has been looking into some
of the ways of looking good a nd feeling good.
1
5 Running is excellent exercise. Before you start
running, you should warm up first, u sing s low
movements that make all your muscles work.
But be careful! If you stretch when your muscles
are cold, you might do yourself an in jury. Always
10 wear comfortable clothing and make s u re your
trainers are in good shape. If you wear shoes
that give good support to your w hole foot , you
will put less pressure on your knees . You should
start exercising slowly, at a pace you can keep
15 up for about 15-20 minutes. Try to exercis e on
soft ground as t his will prot ect your knees and
hips from too much stress.

It's ok if you go to bed late occa s ionally but if
you regularly cut down on your sleep, it will
20 soon start to have a bad effect on your skin. If
you get a g ood night ' s res t , it will do your
appearance the world of good. It is not called
beauty s leep for nothing! Lack of sleep can
cau s e a cne or dry skin. Make sure you get a
25 good niqht 's sleep py going to bed and getting
up at regular times: don't Burn candle
both ends. During the day, keep active: if you
don ' t get enough e,xercise during the da
may e nd up sleepless all night.
3
30 Did you know that standing, sitting and walking
badly can make you look h eavi e r than you really
are? If we watched the way we sat and stood, it
would improve our appearance a great deal. Stand
in front of the mirror with your feet apart and your
35 leg s straight. Pull in your tummy, check that your
ears, shoulders, hips, knees and ankles are in line
with each other. You should be feeling and looking
better already!
4
Most of us live in large polluted cities. If we got
40 more fresh air, we would look healthier and more
attra ctive . A brisk walk is one of the best things you
can do for your circulation and appearance. Walking
slowly is useful but a quick pace gets more oxygen
into you r lungs. So don't just go for a pleasant stroll,
45 try and find a n area that doesn't have much
pollution, an get moving!
5
Many young people feel guilty about eating too
much chocolate, and some even say they are
addicted to it , thoug h t here is no evidence to
sup port this. Chocolate does contain a lot of fat,
how eve r, and t herefore any addicts out there would
do bet t er to ea t le ss. Howe ver, if your diet is
balanced, you needn't feel guilty: eating chocolate
in moderation is fin e - but don't eat it in stead of a
55 proper meal!
oWork with a partne r. Look at the photographs
and discuss these quest ions.
I What are they doing?
2 Which is the best way to keep fit?
3 Which of these act ivities wo uld you prefer
to do?
oRead the art icle quickly and choose the most
suita ble heading from the list A-F for each part
1-5 of the article.There is an extra heading that
you do not need to use .
A Get a good night 's rest
B Find t ime to relax
C Sit up straight!
D Spend more time in the open air
E Don't overdo it
F Go for a run
FeE practice: Part 2
e For questions 1-7. choose the co rrect answer.
A. B. Cor D.
The writer says t ha t you should
A start runn ing as quick ly as possible.
B run slowly before you sta rt exercising.
C do stretching exercises before you wa rm lip.
D warm up by moving your body slowly.
2 Why is running on soft gro und best?
A It makes your hips stronger.
B You wiII feel more relaxed.
C It is better for your knees.
D It prot ects your train ers.
3 The author says going to bed late
A do esn 't matte r 1110st of the time .
B will ma ke you feel dry.
e does harm to your skin.
D is alright if you get up early.
4 Some people look heavier tha n they are
because
A they sit down a lot.
B they don't walk enough.
C they don 't sta nd wit h the ir backs strai ght.
D they ea t too much chocolate.
Looking good. feeling good
5 The best way to get fresh air is
A walk ing slowly in the par k.
B walk ing quick ly alo ng the st reet.
C strolling in th e ope n air.
D walking quickly whe re there is no traffic.
6 It is alright to eat chocolate
A if it gives you plea sur e.
B if it doesn't cont ai n a lot of fat.
C if yOll avo id eat ing a lot.
D after a proper meal.
7 Which of the followi ng do you t hink the author
might say is the best way to protect your
appearance?
A Wearing the right clothes.
B Going on a chocolate -free diet.
C Getti ng regular exercise.
D Gett ing up ea rly every morning.
oDiscuss these questions.
Do you look after yourself?
2 What do you do to keep fit?
oWhat do these expressions mean? Choose the
correct answer. using the context in the article
to help you decide.
If you ' warm up ' (line 6) you:
A put more clothes on.
B get ready to do somet hing.
2 If something is ' in good shape' (line 11) it:
A is in good condit ion.
B looks good.
3 If you ' keep something up' (line 14-1 5) you:
A co ntinue with it.
B go faster.
4 If you ' burn the candle at both en ds'
(line 26-7) you:
A go to bed earl y and get up lat e.
B go to bed lat e and get up early.
5 If you are 'addicted' to somet hing (line 49) you :
A can' t do witho ut it.
B hate it.
51
Looking good. feeling good
Grammar and Use of English
Conditionals (1): first and second conditionals
52
I Complete t hese sentences and answe r the
quest ions that follow.
Be careful! If you stre tch whe n your mu scles
are cold, you do yourself an inj ur y,
2 If I a million pounds, I wo uld build an
Olympic-sized swimming pool in my gar de n.
a Whi ch sentence describes a likely or possible
present/future situation?
b Whi ch sentence describes an unlikely or unreal
prese nt / future situation?
c Whi ch sentence is a first conditional and whi ch
is a second co nditional?
oComplete the second sentence so that it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence, using the
wo rd given, Do not change the wo rd given, You
must use betwee n two and five words. including
the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0),
o Try to exercise 0 11 soft ground as this will
pro tect your knees from too much stress. (take)
If you take exercise on soft ground, the re will
be less stress on yo ur knees.
To make sure you ge l a good ni ght 's sleep go to
bed and get up at regul ar times, (bed)
If and get up ea rly, you will not get a
good night's sleep.
2 Walking badl y can mak e you look heavier than
you rea lly are. (wa lk)
Yo u may look heavier than you rea lly are if
____ pro pe rly.
3 Getting lots of fresh air can keep you looking
healt hy and attractive. (continue)
You healthy and att ractive if you get
lots of fresh air.
4 Walk ing at a qui ck pace gets more oxygen into
your lungs. (quickly)
If get more oxygen into your lungs.
I!I Look at t his pair of sentences. Do they have t he
same meaning?
a I' ll go running tomorrow morning if it doesn't
rain.
b 1'11 go running tomorrow morni ng unless it
rains.
Look at this pair of sentences and complete the
second sentence.
c I eat chocolat e every day, unless I'm dieting.
d I eat chocolate every day, if _
Complete th is r ule to express the difference in
form.
Unless = if + _ _ + verb.
See grallllllar referencepage /46.
5 Eating chocolate in moderatio n won't do you
any harm. (much)
Unless chocolate. it is harml ess.
6 If I'm not feel ing energetic, I won't come for a
walk. (unless)
I wo n't 1'111 feeli ng energetic.
oMatch the se ntence beginnings in list A with the
se ntence en dings in list B.
A
If we go to the cinema tonight
2 I wouldn' t eat vegetables unless
3 You wo uld look a lot heal thier if
4 If I finish my homework ear ly
5 I wo uld die of happiness if
6 Wc will come to the part y tomo rrow if
B
a I' m going to wat ch TV.
b we aren't feeling too tired.
e Leonardo DiCaprio asked me for a date.
d you got more fresh air every day,
e there wa s nothing else to cat.
r we could go for a pizza before the film starts.
oChoose t he correct form in these sentences.
1 wouldn 't/won't know what to do, if 1 won
the lottery.
2 1 woul d go skiing eve ry year if I coul d/can
afford it.
3 When making bread, remembe r that it
won't/woul dn 't rise unless you put yeast in it.
4 If you eat/are eating lot s of carrots YOU' ll see
better in th e dark.
5 If you a te he althier food , you will/ would feel
belief.
6 If I would wal k/wal k at a hr isker pace, I' ll use
tip more energy.
FeE practice: Part 2
oAnswer these questions.
Wh ich of th e things to ea t (pictures 1-6 ) do
you think a re good fo r your health? Which
do you like most /l east >
2 What is your favourite rood? How often do
you eat it?
oRead the following te xt, W hat advice does it
give parents? Underline the advice you agree
with.
Meal times: advice to parents
If childre n don't eat their food, parents usually
get very anxious. But experts say. children
( I) resist new food less, if pa rents didn 't
ma ke (2) a fuss, (3) parents
avoided saying silly things at meal times, life
(4) be much happi e r for everyone . Kids
find it boring to hea r the sa me old lines: ' If yo u
don't eat yo ur vegetables, you (5) get
a ny pudding!'
A report on children 's eating habit s says
children (6) eat more, if parents were
more relaxed about mcaltimes. However. kids
(7) more likely to ea t food if it looks
famili a r, so you (8) avoid giving them
exotic- looking di shes like sus hi or sna ils, But if
you se rve the snail s at the begi nni ng of the
meal, when the child is hungriest, th ey migh t
just (9) them without thinking!
oFor questions 1-9. read the te xt again and
t hink of the word which best fits each space,
Use only one word in each space,
Looking good. feeling good
2
6
53
Looking good. feeling good
e Complete t hese sentences using an appropriate
form of one of the words from the chart
above.
I drink up to take a dr ink with or after food
2 dri nk to to finish what you are dri nk ing
3 n il up to reduce the amount of something
4 cut down 10 w ish someone success!
on happiness and have a dr ink
5 was h down to cut int o small pieces
The doctor told he r to fatt y foods.
2 Befor e you ea t the meat, it _
into littl e pi eces.
3 We had a lovely meal an d it _
with a nice glass of min eral wa ter.
4 It's time to clo se now, Gill you all pl ease
____ and leave no w.
Food which is eaten at about the same time
each day.
2 The se parate stages in which a mea l is se rved.
3 Food prepared in a part icular way, often typical
of a part icul ar area .
4 A pe rson who makes food.
5 A part icul ar sty le of cooki ng.
oNow correct these senten ces.
I Stuffed peppers is a traditional food in my country.
2 Dinner usually co ns ists of three dish es: an
appe tizer, a main dish and a de ssert.
3 He is a good cooker.
4 Frenc h ki tchen is very popu lar through out
th e world.
5 When o ur parents were away we had to
prepare our own di shes.
oComplete t hese senten ces using one of the
phrasal verbs from exercise 5.
Words often confused
e Match these words with t heir meanings below.
meal cuisine course cook dish
Phrasal verbs (food and drink)
o Match the phrasal verbs in list A with their
mean ings in list B.
A B
7 My Dad me some chi ps and a couple
of eggs for my lunch.
bake meal bite taste less snack raw
food plate appetizer boil swallow chew
pot tasty dish sweet fry grill lick oven
cooker saucepan salty dessert
6 Switch the off and take the food out.
2 the spag he tti for ten minut es in a
large saucepan.
3 After going to t he dent ist, he found it difficul t
to his food .
4 If yo u your food slowly. it makes the
mea l last longer.
5 I don't boi l carrots - I us ua lly ea t the m
She her own bread in th e oven .
Ways of cooking
Ways of eating
Things we use
Things we eat
Describing food
Vocabulary
Word building: food
oComplete this char t using the words below.
5 Let 's peace and good health.
S4
Listening and speaking
FCE practice: Part 2
o en:: Compare and contrast these photographs .
Use words from t he box to help you.
tattoo tribe fashion skin colourful
attractive decorate pierce painful
fashi onable traditional ugly
o en:: Discuss these ques tions .
Is tattooing and body piercing common in your
country?
2 Wh at kind of people do it and why?
e Work wit h a partner and talk about how you
would react if your girlfriend or boyfriend had a
tattoo or a par t of t heir body pierced. What
would you say? Use these examples below to
help you.
People do it to look different/to shock people.
People do i l 10 make themselves more auractive.
o Listen to a radio interview about tattoos
and body piercing. Compare your answers in
exercises 2 and 3 with what t he speaker says.
FCE practice: Part 4
o Listen again. For questions 1-6. choose the
best answe r A, B or C.
How was some tattooing done in the past?
A With a shel l.
B With a pen.
C With a brush .
Looking good, feeling good
2
4
2 Cra hbe's new book
A is a complete history of tattooing.
B gives help for those who want a tattoo .
C ex plains why iauoos are popular.
3 Th e Amer ican Indi ans used tatt ooing
A during the marr iage ceremony.
B to show which tribe they are from.
C t o show thei r courage .
4 Body piercing first becam e mo re popular
amongst teenage rs
A in ancie nt times.
B in th e 1970s.
C in th e 1980s.
5 Wh at pan of their body woul d adults pierce?
A Their tongue.
B Thei r eyebrows.
C Their ches t.
6 Why would older people have bod y picrcings?
A Because it makes th em Icel fashionable.
B It reminds th em of when the y wer e young.
C Because they are agai nst big business.
oComplete these sentence s from the li st ening
text .
If you wa lk down the street in any big city in
Europe you probahly see someone
with a tattoo, or a ring in their ear or nose -
or even their eyebrow.
2 If young girls, even today, are not decorated
with heauuful ia uoolng. they he
allowed to get married .
3 If you to fright en your enemy. yo u' d
have to get yourself tattooed first.
55
Trevor
Looking good. feeling good
e Find phr ases in the postcard which have t he
same meaning as t he formal expressi ons below.
I intend to come .. .
2 I would appreciate .. .
3 I am certa in that ...
4 wi ll it be necessary to . . .
5 please inform me of your
opinion . ..
Hi Katevina
Just wn"tinj tosay !I!fYohahly he comi,,!!
over at the endofMo/. As it's my flvst
visit, I'dveally likesomeadvice ahout
wheve tojO, what places to visit andso
on, because I veally haveno idea - and
I'm sureyou know Somejveat places I
shouldsee. IfI docome in Mo/- will I need
u/armclothes, ov/ust T-shins and
shorts? Let me know whatyou think!
Take caveandwrite soon,
Writing
FeE pract ice: Informal letter
oA friend of yours fro m
Brit ain is visiting your
cou ntry for t he fi rst t ime.
You have received t he
following postcard from
your friend. What is t heir
main reason for writ ing?
To ask if it' s OK to visit
you.
To as k for your advice.
To answer your que stion s.
56
e Read the letter below quickly and answer these
quest ions.
w hat 's the wea ther like in May?
2 What accommodat ion does Karerina ment ion?
3 What traditional dish does Katerina me ntion?
4 What is Katerina 's favourite food?
oRead t he letter again and underli ne the phrases
which express advice.
Dear Ireror
Thanks foryour letter, 1'1/ domybest toanswer
JOur '{uestions.
well, ftrst of all, { you come in Mo/- mostflaces
willbe'{ude warm, but {I wereyou, I wou/tl
fack afullover tooas theevenin!Js cansa bit
cold
Ifyou like swimmi"'.'!, you cou/tl try The (jo/tlen
Coast where thebeaches are!Jreaf. Ifyou like
the mountains, try the v,1la!Jes nearMontbelle.
The islands are veryfOfularsoI sU!J!Jest that
youbook a hotelin advance - it isn't a!Joodidea
to leave this until thelast minute. Ifyou want
somethin!J cheaf, I wou/tlrecommenda room
wdhafamily. Let meknowwhatyou want and
I'll try tobookit fory ou.
The food is delicious andthere willbelots to
choose from in thesummer. You shou/tl
deftndely start with thetraddionalsalad, with
lots ofolive oil! As a maincourse, I wou/tl
recommendstu(fedfCffers - myfavourite!
Make sureyou try thesteaktoo, as 10n!J as
youyenot a vC!Jetarian, ofcourse!
That's allfor now,
Best wishes
Katerina
Looking good, feeling good
" Co mplete the sentences using the phrases
below.
make sure yo u
if I were you
if you like
I wou ld recommend
you could try
____ I would book a flight early. since it's
a busy time of year.
2 fish, you' ll love this seafood di sh,
which is a speciality of this area.
3 If the re are no vaca ncies at t his hot el. _----,_ _
th e Pension Splen did whic h has rooms at th e
same price.
4 For beach -lovers. th is coast line , which
has beauti ful stretches of white sand.
5 If you are naturally fair-skinned, wear
sunblock otherwise you will burn.
oNow it's your turn, You are going to answer
your friend's postcard using your own co untry
as an example. First discuss with a partner what
advice you would give to your friend and make
notes under the following headings:
When to come
Where to go
Wh ere to stay
What to wear
Other tips
Use the following plan to help you structure
your letter:
greeti1'1<;j
reaeon.fcr writin<;j
development onthie subject
concluding sentence(s)
closing remarks
oNow write your letter using your notes and
the plan above to help you. Write between
120 and 180 words.
57
oCo mp let e t he sentences using an appropr iate
wo rd.
oComplet e th ese se ntences using an appro priat e
preposition.
3 The tra ffic is bad , so try to lea ve in _
time.
6 Th e weather will be tomorr ow - it 'll
be wa rm with suns hine.
I What 's the wea ther there? Rainy.
1 suppose. as always.
2 We took a few board ga mes wi th us to hel p us
_ _ _ _ the time while we were on holida y.
e Repl ace th e underl ine d words in t hese
se ntences wit h t he correct form of o ne of th e
phrasal ve r bs bel ow. Make any othe r cha nges
necessary.
6 I am not int erested wha t yo u did last
ni ght.
7 He is afra id spiders.
8 I do not approve my children
drinking alcohol.
9 She is not very keen sport.
2 She has been doing research t he
causes of ca ncer.
3 His mother in sisted goi ng with him to
the doctor.
4 I have always beli eved ghos ts.
5 Spiel be rg refused to give an answer _
the report ers when as ke d abo ut hi s new film.
She was nervous speaking in public.
10 We had a n int eresting di scu ssion life
after death.
e Read th e definit ions below, t he n write t he word
or phrase th ey describe .Th e first let t e r of each
wo rd is given to help yo u.
a mi xt ure of so und, pict ures, film a nd writ ing
to give in format ion III lll _
2 dance music wit h a repe tit ive bea t, and strong
rh yth m t _
3 changing th e ge nes of a person or plant to
improve it g e _
4 compute r images and sound which
make things see m real when they are not
v 1' _
go by
hold up
put off
set off
run o ut of
take up
I Time passes slowly when you are bored.
2 I was late fini sh in g at th e bank bec ause of th e
long qu eues.
3 Looking after my mother when she was ill
required most of my free time.
4 When they had loaded a ll the luggage in the
ca r they we re ready to !ill.
5 They post poned t he fligh t till the wea ther had
improved.
6 I had to come back home ea rly from holiday
because I had 11 0 more rn oncy,
4 I hope yo u brought an umbrella wit h you. The
weather forecast was for t urning 10
heavy ra in .
5 11' s hest to your time when answering
exam qu est io ns, to a void maki ng mist ake s.
oMatch t he qu est ions in list A to their answers in list B.
A B
1 Why was th e meal so expensive ?
2 What ' s in th e sa ucepa n?
3 How did you burn th e ste ak?
4 How wo uld yo u like your eggs?
5 What 's your favouri te cuisine?
6 Would you like a n appet izer?
7 Is there an y food in th e fridge?
Just a few vegetables and a bit of cheese.
Fried , please.
l ' m j ust boi ling the cabbage.
Proba bly because we had three co urses.
No, I' ll sta rt with the main course please.
I for got it under the gr ill.
I like Italian best.
58
8 Complete these se ntences using an appropriate modal verb and
the words in brackets.
oMatch the sente nce beginnings in list A with the correct end ings
in list B.
A
I If yo u take mor e exercise
2 If 1 were ta ller
3 If you eat a lot of chocolate
4 You would. make a lot of money
5 You wi ll get a grade A
6 You would have lots of free time
7 Yo u will [ail th e exam
8 I' ll lend you my car
9 If 1 could afford it
ID You ' ll have to pay for th at vase
B
you will get fat.
1 would buy a ca r.
if you were unemployed.
yo u will lose weight.
if you don ' t do any work.
il you owned Macdonald's.
if you wor k hard.
if yo u break it.
I would be a basket ball
player.
if I am no t using it.
=0
ID
--=:
.....
ID
:e

1 If you spoke more languages (enjoy travel more)


2 If you get up earlier (get more work do ne )
3 If you lose your temper (feel sorry afterwa rds)
4 If yo u' re gett ing tired of your job (resign)
5 If you' re not busy at t he wee ke nd we (go for a me al)
6 If yo u need help wit h t he housework I (give you a
hand )
7 If you spent less money on clothes (afford to go out
more)
8 If t he sympto ms don' t go away (go and see the doctor)
GFor questions 1-13. read t he te xt and think of the word which
best fits each space. Use only one word in each space .
Dear Georgia,
1 am just wri ting to let you know whe n I' ll be arr iving
( I) Thursday. I t hink the plan e get s in (2) _
abou t 11. 30 from Zurich. You don't ha ve to pick me up
(3) th e airport; I think I'll be able 10 make my own
way. If all (4 ) wel l. I'll be arr iving (5) your
ho use at about 12.30. I will have (6) flying for about
four hours altogether so I suppose I'll (7) feeling quite
tired . I don't think 1 (8) be needing anything to eat, so
please don ' t (9) one of your big meals or an yt hing.
Othe r news? I' ve still got th at terrible headache. 1 will have to
go ( 10) th e doctor if th is headache cont inues. It always
sta rts to bot her me ( I I ) the spring; hay fever perhaps.
It started on Saturday, so I will have had it for a nearly a week
( 12) the time I see you on Thursday. 1 certainly won't
be (13) to work tomorrow, if 1 do n't feel better. That 's
all for now.
59
Reading
oRead t he st or ies A-D
quickl y and mat ch them
to the pictures . Now
answer these questions.
Which animals are
mentioned?
2 Th ree of the sto ries
are modern and one
i s t raditional. Which is
the traditional story?
3 How did you spot th e
modern stories ?
A
B
One afternoon, in a dark wood, litt le
Once a seal was lying on a rock,
Red Riding Hood was on her way to sunbathing . Suddenly, she thought
her grandmother's house, carryi ng to herself: 'Life is so boring! All I do
a basket of food. Sudden ly, a wolf 30 is li e around al l day and swim. If
C
5 appeared and asked her where she
only I could do something more
was going. Litt le Red Riding Hood int erest ing! If I joi ned a circus, life
One day t he lion said to t he eagle,
told him and cont inued on her would be far more exciting.' And 55 'I ' ll make you an offer you can't
journey. The wolf disappeared into so she joined a circus,
refuse. I'll give you my mane, if you
t he forest.
35 After a coup le of years, the seal
give me your wings. '
10 When the little girl opened the door became a famous acrobat and was
'You must be joking: said the eagle,
of her grandmother's house, she soon very rich. A few years later,
' if I didn' t have my wings , I
noticed immediately that the wolf dressed In her f ine clothes and
60 wouldn 't be able to fly.' ' Don' t
had got dressed up as t he old lady.
expensive shoes, t he seal went
worry about t hat: replied the l ion,
But Red Riding Hood was a clever
40 back home to her rock to visit her ' if it weren't for my mane, I
15 gi rl and was not taken in for a
old fr iends.
wouldn't be the king of t he jungle.'
moment: the wolf had forgotten to She showed t he ot her seals all the
So after thinking for a while , t he
put Grandmother's glasses on. new tr icks she had learnt in t he
65 eagle agreed to make the
While the wol f was lyi ng in bed
ci rcus and t hen asked them to
exchange.
waiting to eat Red Riding Hood she
45 show her somet hing they could do.
When t he eagle got home, wearing
20 dashed out of the house, locked the
They dived into the water and
the lion's mane, he thought he'd
door, and called the pol ice on her
swam beaut ifully. When the
give his wife and children a
mobile phone. After a few minutes,
acrobatic seal t ri ed to follow them ,
70 surprise by st icking his head over
the police turned up and arrested
she reali zed she had forgotten how
the nest and shouti ng ' Boo!'
the wolf. 'If only I hadn' t forgotte n
50 to swim, and her clot hes were so
Unfortunately, his wife mistook him
25 to put on the glasses! ' t he wolf
heavy that she woul d have
for the li on and t ook a gun out of
growled.
drowned, if the other seals hadn 't
the drawer and fired at the
rushed to her rescue.
75 st ranger. Fortunately, she missed.
60
e Discuss these questions.
I What do we learn about people from these stories?
2 In what ways do the sto ri es i llustrate t hi s statement : ' Don' t try to
be some thing you are not. ' ?
oComplete these sentences using words from the text. T he first
let t er of each word is given to help you.
t The j will take much longer if you go by bus .
2 The film was so b that I fell asleep in the middle.
3 The sea was so warm they just d i nto t he water and
started to swim.
4 If he asks her to marry him, I don't think she will r _
5 Sorry, I m yo u for someone el se. I th ou ght yo u wer e
a friend .
6 The eve ni ng was quiet unti l a donkey b loudly and broke
th e sile nce.
_1-
__1-
A good story :J
FeE practice: Part 4
e Read the stories again. For questions 1-7 choose from the
stories A-D. Some of the stories may be used more than once.
When more than one answer is required, these may be given in
any order.
Whi ch sto ry is about :
1 not being decei ved?
2 fame and fort une?
3 using a di sgui se?
4 thinking fast in order to solve a probl em?
5 being unhappy with your present life?
6 making a deal with someone el se?
7 being too proud?
D
There was once a donkey who
was tired of being a donkey. 'I
wish I were a lion or tiger.' he
thought. So one day when he
80 found a lion's skin he put it on.
Then he began trying to fri ght en
whoever he happened to meet
along the road. Everyone he met
believed he was a lion, and ran
85 away as quickly as they could on
seeing him approach. Delighted
by the success of his t rick, the
donkey brayed loudly. The fox
guessed who was hiding under
90 the lion's skin and, laughing, he
said, ' My dear friend, you can
come out now. I'd have been
afraid of you too, if I hadn't
heard your loud voice.'
7 I wasn't sure of the correct answe r, so I g. it.
61
'J A good story
Grammar and Use of English
Conditionals (2): third conditional , wishes and regrets
62
I Read these sentences from the text and then
answer the questions below.
1 I'd have be en afraid of you loo if I hadn 't heard
your voi ce.
2 She would have drowned, if the ot he r sea ls
hadn' t rushed to her rescue.
a Was t he fox afraid? Did he hear the donkey's
voice? Is the situation real?
b Did the seal drown? Did the other sea ls rescue
her? Is the sit ua tion real?
c Whi ch tenses arc used in third conditiona l
sentences?
Complete th is rule:
In the if clause wc use tense and in the
main clause wc use woul d + have + _
See grammar rejerence page 147.
oRead the st o ries again and complete these
se nt ences.
If Red Riding Hood hadn't had her mobil e
ph on e with her, _
2 If the wolf hadn't forgott en to put gra ndmother's
glasses on, _
3 If the seal hadn ' t felt bored, she
4 The sea l would've drowned, if the other sea ls
5 If th e ea gle's wife hadn't mi staken him for the
lion, she _
6 If the donkey hadn' t brayed so loudly, the [ox
e Comp lete t hese se ntences with an appropriat e
fo rm of t he t hird condi tional using the verbs
in brackets.
If she home five mi nu tes earl ier,
she wo uld have caught th e burglar. (re t urn)
2 If he hadn 't gone to th e part y, he _
his wife. (never/ meet)
3 If we had wa nted a beach holiday, we
_ _ _ _ to Marbell a. (go)
4 If it so much this winter, there
wou ldn't have been so man y avala nc hes in
the mountai ns. (not/snow)
5 If you me you we re going to arrive
so late, I'd have brought a book to read . (tell)
6 Wc wouldn't have invited you to the concen if we
_ _ _ _ you were going to hat e it. (know)
7 If I hadn't stay ed so late, I the last
bus home. (not/ miss)
I!I Look at these sentences and say which ones
refer to the past, and which to the present.
I I wish I were a lion.
2 If only I could do something more interest ing.
3 If only I hadn' t forgotten to put on my glasses.
Fro m the pairs of sentences below, choose the
one which has the same meaning as the
sentences 1-3 above.
a He is a lion.
He wa nts to be a lion.
b He wish es he had done somet hing int eresting.
He want s to do so methi ng int erestin g.
c He forgot to put his glasses OIl .
He doesn 't want to for get to put his glasses on.
Seegrammar reference page 147.
e Cor rect these sentences.
I wish I will have a big hou se, instead of th is
little flat.
2 If only we locked the door, t he thi eves
wouldn't have got in.
3 ' If on ly I have become an art ist: said th e docto r.
4 I wish I woul d play the trumpet.
5 I wish I wouldn't cut my hair - I preferred it
when it wa s long.
A good story 'J
oLoo k at the pictures an d imagine what the peopl e
are t hinking or saying. Complete the sentences.
I If only I had
2 I wish I could 3 I wi sh I ha d 4 If only I hadn' t
FeE practice: Part 1
" Read t he following text and find out why Mr Mon eybags had to wor k so hard .
If t he y had n't bo ugh t all th at furn iture a nd had ( I ) comfortably into th eir house, Mr s
Mu ne yhag s would not have been (2) 10 invite her poorer friends to (3) ro und
for a ll those lux urious feasts; and if she (4) in vit ed them round, they would not have
felt jea lou s as she (5) them round the luxurious rooms, and she (6 ) have
hea rd them sigh ' I (7) we had a house like th is!' If they hadn't built the house, she
wo uldn 't ha ve been able 10 feel sorry (8) he r neigh bours. Nor (9 ) she have
been able 10 compla in 10 her husba nd ( 10) the housework a nd he wouldn't have tak en
( I I ) two se rva nts 10 help her with it . And while Mrs Moneyba gs was ( 12) _
their beautiful house in the count ry, Mr Moncvbags would not ha ve had to do ( 13) at
the of lice every day in order 10 ( 14) e nough money 10 pay their debt on th e house and
the ex pensive furni ture and the feasts that Mrs MOllcyhags' friend s enjoyed so much.
oFor quest ions 1-1 4, read th e text again and decide which answer A. B, C or D best fit s each space.
I A sat B live C gone D settled
2 A able B possi ble C capable D fond
3 A turn B be C come D ha ve
4 A di dn't B hadn't C hasn 't D wou ld n' t
5 A looked B put C went D showed
6 A \VOIl '{ B wouldn' t C would D will
7 A hope B wish C want D regret
8 A for B about C froIII D off
9 A will B wo uld C wouldn't D shall
10 A abou t B in C 10 D for
I 1 A on B 10 C up D in
12 A liking B amusing C relaxing D enjoying
13 A extra B ovcrwork C overt ime D dut ies
14 A take B do C earn D give
63
2 A good story
Now match the words to t he correct definit io n.
whispe r sta re wa nder mumble chat
glare limp st ride swea r glance
8 Complete these sentences using the correct
form of the words from exercise I .
Vocabulary
Word building
oPut th ese words into the appropriate group
below.
1 We by us ing our voice.
2 We at somet hing deli berat el y, by
tu rn ing our eyes towards it.
3 We someone fact s or information.
4 Wc someone or something
deliberately, over a period of time.
5 We friends when we visit or meet
them.
e Complete these sentences using the correct
form of one of the word s from exe rcise 4.
3 I've yo u ma ny times, I can 't -,- _
in front of a n a udience. I just freeze and can't
th in k of a nyt hing to _
4 The car has broken down and John _
me he'd come and have a a t it.
5 Were you about the film you saw last
night?
6 I'm Francesca tomorrow. Do you
want to come too?
2 If you 're not the programme ca n we
switch it off a nd about the meeting
tomorrow?
Wc looked for her at the co ncert, but didn 't
____ her.
5 You could , if you need some exercise.
Words often confused
oComplete the definitions below using one of
t hese words.
watch see look tell speak talk
6 We to someone about somet hing.
Collocation (go and have)
e Complete the sentences be low using the
correct form of one of these phrases.
go for a walk have a row have a chat
go for a st roll have a look
I Can I at the paper, please?
2 Bianca and Ricky both look very angry - I
think they're about to _
3 Why don' t we along the beach?
4 Wha t have you been doi ng la tel y? We must
____ I
wander
walk speak
whisper stare
see
1 to use had langu age
2 t o tal k to people in a friendly, informal way
3 to wal k quickl y taking big steps
4 to speak quietly but not clearl y so it is difficult
for peopl e to understand you
5 10 walk with difficult y because you have hurt
your foo t or leg
6 to loo k very quickly at somethi ng or someone
7 t o look a ngrily at someone
8 to look at somet hing for a long time wit hout
moving your eyes
9 to walk without hurrying, without going
any whe re directl y
to to speak very qui etl y
After he was fouled. Owen 0 [[ th e
pitch in great pa in .
2 We spent the da y round Rome. just
looking at the Sight s.
3 He tripped over the table leg and _
loudly.
4 We about how we had spent th e
weekend.
5 She t he message into my ca r so
no-one e lse co uld hear.
6 She something which I di dn't catch
and left the room.
7 He at the TV, and then returned 10
reading the newspaper.
8 People stopped 10 at the accident.
9 She at her husband, tryin g 10 ge t
hi m 10 shut up.
64
Listening and speaking
oLook at t he t wo pictu res above and predict
what happen s in t he stories. Now predict
which of these words go wit h which story.
wheel compartment speed limit station
powder platform seat belt ticket
elephant police offi cer newspaper
8 Li sten to the tape and chec k your
predict ions.
FeEpractice: Part 4
o Listen again. For each question 1-7. decide
whether the answer is Yes or No.
Did the policewoman stop the car because the
man was drunk?
2 Did the man admit he was drivi ng too fast?
3 Was the man glad that his wife was with hi m
in the car ?
4 Did the stra nge r get on the tra in at Madri d?
5 Did Maria think the stranger's be haviour was
strange?
6 Did the stra nger hope to att ract elephant s with
his powder ?
7 Did Milfia sec (lily elephants?
A good story
oComplet e these sentences.Then deci de whet her
Bill or Bill' s wife said them.
If I this wa s a resident ial area,
I wo uldn 't have driven so fast.
2 If I the sign, J wo uld have slowed down.
3 I wish you your sea t belt.
4 I wi sh yon your big mo ut h!
5 If only I you at home!
o a Work wit h a partner and do this task.
You are going 10 wor k out what happened in a
shipwreck story by describing a set of pictures tha t
tell the story. Student A. look at the pictu res on
page 139. St udent B, look at the pictures on page
J40. Tell each other your part of the story. Student
A begin.
oCom plete these sentences about the st ory using
the words in bracket s.
If the weather hadn't been bad _
(shipwreck)
2 If they hadn't found the lamp _
(escape)
3 Bill wouldn 't have felt so lonel y _
(other two men leave)
o Imagine you are on a desert island and a
genie appears and gives you t hree wishes.
What wishes would you make?
65
(1) It had been snowing all day. Suddenly. t he engine
started to make a strange noise and five minutes later it
stopped. At first, we thought we had run out of petrol, but then
we still had a little bit left. We tried pushing the car, but it
wouldn't start. (2) It was already dark and cold. We
waited, in case a car came past. An hour later, we decided one of
us should go on ahead and get help, while the other two stayed
behind in case a
car turned up. A few minutes later, torch in hand, I started
walking. (3) I felt afraid. At first,
I whistled to cheer myself up but after a while I stopped. I thought
I could hear something or someonefollowing me. Perhaps there
werewild animals in the forest. (4), _
Reading
CD
oLook at the pictures and label t hem using
the names from the li st below.
The Pyramids
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
The Stat ue of Zeus at Olympi a
The Colossus of Rhodes
The Mausole um at Hali carnassu s
The Parthe non
The Temple of Artemis at Ephes us
The Pharos of Alexandria
W hich of the above is not one of the
Seven Wonders of the World?
e Read t he texts quickly and write in t he
missing headings for each text from the
list in exercise I.
68
A
The crumbled into the sea
about 600 years ago but before that it was
one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient
World . It is not known who built the Pharos,
5 but we do know that it was the last Wonder
to be built, in 280 BC. In anci ent times it was
a great help to ships trying to get throu gh the
rocky harbour entrance. Yet it was not a
lighthouse in the modern sense, but rather a
10 giant advert isement for Alexandria. The
remains of the Pharos were found quite
recently. The word pharos is still used in
some modern languages to mean ' lamp' or
'lighthouse' .
B
15 An earl y historian described the
_ _ ______- at Ephesus as the greate st of
the Seven Wonders. The remains of the
building - a few stones near modern Efes -
suggest that the writer was exaggerating. The
20 temple was large , rich and beautifull y
decorated, but there were many templ es in
the ancient world which were much more
beautiful. Its power was due to the fact that
Artemis was a goddess wor shipped all over
25 Asia . In Rome she was called Diana. The
first templ es on that site go back to the eighth
century BC and the many visitors to the
temple were important for trade.
C
According to tradition. the _
30 stood - legs apart - over the harbour at
Rhodes and the ships passed in and out
between its legs. The Colossus attracted
ships to Rhodes because , like the Pharos at
Alexandria, it was a giant adverti sement for
35 the city. It could be seen from miles away .
The stat ue was built between 294 and 282
BC, to celebrate the defeat of the
Macedoni ans, who had failed to conquer the
city. When the stat ue was pulled down in
40 654 AD, 900 camels were used to take away
the pieces.
D
The has left no remains .
We know what it looked like because it was
shown on coins and travellers said that it
45 was made of gold and ivory. It was built to
celebrate the Ol ympic Games. and stood for
1000 years before it was destroyed in a fire
in the fift h century AD. The sculptor was
the famous Pheidias who made some of the
50 finest stat ues on the Parthenon.
E
The was named after the
man it was built for: Mausol us, the ruler of
Caria. Ancient writers say that Mausolus'
wife had the tomb built after his death in
55 353 BC. During his lifetime, Mausolus
filled his capital city, Halicarnassus, with
impressi ve buildings. His tomb made a
great impression on anyone who saw it. By
Roman times, 400 years later. the word
60 mausoleum was used to describe any large
tomb. Today. only a few fragments of the
Mausoleum remain.
Wonders of the world
FeE practice: Part 4
oFor ques tions 1-9 choose from the t exts
A- E. Some of the texts may be chosen more
than once. When more than one answer is
required. these may be given in any order.
In which of the te xt s does it say the
monument :
was bui lt by a well- known a rt ist?
2 was not built for a god or goddess?
3 was built a fte r all the ot hers?
4 was built to make more money
for the city?
5 was connected with sport?
6 has remains which ca n sti ll be
seen to day?
7 was the idea of a W0111an?
8 att ra ct ed people for religi ous
purposes?
9 cou ld be seen from far awa y?
oImagine one of the Seven Wonders of the
World could have been saved from
destruction. Which one would you choose
to save and why?
oFind words in the text that have a similar
meaning to the following.The first letter
of each word is given to help you.
a calm area of water next to the land, where
ships are sa fe h _
2 a ta ll. narrow building with a powerf ul light
that shows shi ps where th e re is danger
1 _
3 a buil ding where peopl e go to worship
l _
4 to lake control of la nd belongin g to a not her
country or people by force c _
5 a h undred yea rs c _
6 a me mory or image which stays with you a
long time i _
7 broken pieces o r a la rger whole f _
69
Wonders of the world
Grammar and Use of English
The passive
11 Look at th es e sentences which all contain the passive.
Rewrit e th e m using the active form.
1 In Rome, Artcmis was called Diana.
2 Th e Colossus could be seen from mil es away.
3 The Pha ros was the last Wond er of th e World to be bui lt.
Now match the passive sentences with the correct use of
the passive.
a because we don' t know who di d it
b beca use it isn 't impo rt ant who did it
c because it is obvious who did it
D The follo wing chart shows th e main forms of the passive.
Complete the chart.
active passive
Present simple use is used
Past simple built (I)
Modal verbs could see could be seen
Present continuous IS movmg is being moved
Past continuous was making (2)
Present perfect has found has been found
Past perfect had buil t (3)
Modal perfect could have conquered (4)
70
oRewr ite th es e act ive sentences in th e
passive .
1 They close more fact ories every year.
2 They a re buil ding a new office block in
the square.
3 The Egyptia ns built the first pyra mids.
4 You could see the Pyr ami ds fro m a
long way away.
5 They were making plans for the new
muse um.
6 They have round the remains of a
temple.
7 They had never built such a large tomb
before.
8 An ea rt hquake might have destroyed
the monument.
e Rewrite the following text changing the underlined verbs
into the passive. Make any other changes necessary.
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
People believe that King Nebucha dnezzar bu ilt the Gardens
as a present for his wife, Amyras, in 600 BC. Archeologists
had not found a ny evidence unt il recent ly that the Gardens
existed at all. For a long time, experts believed tha t th e
Greek poets had made the Gar dens up. Babylonian
historians do not men tion them at all. Archeologists
discovered the remains of the Palace of Babylon a few
yea rs ago and they have now found huge wa lls which may
have been bu ilt as pa rt of the Garde ns. The a ncie nt
Babylonian s grew the Gardens 75 metres above the
ground. Today, visitors to modern Iraq can see the ruins of
Babylon . though only a sto ne lion remains of the glory tha t
was Bahylon.
Wonders of the world
By + agent
11 We add by + no un when we want to mention
who or what does the action of a passive verb.
That church was desiqned by Wren.
Put this se ntence in the passive using by.
Lightning struck the tree.
The tree
See grammar reference pag_ 148.
oWork in two teams and do t his qui z.
Team A loo k a t page 139. Thi nk of th e quest ions for
yo ur answers and write them down. Then test Tea m B
by reading out your questions and correct their mi st akes!
Team B look at page 140. Think of the questions for
your answers and write them down. Then test Team A
by reading out your questions and correct their mistakes!
Team A: Who is 'Holiday ' sl/ng by?
Team B: ' Holiday' is Sl/lIg by Madonna.
FeE practice: Part 4
oLook at the picture on t he right and answer
these questions.
I How old do you think these bui ldings are?
2 Who were they bui lt by?
3 Why were they built?
4 In which count ries can they be found?
oRead t his text and check yo ur answers.
('
(
I
.'
Pyramids
I Pyramids are huge four-sided buildings. They have a square base.
2 The sides are triangles that are meet in a point at the top.
3 The ancient Egyptians have bui lt pyramids as royal tombs but we
4 are not sure exactly how th ey were bui lt them. The first was buil t in
5 abo ut 2560 BC at Sak ka ra. It is 62 metres high . The three most famous
6 pyramids are nea r Giza: the Grea t Pyramid which was been bu ilt a round
7 2600 BC by the Pha raoh Khu fu is 137 metr es high. About 100, 000 slaves
8 were been used to bui ld it. The second a nd the thi rd pyra mids
9 were be ing built by other pha rao hs. There are about 80 pyramids
10 still standing in Egypt today. Central and South American Indi ans
I I also did built pyramids as temples during the first six centuries AD.
12 One pyramid is at Cholu la. nea r Mexico City. It is about 54 metres high.
oFor questions 1-1 2. re ad the text again and look carefully at each line . Some of t he
lines are correct. and some have a word which should not be th e re . If a line is correct .
put a tick (.I ). If a line has a wo rd which should not be there. write the word.
71
Wonders of the world
Vocabulary
Noun suffixes
We can mak e nouns from verbs by adding
the following end ings: -ion, -ation, -ance, -ntent,
-ing. Sometimes the spelling changes , for
example when a word ends in e: educate/education.
oAdd a suffix to these verbs to make nouns.
enjoy 6 suggest
2 collect 7 train
3 employ 8 exa mine
4 move 9 admire
5 perform 10 pollute
oHow much do you know abo ut t his building?
When was it bui lt?W ho built it? W hy?
Read the followi ng text and check your
answers.
Phrasal verbs with up and down
oMat ch t he phrasal verbs in list A with their
meanings in li st B.
A B
put up find in a book
2 turn lip hit by a car
3 look up bu ild somet hing
4 pu ll down appea r
5 kn ock down collapse
6 fall do wn destroy somethi ng
purposefull y
oComplete these sentences using the correct
form of t he phrasal verbs fro m exercise 4.
I'd been loo king for my glasses eve rywhere. and
then they suddenly on the kitche n
tabl e!
2 The old bri dge is going to be _
3 Many buildings in the ea rthq uake .
4 When did they those new office
blocks?
5 If I don 't know the mean ing of a phrasal verb I
___ _ it in a diction ary.
6 My nei ghbour was yes terday as she
was crossing the road.
72
The Parthenon
The Part he non was ( I) in the 5th cent ury BC in honour of
the (2) At he na who prot ected the city of Athens.
Wor k on the (3) was begun in 447 BC and it was
completed 15 years later. Today, (4) to the Parthen on
are still fi lled with (5) for its beauty. The first
(6) you get is one of bala nce and harmony.
Although t he details of its (7) ha ve been lost. we know
it was planned by Per icles and the famo us (8) Pheidias.
Lord Elgin's (9) of man y of the sculptu res in 180 1 led
to the (10) of part s 01 the building. Unt il recentl y,
the re ma ins of the Parthenon we re not well guarded and ( I I ) _
took t he sto nes away as souvenirs. Today, traffic (12) _
is t he biggest threat to t he Parthenon.
oRead the text again. Use t he word given in capita ls at the end of
eac h line to fo rm a word t hat fit s in space in t he same line.
BUILD
GOD
BUILD
VISIT
ADMIRE
IMPRESS
CONSTRUCT
SCULPT
REMOVE
DESTROY
TOUR
POLLUTE
Wonders of the world
o Listen to the accents. Discuss with a
partner which country you think the speakers
are from: US, France, Britain, Scotland or
Australia.
I think we should include . .. because ...
Do you think . .. is a 'wonder' of our country?
.. . should definitely be on our list because ...
What about .. .1
We have to include .. . because ...
We've got ... on our list because ...
FCE practice: Part 3
o Listen again. For questions 1-5, choose
which of the 'wonders' A-F each speaker is
referring to. Use the letters only once. There is
one extra letter which you do not need to use.
Whi ch 'wonde r' :
73
waterfall
lake
ri ver
statue
cave
fon
temple
mountain
palace
castle
tower
church
A was unpopular when it was Speak er 1_
bei ng bui lt?
B cannot be visite d at present ?
Speaker 2_
e has been good for th e city?
0 can be see n from far away?
Spea ker 3_
E wa s built to celebrate a
Spea ker 4_
spo rts eve nt?
F offers visitors entertainment? Speaker 5_
FCE practice: Parts 2 and 3
e <;::JlO Look at the photographs of different
modern wonders of the world. Choose two
and compare and contrast them.
o <;::JlO Work with a partner and do this task.
You are planning a touri st brochure called
The wonders of the world for your country.
Choose two or three monuments or nat ural
wonder s. Give reasons for your choice. Use
these words and the expressions in the bo x
below to help you.
Listening and speaking
oBefore you listen to the tape, check the
meaning of these words with your teacher.
haunted trademark three-dimensional
index finger angle
e Listen to these people talking about some
modern wonders of the world.Write the
number of the extract next to each picture.
Wonders of the world
Writing
FeE practice: Report
. d information which are often
A report contams factfs an h: ' ,t doesn't usually contain
kind 0 researc , . . I
based on some h Id have an informative t it e
.. A report s ou
personal opinion. h ction Here are some tips
and sub-headings for eac new se .
on wr itinga report:
use an impersonal style - don't express strong
per sonal opinions . I d '
make sure that all the information you me u e IS
relevant to the topic ort clearer
use to make content of the
in the introduction, state t e 3 1
report
What do you know about this building?
Read the following extracts from a re port the
Ha ia Sophia. Match these sentences with t e
of the text you think they are from.
1 You must see the mo saics.
. d hours to see the monument 2 You will nee two
properly.
3 The aim of this report .. . .
4 The Emperor Justinian I built the church III
537 AD.
A Introduction
B Background
C What to see
D Advice
. h the model text. Check your answers Wit
The Hagia Sophia
INTRODUCTION
The aim of this report is to describe
the Hagia Sophia . It is one of the most
important bUildings in the world and
should not be missed .
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
The church of Hagia Sophia was bUilt in
537 AD by the Emperor Justinian I . It was
called the Great Church because of its size .
Over the years . the Hagia Sophia has been
damaged by fire and earthquakes and parts of
the bUilding have been rebuilt several
t imes . The bUilding has been used as an
Orthodox Church . a Catholic Church and
a mosque . It was closed for many years and
then in 1934 it was re-opened as a museum.
WHAT TO SEE
It is definitely worth visiting the dome
of the church and the mosaic of the Virgin
Mary. which are both qUite spectacular
to see .
ADVICE TO VISITORS
The Hagia Sophia Museum can be visited every
day 9.00-17 .30 , except Mondays . Visitors
are advised to allow at least two hours for
their visit as there is a lot to see .
Tick the features which we
use when writing a report.
headings
short forms
formal style
generalizations
passive voice
facts
informal chatty style
74
Find phrases in the report which are examples
of good feacures of a report. Use the information
in exercise 2 to help you.
Wonders of the world
Here are some words which will be useful t o
you when writing about buildings and
monuments. Add them to the spidergram.
decoration
round
Find words or phrases in the text which mean
the same as the following:
Ihe purpose
2 during a certain period of lime
3 you shuuld see something
4 impressive
S include a certain amount of time in your plans
Now complete these sentences using the words
you found in exercise 5.
The exhibition is . They've gOI all th e
famous pictures there.
2 When waiting ID go on a ride at Disneyland
you have 10 at least 40 minutes.
description
architect
peopl e
building
stone
mater ials
church
types of
building
painting
3 ____ the pyramids have been damaged by
tourists.
4 The architect's was 10 design the
tall est lower in the world.
S The firewor ks we saw last night were _
Write this report on the Eiffel Tower by
expanding the notes given in each paragraph.
The Eiffel Tower
INTRODUCTION
This report describes
the Eiffel Tower .
designed /Gustave Eiffel/1889
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
used as/radio/television/transmitter
been/called/large/flagpole/world
WHAT TOSEE
not miss/opportunity/climb/top/tower
ADVICE TOVISITORS
feel tired/take lift/top
buy/season ticket/main tourist
sites/valid/l/3/5 days
square tower mosaic church ruins architect
temple plastic engineer build panoramic
design concrete modern stone wooden
brick statue painting marble cement
museum designer carpenter stonemason
round painting ancient
Now it's your turn.
Write your report
following these
instructions. Use
some of the
vocabulary from
exercise 8.
Write a report for a
travel agency on an
importa nt monument
in your city, usin g the
topic vocabulary 10
hel p yo u. Write
between 120 and
180 words.
75
oWork with a partner. Look at the
photograph and discuss t hese ques t ions.
What has just happened?
2 How does he feel?
3 What is he thinking?
4 Wha t do you th ink he 's going to say
to th e other players?
-
y
on
an
T
Reading
3
Mi chael .lames Owcn, born in Chester on 14
December, 1979, is one of the most promising
player s in Englan d and now has a regular first tea m
pl ace. He was voted 'Young Player '!f the Year in 1998
5 and he was the younges t pl ayer to play for England
this cent ury, when he played against Chile at the age
of 18. He was the joint leading scorer in the
Premiership season 1997/ 98 with 18 goals. He is
sure to be Cl favourite with fan s for yea rs la COIn e.
2
10 Michael bel ieves that if you want to be a top player
you should want responsibility. ' You sho uld want to
ta ke the free-kicks, the corners, the th row-in s,
everyt hing, ' he says. Although Michael is small, he is
not afra id to tackle big players: 'Whe n I see a big
t 5 defender I thi nk, great, he can't turn.' He reckons
the best moment on the pi tch is when a player sends
the ball into the back of the net. ' When I score, I
don't feel the need to go crazy, but I do fee! good
inside!'
20 Hi s lat her, Te rry Owcn , was a profession al player as
well and the fo otball training he provided for
Michael helped to make his son a supersta r. Mrs
Owen is very proud of her SOI L Accord ing to her,
Michacl has no nigh t life : ' He won' t go out dri nking
25 and he doesn' t seek t he limeli ght - he tri es his best to
escape from the media,' she says.
4
Mi chacl was in the primary school learn in his
village, Hawardc n, ' I've loved playing football since
I was six or seven. By the time I was eight, I was
30 playing really well for the school team and got
picked for the district, even tho ugh I was three years
younger than some of the ot he r lads.'
76
FeE practice: Part 1
e Choose the most suitable heading from the list
A-H for each part 1-7 of the article. There is
an extra heading which you do not need to use.
A Behaviour on th e field
B A short biography
C Not the first footballer in the fami ly
D Childhood memories
E Someone he admi red
F Looking towards the future
G The next World Cup
H The influence of his family
5
As for influences on his life, Michael wasn't the
typq to put football posters up in his bedroom.
35 ' I just wanted to go out and pla y the ga me,' he
says. ' But Gary Lincker became my boyhood
hero when I saw him play ill the 1990 \\lorl d
Cup. I was ten at the time and dreamed of
following in his footsteps.'
6
40 Michacl's family are th e most important
people in his life. 'Most of the family still live
near h011lC and me and In)' younger sister
Lesley are sta;ing with Mum an d Dad. I' m
having a ho use built nearby, so 1 can get out of
45 their way, tho ugh,' he adds. With his famil y
around l\liehael is confide nt that all the good
things peopl e arc saying about him will not go
to his head: ' It's nice to hear all the comments
but I'm prett y relaxed,' he says.
7
50 Michael says he loves his girlti'iend and they
are both vel)' happy. ' But I've no plans to gel
married,' he admits. ' I wouldn't even consiaer
anything as serious as that for at least ano ther
five years.' At the moment he just looks
55 forward to going on holiday to othe r countri es
with his girlfri end.
Star players
oHere are five answers given by Michael Owen.
Look at the text again and discuss with your
partner what t he questions were.
I 14 Decembe r, 1979.
2 I scored 18.
3 I reel good inside.
4 My famil y.
5 No. I don't have any plans to ge t married.
Here are the questions for the answers above.
Complete the questions.
________ born?
2 How score in the
1997- 1998 season?
3 How do you reel ?
4 Who yo ur life?
5 Do you to get married?
oAsk and answer these questions with a partner.
What is the 1110 51 success ful thin g you have
ever done?
2 What is the most important thing in your life?
3 Wh o has had the biggest infl uence on your life?
oComplete t hese sentences using words from
the text. The first letter of each word is given
to help you .
She is an extremely I' st udent, and we
expect thi s to show in he r exam result s.
2 The judges of the competition dec ided to give a
j first prize to the two best contestants.
3 I'd hat e to be a doctor - they have far too
much r _
4 Wh en the band walked out onto the stage, the
crowd went c with exci tement .
5 She's not a I' piani st - she j us t plays
the piano because she likes it.
6 It must be hard for famous people always bei ng
in the I and never getting any privacy.
7 The teacher wanted someone 10 read th e poem
and then she I' me.
8 She a' she has told lies and will
apologize .
77
Star players
Grammar and Use of English
Reported speech Reported questions
I Look at the se ntence s from the rea ding text and
wr ite down how the tenses change from direct
speech to reported speech.
' My big sister is 22: He said his big sister was
22 .
' I was play ing reall y
well for the school
ream and got picked
for th e distri ct:
present simple -+
past simple ->
past continuous - .
He said that he had been
playing reall y we ll for the
school tea m and had got
picked for the district.
11 Look at these sent ences and answer the
questions below.
' What is the mos t important t hing in your life?'
The interviewer asked him what the most
important thing in his life was.
2 ' Do you love your girlfriend?'
The int er viewer asked him if/ wh ether he loved
his girlfriend.
a Do the tenses change?
b What happens to the subject and verb of the
sen tences?
c Are any new words add ed?
Seegrammar reference pages 149-50.
78
oComplet e the second se ntence so that it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence. using the
word given. Do not change the word given.You
must use between two and five words. including
t he word given.
' My family are the most importa nt people in
my life: (life)
He said the most importa nt _
his family.
2 ' Most of the family still live near home: (far)
He said most of the family _
from home.
3 'I' ve practi sed my a utograph a 101: (ohe n)
He said autograph.
4 ' 11 is nice to hear all the com me nts: (enjoyed)
He said the comments.
5 ' I wouldn't even consider anyt hing as serious
as that : (out)
He said something as serious _
the question .
8 Rewrite these sentences. changing t he direct
quest ions to re ported speec h.
' What do you think whe n you see when a big
defender?'
The interviewer asked him _
2 ' What is your ambition?'
My mum asked me _
3 ' Do you like taking free-ki cks?'
The int erviewer asked hi m _
4 ' Do you th ink fame will cha nge you?'
The int erviewer asked him _
5 ' Has money changed you? '
The intervi ewer asked him _
Reporting verbs.
time and place expressions
11 We can use other reporting verbs which
describe the way a person is speaking.
eg apologizing or admitting something:
' I am sorry I broke John apologized for
the vase: breaking the vase .
'I stole t he purse: The thief admitted
said the thi ef. he had stolen the purse.
Words of time and place can change when
we report what somebody said. Match a word
from list A with a word or phrase from list B.
A B
I now the next day
2 today t hat day
3 here then
4 tomorrow there
See grammar reference page 150.
_____________________________ Star players
e Complete the second sent ence so that it has a
similar meaning t o t he first se nt ence, using one
of the reporting verbs below.
apologized claim advised announced
explained
' I am so sor ry for forgett ing to meet you
yesterda y!' Ma ria said to Pete r.
Maria _
2 ' There is nobody her e to a nswer your ques tions
now: the secretary said to them.
The secretary _
3 ' We' ll he gelling married in Ju ly: Katherine
told her frien ds.
Katherine _
4 '1 was nowh ere near the scene of the crime:
said the suspect.
The suspect
5 ' I think you sho uld rela x a bit,' th e doctor told
her.
The doctor _
oThink of t he last question yo u we re asked by
the fo ll owing people:
your best frien d
a me mbe r of your family
a strange r
Now report to the class what they said.
My best f riend asked me if I could lend her some
money.
FeE practice: Part 2
oThe man in the photograph is Mika Hakkinen .
He has just won t he Japanese Grand Pr ix
against his arch-r ival Michael Schumacher.
Decide whic h of the following you think he
said after his victory and write your answers.
This has chanqed my lif e.
I knew I would win the race.
I think he said _
2 I don 't thi nk he said _
oRead t he t ext and check your answers.
Formula one and only
Mika Hakkincn had hardl y cha nged out of
his overalls, which were soaked in champagne,
whe n he promised he ( I ) keep the
world drivers' championship aft er winning the
Japanese Grand Prix. He (2) that
the accide nt he had suffered in Australia in
1995 had (3) his life and that from
that day on he had (4) a different
person . He (5) he wou ld ne ver
forget that time and the support the team
had (6) him. He expl ained that
he thought (7) things more now.
He (8) not th inking mu ch about
the future except that he and the McLaren
team (9) rema in cha mpions.
Hakk incri' s victory came after his grea t rival
Michael Schumacher had a blow out . 'From
that moment on , 1knew I (10) _
win the race: he said.
GFor questions 1-10, read the t ext again and
think of t he word which best fits eac h spac e.
Use only one word in eac h space.
79
Star players
Vocabulary
Antonyms
Some words have more than on e opposite. We
use different words depending on the context.
The opposite of old can be young or new
depending on whether we ar e talki ng about
peopl e or things .
o Mat ch these words with t heir opposites using
words from the box below. Compar e wit h a
partner how many wo rds have two opposites.
sho rt 6 stop
2 har d 7 sma ll
3 top 8 win
4 success 9 earl y
5 friend ID good
bott om go fai lure big evil long enemy
easy bad lose late tall start soft
e Complete t hese se ntences with an appropriate
word from exercise I.
The test was rea lly . I knew all th e
answers.
2 My ne w swea ter is rea lly comfortable because
it"s so _
3 He's not short. but he 's not as as his
brother.
Words often conf used
e Match the words below wit h t heir definitio ns.
ea rn gain win beat popular famou s
to get money by working
2 to get something that is useful or valuable
3 known by a lot of people
4 liked by a lot of people
5 to get the most points in a game
6 to defeat your opponent
oComplete these sentences using the co rrect
word from exercise 3.
You won't mu ch selling mat ches!
2 She became all over th e world wh en
she won the Oscar.
3 This restaurant is very ,--- with tourists;
it's difficult to get a table.
4 I didn't a lot by joining the army; it
was a waste of time.
5 I belie ve we can th e game.
6 When was the last time I you at
table-tennis?
Collocation (sport)
e Complete th e chart by matching each sport
wit h t he place and equi pme nt which go wit h it .
4 How is th e Mississippi river ?
5 Star Wars is about the struggle between good
and _
6 Tha t food tastes ! I can 't eat it.
boots
racket
gloves
costume pool ring slope skis boat
stadium rink oar rod court ball
river alley pitch hoop
7 You have to when the traffic light
turns red.
8 Don 't singing unt il the
conductor gives the signal to begin.
sport
football
boxi ng
skii ng
basketball
tennis
ice-skating
rowing
fi shing
sWimming
place equipment
Star players
Listening and speaking
oBefore you listen to the tape, check the
meaning of these words with your teacher.
oWho is your favourite film star? Write three
questions you would like to ask him/her.
o Listen to a phone-in programme with a
film star and match the beginning of the
se ntence in list A wit h the end of t he sentence
in list B.
A B
The fi rst liste ne r whethe r he liked
as ked him signing aut ographs.
2 The second liste ne r how tall he was.
asked hi m
3 The th ird liste ne r how his life had
asked him changed since he
had won awards.
4 Th e fou rth listene r what his new film was
asked him abo llt.
5 The fift h list e ne r which book he would
as ked him take with him if he
was strande d on a
desert isla nd.
Wha t _
Complete these questi on s.
Wh e re born ?
When horn?
___ _ a pet?
____ food do you like?
____ yo ur hobbies?
Wh o actress?
____ music do yOll like?
_ _ _ _ favou rit e pl ace?
FCE practice: Part 1
FCE practice: Part 2
o Li st en again and complete the notes.
I Name:
2 Name of first film to win Oscar:
3 Name of lat est film:
4 Favourite kind of wea ther:
5 Heigh t:
6 His role in th e film:
7 Chosen book:
8 Other jobs done:
9 Most important cha nge in life:
10 Feelings about signing au tographs:
oWork with a partner and co mplete this tas k.
You are goi ng to find out about Leonardo
DiCaprio. Student A. look a t the notes on page
139. Student B. look at th e not es on page 140.
Complete th e info rmat ion in yo ur cha rt by
as king questi on s an d taking notes. Use the
que stions above to hel p yo u, hut reme mber to
cha nge the question s into t he th ird person.
St ude nt A should begin.
o How would you answer these questions!
Int erview eac h other using the questions above
and write down your partner's answers.
e
stranded
flattered
promote
sentimental
nomination
significant
81
Star players
Writing
FeE practice: Magazine article
oLook at these people who
became famous when they were
very young. W hat are the
advantages and disadvantages
of being famous when you are
still young?
e Read this magazine article
for a teenage magazine on the
advantages and disadvantages
of being famous when you are
still at school.
82
A good magazine article has certain features.
Label the model article with t hese features.
The first is done as an example for you.
a catchy tit le
2 an int eresting first line
3 a gen eral state me nt in th e first pa ragraph
4 speci fic points that support the gene ral
statement
5 specific points that support the general negative
statement
6 concl usion
oUnderline all the linking words and phrases
in the model and add them to t he list of
expressions below.
contrasting points: vet. however, although,
at the same time. in contrast
advantages/disadvantages: one, ano ther,
a further, the greatest
adding points: in add ition, furt hermore,
moreover
Star players
oNow choose the correct answer A. B or C to
complete these sentences.
I don ' t like the weather in Britai n; but _
I love the place.
A apart from thi s B althou gh C in addition
2 On the one hand, he likes mat hs but _
he gets bad ma rks in tests.
A furthermore B on the other C in contrast
3 You will need to add salt; you can add
a litt le pepper, if you like.
A on the othe r B yet C also
4 The film was boring; we stayed till the
end,
A moreover B however C at the same time
5 The main problem is the traffic; _
problem is the pollution.
A the grea test B in addit ion C another
A student's magazine has asked you to write
an article imagining the advantages and
disadvantages of being famous. W rite between
I20 and 180 words.
Before you begin to write, look at the
list below and divide the po ints into
advantages and disadvantages.Then add
some of your own ideas .
You can buy whatever you wa nt.
You have no pri vacy.
You tra vel all over the
world.
People are j ealous of your success.
You are recognized wherever you go.
People want your autograph.
You need bodyguards.
You meet lot s of other famous people.
People are inte rested in your opinions.
Journalists and photographers follow you
around.
Now write the article. using you r
notes to help you.
83
84
oComplet e these sente nces using the correct
form of one of the words below.
stare limp see whisper wander watch
stride
Don 't you know it's rude la at
people like that ?
2 Why are yo u ? Nobody can hear
LIS.
3 We around Rome for hours
wit ho ut a ma p, not knowing where we were
going.
4 He ahead of his girlfriend, who
wa s tr ying la walk as quickly as hi m.
5 I stayed up late to a film on the
tel evi sion.
6 If yo u Mary tonight. can you give
her thi s me ssage?
7 He wa s because he had twisted his
ankle going down th e stairs.
e Match a wo rd from list A with a word from li st
B, then compl ete the sentences below using
one of these phrases. Use some of the phrases
more than once.
A have go
B a chat a row a stroll ru n a look
a walk
11 wa s a pleasant evening so we _
for a nice in the park.
2 Ca n I a quick at your
newspaper?
3 We were a in the
coffee bar before the lesson whe n my friend
a rrived.
4 I always [or a in th e
park in t he mornin g to keep fit.
5 The cou ple a terrible _
before th ey decided to break up .
6 If you for a two -mile _
every da y, you' ll soon get fit.
7 The do ctor told her patient to say 'aah: so that
she cou ld a down her
throat.
oComplete this chart. Make nouns from the
verbs on the left, using the suffixes -cnce, -Ion,
-rnent. Make any spelling changes necessary.
verb noun
enloy
collect
perform
communicate
profess
move
compete
admi re
educate
pollute
oComplete these sentences using an appropriate
word from exerc ise 3.
He ate his meal quickly. and with obviou s
2 I didn' t enjoy last night's . The
ac tors kept forgett ing th eir lines.
3 She got an excellent at her school,
4 His club takes part in a basketball _
every yea r.
5 Greenpeace is laking direct action to tr y and
stop in cities.
6 The pos t office makes a of post
every mo rning at 7.30 am.
7 The burglar made a sudde n and
the police saw him hidi ng beh ind th e curtain.
8 The old wo man watched the firem an in
_____ as he rescue d her cat.
oMatch these words with wo rds from the box
below to make pairs of opposites. Some words
have two opposites.
lose bottom early easy young success
enemy big soft new
late top win old failure friend
small hard
A
4 th e number of po ints or goals in a ga me
s _
oMatch the beginnings of these condit ional
sentences in list A to their correct e ndings in
list B.
=0
ID
--=:
.....
ID
:e

A garage next 10
t he hou se.
10 They are going to buil d a garage next to
the house. (bui lt)
6 It's a rea l sha me you didn 't come to the
part y. (only)
If to the pa n y.
7 'I' ve got to get up ea rly tomorrow,' she
said to her fat her. (to ld)
She to get up
ea rly th e ne xt day.
8 Wh en th ey have repaired th e ca r we ca n
continue our journey. (been)
Whe n we can
continue our j ourney.
9 'Don't make so much noi se: the teacher
said to th e class. (tu ld)
The teach e r make
so much noise.
I to see the film
whe n it was 0 11 .
4 The accident took pla ce becau se he didn't
look before he crossed t he road . (looked)
If he , the
accident wouldn ' t ha ve taken place.
S It 's a pit y we di dn 't go a nd see the film
when it was on. (wish)
oComplete the second sentence so that
it has a similar meaning to t he first sentence,
using t he word given. Do not change t he
word given.You must use between two and
fi ve words, including the word given.
All th e hot el s were full so we let Herbert
stay with us for a few nights. (put)
All th e hotel s were fu ll so
___ _ ______ for a few ni ght s.
2 She decided not to accept th e offer of
a job as she wa nted something bett er.
(take)
She decided th e
job as she wa nted so methi ng better.
3 They are going to demolish th e old house
in order to build a n office bloc k.
(pulled down )
Th e old house in
orde r to build an offi ce block.
t hey would have asked for hi s a utograph.
I would have gone skiing in t he Alps.
if yu u ha d wa nted me to .
I would have lived in New York.
th ey woul d ha ve given him a lift.
if he hadn' t known how to swim.
th ey woul d have caug ht the tr ain .
if she ha d been better at science subjects.
if she had had th e recipe .
if she had bo ught a lott ery ticket.
B
a
f
g
h
e
c
b
d
j
S th e thing you use to pla y tennis r _
6 th e place where yo u pla y tennis c _
7 a pe rson who is playing aga inst yo u in a game
0 _
I If they had had a car.
2 If I had got th e job in America.
3 If I had gone for a holida y in Switze rland.
4 If th ey had met Robert De Niro,
S I would have taken th e dog for a wa lk
6 He would defini tel y ha ve drowned
7 She mi gh t have won the lottery
8 Ma ry would ha ve mad e a chocolate cak e
9 She would have been a doct or
10 If they had left in good tim e,
oRead the definitions below, then write the
word they describe. The first let t e r of each
word is given to he lp you.
a field where football games a re played
p--- - -
2 a pla ce where spo rt ing events are held
s _
3 the pla yers who play on the same side
t _
85
86
Reading
oWork wit h a partner. Look at t he pictures and
say what the people are doing and why.
8 Read t he text below and find things which are
similar to what happen s in your country.
New Year's Day is celebrated all 30 t heir behaviour in s ome way, by more accurate to say t hat t he
over t he world, but not a lways at giving up bad habits . People p olice try t o control t he crowd but
the same time. Our New Yea r might decide t o g ive up smoking, 60 in such an atmosphere it is very
starts on 1 January but the
for example. or to go on a diet. difficult, and a lot of people end
5 Chinese New Year takes place any
These promises are often broken up in the fountain in the Square
time between 21 January and 19
35 in the first few days of t he New with all their clothes on.
February, depending on the year.
Year, however !
In Germany, a few centuries ago, In China, da ys before New
people cele brated t he New Year in On Ne w Yea r's Eve many 65 Yea r ' s Day, every family is busy
10 Novembe r, because t his was t he
people go to parties or get g iving it s house a t horough
time when they had finished
together w it h their fa milies, cleaning. They hope t o sweep
bringing in the harvest. They
40 neighbours or friends a nd they away all the ill -for t u ne the re may
looked forward to this part of the
stay up until mid ni ght to see the have been in the family to make
year because after the harvest
New Year in . Some people can't 70 way for good luck in the coming
15 they would have a period of rest
resist drinking a little b it more year. People also paint their doors
when they could relax and have
tha n t hey s hould on t his night. In and windows red . The New Year's
fu n.
4 5 Brit ain a nd espe ci ally in Scotland, Eve su pper is an important family
Nowadays, New Year is
t hey sing a special song calle d event. All members of t he fa mily
r eg ard ed as a time for celebrating
' Auld Lang Syn e ' . In London , 75 like t o have dinner together.
20 and for making a new start in life.
people gather to celebrate in When it is over, the whole family
People wish each other 'Happy
Trafalgar Square, waiting for Big stays up late playing cards or
New Year' and often send special
50 Ben to strike twelve. When it is board games. At midnight the
g reetings cards. In recent years,
a lmost mid nig ht people a re very whole sky lights up with
the s e cards have been replaced
qu iet but w h en Big Ben b egins t o 80 fireworks . Ve ry early next
25 by colourful e -rnail me s s a ge s . In
st rike t hey all start cheering . morning, child r en g reet thei r
ma ny European countries, people
People g reet each other w ith parents and receive their present:
ma ke New Year's resolutions. This
55 ' Ha ppy New Year' a nd some even money wrapped in red paper.
involves people promising
kiss the police who are there to
themselves that they will improve
control the crowd. It would be
Fun and games 0
5 In Trafa lgar Square on New Year's Eve
A the police join in th e part y.
B people are allowed to kiss th e police.
C th e police don't work very hard.
D th e poli ce try to stop people from jumpi ng in
the fountai n.
bad luck
deci sions
stop doi ng
somet hing
make better
occurs
7 ill-fortune (line 68)
2 reso lutio ns (line 27 )
3 improve (line 29)
4 giving up (line 31)
5 res ist (line 43 )
6 gather (line 48)
6 In China, people clean th eir houses before t he
New Year
A to get rid of all the bad th ings that have
happened du ring the yea r.
B because a dirt y house is full of gho sts.
C becau se it brings th e whole famil y together.
D to get them ready to be paint ed .
7 The New Year's Eve supper in Ch ina
A starts with games involving all t he famil y.
B is accompa nied by a firework display.
C brings toget her the whole famil y.
D has several di fferen t courses.
oWhat do these words or expressions mean!
Match them to the correct definition. using th e
context in th e text to help you decide.
takes place (line 5) try to avoid doing
something
meet
FeE practice: Part 2
e Read th e magazin e arti cle again. For questions
1-7. choose the correct answer. A. B. Cor D.
New Year in China falls
A on 1 February.
B on th e same da y every year.
C on the same da y in February.
D later than in Europe.
2 In Germany the New Year was originally
A a celebration 10 mark the end of winter.
B a cel e bratio n at the end of the harvest.
C cele brated by holding a big pa rt y.
o a time when people were on holiday.
3 The promises people ma ke for the New Year
A don 't last long.
B make the m healt hier.
C change th ei r lives.
D are written on special cards.
4 On New Year's Eve people
A never drink alco hol.
B sometimes drink too m uch .
C drink a special New Year's dri nk .
D st art drinking at mi dnight.
87
Fun and games
Grammar and Use of English
Gerunds and infinitive with to
11 Correct these sentences, then check your
answers with the te xt .
I People decided they will give up to smoke.
2 Some people can't resist 10 drink a Iinle bit
more th an th ey should on thi s ni ght.
3 They hope sweeping away all the ill-fortune
th ere may have been in the famil y.
Which sentences use the gerund and which
use the infinitive with to?
_ Is there a difference in meaning between these
pairs of sentences? If so, explain what it is.
a She began doing her homework.
b She began to do her homework.
c I stopped talking to my friend .
d I stopped 10 talk to my friend.
Infinitive without to
11 What do t hese sentences have in common?
I I'd rather go to the cinema than go to th e
th eatre.
2 You' d better revi se for the test on Monday.
3 They wouldn't let him enter the country
withou t a passport.
4 You must have a driving licence to drive.
Complete this rule.
must/would rather/ had better/let (someone) ar e
followed by the _
Seegrammar reference pdge 151 .
oDecide which of these words go with a gerund
and which wit h the infinitive wit h to, and
complete the chart using words from the box.
oComplete these sentences using the correct
form of the verbs in brac kets.
Where wou ld you rather on holida y
thi s yea r? (go)
2 At what age do people sto p to school
in your cou nt ry? (go)
3 Would yo u stop 10 your frien d in the
st ree t if you were in a hurry? (talk)
4 Would you pretend th e an swer 10 a
question whe n you didn 't rea lly know th e
answer? (know)
5 What would you like to celebrate
your ne xt birthday? (do)
6 Does your bicycle need ? (re pair)
7 Do yo u enjoy cards? (pial' )
Ask and answe r the questions with a partner.
oComplete the second se nte nce so that it has a
similar meaning to t he first sentence, using the
wo rd given. Do not change t he wo rd given. You
must use between two and fi ve wo rds, including
the wo rd given.
Whe n th e teacher told th em off. the children
were quiet. (stopped)
The children told them off.
2 I studied German at school but I can' t speak it
ve ry well . (how)
Alt hough I studied Germa n at school I di dn 't
learn it ver y well.
3 Parents always allow th eir children go 10 bed
lat e on New Year's Eve. (let)
Parent s always lip late on
New Year's Eve .
4 It would be a good idea to start the jour ney
earl y if we don't want 10 be late. (set)
We'd earl y if we don 't wa nt
to be late.
afford miss give up hope dislike agree suggest
promise avoid decide enjoy refuse keep
88
gerund infinitive with to
5 Tradition is still a grea t influen ce on people's
behavi our on New Year's Eve. (cont i nues)
Tradition a great infl uence
on people's behaviour on New Year's Eve.
6 She is ve ry kee n 10 sta rt going 10 school . (wait)
She to school .
oComplete these questions using t he verb in brac kets and then discuss them
with a partner.
Have you ever admitted something wrong? (do)
2 Have you ever refu sed wha t some body told you? (do)
3 Would you ever to sing in publi c? (agree)
4 Would you rather your birthday with your family or your friends?
(cele brate)
FeE practice: Part 5
oLook at the pictures and discuss with a partner how thes e games are played.
Read the text and find out.
Learning can be fun
Games are for ( I) as we ll as for learni ng; and we should
not assume t hat children only learn from (2) toys. A cuddly
toy such as a tedd y bea r can he lp the child's (3) growth;
a skateboard will be (4) in learning how to balance. Of cours e,
some toys invol ve a grea t deal of (5) . Rubik's cube, whi ch
made its first (6) in the 1970s and was hardl y noti ced,
we nt on to ma ke its (7) a millionair e. It also made milli ons
of people spe nd hours desperately tr ying to find a 8) to the pu zzle.
Mon opol y is a boa rd game in wh ich (9) bu y, rent and sell
squares on the hoard usin g ( 10) money; the aim is to try
and get mor e mon ey than your (11) . The cost of the propert y
depends on how (12) the places would be in real life.
oFor questions 1-12, read the text again. Use the word given in capitals at
the end of each line to form a word that fi t s the space in the same line.
Fun and games
PLEASE
EDUCATION
EMOTION
USE
THINK
APPEAR
INVENT
SOLVE
PLAY
IMITATE
OPPOSE
VALUE
89
Fun and games
Vocabulary
Countable and uncountable nouns
o Read the following sentences, then complete
the r ules for countable and uncountable nouns.
oCo mpl et e t hese sentences with the co r re ct
form of o ne of th e phrase s in exercise 3.
I heard a reall y joke t he ot her da y.
Bananas are my favourite fruit.
[ love eat ing cheese.
Most jobs require some knowledge of
co mpute rs nowadays.
Comp uter games can cos t a lot of money.
2 He's so ! His sto ries ke pt th e audie nce
la ughi ng a ll ni ght.
3 I don't what yo u sa id at a ll _
4 You're so serious - don't yo u ever do anything
just ?
Words often confused
oMatch the words in list A with their meanings
in list B.
A B
ta ke place be similar to
2 take pa rt look a lte r
3 take ca re parti cipa te
4 ta ke ca re of be ca ref ul
5 tak e a lter occur
We ca n co u nt words like apple and banana.
They have a singula r a nd lonn .
Other nouns are 'unco untable'. This means
th ey are only singular and tak e a _
ver b. Wi th uncountable nouns we do not use
atthe. We use th e m alone or wit h lany,
much, _
8 Read the text below. Some of the lines in the
text are correct and some have a word which
should not be there. If a line is correct, put a
tick (of) . If a line has a word which should not
be there, write the word.
5 I a m looking forwa rd to ____ at th e pa rt y.
Quiz shows
I Television can be a useful so urce of the information abo ut
2 wha t's happening in th e world but it is a lso full of rubbi sh .
3 Pa rents sho uld to sto p thei r child ren lrorn wasting th eir
4 ti me on it and ge l them to read many books or listen to some
5 music. I reall y ca n't sta nd to wa tching th ose silly qui z
6 shows which arc suppos ed 10 lest yo ur kno wle dge of a variety
7 of subjects. I don 't mind having th e th ing on in th e background
8 if I'm doing a housework as it helps to pa ss th e time. They put
9 on a new qui z game last ni ght whi ch was li ke so many others:
10 th ere a re t he several competitors. who are people from different
11 pa rts of th e count ry. The one who answers most of questions
12 co rrectly wins a p rize, which it is usuall y a lot of money.
oComplete t hese sentences us ing t he correct
form of one of the ph rases fro m exercise 5.
Could you th e ba by for us on
Sa t urday evening ?
2 The Chinese New Year so metime in
February.
3 Co uld you not to break any of th e
eggs o n your way home?
4 She her mot her.
5 Eve rybody in t he ha rvest.
3 be funny
4 1'1Il') somct mng lunny
Collocation (fun and games)
e We use filii to talk about games and activities
whi ch are enjoya ble . Funny is used for things
which make you smile or laugh.
do so methi ng fo r fun
2 ha ve some Iun
90
Fun and games 0
I-10, choose
That 's a nice idea, but I don't think it's
very practical.
We could do that, but ...
Yes, but on the other hand .. .
4 The Valen tine bun was
A an amo unt of mon ey.
B a kind of cake.
C a kind of fruit.
Mode rn Valentine cards appea red because
A peopl e preferred something handmade.
B they were chea per than presents.
C peopl e wer e spending mo re on Christ mas
prese nts.
What does lane say about the bird tradition?
A It is ju st a story for children.
B It is pro bably tr ue.
C It is still believed by some peop le.
oWhat have you learnt about St Valentine's day
which you did not know before?
o CllO Discuss thes e questions.
What sort of festival s do you cele brate in your
country?
2 What do you do at these festiva ls?
FCE practice: Parts 3 and 4
e CllO Work with a partner and read the task below.
Your school is going to have a carnival day.
Work with a part ner and plan the da y.
Use these que stion s to he lp you.
What kind of food will you provide?
What kind of mu sic?
How will you decorate the school?
What kind of ga me s will you orga nize?
What kind of prizes will you give?
It would be a good idea if we .
We should also think about .
We could ...
I think it would be good to .. .
How about if we .. .!
Why don't we .. .1
What kind of (games) should we organize!
2 The original Vale ntine
A was a priest.
B was a Roman soldier.
C was a blind man.
3 In ancient Rome, who sent the first
anonymous Valentine cards?
A They were sent by boys to girls.
B They were sent by girls to boys.
C It is not kno wn who sent them.
Listening and speaking
oYou are going to hear a radio discussion
about St Valentine's Day. First, decide whether
these sentences are true or false .
I St Valentine never existed.
2 51 Valentine's Day is a modern custom.
3 A ' Valentine' is someo ne you love.
4 A ' Valent ine ' is a ki nd of card.
5 Birds choose the ir partners on St Valenti ne's
Day.
e Listen to the interview and chec k your
answers.
FCE practice: Part 4
e Listen again. For questions
the best answer A, B or C.
lane Gra ntley has writte n a book about
A St Valent ine's Day.
B young people.
C trad itional customs .
91
Fun and games
Writing
FeE practice: Descriptive composition
A descriptive composition expresses the writer's thoughts about a
particular subject. When describing a place, the composition should
include details of where the place is, what it looks like. and what
happens there. For a person, give details about their appearance and
personality. and what they mean to you. For a thing, describe what it
looks like, what it is made of, and what it is used for.
Try to engage the interest of the reader by:
making the narrative style personal (use first or third person)
using interesting adjectives to bring your subject alive
describing your own feelings cowards your subject
describing the surroundings and atmosphere
Read this task.
Your teacher has asked for a composition
describi ng the festival st udents na ve most
enjoyed and why.
Read this composition plan and the model
composition below. Has the student followed
the plan?
Semana Santa in Seville
- paragraph 1
- . summary atthe event
- . wdte about time. place. pea ie
I- - - - ,mvolved; why you like it p -
- paragraph2 _
--,-development atthe
, . - event
- . gIVe detailed facts.descript'
't' . Ion,
- wn Jng one paragraph for each '
___________ - plC
- paragraph3
- .- summaryof' thesubject
- give a personaLcomment or opinion
e Find examples of the
following in the composition:
92
During Easter, we usually visit my aunt in Seville . I
l ov e going to Seville during Holy Week or Semana Santa
because there they celebrate the event in a really
special way. It is a marvellous sight.
There are colourful processions every night a l l over
the city. The processions are organized by rival
groups. Men from each group carry large litters - or
pasos - on their shoulders. There can be a s many as
sixty men carrying these litters, which are decorated
with beautiful jewels and flowers .
The lit ters also carry wooden statues painted in
bright colours. The statues are accompanied by
'penitents' who are people that wa n t to be forgiven
for their sins; these penitents wear tall pointed
hoods which cover their faces and make them look
rather sinister .
The atmosphere at this festival is rather strange and
unforgettable - you can hear mournful voices
lamenting, which is very moving. However, Holy Week in
Seville is followed by the April Fair when the city
becomes a happy fairground with h or s e - a n d - c a r r i a g e
parades. It is a really joyful event after the rather
sad celebrations of Semana Santa .
I always enjoy the time we spend in Sevi l le, and each
year I look forward to our next trip. Each time I see
the festival, I take away new me mor i es with me .
geru nds
2 the passive
3 person aI pronou ns
4 relative clauses
Find adjectives in the
composition which des cribe:
1 objects
2 t he atmosph er e
3 feelings
4 sounds
e Underline words in t he composition which have
a similar meaning t o t he wo rds in the box.
memora ble happy melancholy mysterious
evil procession
oCompl ete th ese sentences using an appro priate
wo rd from the box in exercise 3.
My friends organized a surprise party for me - I
wondere d why everyone was behaving in such
a way!
2 The of dancers and musicians at the
Rio carnival is quite amazing.
3 He always feels every yea r on the day
his dog died.
4 The old house was a dangerous and _
looking place.
5 I love weddings. They are such _
occasions.
Fun and games
oNow it's your turn. Write your composition
following these instructions , and using the
questions below to help you.
An int ernational stude nts' ma gazine has as ked
you \0 write about what you like/di slike about
an important festival. cg Easte r, in your
count ry. Write between 120 and 180 words.
Where does the event take place?
When does it take place?
What peopl e are invol ved ?
What do these people do?
What sight s can you see?
What sounds can you hear ?
How do the celebrations end?
tall pointed hood
litter
procession
93
94
Reading
oHow much do you know about Christopher
Col umbus? Do the following quiz.
Where was Columbus born?
A Spa in B Portugal C Greece D Ital y
2 Co!umbus wanted to find a new ro ute 10
A Afr ica B America C Indi a D Australia
3 Co!umbus set off for the new world in
A 14 53 B 14 92 C 1602 0 16 53
4 Whi ch of th e lol!owing is not t he name of a
sh ip Columbus took on hi s first voyage?
A Santa Maria B Santa Barbara
C Pin ta D Nina
e Read the text quickly and check your answers.
Columbus:
The traditional view
Most people are taught at school that Columbus is one
of the greatest heroes of Western civili zation. For a lot
of people, he not only discovered Ameri ca but
introduced the ar ts, law and religion to the primitive
5 tribes of the New World. I Which view is
more reliable? We should fir st consider the facts.
Roads to the East
In the 15th century, the Portuguese were one of the
most powerful nations on earth. By the end of the
century, they were sailing further and further into the
10 Atlantic, in search of a new route to India.
2 It seemed the most sensible thing to do,
but the journey was much further than they thought.
A new approach
Columbus came up with an original solution to the
problem: he decided to turn Portugal's strategy for an
15 eastern sea route on its head. 3 No
European before had deliberately sailed ships away
from land, with no certainty of gett ing back home
FeE practice: Part 3
oRead the art icle again. Seven sent ences have
been removed from the ar t icle . Choose from
t he sentences A-H th e one wh ich fits each gap
1-7. There is one extra sentence which you do
not need to use.
A This is why he thought th ey would make good
serv ants and slaves.
B When th e Spa niards we re ready. th ey picked
the 500 best 'specime ns' to load onto the sh ips.
C Wh y not sail wes t, tho ug ht Columbus. and
reach the Ind ies that way?
D When Columbus and his sailors came ashore,
the Arawa ks ran to greet them bringi ng food
and gifts.
E They thought th e best way to do th is wa s by
sailing south round Africa and eastwards.
F For ot hers, he is responsible for th e
introduction of slavery and the destruction of
nat ive Ame rican culture.
G Wc know ve ry litt le about Columbus'
childhood and educati on.
H He wa s determi ned to find gold .
From Columbus to Concorde
oDiscuss these questions.
What do you th ink are the positive th ings and
the ne gative things about Colu rnbus mentioned
in the text ?
2 Do you think he was a hero Of a villain?
" Find and underline words that mean:
the way Irorn OI1C place to another
(paragraph 3)
2 to travel by ship (paragraph 3)
3 whe n people are owned by an other person and
must work for them (paragraph 3)
4 t he people who work on a ship
(paragraph 4)
5 clever. good at under standing things _
(paragraph 6)
6 journeys by ship (paragraph 6)
7 bad. catas trophic, end ing in failure
(paragraph 7)
lL-- _
safely. In the end, it was the Spanish King and Queen
who gave Columbus ships and men and in return he
20 promised to bring 'as much gold as they need ... and as
many slaves as they ask ' .
A new world
In 1492 Columbus sailed west with three small ships:
the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria, After three
weeks, on 12 October, Columbus and hi s crew arrived
25 at an island in the Baha mas inhabited by the Arawak
Indians. 4 Columbus wrote the following
in his diary: 'They brought us parrots and balls of
cott on and spears and many other things, which we
excha nged for glass beads. They willingly traded
30 everything they owned. They do not bear arms, and do
not seem to know them.'
How they lost their freedom
When the gold Columbus found was not enough, he
made the natives int o slaves. The slave trade started
when Columbus' men captured 500 Arawak men,
35 women and children and kept them impri soned,
guarded by Spani ards and dogs. 5 Of
those 500, only 300 survived the tr ip. When they
arrived in Spain they were sold.
Mixed feelings
Columbus thought the Indians were gentler and more
40 intelligent than he had expected. 6
During his later voyages to the Caribbean he imposed
terrible punishments on the Indians. Yet Columbus
was always warning his officers to treat the Indi ans
well and he often seems genuinely moved by the
45 beauty of the natives' culture.
His reputation today
Five hundred years later, Christopher Columbus
remains an enigma. He clearly had a very strong
desire for r iches. 7 In this he was
successful. However, his attempt to create a colony was
50 disastrous. He died after a fourth voyage, r icher than a
Genoese weaver's son could ever have dreamed. Was
he a hero or a villain? The answer must surely be that
Christopher Colombus was a bit of both.
95
From Columbus to Concorde
Grammar and Use of English
Comparative and superlative adjectives
III Complet e these sentences from the text using
t he words in brackets.Then check yo ur
answers .
The Portuguese were one of nations
on earth. (powerful)
2 The ' Indians' wer e and than
he had ex pected. (gentle, int elligent )
3 He died after a fourth voyage, than a
Genoese weaver's son could ever have
dreamed. (rich)
m Some adjectives are irregular, eg good and far.
Complete th ese sent ences from the text using
an appropriate form of good or far.
I The y wou ld make serva nts.
2 The way to do thi s was by sailing
south round Africa.
3 They were sailing and _
Check your answers with the text. Complete
thi s chart.
adjective com p ar ative superlative
good I best
bad worse 2
far 3 furthest
See grammar referenrepage 152.
oComplet e t hese sentences, using th e correct
form of th e words in brackets.
The Santa Maria wa s of th e three
ships. (big)
2 Spain was Portugal and Engla nd .
(rich )
3 Spain wa s country in Europe at the
time. (wealthy)
4 Jumbo jet s are ot he r ki nd s of pla ne .
(hea vy)
5 Trav elling in tho se days was muc h it
is toda y. (u ncomfortable)
6 Columbus ' first voyage was probabl y hi s
___of all. (difficult )
96
e Complete this t ext using an appropriate form
of the words below. You can use some of th e
words more th an once.
long fast less good
Atlantic crossings
Toda y, th an ks to modern air tra vel , it takes a
plane about seven hours to ny from London to
New York whi ch is much (1) than it
used to be. But Concorde can do it in much
(2) time th an tha t - it takes about
three hours. Alcock and Brown made the first
nigh t across the Atlanti c in 19 19 and it took 16
ho urs 12 mi nutes - about five times
(3) th an Concorde. Lindbergh made
a solo fligh t which took a lot (4) th an
Alcock and Brown: he ne w from Paris to New
York in 33 hours 30 minutes. It was a wo ma n
however who ach ieved th e (5) _
resul ts. Amelia Earharts first solo ni ght across
the Atla nt ic took onl y 14 hours 56 minutes.
11 To compare two people or things we can use:
as + adjective + as
She is as tall as her brother.
III To make a link between two actions or
situations, we can use:
the + comparative + the + compa rative
The quicker we get there the better.
e Complete the second sentence so it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence.
Trave lling by tra in is expen sive. Travelling by
plane is more expensive .
Travelling by tra in is not _
2 Flying is the fastest form of transport .
No ot her for m of transport is as _
3 If you buy a good car, it will last longer.
The better t he car is, the _
4 The pr ice of a tra in ticket is th e same as hiring
a car.
Going by train is just as expensive _
From Columbus to Concorde
FeE practice: Part 1
e Read the t ext bel ow and answe r these questi ons.
When was the first flight in a n aeroplane?
2 How far did the first flight go?
3 How high could aircra ft fly in 19 14?
4 What made flying more dangerous 50 years ago?
5 What made flying more plea san t?
3
oWork with a partner. Choose two photographs
and compare th em. using as many different
comparat ive forms as you can.
1
Flying: the early days
Mythology is full of sto ries about the first atte mpts to fl y. but in modern times, the first ( I) wa s
in the Wright brot her s' machi ne Flyer, which wa s (2) by Orv ille, the elde r of th e two brothers,
0 11 17 December, 1903. It was one of the (3) flights eve r - it lasted onl y 12 seco nds and it got no
(4) th an 120 feel. Later th e same day, the two brothers did even (5) whe n they llcw
852 tcct in 59 seco nds. During Worl d War I ( 1914-19 18) ai rcraft devel oped at a faster (6) . The
more the War in Europe spread (7) urgen t it was to build aircraf t. The new planes were
(8) to fly faster than 125 mp h at height s of (9) than 15,000 feet.
Wit h the end of th e war, pilots were used for more (10) purposes: th e new airlines used
wartime planes as passenger carriers and ( I t) to fly greater and greater distan ce s. Conditions in
the cabins were probabl y ( 12) uncomfortable than today, and journeys were much
( 13) , without rad io or any air traffic control. ( 14) efficient lighting of the runways
made landing ( 15) and th e flight s became mo re plea sant when cab in crew were introduced.
oFor qu estions I-I S. read the text again and decide wh ich
answer A. B. C or D best fits each space.
1 A I ry B flight C voyage D travel
2 A driven B taken C fl own D fl ed
3 A fastest B longest C shortest D qu icker
4 A distance B place C more D furt her
f ~ ~
5 A greater B hi gh er C faster D bett er
I
I
6 A time B rate C amount D way
7 A more B the more C most D the most
8 A had B capable C able D managed
9 A taller B bigger C better D greater
lO A peaceful B quiet C nicer D good
11 A woul d B reached C began D succeeded
I2 A most B mu ch C mor e D more than
I3 A more dan ge r B dan ger C more dangerous D dan gerous
14 A An B So me C More D Most
15 A safer B safel y C more safe D most safe
97
From Columbus to Concorde
Vocabulary
Word formation (making adjectives)
oWe can ident ify differe nt adjectives by their
e ndings o r suffi xes. Loo k at these wo rds and
say which are nouns and which are verbs. Does
t he spelling change for any of the words?
rel y powe r origin
Write the adjective for each word, then
complete these sentences using the
appropriate adjective.
The US is one of the most countries in
th e world.
2 You need to have ideas to write an
interesting book.
3 I don't think the fac ts in that newspaper report
a re . I chec ked them and th ere were
severa l mi sta kes.
e Make adject ives from t he words below usi ng
-able, -ive, -ous, -(ut and -al, and complete the
chart.
disaster danger adventure expense
drink wonder comfort act fury
beauty music wash effect read
-able
-lye
-OUI
-ful
-al
e Read t he text below. Use t he word given in
capitals at th e end of each line to fo r m a word
that fits the space in t he same line.
Words of ten confused
oComplete th e se nt e nces using one of t hese
wo rds.
transport travel travelling
We all wa nted to go to the airp ort hut we had
no _
2 Modern hy air is much more
comfortable than it used to be.
3 I hate by air.
4 Pub lic in my count ry is not ve ry
ex pensive.
5 She is always in her job.
Collocation (take)
e Tick the words in the box be low which go with
take.
holiday meal bus coffee
exam haircut trip bicycle
oComplete the se co nd sentence so th at it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence, using the
appro priat e form of take and one of the words
fro m exercise 5.
The tr ip to th e border lasted three hours.
The trip three hours.
2 We 've got an exam 0 11 Monday.
We 're Monday.
3 It 's about time yo u had a few days holi day.
Wh y holida y?
4 I think I 'll go home by bu s.
I 'm going home.
98
Fast en your seat belts
There is no doubt tha t air travel is more ( I) than any other
form of modern transport . but alt houg h it would be more (2) _
to travel by train I often fly because I find it more (3) _
Stra ngely enough. they say it is the (4) form of tra vel.
Apparent ly, it is more (5) to drive or cros s the road so
I don't fee l as (6) as I used to when I travel by air.
I usually ask for a window seat becau se you ge t a (7) vie w,
alt hough it can be qui te (8) because there is less space.
Ot hers feel less (9) ne xt to th e aisle beca use t hey find it
( 10) to forget how high up th ey are.
EXPENSE
ECONOMY
ENJOY
SAFE
DANGER
ANXIETY
WONDER
COMFORT
NERVE
EASE
Listening and speaking
FCE practice: Part 2
2
3
From Columbus to Concorde
4
o CD:' Work with a partner. Look at t hese
photogr aphs of differ ent forms of transport.
Choose two. and compare and contrast t hem.
Use the words in t he box below to help you.
Both photos are on the subject of .. .
Both photos show .. .
The photos are different because .. .
They are both photos of . . .
Both photos are connected to ...
o CD:' Discuss these questions.
what 's your favourite form of tran sport?
2 What's the best/worst journey you have ever
taken?
oRead these statements and decide whether
th ey are t rue or false.
I Concorde wa s bui lt by Britai n and th e US.
2 Concorde ca n travel faster th an the speed of
ligh t.
3 Concorde can carry more passengers than an
ordinary plane.
4 Concorde spe nds less time in the air th an a
j um bo jet.
o Li st en to th is radio programme about
Concorde and check your answers.
FCEpractice: Part 2
o Listen again and complete t he sent ences.
Concorde is one of th e _
symbols of mod ern Britain.
2 Concorde is remarkabl e because of its
3 Concorde can tra vel the
speed of sound.
4 By the time Concorde reaches New York it is
________ whe n it sel out.
5 It is expensive to fly on
Concorde than on an ordinary pla ne.
6 Concnrdcs make four or five
_ _ ___ _ _ _ fligh ts th an j umbos.
7 The youngest pe rson to fly on Concorde was
______ _ _ ; the oldes t wa s
oImagine you have just won a holiday for two in
New York. travelling on Concorde. Who would
you take with you and what would you do in
New York?
99
From Columbus to Concorde
Writing
FeE practice: Report
oRead this task.
You have been asked to write a report on the
advantages and disadvantages of air travel.
e Read these comments and decide whether they
are about planes. trains or buses.
The trip to the airport took almost as long as
the flight.
2 There was no toilet.
3 I've never seensuch a longqueueat the check-in.
4 The seats were made into beds on night journeys.
5 It kept stopping at traffic lights.
6 The driver was awful.
7 You couldn't get up to stretch your legs.
8 There was a buffet car sellingdrinks and snacks.
o
Expand these notes into complete sentences.
fl y/ qu ick/other/ form sit rans po rt
2 Iurbulence/make/jou rney/ uncornfortable
3 bus/expensive/train
4 alrcondltioned bus /comfortable/train
5 high speed train/Iast /planc/sburt distances
6 waste time/stop/many places
7 ohcn/long/delays/airport
oRead the report below. Choose the right
heading for each paragraph A-D. T he re is one
extra heading wh ich you do not need to use.
Why air travel?
2 The aim of the report
3 Summing up
4 Less pollution
5 The probl ems of air travel
-
A
(1) Nowadays /It seems to me , the main forms
of public transport are buses, trains and
aeroplanes . In this report, I describe the
advantages and disadvantages of air travel .
B
(2) Of course/Firstly, air travel is
quicker than other means of transport . This
is particularly true if you are travelling
long distances . (3) All in all /Moreover ,
many people enjoy travelling by air because
of the meal and the entertainment on board.
(4) As a consequence/In fact , the time goes
~ r quickly when travelling by plane .
.00
,
The local mun icipality is trying to encourage
people to leave their cars at home and travel
by bus instead. They have asked pupils to
investigate the problem and write a report
outlining the adva ntages and disadvanta ges
of travelling by bus. Write between 120 and
180 wor ds.
From Columbus to Concorde
speed safety cleanliness cost frequency
comfort the environment parking traffic
nowadays in conclusion punctual rush hour
crowded miss efficient convenient
4I!) Now write your report.
o First . ask your classmates these questions.
How do you get to school?
How often do you t ravel by public
transport?
How long do you usually have to wait for
the bus?
Do you enjoy travelling by bus? Why? Why
no t?
GDiscuss with a partner the advantages and
disadvantages of bus travel. Make notes on your
ideas, using these words and the vocabulary
from previous exercises to help you.
7 bad weather
5 types
6 like
most com mon
D
(8) To sum up/People claim, it could be
said that f ly ing is more effic ient than
other forms of public transport if you
have to visit another country or
continent . In other cases, it is more
practical and economical to go by train
or bus .
C
(5) I believe/However, flying often
involves delays and cancellations. (6) For
this reason/Furthermore, you often spend
more time getting to and from the airport
than actually flying. In addition, planes
are often cramped - people with long legs
can find sitting in a plane for hours
very uncomfortable. Turbulence can also
spoil the flight. (7) Anvway/Finally ,
there are occasionally terrorist threats
which would definitely spoil any journey.
oRead the report again, and choose the most
appropriate expressions (questions 1-8) to
complete the text .
oFind words or phrases in the model which have
a similar meaning to the following:
2 drawbacks
3 [aster
4 chea per
oNow it's your turn.You are going to write a
report following these inst ruct ions.
101
Reading
oWork with a partner and do t his qui z.
I which country do Reeboks come from?
2 Wh at does the name Reebok mean?
3 What is an 'Airrna x'?
4 What is a ' Bcckha m' ?
5 What have th e Spice Girls got to do with
trai ners?
e Read the text quickly and che ck your answers.
Illll11)
that he likes doing most on
25 Saturdays is shopping for new
trainers.
The big names in teenage
footwear are Reebok, Nike and
Adidas and the competit ion
between these companies can be
50 fierce. They all want teenagers to
buy their shoes and not a rival
brand. One batt le the sports
companies have been fighting
recently is persuading famous
55 sports stars to li nk their names
with thei r trainers. Football
players such as Ronaldo or
Beckham and basketball players
as popular as Michael Jordan,
60 can cost the footwear companies
a great dea l of money in
sponsorship fees. However, if
sales increase as a result of
successful advertising, they can
65 also bring in enormous profits.
There is only one brand of
football boots which teenagers
are happy to be seen in and that
Trainers have been around for at
least a hundred years. In 1900
Joseph Foster set up a company
in England which produced and
sold trainers. Th is company,
which was then known as
Fosters, is now known as
Reebok. The name Reebok is
African and comes from a type of
animal called a gazelle, which
runs very fast.
Today, Reebok Classics, which
come with a smart zip, are very
40 popular with teenagers; the
younger ones may prefer Reebok
Fruit, which also have a trans-
parent stripe. The Airrnax comes
wit h a bubble in the sole, which
45 gives added bounce to the shoe.
"r
elcome to the land of
Nike. Here, the great
goddess Nike, who
wears a Ronaldo shirt, looks
5 down on the other gods, Reebok
and Adidas. This land is a
dangerous one for parents. How
can they make their child, who 30
lives for nothing but sport, happy
10 at Christmas? The trainers kids
want la wear these days are so
expensive! Take Derek Hill, 15,
whose wardrobe is full of 35
basketball trainers: he wil l on ly
t 5 buy well-known brands like
Nike and Reebok. 'I like to wear
something that's comfortable and
smart,' he says, 'the cheaper ones
don't last that long.' Derek is not
20 a basketball p layer, and he
doesn't watch much basketball;
he is just keeping up with the
latest fash ion. One of the things
102
FeE practice: Part 2
GRead t he t ext again. For questions 1-7. choose
t he co rrect answer A, B. C o r D.
Parent s think that trainer s arc
A dangerous.
B necessary.
C too expensive.
D very chea p.
2 Derck like s trainers
A he can play basketball in .
13 tha t are n't too expensive.
C that arc worn by famous people.
D tha t feel good and loo k good.
3 Reebok trainers
A are also called Fosters.
B are made by Fosters.
C used 10 be called Fosters.
D were po pu lar 100 years ago.
is the ' Bec kham ' , or th e Adidas
70 Predator Accelerate, which is their
offical name.
These days, trainers seem ( 0 be an
esse ruial part of any teenager's
wardrobe. Pop groups such as the
75 Spi ce Girls have had an enormous
influence in making trainers high-
fashion wear for girl s.
Gi ven the power of modern
marketi ng methods, parents have a
80 diffi cult job persuading their
children to wear less well -known,
chea per brands. Are the br and-name
tr ainers worth the money? They
certainly look good, and plenty of
85 effort is made by companies in
making their latest models better
than the rest. So it seems likely that
brand-name trainers will continue to
be a popul ar choi ce with both
90 athletes and kids.
Making money. spending money
4 Spo rts sta rs are paid a lot of mon ey
A to adve rtise footwear.
B to advise foo twear companies .
C if sales of footwear in crease.
D 10 train other players.
5 Wh y do teenagers want 10 wear
' t he Beck ha rn '?
A To advertise football boots .
B Because th ey are comforta ble.
C They are the most fashionable boo ts to be seen
in.
D They want 10 me et David Beckham .
6 The Spice Girls
A like 10 play sport in tra iners.
B have made tra iners popular with girls.
C prefer to wear Nike .
D think trainers mean 'girl power' ,
7 Wh at does the art icle say abo ut brand -name
trainers?
A They aren' t wort h th e money.
B They should be cheaper.
C They look attractive but are badl y made.
D They look att ractive and are popular.
oDo you th ink t he best trainers are those which
feel comfortable. o r which look good?
Words from the text
" Complete th ese sentences using words from t he
t ext. The first letter of each word is given to help
you .
Goods whi ch are the product of a particular firm.
I think all soap b are the same as each
other.
2 A long line th at is dif ferent in colour from its
background. He wore pyjamas which had a blue
and white s _
3 Things we wear on our feet, like shoes and boot s.
F should be comfortable 10 wa lk in.
4 Something whi ch is very important or necessary.
E qual ities in a good footballer are
fitness and skill.
5 Famous. Product s which are w _
usual ly cost more.
103
Making money. spending money
Grammar and Use of English
Relative clauses
I Complete these sentences from the text with
who, whose, which, that or no relat ive pronoun.
How can the y mak e t he ir child, lives
for not hing hut sport, happy at Christ mas?
2 Take Derck Hill, 15, wardrobe is full
of basketball trainers: he will on ly bu y
well -k nown brands like Nikc and Ree bok .
3 One of t he things he likes doing most
on Saturdays is shopping for new trainers.
4 Thi s company, wa s then known as
Fosters. is now known as Reebnk.
5 Reebok Classics, come with a smart
zip, arc very popular with teenagers.
6 There is onl y one brand teenagers are
happy to he seen in.
Check your answers with the text.
o Complet e these sentences using an appropriate
word.
A purse is a sma ll bag peopl e, usually
women, use to carry I110ney in.
2 A traine r is someone teaches a skill
through practice.
3 A gazelle is a ki nd of sma ll ant elope _
can run very fast.
4 Reeboks, live in Africa. belong to th e
gazell e famil y.
5 Nike. means ' victory' in Greek, wa s
all ancie nt goddess.
6 ' Victorian', refers to the time _
Queen Victoria ruled in England, is the peri od
be tween 1837 and 1901.
7 A place people of similar int erests
meet is called a club.
8 Rcebok. reputat ion is worldwide. has
won many international pri zes.
El Read these sentences, then answer the
questions.
These shoes arc the ones which I always wear
to scho ol.
2 Reeboks. whi ch arc my favourite trainers, are
very expensive .
a In which sentence can yo u Bliss out the relative
pronoun? Is this a defi ni ng or a non-defini ng
clause?
b In which sentence is it not possible to replace
the rela tive pronoun with that? Is thi s a
defi ning or a non-defining clause?
See grammar referencepage /53.
oComplete this text using one appropriate wor d
in each space.
Nike
Nikc is an Ame rican manufact urer of spo rts
clot hes and shoes. ( I ) has become
very fashi onable. part icular ly with you ng
peopl e. Nike, (2) is pronounced ' ni-
ke y' , is th e goddess victo ry in Greek myth ol ogy.
Nike, (3) sat at the side of Zcus. was
usually represented as a winged figure.
Caroline Davidson, a graphic design student at
Portl an d State Unive rsity, wa s commissioned to
design th e Nike ' swoosh' logo (4) now
appea rs on every pair of Ni ke shot's.
The Nike logo, for (5) Davidson wa s
paid only 35 dollars, captur es the spirit of the
goddess (6) inspired the mo st
courageous Gree k warrio rs. Ni ke is the
twentieth-cen tury footwear (7) helps
the world 's greates t athletes win new victori es .
104
Making money. spending money
oLook at the examples and write similar sent ences
about yourse lf.
My fath er, who is 70 years old, has now reti red,
My fat he r, who is ...
2 The town where I live has a popul ati on of one
million.
The town where ...
3 My frie nd Tr evo r, whose Dad is an architect, wants
to he an engineer.
My best frie nd, who ...
4 I don 't like peop le who don 't listen to my opinion.
I don' t like people who .. .
FeE practice: Part 1
oFor questio ns 1-1 3, read the
text below and decide which
answer A, B, C or D best fi ts
each space.
Ma king shoes. making money
If yo u visit an Asian facto ry which produces sports shoes you will see the major ( I) _
comi ng off th e sa me production lin es. Th e sports shoe (2) have mostl y become design
a nd marketi ng compa nies, which (3) a lot of att ention to comi ng (4 ) with
original idea s. The re a re teams (5) only (6) is to de sign and (7) new
ideas for foot wear. The logos are very important: the Nike swoos h; the three stri pes of Adidas .
The se co mpanies (8 ) huge amo unts of money on advertising. The image they try and
(9) is America n, young and hi-t ech . The shoes th ey ma ke arc parti cul arly ( 10) _
with mal es who like to (1 1) themsel ve s as tough and competitive. The companies
( 12) compete to persuade top sports personaliti es to ( 13) t heir clothes.
I A brands B types C goods D sorts
2 A groups B products C compani es D shops
3 A take B ma ke C pay D ask
4 A do wn B in C up D away
5 A which B who C whose D that
6 A job B work C prof ession D hobby
7 A make B test C do D control
8 A spend B put C lI se D pass
9 A do B make li p C create D invent
10 A famous B a lot C loved D popular
1I A look B make C show D set'
12 A addition B too C al so D and
13 A put B carry C show D wear
oRead the text again and find a relative clause where the pronoun has been left out.
105
106
Making money. spending money
Vocabulary
Transitive and intransitive verbs
Look at th ese ways of talking about the clothes
we wear.
to dress someone to wear something
to be dressed in somet hing to get dressed
Some verbs are transi ti ve - th ey have an object.
She is wearing a tracksuit and trainers.
Some ve rbs are intransiti ve - th ey don' t have an
object.
He got dressed.
Some verbs have an object after th e part icl e.
He is dressed in black.
Some verbs have th e object after th e ma in ver b.
She always dresses her baby in pink.
oCho ose t he correct ver b to complet e these
se ntences.
She has to her father now he's too old
to manage himself. (dress/ get dressed)
2 She in bla ck for the pa rt y.
(wore/ dressed)
3 They were all traditiona l costume,
(wea ring/ dressed)
4 He quickl y since he wa s late for
school. (got dressed/dressed in )
8 Correct th ese sentences .
She wa s dressed in a pair of sunglasses.
2 He always wears casually when he goes out.
3 The gues ts got dressed informal clothes.
4 She always wears he r childre n in expensive
clothes.
5 The y were all wearing in tra ditio na l cost ume,
Phrasal verbs with take
e Match the ver bs in list A t o their definitions in
list B,
A B
take after someone get responsibilit y for
something
2 take something away remove something
from someone or
some where
3 take something back behave or look like
another member of
your family
4 ta ke somet hing off return somet hi ng to the
shop where you bought
it
5 ta ke over something remove something
oComplete these sentences using on e of the
phrasal ve rbs from exercise 3,
He had pa rked his car illegally so the poli ce
came and removed it.
The po lice hi s car.
2 Sus an behaves j ust like her mother.
Susan her mother.
3 You should always remove your shoes when
entering a Buddhi st templ e.
You I111lst yo ur shoes _
4 I wasn 't happy with th e clothes 1bought.
I'm going to to the sho p.
5 His dau ght er will be responsible for the
bu siness when she's 2 1.
His daughter will the business.
Words often confused
oComplete th e sent ences using the correct form
of one of these verbs ,
match suit fit
Having your hai r short er reall y you!
2 Her skirt and top are nice, but the colours are
awful. The y j ust don't _
3 Since he's got thi nne r, hi s clothes don 't
____ well anYlllore.
Making money. spending money
Speaker 3 Speaker 4 Speaker S Speaker I Speaker 2 You
muSIC
bicycle
lessons
food
Topic
clothes
comics
Listening and speaking
oCheck with your teacher the
mean ing of t hese phrases.
set II P
save lip (for)
gel sick of
gel hold of
8 How much pocket money
do you get? Tick t he chart
to show which things you
spend it on .
hobbies
study
e Listen to the tape and tick the chart to show which
speakers spend mo ney on the things listed above.
FCE practice: Part 3
o Li sten again. For questions 1-5. choose from the list A-F
which statement refers to which speaker. Use the letters only
once. There is one ext ra let ter which you do not need to use.
Wh ich spea ke r:
4
2
A has an unusua l hohhy? Spea ke r I
1
B likes fashion?
Speak er 2
C prefers 10 earn his/h e r own money?
0 is goi ng 10 buy a co mputer?
Spea ke r 3
E is saving LIp to huy something?
Speaker 4
F has money in the bank? Spea ke r 5
3
oDiscuss these questions.
Do you t hink adverts work?
2 What'Syour favouri te advert?
FCE practice: Parts 3 and 4
oa Look at the pictures . Choose one item which you would li ke
to buy.Wor k with a partner and plan a TV advert for one of these
ite ms. Use t he quest ions below to help you.
What age group arc you selli ng 10 ?
Arc yo u go ing to use a famous person? If so, who?
Wh at will happ en in th e adve rt?
What mu sic will you use?
Wh at sloga n will you use?
107
Making money. spending money
Writing
FeE practice: Transactional letter
oRead this task.
You wrote of! [or th e CD advert ised below a nd Iouud
tha t the product wa s Iau lt y. Writ e a letter as king [or a
replacement or a refund.
arrived a
month later ----.:
reason forwriting
This kind of letter means you must
use information you are given to
communicate a particular message.
The information may be an
advertisement. notes, instructions.
Remember:
who you are writingto, ega
stranger, a friend
how formal the letter should be
to get your message across
clearly
to make sure you include all the
information
not same collection; boxes broken
mention this
e Read the letter and label it
using the notes below.
1 reason forwriting
. I.S _ iooking to the future
2 ciosmg remar, . .
3 give reasons wny you are dissatisfied
4 reference to advertisement
5 request for action
6 signing off
e Underline words or phrases
which te ll you th is is a
formal letter.
108
oMatch the beginnings of these sentences with
the correct endings.
I I have just recei ved
2 I expect you to
3 Furt hermore, it seemed to me that
4 Firs t. I was led to believe th at
a th er e wo uld be a free gift included with the
cassettes.
b the boxed set of cassettes you adve rtised in
Music Unlimi ted magazine .
c the casse ttes had been used since the bo xes
were dirty.
d refu nd the full amount of money tha t I
paid you.
rhoms
uns
Holiday Camp
h of the same kindof holidays?
lave you had enoug
Feel like a change?
H
oliday Camp this summer!\\
Try Thom
suns
.
Making money. spending money
o Read th is student's letter and the advert, and
answer t he following questio ns:
Are all th e notes covered in the lett er?
Is the style appropriate?
Is the tex t or gani zed clearl y?
Read the letter again and co rrect th e mistakes.
DearMadams
/ am writinj for tocomflain aboaiyour holiday
camf- / haveiust returnedfroma holiday camf in
Wales which / foundit very disaffointinj'
Your advertise sadthat the accommodation wou/tf
heI've-star hunjalows. However, this was not the
case: the onlyaccommodations avatlahle was tents.
As for the mealsyou mention, the all wejot every
day was sfajhetti andthi11Js likethat. / insist ona
full refund
Andtherewerefew0ff0rtunity to meet anyfeofle
tofractise sfeaLnj Enjlish with.
please write to me soon,
Best wishes,
Pancho
we were given tents
I s Y spaghetti and
beautiful stone bung
a
0:-------- sandwiches every day
all mealsincluded
f ctivitiesincluding mountainbiking
wide range 0 a cancelled forthe
swimming. volleyball, . whole week
mountain-climbing and cycling
. your English with local people ________
P
ractise . few opportunities
'1 station
nO' p\denp _;'0nom rat W"I \ W', .;,
no pick-up - had to take ataxi
oNow it's your turn. Write
your letter following these
inst r uct ions.You may add
other po ints of your own.
You have ju st ret urned from
a Thomsun's Holiday Camp
whic h was ve ry disappoimi ng.
You dec ide to write to the
company to co mplain abo ut
th e ho liday and as k for some
money back. Write between
120 and 180 words.
109
110
oThese sentences are incorrect. Find the
mistakes and rewrite the sentences correctly.
I The adv ices she gave me were very good.
2 We won the other team by three goals to two.
3 I iost the bu s because I woke up late.
4 He did a very funny joke and everyone burst
out laughing.
5 Th e knowledges we ge t fro m school a re not
always useful ,
6 Please come to the beac h - I know we're going
to do lots of fun .
7 Let 's make a ga me of chess - I've go t noth ing
else to do.
oAnswe r the following questions using words
from t he box below.
original comfortable nervous intelligent
successful disastrous adventurous
Wha t do yo u ca ll someone who achieves t he
things they set out to do? Some one
2 Who would yo u as k to go on a n excit ing but
maybe da ngero us trip? Someone _
3 How would you describe someone who is
clever and good at understandi ng th ings?
4 How would describe an acci dent in which a lot
of people were killed? _
5 Wha t do yo u ca ii somet hing that is imagin ati ve
and new? _
6 How would you feel abo ut having a n operat ion
in hospi tal ? _
7 How do tra iners feel that fit yo ur fee t weii?
e Complete the second sentence so that it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence. using the
word given . Do not change the word given. You
must use between two and five words. including
the word given .
I am really looki ng forward to going to France
in the summer. (wail)
____ _ _ _ ___ to Fra nce in th e
summer.
2 I ha te to list en to people qua rrelling. (sta nd)
__________ to people qua rr elling.
3 It ' s a ii th e same to me if I walk to work. (mind)
__________ to work.
4 Why do n' t you use the spa re room as a study?
(make)
I sugges t into a study.
5 I don't have guitar lessons anymore because I
do n't ha ve time. (given)
I guitar lesso ns becau se
I don't have time.
6 If yo u don' t ma ke less no ise you'll wake th e
ba by up. (keep)
If yo u so mu ch no ise
you' ii wa ke th e baby up.
7 I would rather watch a video than go to t he
cinema to nig ht. (prefer)
I a video th an go to th e
cine ma toni ght.
8 She says she won 't res ign t hough she has been
asked to. (refuses)
She th ough she has
been asked to.
oComplete the text below using an appropriate
form of the word in brackets.
Travelling light
Althoug h flyi ng is ( I ) (fast ) for m of
travel and some people say it 's (2) _
(safe) too, it can often be (3) (tiring)
travelling by plane than by ot her means. When
I travel I hate (4) (carry) a lot of
luggage with me so I try (5) (pack) all
the t hings I need into a sma ll sui tcase. Not only
is a small suitcase (6) (easy) to carry
tha n a large one but the airline company are
a lso (7) (like ly) to let you (8) _
(take) it onto the plane with you as ha nd
luggage. So while everybody el se is wa iting in
(9) (long) qu eues to check-in their
bags, you can relax. Of course, it is ( 10) _
(difficu lt ) to take all the thi ngs you wa nt in a
small suitcase but I th in k th at th e adva ntages
a re ( I I ) (great) the disadva ntages. I
prefe r ( 12) (leave) a few things behind
than to carry heavy luggage around the world
with me.
e Rewrit e th e following pai rs of sent e nces to
ma ke one sente nce using who, which, whom, that,
where or whose to make o ne se nte nce.
MacDonal d 's is an America n company. It sells fast
f ood.
Macli onald 's is an American company which sells
fast food.
I Tha t is th e factory. They make Nike tr ain ers
t here.
2 Reebok is the na me of a popular sports shoe .
Young people like to wear t hem.
3 A departmen t store is a shop with many
floors. Yo u ca n buy lot s of different kinds of
goods there.
4 Hen ry Ford made cars. They became famous
all ove r t he wo rld.
5 Henry Ford was a car mak er. He became
famous all over the worl d.
6 That is t he man. [ told you about him.
7 Our nei ghbou rs come from Au stralia . Their
children are study ing at un ive rsity.
8 Phoehus was t he name of the god of the su n.
It is pronounced Feebus.
9 Colu mbus was a famous explorer. He
discovered the Americas.
10 Flyer is th e name of an earl y ae ro pla ne. It was
flown by th e Wri ght brot hers.
8 Complete these se ntences using an
appro pr iat e preposition for phrasa l
verbs wit h take.
He 's just like his fat her. He ta kes
_____ hi m in everything.
2 Th is wasn 't t he book [ as ked for - I'm
going to ta ke it to the shop.
3 1I you' re feeli ng hot, take yo u r j acket
4 There is far too much work [or me to
ta ke by myself.
5 Who' s going to take from the
di rector wh en she retires ne xt year?
oRewrite th ese sentences using th e
wo rd or ph ra se in bracket s.
It look us three hours to gel to Lond on.
(lasted)
2 I th ought [ would walk int o thc town
ce n tre. (on foot)
3 We could go to the cafe across the road
and talk. (chat )
4 I'd rat her tak e a taxi home. (by)
5 Do yo u ha ve suga r in your te a? (take)
6 Bill ' s not in at th e moment - do yo u
want to lea ve a message> (take)
7 He takes no interest in book s.
(interes ted )
=a
ID
"
....
ID


-.
et
oFor questions 1- 14, read t he t ext and look carefully at each line . Some of th e lines
are correct, and some have a wo rd that should not be th ere. If a line is correct,
put a ("I). If a line has a wo rd whi ch should not be th ere, writ e th e wo rd.
I My teenage children would rat her not to go out at all th an go
2 out wearin g the 'wrong' clothes or footwear. Even in cold
3 weat her they prefer to go out wit hout to wcaring a jacket
4 if it means avoiding o f weari ng something which does not
5 make th em to look cool. The problem is th e clot hes t hat teenagers
6 t hink are cool te nd to be more ex pensive t han t hose which
7 are not. Al so, the ' unr ool' clo thes are as often muc h wa rmer
S tha n t he trendy ones, bu t unfort una tel y kids ca n' t stand
9 from wearing them. Certai n bran d names are not as popular, for
10 some reason, as a ll ot hers. Take boots, [or e xa mple. I bought a pa ir
1I o f boots for my you ng son which looked like exact ly the same
12 as another more wel l-known make of boot s, which were also
[ 3 cos t t wice as much as the ones I had chosen. He refu sed to
[ 4 wear t he boots I had got for him.
111
112
Reading
oWork wit h a partner. Read t hese comments
made by students abo ut to begin an FeE
cou rse. Do t hey exp ress the way you feel?
Discuss your answe r wit h a partner.
' I t hink the Use of Eng lish is going to be the
most difficult paper. '
Georqe Papadopoulos, Greece
' Our FeE cour se starts ne xt year so I 'm going
to start reading English books just for plea sure.'
Carmen Silva, Brazi l
'I'm going 10 get hold 0 1' the cassette that goes
with our textbook , and listen to it every night. '
Hans Sveltberq, Munich
oRead the paragraphs A- H quickly and choose a
heading for each par agraph from the li st below.
I Make important informati on stand OUl
2 Read widely
3 The oral exa m
4 A fun way o f learning
5 Believe in yo urself
6 A usef ul qualifi cation
7 What th e exa m is all ab out
8 A te chnique for ta king notes
A Succeeding in the FCE means you will be ab le
to go 0 11 10 take more advan ced examinations
suc h as the Proficien cy exam. In some countries,
thi s ma y enable yo u to teach English.
B There are many cases of peopl e who were able
to communicate in a foreign language after a
maucr of months ju st by reading on a regu lar
basis. You should start wit h simplified readers
and then go on to magazine articles.
C A technique whi ch will hel p you revi se and
recall in formation more easily is to write down
useful phrases or rules on small cards.
D Rememb er to use a highli ghter pen to pick out
til e ma in idea s in a text - t hi s will help yo u
recall vocabulary more easily later.
E Li sten ing to songs is not onl y enjoyable but
memorable because of the mel ody. Singing to
yourself in English while yo u're wai ting for the
bus is an ex cellent way of revising your
grammar and vocabul ary.
F 1\ is not possible to re- sit indi vidual papers of
the FCE. The exa m is de signed to be a test of
students' overall compet ence in English, and
their final grade is the total score of all five
papers.
G Candidates have to take five papers, including
a speaking test which will take the form of a
'paired' interview with another candidate.
H First of all, what ever your aims in taking the
exam, you must set out with a positive attitude
towards study ing. If yo u think you wi ll fail , t he
chances arc you will.
Smart kids 13
FeE practice: Part 3
e Seven part s in exercise 2 have been removed from the article.
Choose fro m the parts A-H th e one whi ch fi ts each gap 1-7.
The re is one ext ra paragraph which you do not need to use.
Success comes in "cans' not in "can'ts'!
This June, about 300.000 candidates will sit for the
Cambridge First Certificate Examination in thirty
different countries. These candidates, aged between
12 and 65, will have studied Eng lish for at least
5 500 hours and sitting the examination wi ll be an
opportunity to see what they have learnt.
I
The average pass rare for the FeE is 70-75 per cent.
2 lf students do rail, they can re-si t the
10 exam a few mo nths later - in December - or they
can wait till the followi ng J une. Wha t can
candidates do 10 prepare themsel ves for the great
day and make sure they gel the best possibl e
results?
15 3 You have to make the decision to be
successfu l - it' s in your hands. nobod y else can do
it for you. Secondly, if you are int erested in a good
grade (an A or B) you wil l have to do much more
than just attend classes and hand in your
20 homework in a hal f-hearted way.
Long before yo u have to sit for the examination
you should get into the habit or readi ng something
in Eng lish just for the run or it. 4 After
a while, you will be ab le to understand basic
25 messages.
You could also try writing down the words of
songs in English and learning verses by heart.
5 The good Ihing about this form or
revision is that you can do it any time and any
30 place.
Of course, not every student is interested in gell ing
a top grade - some students would be qu ite happy
with a pass - and you don' t have to he a genius to
get a grade C in the FeE. If you approach the exam
35 in the right way, you ough t to pass. But you must
make the most of your abi li ties and this will mean
making the rnost of your memory. 6
Another thing you can do to help your memory to
work mor e effi cientl y is to take notes whi le you're
40 reading; writing things down can help you retain
th ings more eas ily. Expe rts say the mi ddl e part or a
text is the part we tend to forget more easil y so pay
particular attent ion to thi s part of a text, reading
and re-reading carefully if necessary. 7
4 5 Carry the cards wi th you so you can revise at odd
moments of the day.
Fina lly, it will help to talk to other candidates and
share ideas. You can learn a lot from each other.
Above all, remember to think pos itive: don't say 'I
50 could never do it', say: ' I can. I will'.
oRead t he text and find the three most useful
tips for preparing to take t he FCE for you .
e Find words in the t ext that have a similar
meaning to t he following. T he first letter of
each word is given to he lp you.
I to take an exam S, _
2 to take the same exam a second time r _
3 a mark in an exam g, _
4 the parts of a song or poem v _
5 a very clever or skilled person g, _
6 reading something again r _
113
114
Smart kids
Grammar and Use of English
Modal verbs (1)
I Underline the modal verbs in these sentences.
I He can't be interested in taking th e exam,
because he never does any work.
2 They can re-sit the exa m a few months later.
3 He must be clever to have got into Oxfor d
Universi ty!
4 You could try writing down t he words of songs.
5 We should do well in our exams because we' ve
had excellent teachers.
6 If you approach the exam in t he right way, yo u
ought to pass.
7 She's not ve ry confident, but she's intelligent
and might do better tha n she thinks,
Now answer th ese questions using the
examples above to help you .
a Wh at for m of verb follow modal ve rbs?
b Whic h sentences ex press adv ice an d degr ees of
possibili ty?
Match th e following sentences with one of
t hese meanings.When you think somet hing is:
a possible
b certain
I He mus t be mad to wa nt to do a bungey j ump!
2 She's not very confi de nt, but she's intell igent
and mig ht do better than she thinks,
3 This grade can't be correct - the examiners
must have made a mi stake,
4 You may pass if th e quest ions aren' t too
difficult.
See grammar reference page 154.
oComplete the second se nt ence so th at it has a
similar meaning t o th e first sentence using an
appropriate modal ver b.
I' m no t sure if the test is on Monday or
Wednesday.
The test be on Monday, bu t it
____ be on Wed nesday.
2 I'm sure you are tir ed afte r studyi ng all ni ght.
You tir ed, after studyi ng all nig ht.
3 I don' t believe th is mark is correct. I ha rdly
made any mistakes.
Thi s mark be correct !
4 It' s possible yo u' ll pass the exam, but it is
unli kely.
You pass the exam.
5 I haven 't decided whe ther to take the exam in
December or June.
_ _ _ _ take the exam in December or June.
11 Underline the modal verbs in the following
sentences.
I I must try an d have a positive att itude,
2 Candidates have to take five pa pe rs.
4 You rnust n' t copy another candida te's answers.
5 You don 't have to stay if you've finished th e
test - you can go.
Now answer these questions about the
sentences above,
a Whic h verbs express obligation, prohibi tion and
lack of necessity?
b Which sentence expresses obligation coming
from the speaker him/ herself?
c Which sentence expresses obliga tion which is
outside th e spea ke r hi m/h erself?
In the past and future, must is replaced by have
to,
We had to take a lot of exams when / was
at school.
We will have to take an exam at the end
of the year.
See grammar referencepage 154.
Smart kids 3
115
Babies are good at grammar
Scient ists have succeeded ( I ) proving
what every parent knows : hahies arc
int elligent. All healthy babies (2) able
to put toge ther full'S of g rammar almost hefore
they ( 3) talk.
At first. scie ntists co uld not understand how
babies we re (4) to do th is. To find
out, scientists (5 ) 10 invent a new
language and spea k it in front of t he babies.
The babies qu ickly (6) to make se nse
of the new language. They (7 ) able to
do this by list ening to th e so unds: even
newborn babies (8) tell the difference
be tween sounds like ' pah' a nd ' bah'.
Researche rs also man aged (9) show
that children are sensitive to grammat ical
information from the age of five months. At ten
months an in fant (10) use
information about the order of nouns and
verbs, and at 16 months they know where
nouns and verbs bel ong in a sentence.
Howe ver, a lt ho ugh th e baby ( I I ) _
have a good idea about the rules of the
la nguage, it may ( 12) know much
about mea ni ng. ' Daddy', for exa mple.
( 13) be us ed for a ll men rather than
just o ne. Childre n soon succeed ( 14), _
overcoming that difficulty. On ce they reach the
age of about 15 months, they lea rn about ten
words a day, every day.
verbs have
no - 5 on the thi rd
petSoh smgul ar; thej
:Ire followed. bj the
ihfinit i'le ...
FeE pract ice: Part 2
oFo r questions 1-14, read the text below and
t hink of the word which best fits each space.
Use only one word in each space.
e Complet e t his text by choosing the correct
verb form for each sentence.
General exam tips
Here arc some last words of advice to help
you do we ll in exams. First of all. yo u
( I ) should/can 't avoid stayi ng up late the nigh t
before. Eight ho urs sleep (2 ) will/could mak e
yo u feel full y awake th e next da y bu t if you
(3) can't/mustn 't manage that seven hours
(4) must/should be eno ugh. You (5) musttdon 't
have to remembe r to tak e yo ur ide ntity ca rd
or ot her form of identi fication with yo u.
Remember, you (6 ) don 'I ha ve totmustn 'I copy
out the q uestion as t his will waste val uable
time. You (7) may/ought to end up not havi ng
enough time to answer the question itself.
There are five papers a nd yo u (8) mu st/don 'I
ha ve to pass a ll five to pass the exa m. You (9 )
may/have 10 answer a ll the sections on each
pa per. You (10) musui 't/can ' t forgct to put your
name on all papers.
e Wri t e your own advice to a friend who is
anxio us abo ut an impor tant exam, using modal
verbs and the wo rds below.
I stay up /l at e
2 get/ fresh ai r
3 worry/too much
4 take/ breaks
5 stu dy/ to o hard
6 eat /healthy food
7 revise/wit h a
3 He lot s of mist a kes in t he exam.
2 Can I a suggestion? Why don 't you
del ay taking the exam till next yea r?
oComplete t hese sentences using the correct
form of do or make.
____ me a fa vour - help me wit h thi s te st. I
4 She much worse in the test tha n her
teachers ex pected.
5 It would me reall y ha ppy to ge t a
grade A in the exa m.
noun
verb
adjective
conjunction
preposition
Vocabulary
Jabberwocky
Parts of speech
o Ar e you good at grammar? Listen
and read this ' nonsense' verse by Lewis
Carrol l. Find examples of parts of speech
such as verbs and nouns, and write them
in t he chart.
3 Smart kids
e Complete these sentences with a nonsense
word from the chart, using the appropriate part
of speech.
I met some friendl y at a pa rt y last
weekend.
2 He bought so me rea lly trousers fro m
a shop in town.
3 Can yo u an exam if you ha ven 't don e
Cll () ugh ?
4 I'd love to be able to Spa nis h.
5 They don't know whet her to play _
tod a y.
Collocation (make and do)
e Match the words and phrases in the box with
eit her make or do.
a mistake a suggestion a promise well
your best badly the bed the shopping
revision someone a favour someone happy
6 I 've got a lot of revision to for the
exam .
Collocation (exams)
oLook at t hese ways of talking about exams.
enter for an exa m
sit (for) / takc an exa m
take / do a test
ge t a good or hi gh mark in a tes t
gel int o uni versity
pass/ fail an exam
Now correct t hese sentences.
I am going to write the First Cert i ficate Exam
0 11 Saturday.
2 I got a hi gh mark in my exam and passed to
university.
3 I to ok a good mark in th e test.
4 I am goi ng to take myself for the exam.
5 She succeeded to the exam.
6 How ma ny exams are you ge tti ng thi s
summer?
116
Smart kids 13
2 Look at the fi st of ne w subjects (E). Which ones
would you add to the curriculum?
oa What's your favourite/lea st favou rite subject
at sc hool?
FCE practice: Parts 3 and 4
e a Work wit h a partner and do the task below.
You are both members of the stude nt co mmittee
and have bee n asked to hel p the gove rnme nt
work out a new curriculum.
B
environment
sex education
money ma nagement
pol it ics
pop music
cultural studies
graphic design
marketing
Latin
Ancient Greek
ho me eco nomi cs
history
chemistry
re ligi ous education
maths
Eng iish
A
Answer th ese questions to help you plan yo ur
curriculum. You do not have t o agree wit h yo ur
partne r.
Look at the fi st of traditional subjects (A). Wh ich
three should be given the most time and whi ch
three the leas t time?
In my opinion, .. . is very important because . . .
As far as I'm concerned/As I see it . ..
I would say that . . . is more useful than . ..
I feel st rongly that .. .
I feel the same way as you.!1agree with you about that.
That's absolute ly right.
I see what you mean, but . . .
You've got a point, but what about the fact that .. . ?
But don't you think that . . . 1
What do you think?lWhat are your views?
4 Ca ndida tes wi ll lose ma rks if th ey don 't ex press
inte resting opinio ns .
5 The ca ndidate should tr y a nd make th e
exa mine r feel rela xed .
6 The exa miner will do hi s be st to find o ut your
mistakes.
7 Ou r body can send importa nt message s to til e
exami ner.
8 Ca ndida tes should tr y and smile and joke a lot .
FCE practice: Part 4
o Listen again. For questi on s 1-8, decide
which of t he statements are true o r false
according to t he speakers.
Th e ora l in tervie w is to allo w candida tes to
show th eir ability,
2 Candidates sho uld al wa ys give lo ng ans wers.
3 Ca ndidates should ca refully prepa re on e topic
to talk about.
Listening and speaking
oLook at th is picture. Who are these peopl e and
how do you th ink t hey feel?
e Befo re you do t he foll owing section check yo ur
understanding of th ese key words .
approach squeeze iss ues init iative
to catch someone out nod gaze
e You are going t o hear an examine r talking
abo ut an oral interview. Listen and answe r th e
questions.
The spea ker is
A de scribing the type of questions as ked
in an oral int erview.
B giving candidates advice.
C discussing the problems of exa mining.
2 The spea ke r says o ral examinatio ns
A can be diffi cult for the exami ner.
B must be taken serious ly,
C ca n be cnjovabl e.
117
3 Smart kids
h

9 T
10 A
I I P E
12 L
An opinion composition expresses the writer 's personal
opinion about a particular subject and contains arguments
that support that opinion. Here are some tips on writing
a good opinion composition:
use a formal or semi -formal style
make sure that all the points you include are relevant
to the subject
state your opinion in the introduction
begin a new paragraph for each main point and give
examples or supportingarguments
use linking words to connect your ideas in each
paragraph, and to link the paragraphs together
In the conclusion, summarize your mai n points and
re-state your opinion in different words
5 P _
6 C _
7 G _
8 M _
f
2 E, _
3 H _
4 13 _
Maths
Writing
FeE practice: Opinion composition
o Look at the pictures and complete
the names of the school subjects
below. Then match the pictures
to the names.
Which of these subjects can you do at
your school?
oWork with a partner. Look at the school
subjects above, and discuss which are fun,
interesting, helpful, boring or not useful.
e Decide which of these sentences could be
used in the discussion in exercise 2.
The most important subject, in my opini on ,
is ma ths.
2 Teachers shouldn't give us so much
h 0 111CW o r k .
3 I can' t see why we sho uld do an cient
langu ages like Lat in .
4 If you don 't do well in maths you can't
get int o univers ity.
5 I mu st work hard er at school.
6 One of t he most usefu l subjects is geography.
7 We sho uld do more experiment s at schoo l.
8 Physical educa tion is a was te of time.
Do you agree or disagree with t hese
statements?
118
, .
Smart kids 3
oRead the compos ition below. Which paragraphs
have the following functions?
to make a statement
2 to j ustify th e sta tement usi ng exa mples
3 to slim lip
=
=
=
9 Look at t he text again and
find wo rds which have t he
following functions:
three phra ses whic h give
a personal opinion
2 OIl C purpose clause
3 one phra se which
introduces an example
4 one supe rlat ive phra se
The most important school subjects
Nowadays, we have to study a l o t of
subjects at school. Although mo s t subjects
can be interesting, I think t he most
i mportant subj ects are those which are
useful , t hat i s . those whi c h help you to
find a job.
In my opinion, we s hou l dn ' t have to study
subjects which are not useful, such as
Latin. Latin is a language that nobody
speaks , and is therefore not likely to be
useful in many jobs .
Eng lish, on the other hand, ought t o be
taught be c aus e we might f ind it u s eful f o r
writing letters and applications. We might
a lso need English to express ourselves in
interviews for a job.
I n f ormat i on technology is another important
subject. It should be taught because
everyone will need to u s e computers in the
future, otherwise they won ' t be able to get
a job.
In conclusion, subjects such a s c las sical
languages might be interesting but they
aren't important in terms of getting a job .
Pe r s ona lly speaking, I t hi nk subjects
should be useful, but they should be
interesting too.
o Now it's your turn. W rite your composition
following t hese inst ruct ions.
Which are the most important subjec ts for
young people to study at school and why?
Write between 120 and 180 words.
Use this plan to help you.
State your opinion clearly, 1
1
__ _
_ your
__opiniorLin a different way.
119
oRead the text quickly. W hich explanat io ns fo r Agatha Christi e's
disappeara nce are menti oned? Underline t hem.
e,
he consequences of the whole story
were not all u pleasant.
lost
RY OF THE DISAPPEARING AUTHOR
4
because most people do it at home and have been in Guildford at that lime.
do not drive off in the middle of the 4 5 4 Colonel Chri st ie took
night. What few people would have an afternoon train from London to
known was that Agatha Christie's life Harrogate and learned that his wife
couldn' t have been very happy at the had been staying in the hotel for a
time. 3 She had been week and a half. She had apparently
sleeping badly, eating irregularly, and 50 seemed ' normal and happ y' . She
moving furniture around the house for sang, danced, "Played bill iards; 'read
111- - 30 no apparent reason. Some newspapers the newspaper her own
hinted that her husband would have di sappearance, chaii ed with her!
gained much from the death of his fellow guests and_ w.ent for walks.
but he couldn' f have murdered 5 Later Archibhld
her because he had been at a party all hristie told reporters: has
weekend i Surrey: he had a from a'Ioss of memory and I
alibi . Other journalists suspected she d,;" 1 t think_she 'Knows \vlio she is.'
might have disappeared in order to get But Ritchi e-Calder!'a fricfid of hers,
publicity in the press. Then her thought her conditi on did not
brother-in-law Campbcll received a ()O resemble-the usual cases of amnesia.
lelt er from hcr whose postmar k 6
indicated that it had been posted in -:====::!...__
London at 9.45 am 0 thc-da atte r
her disappearance, so she couldn't
memory murder
suicide accident
kidnap go abr oad
leave her husband
,
T
here can' t be many who
haven't heard of Agatha Ghristie.
She must have sold more n vcls
than anybody else in h story. 25
I In that year, she
l
was
invol ved in a mysterious case' f an
author who vanished - the auth r was
herself.
Reading
oWork with a partner. Look at this photograph and discu ss t he
fo llow ing questio n.
This is a famous aut hor of detect ive novel s. In Decembe r 1926 she
suddenly disappea red. She turned up severa l da ys lat e r. Ca n yo u
explai n the myst ery? Use th ese wo rds to give you ideas.
t o
5
15
120
The world's best, the world's worst
FeE practice: Part 3
e Read the articl e again. Seven paragraphs have
been removed from th e art icle below. Choose
from the paragr aphs A-H t he one which fits
each gap 1-7.There is one extra paragraph
which yo u do not need to use .
A TiIi her death in 1976, Agatha Christie ref used
to di scuss the mystery of her own
disappearance. Her biograph er, Janet Mo rgan.
accepts th at it must have been a case of
nervous breakdown foliowed by amne sia.
B He felt that she had prepared for her
disap pearan ce because she had 300 wi th her,
and she had aiso told other gues ts in the hotel
tha t she was a visitor from South Africa.
C She wrot e under her first husband 's surname.
She wrot e more than 70 novels featur ing th e
Belgian det ecti ve, Hercul e Poiro t or the curious
viliage lady, Miss Marple.
D Yet there was a time when Agatha Christie was
relativel y unknown. The first time she came to
the attent ion of the public in a big wa y was in
1926.
E Her hu sband had fallen in love with another
wo man and her mot her's deat h must have
been a grea t shock for her. Her behaviour at
ho me suggested she cou ld have been on the
verge of a nervous breakdown.
F At eleven the next morning, an officer at
Guildford poli ce station wa s handed a report
sayi ng th at Agatha Christie's car had been
found halfway down a grassy bank with its
bonnet buried in some bu she s.
G She was rea ding a newspaper whic h contained
her story, with a photograph, when her
husband made hi s way over to her. ' She did
no t seem to recognize him: said th e hotel
manager.
H Then , on 14 Decemb er, a waiter in a ho tel in
Harrogat e, Yorkshire, looked more close ly at a
female guest and realized from the newspaper
photographs he had seen tha t it must have
been the missing novelist. He rang the
Yorks hire police who contacted her home.
oComplete these sentences about the story.
Agatha Christie can' t have been a happy person
because .. .
2 She must have been we ll-off because .. .
3 She must have had a lot of imagination
beca use .. .
7 when you lose your memory a _
8 things th at happen as a result of something else
c _
o Find words in the text that have a similar
meaning to the following.The first letter of each
wo rd is given to help you.
I disappeared v _
2 said somet hing in an indirect way h _
3 proof th at someone was not where a crime
took place a _
4 th e attention th at someone or something gets
from th e media p _
5 th e brother of your wife or husband b _
6 a game you pla y on a rectangular table, using a
long stick to knock balis into pocket s around
th e table b _
Agatha Christie's next novel, The Big Four,
was received badly by reviewers, but sold
65 nine thousand cop ies - more than twice
as many as The Murder of Roger Ackroyd.
And from then on her books sold in
increasing quantities. 7 Yet this
is difficult to accept. Why did she register in
70 the hotel using the name of her husband' s
mistress? Atelevision play produced after her
death even suggested that the whole event
might have been part of a plot to murder her
husband's mistress. The only thing that is
75 certain is that her disappearance in 1926
turned Agatha Christie into a best-selling
w iter and a millionaire. Perhaps her
disappearance was Agatha Christie's most
successful story.
./

9 a secret plan to do somet hing p _


121
122
The world's best, the world's worst
Grammar and Use of English
Modal verbs (2): modal perfect
I Complete these sentences from the text .
There be many peopl e who haven 't
heard 01 Agatha Christie.
2 Her husband said she have committ ed
suicide.
Check yo ur ans wers with the text. Tick the
sentence which refers to a past event.
Now complete the following rules:
When talking about a present situ ation we use
modal + infini tive witho ut _
Wben talking about a past situation, we use
modal + have + _
Decide what degree of possibi lity is expressed
in the following sentences:
a possibl e
b certa in
I She must have been very unhappy.
2 He mi gh t have sta yed in a different hot el.
3 They can ' t have wanted to come.
4 She may have gone straight home.
5 I could have ta ke n the tr ain.
See grammar reference page 155.
oRead t he situations and wr it e sentences using
the notes in br ackets. Use a past modal fo rm.
I wonder who left this pa rce l on the door step?
(It/ be/ postman )
It can't have been my neighbour.
2 I th ink it was the bu tle r who killed Lor d
Moneybags.
(It / be / butle r)
I disagree. _
becau se he was not in th e house at the time.
3 I wo nder why she didn 't say hello this
morning.
(Sbe/ not/see/you)
It 's not like her. _
4 I called by at th eir house but there was no
answer.
(They/ not/ get/back/holiday /yet )
5 My wa llet's been missi ng lor days.
(I/lost/ it)
but it's poss ible someone sto le it.
6 I saw Madonna at the supermarket yesterday.
Don't be silly.
(That /not /be /Madonna)
she lives in the US.
e Complete the second sentence so that it has a
similar meaning t o t he first sent ence, using the
word given. Do not change the wo rd given.
You must use between two and fi ve wo rds,
including t he wo rd given.
I'm not sure tha t she ki lled herself. (have)
She suicide.
2 She mus t have been nearby becau se her coat
was in th e car. (far)
She can' t away becau se her
coa t was in the car.
3 The hotel owner obviously did not recog nize
her. (known)
The hotel owner was her,
4 I ex pec t she was not feeli ng ve ry we ll at th e
time. (bad)
She must at t he time.
5 One possibil ity was to ask a doct or's help.
(docto r)
She to hel p he r,
6 The waiter guessed she was the missi ng
novelist. (have)
The wa iter th ought she the
mi ssing novelist.
7 It 's clear to me th at Miss Scarlet did not
commit the cri me. (committed )
Miss Scarlet th e crime.
The world's best, the world's worst
e Look at pict ur es 1-5 and imagine what must have happened or
can't have happen ed in each case. Discuss your answers wit h a 4
partner.
1
FeE practice: Part 5
oWhat do yo u know about dri ving a car? What do
you press whe n you want to do the fo llowi ng t hings?
I To make the car go faste r? a _
2 To warn someone to get out of your way? h _
3 To stop the car? b _
Read the te xt and check your answers.
5
Learning to drive
Until recent ly the record for the worst ( I) in the world was he ld
by Helen Ireland from California who failed her (2) test in
the first second, by mistaking the (3) for the clutch and
shooting straight through the wall of the test centre (4 ) _
This record seemed (5) until 1981 when a motor mechanic
called Thomson failed the test before the (6) had even got into
the car. On (7) at the test centre, Thomson tooted the horn to let
everyone know he was ready; the examiner strode (8) out lO the
vehicle, told Thornson it was (9) to sound your horn while
stat ionary, announced Thomson's (10) to pass the test and strode
away again.
By March 1980, Bell y Tudor had taken an ( 11) _
273 lessons. During this time she had had nine ( 12) and wa s
banned from three drivi ng schools. Her (13) test ended when she
drove in the wrong (14) round a roundabout. ' If it had n' t been
for the cars coming th e ( IS) wa y, he wo uldn' t have
noticed anyt hing wrong: said Mrs Tudor (16) . ' And anyway,
t he brakes were working fine:
oFor questions 1-16, read the text again. Use the word given in capitals at
the end of each line to form a word that fits t he space in the same line.
DRIVE
DRIVE
ACCELERATE
BUILD
BEAT
EXAMINE
ARRIVE
ANGRY
LEGAL
FAIL
BELIEVE
INSTRUCT
SEVEN
DIRECT
OPPOSE
BITTER
123
The world's best, the world's worst
Vocabulary
Word formation (noun suffixes)
oWe use -er and -or t o describe what a person
does. Th ese suffixes are also used for things
such as t ools, machine s and instr ume nts.Which
of the following words are t hings and which are
people? Divide them int o two groups.
Collocation (law and order)
oComplete the chart using the phrases in
th e box.
charge someone find someone guilty
arrest someone co mmit a crime
put someone on trial steal somet hing
officer screwdr iver reviewe r projector
t in-opener visitor typewrite r biographer
cooker murderer operat or
Phrasal verbs with break
cr imina l police judge
have a motive suspect someone sentence someone
e Read t he text below. Use th e word given in capit als at th e en d
of ea ch line t o form a word that fits the space in th e same line.
The musical thief
On ce a young Russian ( 1) broke int o a flat in
the town of Baku, while the (2) were awa y on holiday.
Exhau sted after filling his bag wit h (3) goods, he ran
himself a nice hot bath. Feeli ng hungry, he switched on the (4) _
and mad e himself a tast y meal. The (5) wa shed it down
with a few glasses of vodka. Being a bit of an amat eur (6) _
he then sat down an d sta rt ed playing Grieg's Piano Concerto,
which woke up the nextdoor neighbours. When th e po lice (7 ) _
arrived they fou nd th e (8) thief happily at th e piano.
8 Rewrit e t hes e sentences replacing the
underlined phrase wit h an appropriate
ph rasal verb from the list above.
OFFICE
MUSIC
BURGLE
OWN
STEAL
COOK
ROB
MUSIC
e Complete thi s t ext using the app ropriate form
of one of the phrases above.
The poli ce ( I ) Mat ilda Eva ns of th e
murder because she had an obvi ous (2 ) _
- she wa nt ed her husband's mone y. They
couldn't (3 ) her wi th the murder,
however, be cause they had no evi dence. But
when they found the bottle of po ison with her
fingerprints on it, they were able to (4) _
her, and the court (5 ) her guilty of
murder. Mat ilda Evans wa s (6 ) to life
impr isonment.
break up with someone
break out of something
break up
The burglars gained entr y l a th e bui lding at
night .
2 Our car stopped working on the motorwa y.
3 The poli ce are searching for th e convict who
escaped from pr ison.
4 World War II sta rt ed in 1939.
5 Michael and Cecily separate d after fi ve years
together.
6 Sh e left her boyfriend .
break out
break int o something
break down
124
The world's best, the world's worst 4
Listening and speaking
oBefore you liste n, check with your t eacher the meaning of these
words.
blackmail shoplift ing mugging burglary robber y kidnapping
e Li sten t o five speakers talking about different crimes and
co mplete the chart. You can use some crimes more than once.
Cri me
Speaker I
Speaker 1
Speaker 3
Speaker 4
Speaker 5
" Wor k with a partner. Look at t he pictures and tell
t he story, using t he words in the box t o help you.
FeE practice: Part 3
o Li st en again. For questions 1-5, choose which of the situations
A-F eac h speaker is tal king about. Use the letters only once.
There is on e ext ra letter which you do not need to use .
In which ex tract:
A was the thief a rres ted immediately?
B were the thieves strangers to the area?
C was the thief very ineffective?
D was the t hief a teenager?
E was the th ief an old man ?
F was one of the thi eve s probabl y very small?
oDo you know anyone who has had a similar
experience to the ones in the listening text?
Spea ker , _
Spea ker 2 _
Speaker 3 _
Speaker 4 _
Speaker 5 _
rocking chair cat lap st roke happy
purr cli mb stuck mew despair
telephone dial 999 fi re-brigade
fireman ladder rescue cup of tea
hero fi re-engine wave goodbye
1 2 4
5 6
7
8
125
The world's best, the world's worst
Writing
FeE practice: Argumentative composition
oLook at thes e photographs. Compare and
contrast them with a partner.
e Read this task.Then read t he model composition
and discuss with a par tner whether you agree or
disagree with the stat ement.
' Li fe toda y is much better than it was 200 years
ago.' Write you r answer using bet ween 120
and 180 words.
126
'Li feis much better than it was 200years ago: Discuss,
are.many things wrong witlLtbe.way we __
---.Jive_today,j nmy view.Jife isbetter now than it was 200
years ago,
_ First ly, we are much.more technologicaliy advanced
today. Modern communication systems mean that we
can now communicate easily with people ali over the world,
Also, nowadays, people's standard oflivingis quite
highand people livelonger due to modern advances _
inmedicineandJiealthcare, as well as improvements
in living conditions and diet.
On the other hand, t odaywe faceserious environmental
problems such as pollution ofthe atmosphere and global
_ warming,
Another problem related to modern livingis t hepace
oflife; many people today suffer from stress-related
.,.----illnesses,
To sum_up, I believeJife.today is eaeier.inmany ways _
because of progress in science and technology but we
have created newproblems too.
oLook at this advice a teacher gave her student .
Look at the model again and dec ide whether
the student took the teacher's advice.
' Don' t forget to give the basic outli ne of
yo ur argument in the first paragraph.'
' One pa ragraph should be abou t argume nts
in favo ur of the statement .'
' Another paragraph should contain
arguments against the statement .'
'Your conclusion should be a balan ced
summa ry taking both sides into account .'
computers telephones aeroplanes central heating
cars television nuclear energy diseases poverty
video pollution noise violence space travel
CITIES
violence
/
I
aeroplanes
TRANSPORT
TODAY
HEALTH
new diseases
I
The world's best, the world's worst
TECHNOLOGY
HOUSES
I
central heating
/
space travel
oWork with a partner and complete t he diagram using words from
the box. Decide which words are goo d t hings and which are bad
things.
oRead the following sentences
and divide them into
arguments 'for' and 'against'
the question in exercise 2.
Then deci de in which
paragraph the writer might
have used the sentences.
Overcrowding is a common
sight in cities all around the
worl d.
2 People are bett er-edu cat ed
these days.
3 All in all. I think life is better
today.
4 We have very efficient forms
of transport.
5 New incurable diseases
have appeared.
e Find words or phrases in
the composition which:
I refer to the present
2 draw comparisons
3 give exa mples
4 exp ress an opinion
8 Now it' s your turn. Write your
composi tion following these
instructions.
'There are more bad things than
good things about living in the
21st cent ury.' Discuss. Write
between 120 and 180 words.
127
Reading
oWork with a partner. Look at the photographs and
match them with the jobs below. Then discuss the
questions.
hotel receptionist shop assistant waitress
garage mechanic camp leader
I What do these people have to do in t he ir job?
2 Whi ch job would you like to do th is summer? Why?
8 Read the magazine article and match the five people
with the photographs.
1
HAVING FUN IN THE SUN?
Choosing a summer job is not easy. Bruce Inglis talks
to five teenagers about their job plans for this summer.
money, which I could get from my parents
anyway, I think it is important to be able to
manage your own finances and to stand on your
own two feet.' Another reason teenagers choose
to work in bars and cafes is because such places
have a certain glamour for young people. ' The re is
usually cool music playing, and there are lots of
young people sitting around chatting and having
a good time.'
C Rafael Garcia, 18, Mexico City
30 'Working at a summer camp is fantastic,' says
Rafael, who will be working as a group leader in
charge of a dozen 12-year-olds this summer. 'I do
it so that I can work outdoors instead of being
stuck in a restaurant somewhere in a polluted
35 city. You also get paid to do stuff you enjoy - like
sailing, hiking and archery. Last year, I got to
practise my English too, because all the group
leaders came from different countries, and English
was the only language we had in common.' Rafael
40 doesn't only work in order to make money, but
also because of the opportunities the s umme r
A Miguel Machado, 15, Granada
Miguel Machado, who will be taking his FCE this
June, intends to work in his uncle's garage for a
few weeks s o that he can earn enough money to
go on holiday w it h his friends. His main reason for 25
5 choosing to work is to become less reliant on his
parent s for money. 'This summer, I'm planning to
work as hard as I ca n, so I can get some money to
go to the Canary Islands with some friends. I
don't suppose the job will be that exciting, but I'd
10 rather work in the garage than deliver pizzas,
which is what my big brother's going to do. My
intention is to work hard for four weeks, by which
time I'll have e noug h money to get away and
relax afterwards.'
B Marcelle Dupont, 17, Lyon
15 Lots of students also get jobs working in bars or
cafes. Working conditions are usually poor and
pay is even worse. So why do students queue up
to get these jobs when they could be relaxing and
e njoying their holidays? Marcelle Dupont says she
20 does it for several reasons. ' Ap art from the
128
camp gives him to socialize and develop as a
person. '1 suppose one of the most important
boosts you get is that you become a hero to
45 young kids, and earn money at the same time! '
D Jenny Logan, 16, Birmingham
Working in t he summer will be a new
experience for Jenny Logan; she is going to be
a sales assistant in a local supermarket. 'It 'll
give me valuable experience in dealing with
50 people because when 1 finish school I'd like to
go into marketing or management. I'm also
doing it becaus e of the chance it gives me to
get out of the house a bit. The money will come
in handy, but I'm not saving up for anything in
55 particul ar. 1 arranged this job so as not to get
bored, 1 suppos e: 1 didn't want to be sitting
around all day.'
E Sylvia Bonatti, 17, Naples
Most young people would like to spend their
s ummer near the seaside and a good w ay of
60 combining work w ith leisure is to find a job at a
seaside resort. Sylvia will be working as a hotel
receptionist in a tourist hot el on the island of
Capri near Naples . ' I chose the job in order to
be wit h my boyfriend who is a lifeguard and
65 w ill be w orking on Capri in the summer. Of
course, it al so means the sea is just a stone' s
thr ow away so I can go for a dip after w ork
and get a good tan t oo.'
Work and play
FeE practice: Part 4
oRead the texts again. For questions 1-8 choose
from the people A-E. Some of the people may
be chosen more than once. W hen more than
one answer is required, these may be given in
any order.
Whi ch of the five peop le int erviewed:
chose his/h er job to be near
a frie nd?
2 hopes to improve his/h er
langu age skills?
3 will learn usefu l skills for a future job?
4 will spend th e mon ey he ea rns
on a holida y?
5 wants to be independen t of
his/h er parents?
6 has chosen a job where he /she will
make new friends?
7 thinks th e job won't be very inter esting?
8 wi ll be combining work with
a holiday?
oWhich of the jobs desc ribed would you en joy
most/Why?
e Find and underline words and phrases that
mean:
I aim to (A) 6 enjoy oneself (B)
2 depen dent on (A) 7 responsibl e for (C)
3 prefer doing 8 be usefu l (D)
something (A)
4 wait in line (B) 9 so t ha t (E)
5 be independen t (B) ID not far away (E)
129
130
Work and play
Grammar and Use of English
Clauses of purpose and reason
I Underl ine wo rds or phrases in the sentences
below which express purpose.
I His main reason [or choosi ng to work is to
become less dependent on his parents.
2 I do it so that I can work outdoors.
3 I arranged this job so as not 10 get bor ed.
4 I chose the job in order to be with my
boyfriend.
Complete these rules by adding an appropriate
connect or.
___ _ _ _ _ _ expresses purpose and is
followed by a sent ence wi th a modal verb.
2 express purpose and are
followed by infinitive with to.
What can we use instead of in order tolso os to
when we want to be more informal? Which
sentence shows this?
mUnderl ine wo rds or phrases in the sentences
below which express reason.
I Another reason teenagers choose to work in
bars an d cafes is beca use such places have a
certai n glamour.
2 I' m also doing it because of th e cha nce it gives
me to get ou t of the hou se a bit.
Complete these rules by adding an appropriate
connector.
___-,---__-,---_ shows the reason for or
cause of somet hing an d is followed by a
sent ence (subject + ver b).
2 shows the reason for or
cause of something and is followed by a noun
phrase.
See grammar reference pages 155-6.
oComplete these sentences using an appropriate
word or phrase.
I I bought a bike I can cycle to school.
2 She chose the job she wanted to
combine work and pleasure.
3 He became a sales representative 10
tra vel.
4 She want s to be a man ager the big
salary.
5 She closed the door qu ietl y so to wake
the baby.
6 She got up earl y in to be late [or th e
train.
7 She wa nts to go abroa d study foreign
languages.
8 She went to live in Spain the weathe r.
oAnswer t hese questions using an appropriat e
express ion of purpose or reason. Some prompts
are given t o help yo u.
Wh y has she taken up Chines e?
(in ord er/translator)
2 Why does he avoid eating cakes?
(because/ not get fat )
3 Why should people avoid smoking?
(so as/not get heart disease)
4 Why did he become a pilot ?
(in orde r/ tra vel)
5 Wh y is he learn ing to use the computer?
(so that/find job in IT)
6 Wh y arent they camping this weekend?
(because of/ wea ther)
7 Wh y did she go to un iversit y?
(get/good education)
8 Wh y did he become an actor?
(because of/fame)
e Complete these sentences.
I would like to study so as 10 _
2 I am studying English becau se _
3 Peopl e become doctors in order 10 _
Compare your answers wit h a partner.
FeE practice: Parts 1 and 4
oMake a list of the jobs animals do for people, eg dogs for the blind.
oRead the text below and find out which animals are mentioned.
The perfect employee?
They are not very tall - less than a metre high - and don't (I) guns
bu t the director of Bega prison in the sout h of Swede n (2) that his
new members of (3) -ten domestic geese - are the perfect guar ds,
bett er than dogs or me n. The geese (4) gentle but they are fierce
an d int elligent, and th ey don 't (5) lon ger holida ys or overt ime
(6) . And the y never (7) on stri ke. They feel very
gra teful to the ir employe rs because thei r new (8) has saved th ese
geese from the butcher's block. Warden Lars Sjobe rg says: ' We have such a
small number of (9) that we need this kind of help, especially at
night . Crimina ls are alwa ys (10) 10 escape over the fence, but now
the geese gua rds quack loudly and alert the prison staff. '
oFor questions 1-10, read the text again and decide which answer A. B, C or
D best fits each space.
1 A hold B carry C take D bear
2 A believe s B asks C expect s D tells
3 A employees B workers C staff D team
4 A are B looki ng C look D looking
5 A ask B go C have D demand
6 A income B salary C pay D wages
7 A be B go C goi ng D are going
8 A dUly B work C job D employ
9 A employers B employment C unemployment D employees
10 A try B to try C tried D trying
8 Read th e next ext ract and find out what 'I 0 November' and ' 400' refer to.
Sauce for the guards
I Sjoberg says ' Geese they bite very hard and few people
2 want 10 tr y a goose- bite a second time. They pinc h hard
3 wi th their beaks and can cut you if they do flap their wings
4 about. ' Sjobererg says they are call t he geese ' Guard Unit B'
5 and they pat rol between two high- wire fences which are surro und
6 the pr ison near the city of Helsingborg. 'They used 10 give
7 geese jobs like thi s in ancie nt Rome: Sjoberg added .
8 ' And in Scot land they are still use geese as gua rds:
9 The geese are lucky 10 be still alive. They we re saved on
10 10 November, the da te whe n many Swedes have celebrate
11 the ann ual holiday of ' Mart in's goose' . The holiday is marks
12 the birth of Martin Lut her, the founder of the Lutheran church.
13 The local flocks of 400 geese were all going to end up on the dinner
14 table, but the prison reserved ten of them for special guard dut y.
oFor questions 1-14, read the text again and look carefully at each line. Some
of the lines are correct, and some have a word that should not be there. If a
line is correct put a tick (,f) . If a line has a word wh ich should not be there,
write the word.
Work and play
131
Work and play
scare truth believe luck profession
suit count rely avoid help
What somet imes happens to the -e at the end
of a verb when we add a suffix?
2 All of these adjectives can be made negat ive
using the pr efix un- except one. Whi ch word is
it?
Vocabulary
Word formation (suffixes)
Many adject ives are made by adding the suffixes
-ful . -able. -y a nd -al.
o Make adjectives using t he words below, and
answer the questions.
avoid +
help +
-abl e =
-jul =
avoidable
helpfu!
Collocation and idioms (jobs)
apply for a job
go for an interview
do somet hi ng [or a living
be given the sack
get promot ed
oLoo k at the phrases above. Complete t he
seco nd se ntence so that it has a similar
meaning to t he first sentence , using the word
given. Do not change t he word given. You must
use between two and five words, including the
wo rd given.
What' s your job? (do)
What do living?
Words often confused
e Co mplet e t he se ntences using one of these
words.
experience qualifications t raining skills
She 's never done an ything like thi s before. She
has no _
2 She's never worked at the job but ha s passed a
lot of exa ms . She's got _
3 She has the practical abili ty to do a difficult job
well. She 's got the _
4 She got the jo b with little expe rience bu t the
company gave her some excellent _
oFor questions I-1 0, read t he text below. Use the
word given in capita ls at the end of each line to
form a word that fits the space in the same li ne.
2 She had to leave her job becau se she was
always arriving lat e. (given)
She becau se she was always
arr iving late for work.
3 Last yea r she wa s the ass istant man age r; now
she is th e manager. (got )
This year from assistant
manager to manager.
4 Your applicat ion should incl ude a copy of your
cert ificates. (job)
If , you should send a copy
of your certificates.
5 He's being interviewed toda y for a new job.
(go)
He an int erview today for a
new job.
132
Strictly conf idential
Refer ence for Joseph Bloggs
I wish [ could say it was a ( I) working with
Mr Bloggs but, (2) , thi s was not the case . He was
( 3) for the job but our att empts to train him tot all y
failed. His office was always very (4) with pap er
scatte red all ove r th e place. He was very ( 5) _
and see me d (6) to remember any thing. He was so
(7) I could not even tru st him to do the simplest
tasks. Mr Bloggs was (8 ) to custome rs who oft en
complained to management about his (9) . In short,
[ believe he would be ( 10) for the job for wh ich
he applied. Regr ett ably, I cannot recommend him .
PLEASE
FORTUNATE
QUALIFY
TIDY
FORGET
ABILITY
RELY
POLITE
RUDE
SUIT
Work and play
Listening and speaking
" Match the expressions in list A to their
definitions in list B.
5 Wh y does th e speaker recommen d the camp?
A It wo uld ma ke a ni ce change.
B He would rather not go alone.
C They will get swimming lessons.
6 Why do es the speake r tel ephone?
A To complain.
B To apply for a job.
C To find out about a course.
FCE practice: Part 1
o Listen again. For questions 1-6. choose the
best answer A. Bor C.
How does the speaker feel about the course?
A It could be bett er.
B He would recommend it.
C It' s very va ried.
2 Wh y did th e speaker do th e course?
A In orde r to see London.
B To hel p him with his acting tech ni qu es.
C To improve hi s langu age skills.
3 Wh y did th e speaker do th e course?
A Becau se she is interested in Spai n.
B To improve her comput er skills.
C To improve her reading skills.
4 What is the speaker's main reason for choosing
the course?
A The art classes.
B To practise her Swe dish.
C To meet yo ung peop le from differ ent
countr ies.
expressing yourself with
ph ysica I signs
no room or spaces available
bored or tired of something
a holiday which includes
travel and accommodation
th e purpose of something
B
a package
A
5 booked up
2 t he point
3 body language
4 fed up
FCE practice: Part 2
o <;;;:J)O Look at the photographs of holiday
courses above. Choose two and compare and
contrast them.
8 <;;;:J)O Discuss these questions.
What holiday course would you mosr/ least like
10 do? Wh y?
2 If you could choose your own holiday. what
three thi ngs would yo u do?
3 Have yo u ever been on a holiday course?
8 You will hear people talking about six
different holiday courses . Which courses are
mentioned?
133
Work and play
Writing
FeE practice: Letter of application
oRead the following job advert.
The key to good letters of application
is organization.You should use
paragraphs to make the message dear.
Here are some of the features we
usually find in let ters of applicat ion:
salutation
reason for writing
qualifi cations
experience
closing remarks
signing off
e Read the letter of
application below and
put the parts in the
correct order using
the advice in the
writing box above to
help you.
134
A
B
c
I lookforward toheannJ fromyou,
Firstofall, Isfeak E".'}ltsh wella",1I readand
write d (fuently. Ifassed the Camlmd:Je First
Certificate examwdh aJrade BandI am now
f refarinJ for the Proficiency exam. I am keenon
sf0rts: I am a memberofthe localswimmi".'} club,
andalsoflay basketballrCJularly. I don't have aI;Y
healthproblems.
In terms ofcxpericna, althouJh I have neverbeen a
Jrouf leader before, I have attendedseveralsummer
camfs, andtherefore understandthe kindofwork
thcydo. I belteve I am aJood leader (I am Presiclent
of my class at school) andlastyear I was caftain of
the basketballteam.
D
E
F
G
Finally, I thInk I wouMmakeaJoodJrouf
leader because I am fr,endlyandJet on wdh
feofle, esfecially ch,Uren.
I am writ<nJ toaffly for thejob ofJrouf leader
at theSunny Days Summer Camf in San
R.emothis summer. I wouMMe toJiveyou
some detat!s about myself
I am avatfable to workdun"'; theferiod
1-S AUJust.
DearMr VoJels,
e Read this letter of application and find the
following mistakes:
1 a wrong prepositi on
2 re petition of a word or phrase
3 wrong tenses used
4 a mi ssing art icle
5 a wrong modaI verb
6 a spe lling mistake
Correct the mistakes using the model letter to
help you.
DearSir;
/ haveseenyour advertisement in the DaifJ
Star. / am reallyinterestedin this sort 0t
werkand/ wouldlike to!liveyou some
informationabout me.
/ wouldlikeyou toknow/ am!l0odstudent -
mybest subjects aremaths andfhysics. /
will take the FeEexam in December and/
am also!l0'''!! often to the!Ifm whichit
means / am very/it. / am also a member
oftheschoolathletic team.
/ wouldlikey ou toknow/ went toa summer
camf lastyear and/ think this is a!l0od
th,,,!! foraJoodleader todo. / am 1Syears
old / woultlrather bea!lrouf leader in the
first f eriod (/ workedtoa camf in Sfain
lastyear).
/ believeyou must!live me thejob because of
my enthusiasm andbecause thech,Uren
wtlllike meanddo what / tellthem.
Yours faithfully,
Blanca Suarez.
Work and play
oNow it' s your t urn.You have seen the following
advert isement in the local newspa per for
summer work. W rite a reply saying why you
woul d be suitable for the job. Write between
120 and 180 words.
Sunny Beach Hotel
The Parade
Bognor Regis
Summer Work
Receptionist
We need young people (age 17-25) with
a good knowl edge of English to help out
in the busy summe r months.
You can work mo rnings or evenings.
To apply, write a letter in Engli sh saying
why you should get the job.
Please write to:
MrsA Boyce
Use the following notes to help you:
why are you writing?
education/qualifications?
work experience?
any other relevant information?
135
oRead t he defi nit ions below, then writ e the wo rd
they describe. The first letter of each word is
given to help you.
I someone who kills another pe rson deli berately
m _
2 something you use for openi ng tin s
t _
3 some one who wri tes book s. art icles or plays
a _
4 someone who steals th ings from ot her people's
houses b _
5 someth ing you use to type lett ers t _
6 someone who has a pos ition of authori ty in the
army. navy or po lice 0 _
7 someth ing you use to turn screws
s _
oFive of these sentences are incorrect. Find the
mistakes and rewrite th e sentences co rrect ly.
She will get int o Oxford Univer sity. (I rea lly
don ' t know. )
2 You ought to be clever to get a grade A.
3 She can 't be Mr s Bleany because Mrs Bleany
died five years ago.
4 You must tell lies. It' s not honest.
5 The y must be on holiday because th ere wa s
nobod y at home when I called.
6 I told you we should have get up earlier - now
we 've missed the tra in.
7 She must have been a happ y woman - she had
so many problems all her life.
e Connect th e sentence beginnings in list A with the sentence endings in list Busing
t he expressions so/so that/because/because of.
A
I The match was cancelled
2 We went to bed earl y
3 I caught a taxi
4 Sh e couldn 't take part in the race
5 She locked the door carefully
6 Th eir flight wa s delayed
7 He sta rt ed taki ng more exercise
8 He stopped smoking
B
I wouldn' t be late for the me eting.
th e rain.
we couid get a good nigh t' s sleep.
nobody cou ld get in .
the lat e arrival of the plane.
the pai n in he r leg.
it was damagin g his health.
he could lose weight.
e Replace the underlined words in these sentences wit h th e correct form of one of
the phrasal ve rbs below. Make any other changes necessary.
catch up (with)
break up (with)
break out
break into
hold on break down
catch on break out (of)
136
I How did the thi eves into th e buil ding ?
2 What will you do if the machine stops
3 Can you tell Mrs Lark in to wait for a few minutes?
4 John and Mary aren 't gett ing on and th ey've decided to separate.
5 How did the pri soners ma nage 10 escape from pris on?
6 When did th e war in Bos nia start ?
7 If you fall behind with your work. you' ll have to work harder to do the work
everyone else has done.
8 Do you t hi nk thi s ki nd of music will ever be popular ?
e Complete the sentences
using th e appropriate fo rm
of the words and phrases
below.
steal (something)
ar rest (someone)
rob (someone)
commi t a crime
charge (s omeone)
find (s omeo ne) guilty
suspect (someone)
have a motive
Shcrlork Ho lrncs
_____ Professor
Moriart y had commi tted
th ese horrible cr imes.
2 Man y people who
_____ , even murder,
arc never di scove red by the
police.
3 The court all
th re e men of
armed rob bery an d
sentenced the m to three
years ea ch in prison.
4 SOIll COIlC has _
my wa llet lrorn my handbag!
5 How many hanks has he
----_?
6 Mari lda hated her husband.
so she defi nitely _
[or killing him.
7 The poli ce were ab le to the wo ma n with
po isoning her husband beca use they found the poison i ll her
handbag.
8 The policewoman th e man in th e supermarket
where he had stolen two cans of beans.
GComp lete t his chart . Make adjectives from the words on the
left, using t he suffixes -01, -able, -ed, -ful and -y. Make any spelling
changes nec essary.
verb noun adjective
ed uca te educa tion I
scare sca red 2
hel p help 3
enjoy enjoyment 4
qualify quali fi cati on(s) 5
rail failu re 6
oUse an app ropriat e word fro m the completed chart above to
complete these sent ences.
I fi nd lIsing (I d icti o na ry very when I am wri ti ng
compo si tions in Engl ish.
2 Do you fi nd wo rking as a waitre ss ? I don ' t
thin k I wo uld like it at all!
3 His in th e e xa m mad e h im d e te rmined 10
succeed ne xt t ime ,
4 I 'm not ver y keen OIl TV programmes - I like
soap operas best of all.
5 My sister always finds horror films very , and
get s nigh tma res alter wat ching th em.
6 You need a lot or to ge l a job as a pi lot.
=0
ID

.....
ID

-.
et
oFo r questions 1- 11 , read the text. Use the word given in cap itals at the end of ea ch line to form a
word that fits t he space in the same line.
Learners
Believe it or not. I took my ( I) test four times
so I hardl y have the right (2) to tell other
people how to be (3) learners and to do well
in th eir (4) . However. my job as a teacher in a
(5) sch ool in Lond on means I have to deal
wit h young people who are often very (6) _
but are thought to be (7) by their tea chers.
I have now been involved in (8) Ior over twent y
years and I ha ve come to the (9) tha t children
rail because or a lack or (10 ) in themsel ves which
is the resul t of the ir teachers' lack or ( 11) in
th ei r ab ilit y to learn.
DRIVE
QUALI FY
SUCCESS
EXAMINE
SECOND
INTELLIGENCE
FAIL
EDUCATE
CONCLUDE
BELIEVE
CONFIDE
137
138
Unit 3, page 29: Student A
Furt her research showed that t he box which
had co ntained t he ship's compass ha d be en
smashed.
2 The compass itself was broken.
3 Someone had smashed one of t he barrels of
alcohol.
4 The lockers st ill contai ned plent y of food a nd
wa ter.
5 The sa ilors ' chests were st ill t here, which
showed that they had probably de sert ed the
shi p in a great hurry.
6 But a search of the Captain's cabin showed that
the ship's navigat ion instruments were missi ng.
7 Th is meant tha t the Mary Celeste had been
sailing wi thout a crew for nine days.
8 She had sailed 700 miles in th ose nine days .
9 Apart fro m th e crew, th e shi p had sai led wi t h
Briggs's wife and his daughter.
Unit 7, page 6S: Student A
Unit 8, page 71: Team A
Famous facts quiz
I Holiday is sung by Madon na.
2 Th e Theory of Rel at ivit y was devel oped by
Albc rt Eins te in.
3 Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare.
4 The Eng lish have been conquered by the
Viki ngs and t he Romans.
5 Peni cillin was di scove red by Alexander
Fleming.
Unit 9, page 81: Student A
Leonardo DiCaprio
I Place of bi rth: _
2 Date of birth: II November 1974
3 Eyes: blue
4 Ca r: _
5 Pet : A lizard
6 Favourite food: pasta, cheeseburger, French
fries wit h lots of ketchup, coke a nd lemonade
7 He loves: skydivi ng
8 Favo urite actress: _
9 Mus ic: The Bea rles. Led Zep pe lin, Suga r Hill
Gang, Pin k Floyd
I GRANT ONE
WISH TO EACH
OF YOU,
139
140
Unit 3, page 29: Student B
Captain Morchouse of t he De; Gratia deci de d
to take the ship back to Gibralta r.
2 Both ships arrived in Gibraltar ha rbou r six
days la te r.
3 From t he beginn ing, th e Mary Celeste had bee n
an unlucky ship.
4 Her first capta in ha d died within 40 hours of
taking over th e shi p.
S On he r maiden voyage, she had had an
accident a nd had to be re pa ired .
6 While she was bei ng repaired , a fire ha d
br oken ou t Oil board.
7 Later, while she was sa iling near Dover, she
hit a not her sh ip, which sa nk .
8 Th is had happen ed unde r her thi rd captain.
9 Before se lli ng sail for Ge noa, her owner had
re pa ired t he Mary Celeste.
10 Thi s hel ped to ex plain why she had survived
for so long in t he wint ry Atlant ic a fter th e
crew had a bandoned shi p.
Unit 7, page 6S: Student B
Unit 8, page 71 : Team B
Famous facts quiz
I The next Olympic Ga mes a rc bei ng staged
. by Austra lia .
2 The tomb of Tura nka mu n was discovered
by Howard Ca rter.
3 Microsoft is owned by Bill Ga tes.
4 The telephone was inven ted by Alexande r
Gra ha rn Bel l.
5 Gravity was di scovered by Sir Isaac Newton.
Unit 9, page 81: Student B
Leon a rdo DiCaprio
I Place of bi rth : Holl ywood, CA
2 Date of birth: _
3 Eyes: _
4 Car: Silve r BMW Coupe
5 Pet : _
6 Favourite food: _
7 He love s: _
8 Favou rite actress: Meg Rya n
9 Musi c: _
Unit 1
form
I drink milk.
He drinks milk.
We dr ink milk.
They dri nk mil k.
Present simple
They don't drink mi lk.
It doesn' t dri nk milk.
Do you dr ink milk?
Does she drink milk?
The presen t simple is used to tal k about t h ings tha t happen or exist all the t ime,
not j ust a t th e I110mClll of spe ak ing. It ca n ha ve the following uses:
use example
-- -
to say something happens repeatedl y The ch ildre n a lways make thei r own
break fast.
to descri be a ge neral or pennanent situat ion He works in a ban k. She li ves on her OWll.
to ta lk a bo ut ge neral scientific truths The ea rt h goe s ro u nd the su n.
to describe present act ions in commentaries Wr ight passes the ball to Jones.
or stories
-
to talk abo ut how often we do things I go to th e superma rket every Saturday.
to give ins tr uc tions You put t he eggs in a sa ucepa n; yo u boil
them.
to ta lk about timet abl es a nd sc hedu les- Our train leaves at 10 o ' clock.
Present continuous
form
be + verb + il1g
I am leaving.
He is leaving.
They are leav ing.
I am not leaving.
She is not leaving.
We are not leaving.
Am I leavi ng?
Are you leavi ng?
Is he leav ing?
use example
to tal k about ac tions already happening at th e I'm getting dressed - I'll be down in a
mome nt of speaking moment.
to tal k about te mpora ry sit ua tions She' s working in a bar at the moment.
-
to tal k about changi ng situations Things are getting nunc and mor e expensive.
to ex press irr ita tion (wit h always) She' s always arriving late.
.
to tal k about plans a nd a rrangements- I'm having my hai r cut tomorrow.
Note
* See unit 4 on the future .
141
Grammar reference
Unit 2
Past simple
form
Regular: verb + ed
She laughed.
They didn't laugh.
Did you laugh?
use
Irregul a r: eg take/t ook, make/made, catch/caught
I took it. We made a cake.
He didn ' t take it. She didn 't make a cake.
Did th ey take it? Did you make a cake?
example
I caught it.
He didn't catch it.
Did they catch it?
---- -
10 ta lk about events which happe ned at a
parti cu lar time in th e past
to ta lk about sit ua tions in th e past
to talk about habits in the past
I sa w a great film last nigh t.
I lived in France for two years.
We went for long walks every day.
I
Note
Adverbs which we often use wit h the simple past include: at six o'clock, an 8 August /951 ,
last week, last month, last year, in /999, days, yesterday, an Monday; ago.
Present perfect simple
form
have + past part iciple
I have been 10 Spai n.
She has been to Spain .
We have been 10 Spain.
They have been 10 Spain .
use
I haven 't bee n to Spai n.
He ha sn't been to Spain .
Have you been to Spain?
Has she been 10 Spain ?
example
to tal k abo ut stat es or act ions th at sta rte d in
the past a nd co ntinue to t he present
when we ca n see th e re sult of a past act ion in
the present
to talk about repea ted ac tions in th e past whi ch
conti nue in th e present
10 ta lk about ex pe riences in our life
10 ta lk about how many times we ha ve done
something
with the superlative
Note
I' ve li ved here for twent y years .
She' s been ill since Monda y.
She hasn't woken up ye t. Look! You ' ve
made a terribl e mess in th e livin g room,
She' s taken p art in every race so fa r.
Ha ve you eve r been to France?
I've never seen a whale.
That's t he third time he' s won t he prize.
This is the best film I' ve ever seen .
142
Adverbs which we often use with t he present perfect:
yet. already, since, ever, ever since, never, still, before. this morning. this week.
Present per fect cont inuous
form
have/has + been + verb + il19
Gramma refere ce
I have bee n eat ing.
Yo u have been eat ing.
We have bee n eati ng.
They have been eating.
use
He hasn' t been eat ing,
They haven't been eati ng.
Has she been eat ing?
Have we been eat ing?
example
to emphasize the durat ion of an act ion
whe n we can sec the res ults of an action
to say (I ll ac tion is temporary
to talk about te mporary repeated act ions
to say an anion is not complete
Unit 3
I've been waiti ng for an hour.
Somebody' s been walking on th e Ilowcrbcds.
I' ve been stayi ng with a friend.
He's be en seeing a psyc hiatrist.
I've been t rying to finish this assignment,
but just can 't fini sh it.
Past perfect simple
form
had + past participle
I had eat en dinner.
You had eaten dinn er.
We had eaten dinner.
They had eaten dinner.
use
He hadn't eaten dinner.
We hadn't eaten dinner.
Had you eaten dinner?
Had they eaten dinner?
I
example
for events th at took place before ano the r
eve nt in the pas t
10 emphasize the order in which events occurred
in reponed speech
1 arri ved at th e sta tion too lat e.. an d found
th at th e train had alrea dy le ft.
He didn't go out until he ha d done all
his work.
He told us he ha d arr ived a week before.
143
Grammar reference
Past perfect continuous
form
had + been + present part iciple
I had been sleeping.
He hadn ' t been sleeping.
Had she bee n sleeping?
use
to describe a past action which continued until
a nother past ac tion look place
to explain why an action or feeling in the
past occurred
to emphasi ze that somerhing happened for a long
period of time before anot her event in the past
Note
example
She had been waiting by the phone
all night before he finall y called .
I was tired; I had been working all da y.
War suddenl y broke out in a co untry where..
unt il then, the people h ad been living
peacefully for hundreds of yea rs. I
The past perfect cont inuous is often used wit h adverbs such as for and since.
Past continuous
form
was/were + verb + ill!!
I was travelling.
He was trave lling.
We were travelling.
The y were (ravelling.
use
He wasn't trave lling.
The y weren' t travelli ng.
Was she travelling?
Were you (rave lling?
example
144
to describe actions in progress in the pa st
10 describe a n action in progress in the pa st
whi ch is interrupted by another action
10 emphasize th at an event in the past wa s
temporary
to give descriptions
10 talk about something you planned 10 happen
but did that not happen
to tal k about two or more actions going on at
the sa me time in the past
She was busy cleaning the house yesterday.
He was watching TV when the doorbell rang,
We were staying on a small isla nd at the time.
The couple were standing on the balcony,
looking at th e beaut iful night sky.
We were going 10 go 10 lIaly but we had
to cancel the trip.
While John was putting up the tent .
Bill was frying the sausages .
am ar fere ce
Unit 4
Future (1): future simple, going to, present continuous, present simple
form
will. going to. present co ntin uous, present simple
II will rain .
It will not /won't rain .
Will it rain?
It 's going to ra in .
11 isn ' t going 10 rain.
Is it goi ng lO ra in?
For present simple a nd co ntin uous sec Gra mmar refe re nce pa ge 141 .
use example
future facts
pred icti ons
de cision ta ken at th e time of speaking
int entions
somet hing in the future for which we ha ve
evidence no w
Ch ristmas will be 011 a Sa t u rday thi s yea r.
II will be a difficult le st 10 pa ss.
I' ll do lite shoppi ng.
I' m going to go 10 ll al y liti s su mme r.
Yes . he's going to sco re!
to talk about plans and arrangemen ts
to tal k about timet ables and sched ules
We ' re setting off at 6 am.
The tra in gets in a t <J pm.
Unit 5
I will be finishing.
You will not /won 't be finish ing.
Will we be fini shi ng?
She will have been fini shing.
He will no t /won't ha ve been fini shing.
Will they have bee n finish ing?
Future (2): future perfect simple, future perfect continuous, future continuous
form
will have + past parti ciple
will have been + present participle
will be + present parti ciple
I will ha ve finished.
He will not/won 't have finished.
Will we have fini shed ?
use example
an act ion t hat will he completed by a pa rti cul ar
t ime in th e futu re
They will have arri ved tomorrow night.
a n action that will be in progress up to
a parti cul ar time ill th e future
all actio n th at is ex pect ed 10 happen at so me
point in the fut u re
all 6 May I will have been working here [or
Iwell Iy ye a rs.
Thi s lime next week we ' ll be sa i li ng to
Mykonos.
145
If + present simple/ present cont inuous
Iut lir e simple/ prese nt conti nuou s/ rn odal/irn perat ive
Grammar reference
Unit 6
Conditionals (1): first and second conditionals
First condit ional
f orm
Conditional cla use :
Main cla use:
Unless = if 1I0t
If you leave now, you will/a re goi ng IO/ might catch the train,
If you don' t leave now, you will/arc going to /might mi ss the tr ain.
Unless you leave now, you will/a rc goi ng to / might mi ss the tr ain.
If you leave now, will / a rc you going to / might you catc h t he tra in ?
use
to ta lk about a possible eve nt in th e future
Second conditional
example
If we play well, we' ll win.
If yo u a re comi ng to the part y, bring a friend.
If we' ve fi nished by then. we can go out .
Unless yo u p ractise ha rd, yo u' ll never pla y
t he guitar well.
Unless you a re in tending to IeJ VC now, we
are goi ng to mi ss th e boat.
form
Conditional clause:
Mai n clause:
If + past simplc/ iwr
modal + infi nitive wit hou t to
146
If she cycled 10 work , she wou ld feel better.
If she didn' t cycle to wor k, she would feel bett er.
If she cycled 10 work , wou ld she feel bet ter?
use
to ta lk about (I ll un likel y event in t he present
or future
to talk about a n imagina ry event
to give adv ice
eVfII if for emphasis
example
If I h ad more time, I'd come with you.
If I w alked to school, I'd be late.
If I were rich , I'd go a nd live in t he Bahamas.
If you p ractised th e guita r more, yo u might
improve.
Even if I saw him I wouldn 't speak to him.
Grammar reference
Unit 7
Conditionals (2): third conditional , wishes and regrets
Third conditional
form
Conditiona l clause: Ift I] only + past pe rfect simple
Main clause: would have + pas t partici ple
If she had cycled to work , she would have felt belief.
If she hadn't cycled to work , she wou ld have felt belief.
If she had cycled to work, would she have felt bell er ?
use
to specula te abo ut different outco mes for things
whi ch happened or di dn' t happen in the past
to ex press wish es and regrets
Wishes and regrets
form
wish + past simple
wish + was/were
wish + could + in fin it ive wit h out to
wish + past perfect
wish + would + infini tive wit hout to
use
regrets abo ut a present sit uat ion
wishes about present or futu re actions
regret s about the past
to express irritat ion about a pr esent situation
Note
example
If she had reali zed he was lonel y she would
have called him.
If you hadn't stayed out so late yo u
wouldn't have got into trouble.
If t had woken up earl ier I would h ave had
lime for br eak fast.
If only you had told me you were coming I
would have prepared you a nice meal!
example
I wish I had a bicycle.
I wish I were on holiday now.
I wish we could go 10 the circus.
I wi sh I had taken your advice.
I wish you wouldn't phone me at work.
Wishes can refer to situat ions in the past. present or fut ure.
We can use wish in fi xed phrases like: I wish you a Merry ChristmQs.
147
Grammar efe e ce
Unit 8
The pa ssive
form
be + pa st parti ciple
The pa ssive voice is formed by making th e object of the active
phrase into the subject of the new ph rase.
form
present simple
past simple
moda I ve rbs
present continuo us
pa st cont inuous
present perfect
past perf ect
modal perfect
Imp er sonal
use
to describe a process
when we wa nt to focus on th e action no t Oil
the person who did it
when we don 't wa nt to identify the agent
when we do not know who did the action
Note
example
The y make these boo ts in Ital y.
-> These boots are made in Ital y.
They bought th ese goods in France.
- . These goods were bought in Fra nce.
She couldn't sec the ca r from th e office.
- , The car co uld not be seen from the office.
They arc changing th e rules of the ga me.
-> The rules of the game are being cha nged .
The damage was being repaired.
The damage was being repaired,
He's lost th e keys. - . The keys have been lost.
The y had al read y bu ilt the Pyramids.
-> The Pyrami ds had already been built.
The y mig ht have beaten United.
- , United might have been beaten.
They say he stoic the money.
- t He is sa id to have sto len th e money.
example
A ba no ffi pie is made wit h bana nas
a nd loffee.
The garage ran g to say your car has been
repaired.
There' s been an accident - coffee got s p ilt
on the carpel.
The car was stolen from outside th e house.
148
We use by + agent when we want to emphasi ze t he agent of an action, eg:
TheAmericas were discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
Unit 9
Reported speech
direct speech
present simpl e
My mother is cl lawyer.
present continuous
I' m h a ving my ha ir cut today.
past si m ple
I started out as cl teacher.
prese nt pe rfect simple
I've passed my driving te st.
present perfect conti nuous
I've been h a ving lessons for a yea r.
modal verbs con/will/must
Ca n you help me do my homework?
I'll hel p you do your homework.
You m ust do yo ur homework.
yes/no question
Do yo u want some more ca ke?
yes/no question
Are yo u co m ing shopping this afte rnoon?
modal verb
Let 's go to the beach .
wh- question
What 's you r favou rit e spo rt ?
wh- question
Wh ere do yo u li ve?
im pe r ative
Have cl rest.
negative imperative
Don' t ma ke so much noise.
Grammar reference
reported speech
past simple
He sa id hi s mother was cl la wye r.
past continuous
He sa id he was having his hair cut t hat day.
past perfect simple
He sa id he had st arted out as a leach e r.
past perfect simple
He sa id he had passed hi s driving tes t.
past perfect continuous
He sa id he had been ha ving lessons for a yea r.
could/would/hod to
She asked him if he co u ld hel p her do her
homewo rk.
She sa id she would help hi m do his homework.
The teache r told him he had 10 do hi s homework.
/f + word order of a statement
She as ked him if he w a nted mo re cake.
If + word order of a statement
She as ked if/whether she was going shoppi ng
that after noon.
She suggested going to the beach .
She suggested they go to the bea ch.
She suggested they w ent 10 t he beach.
She suggested they s ho u ld go to th e bea ch .
What + word order of a statement
I asked him what his fa vourite sport was .
Where + word order of a statement
Th ey as ked her where she li ve d.
With to + infinitive
She advised /told him to ha ve a rest .
Not + to + infinitive
He told them not to make so much noi se.
149
Grammar reference
Reported speech continued ...
The ve rb form in reported speech changes when the re po rt is mad e some time
after th e o rigina l sta tement. Wc do not a lways make th ese cha ng es when:
we a rc re po rt ing immedi at el y a fter
something has been said
we arc reporting a scie ntific fact
we want to say somet hing is still true
we arc reporting moda l verbs
11/ight/could/ would/should/ ouqh/ /0
Time and place expressions
direct speech
I today
now
It 's a lovel y da y today
-> Ma ry says it 's a lovely day today.
Th e ea rt h goes round the sun, the teacher said. I
-> Our teacher to ld us the eart h goes round the sun.
I' m a teacher. -> He said he ' s a teacher.
I won't pr omise to come. bu t I m ight.
-> He wouldn' t promi se to come to the part y, but he
said th at he might.
reported speech
that day
th en
t hi s
her e
ago
tomorrow
yesterda y
last night
next week
ne xt Wednesday
thi s morn ing
Reporting verbs
form verbs
-
-
th at
th ere
before/previously
the ne xt day/t he following day
the day before/ t he previous da y
th e nigh t before/ th e pr evious ni ght
th e following week/t he we ek after (that)
th e following Wednesday
th at morning
example
ve rb + obj ect + in finitive
wit h /0
as k advise beg encou rage inv ite
te ll re mind WJfl1
She advised m e t o go to th e do ctor.
ve rb + that
verb + object + that
verb + illg
Note
-
say claim admit pro mi se deny
tell remind wa rn
deny admi t suggest
She cl aimed t hat she was innocent.
She reminded us that we had
a n appointment.
I She suggest ed going to th e cin ema.
150
See also verbs followed by preposition + ing below.
Grammar reference
Unit 10
Gerunds and infinitives
form
verb + ;119, ver b + infinitive with to, verb + infiniti ve without to
I enjny walking. I want to walk. I wou ld rather walk .
They don 't enjoy walking. Wc don ' t want 10 wa lk. They would rather walk.
Do Ihey enjoy walk ing? Do you want to walk? Would you rathe r walk?
fo rm
ve rb + inf]
I verbs
e njoy dislike don' t mind avoi d
can't bear can ' t hel p practise
pUI off risk suggest ca n 't stand
suggest give up keep (o n) miss
postpone
example
She enjoys si ngin g.
He keeps la ughing.
I
i
verb + infiniti ve with to
ve rb + ing or ve rb +
infiniti ve w it h 10 with
no or littl e dillcrcnce in
meaning
ve rb + jng or verb +
infinitive with to wi t h
significa nt ch ange o f
meaning
verb + infin itive without to
ve rb + q uestion words
what, where, how, when
+ (0 infinit i ve
verb + preposition + ing
afford decide ag ree a rra nge
can ' t wai l decide ex pect hope
offer lea rn manage pl an pre tend
promise ref use see m threat en wa nt
begin sta rt cont inue like hat e
love prefer
stop re me mbe r tr y
make lel would rat her had better
modal verbs
apologize for insist on succ eed in
look forward to accuse (someone) of
She ca n' t afford to go 10 Thail and.
She decided to go 10 Wigan
instead.
He started to tell a story.
He started telling a
sto ry.
I remembered telling him his
sister phoned.
I remembered to tell him hi s
siste r phoned .
He made us work hard.
You had better find a job.
She did n 't know what to say.
I didn ' t know where to go.
She doesn ' t know how to speak
Ital ian .
They didn 't know when to st a rt
writ i ng.
They apologized for being laic .
Shc insisted on coming wit h us.
He succeeded in winning the
fi rst pri ze.
Wc look forward to hearing
from you.
They accused him of stealing
the money.
151
Grammar reference
Unit 11
Comparative and superlative adject ives
adjective
I -syllable and
2-syllable adjectives
Most 2-syllab le
adject ives a nd
adject ives with 3
or more syllables
Irregular comparatives
comparative
adjecti ve + -er + than
+ -est
more + adjective + than
as + adj + as 10 compare
two people or thi ngs
110 t so+ ad] + as to compare
two or more things
the + adj + -er + the +
adj + -er 10 say two
things change.
superlative
the + adject ive
in the class.
{he + most +
adjective
examples
Fra nce is bigge r t han
Port ugal.
Astcrix is braver t ha n
Ohclix,
She is t he cleverest pu pil
Th e sky is blu est in Greece.
Trains arc m ore ex pe ns ive
than buses.
Histo ry is the most
int erestin g subject of all.
Thi s restaurant is as good
as the other OIlC.
She isn' t as cleve r a s
her siste r.
New York i sn' t so far
a s Sydney.
The olde r he gets the
more patient he becomes.
adjective
good
bad
far
mu ch /many
lit t le
old
comparative
bell er
worse
furt he r
more
less
i older/ elde r
superlative
best
wo rst
furt hest
most
least
older/el dest
1S2
Note
2-syllable adjectives ending in -y usually change to -ier and -iest: happy - . happier - . happiest.
Adjectives ending in -e usually change to -r and -st; blue bluer bluest .
l -syllable adjec tives which have a vowel followed by a co nso nant at the end of the wo rd. usually do uble the co nsonant
befo re -er or -est: big - bigger biggest.
Unit 12
Relative clauses
Grammar reference
,
example pronoun I
use
who/tha t people People who only tal k about thems elves are bori ng.
which/that t hi ngs The film which we saw wa s on a t t he Odeon.
where places That 's the village where I'd like to retire.
when time That wa s a time when we fou nd it hard to ma ke e nds meet.
why reasons I do n' t kn ow why he beh aved like th at.
whose possessive of who Tha t ' s the pa rt y whose lead er has j ust resign ed.
Defining clauses
use example
give essential informat ion ab out th e person or The ma n wit h whom you must make contact
thing being refe rred to is ca lled la mes Bond.
.
C0 I11I1laS a re never used to ma rk a defi ning clause *The ma n, wi th whom you must mak e contact,
is called lames Bond.
that ca n be used to refer to both people and th ings I ca n' t sta nd peo ple who/ that think th ey
know eve rything.
I like to we ar shoes which/that fee l
comforta ble.
when the rela ti ve pronoun is th e object of th e I spoke to the boy (w ho ) I met at the party
defin ing clause, we ca n miss it OU l yesterday.
the relati ve possessive pronoun whose is used He's the man whose shirt always mat ches
to show possession hi s lie.
Non-defining clauses
use
give ex t ra in forma tion
(we use commas in non-defini ng cla uses)
we cannot miss out th e relative pro nou n
whi ch is used to ref er to th ings; we ca nnot
use that
Note
* indicates a sentence which is wrong.
example
My new neighbour. who 1 met for the first
ti me toda y, is very nice.
*His broth er, is an actor, lives in Los Angele s.
* My car, that I call Fanny, is qui te old now.
153
Grammar reference
Unit 13
Modal verbs (1)
form
moda l + in fini ti ve wit ho ut to
can, could, may, might, shall, should, ought to, must, have to
I
I can swim.
He ca n't swim.
Can they swim?
I must swi m.
She mu sm't swim.
Mlist we swim?
use
You should swim.
She shouldn' t swim,
Should we swim?
I have to swim.
You don't have to swim.
Do we have to swim?
example
154
to talk about possible events in the pre sent or
future
to make gues ses about things we are sure arc
true/ not t r ue in th e present o r fu ture
to talk about abilit y/ ina bility in th e present
or future
to give advi ce
to talk about permission in the present or future
to ta lk about obligation in t he prese nt or future
to tal k abo ut lack 01obligation in th e present
or future
(0 talk abou t prohibit ion in t he present o r futu re
The weath er can get very cold here in the
wi nter.
That ma y/might/could be John at the door.
It may/cou ld rain so take your coat.
She m ust be French with a name like Dupont.
She ca n' t be Frenc h with a name like Joncs.
She ca n/ca n 't spea k Fren ch .
I cou ld speak Frenc h if I too k lessons.
I cou ldn' t speak French even if I too k lessons,
You shou ld n't go out without an umbrella .
Ca n / Co u ld I go to the part y on Saturday?
I h ave to leave now.
We have to sit for th e exam.
You ought t o/ should/must tell the tr ut h.
Yo u d on't have t o come if you don 't w ant t o ,
You sh ou ld n 't/ m ust n' t lie.
Grammar reference
Unit 14
Modal verbs (2): modal perfect
form
mod al + prese nt perfect simple
She must have see n him.
They can' t have seen him.
Shou ld I have see n him?
use
to make guesses about the pa st when we arc sure
something happened/didn 't happen
to talk about possible eve nts in the pa st
to tal k about obligation in the past
to talk about lack of obligation in the past
I to talk about prohibition in the pa st
Unit 15
example
She can' t have gone to London on her OWIl .
She must have gone to Lond on with a frie nd.
She cou ld have caught the tra in.
He m ight have forgotten hi s
appointme nt.
You ought t o / sho ul d ha ve told th e trut h,
J ha d to lea ve at 6 o'clock.
We didn' t have to wait lon g for th e bus.
You sh ould n' t h a ve told so many lies.
Clauses of purpose and reason
form
because + subject + verb
because of + noun
in order + infiniti ve with to
in order1101 + infini tive with to
meaning
the reason for somet hing
the purpose
soas + infiniti ve with to
soas 1101 + infinitive with to
so (that) + modal verb
example
He wa s tired because he overslept.
He wa s late because of the snow.
She put her coat on in order to keep warm.
She put her coat on in o rder n ot to fed cold.
She put her coat on so as to ke ep warm.
She put her coat on so as n ot to feel cold.
She put he r glasses on so (t hat) she co uld
sec bett er.
155
Grammar reference
Connectors
connector meaning
however contrast
althouqh contrast
(even) thouql: contrast
in spice of contrast
despite contrast
after sequence
afterwards seq uence
before sequence
,
Questions
example
I 1 t huuglu I wa s late. However, I got there first.
Alt hough I thought I wa s late, I got there first.
Even though it was raining, we went for a siroll .
In s p it e of the rain, we went for a st roll .
Despite the ra in, we went for a stroll .
After breakfast , I had a shower. After I had breakfast. I had
a shower. After having 111)' breakfast. I had a shower.
I had breakfast. Afterwards, I had a shower.
Before breakfast, I bad a shower. Before I had breakfast,
I had a shower. Before having breakfast, I had a shower.
question word use
I
example
who qu estions about th e subject Who wrote thi s book ? Tolstoy did .
whac What caused the accide nt? The bad weat he r did .
who que stions about th e object Who does he wo rk for ? He wo rks for a car firm.
what What did she see? She saw a tiger.
where quest ions abo ut place Where did yo u grow up? I grew up in the USA.
when qu estions about time When did you get here? 1got here at ei ght.
Yes/No questions
To make Yesl No questions. when there is an auxiliary or modal verb
in the statement we change th e order of the subject and the verb:
statement
She is going out.
She ha s arrived.
She can sing well.
She wi ll have finished soon.
She had been 10 Rome before.
She had been wo rki ng all day.
question
Is she going out ?
Has she arrived?
Can she sing well ?
Will she have fini sh ed soon?
Had she been 10 Rome before?
Had she been working all da y?
Whe n th e statement has a ma in ve rb, we use th e auxi liary do/did to Ior m quest ions.
156
She lives in her own flat.
She lived in her own flat.
Does she live in her own flat?
Did she live in he r own flat ?
break down SlOP working. When a machine
or a car breaks down it stops working.
The car broke down 011 the motorway.
If you have a breakdown when you are
travelling in the car, the car stops working.
break into burgle. If someone breaks into a
building th ey get in by force in order to steal. A
thief broke intothe house and stole all their je wels.
break out start (for war, disease ). If something
bad breaks o u t it starts suddenly. The war broke
out when villaqes near the border were attacked.
break out o f escape from prison. If someone
breaks o u t of prison th ey esca pe. Th ree
criminals broke out oJ prison last niqht, kiIIillH
a HlIard.
break up sepa rate from a boy/girlfri end. If a
marriage or clos e relationship breaks up it
ends. She kept havill!1 disaqreements with Peter
so they decided 10 break Ill'.
bring up help children grow. Wh en yo u bring
up a child yo u look alte r it unt il it is grown up .
I was born ill London bill I was brouqht Ill' by my
qmndparents ill Canada. Sec grow up.
carry on con tinue . If you carry on wit h an
activity yo u continue wi th it. He carried 011
talkiiu; ill spite of the noise. Go on has a similar
meaning.
ca tch on become popu lar. If something catches
on it becomes popular. The Ilewfashion ill skirts
cauqht 0 11 very quickly.
catch lip to come closer, to reach someone from
behind. If you ca t ch up with someone who is
in front o f you yo u reach them by wa lking
faster. I 'll walk 011 ahead and yOIl Cll ll catch Ill' with
me later.
catch up also means to reach the same standard
as 50111('Onc else. Our economy is catching 111' with
that of the other count ries in the European Union.
The opposite is to Jail behind (someone else) .
cut down (on) red uce . If you cut down on
something you redu ce the amount. I've cut
down 011 my smokinq. You 'll have to cut down
011 the money yOIl spend.
cu t up cut into littl e pieces. If you cut
something up you cut into sma ll pieces.
CIIt Ill' the meat into [our or Jive pieces.
drink to wi sh someone success and have an
alcoholic drink. If you drink to someone' s
health or success you drink an alcoholi c drink
and wish them success or good health.
Let's drink to the happy couple!
drink up finish what you a rc drinking. If you
drink up you finish a dr ink . Come 0 11, drink up,
it's time to HO.
fall down collapse. If a tree or a house falls
down it falls 10 th e ground. The house was empty
[or yell/Cl' - ill the end, it Jell down.
get away man age to leave a place . If yo u get
away from somewhere you man age to leave
that place. Sorry I'm late but my boss wanted me
to work late and I couldn 'I get away.
get hack return . If you get back 10 a place yo u
return there. We Hot back [tom the party just aft er
midniqht. The opposi te is set off.
get back have something returned. If yo u get
somet hing back you arc given something which
you used to have. Did you Het that money back that
yOIl lent Peter?
get by have enough money 10 bu y the things
you need. If you get by you manage to
continue with your way of life although yo u
do not have much money, She doesn't earn much,
bill sireHets by .
get on with have a good rel ationship with. If
you get on with somebody you like them and
have a friendly relationship with them. She Hets
011 very well with all the qirls ill her class, except for
Debbie.
get on with cont inue with. If you get on with
something you continue doing it. I can' t talk la
yOIl 1I0W - 1have to Het on with my work.
get over recover from an illn ess. If you get
over an illness or other unpleasant ex perience,
you no longer have it and you feel be tter. I still
ha ven ' I Hot aver the shock oJJailing lire exam.
157
158
Phrasal verb dictionary
give up to stop doing something. If you give up
something you decide to stop doi ng it .
I've given up smoking.
go ahead to start doing something. Whcn
someone goes ahead with some thing the y
have planned to do th ey start do ing it.
We decided togo ahead with our holiday plans
in spite of the bad weather.
go by pass (ti me) . When time goes by it pa sses.
Time goes by really slowly when you 're waiting for
the bus in the rain.
go off no longer like somet hing . If you go off
someth ing O[ somebody you no longer like
th em. l used to like tea but I 've gone off it now.
go on happen. occur. If some thing goes on it
takes place or happens. There was a concertgoing
on in the main square and there were hundreds of
people there.
go through ex pe rience some th ing di fficult. If
you go though an unpleasant experien ce you
ex pe rience a pa inful or di fficult time, The team
has been through some difficult times but this season
has been very successful so f ar.
go through with complete. If you go t hrough
with some thing, yo u complete somet hing you
intended to do , even if it is unplea sant.
He went through with his decision to separate
from his girlfriend even though it was painful.
grow up become an adu lt. If you grow up you
develop from be ing a child and you become an
ad ult . I grew up in Birmingham, though I was born
in London.
hang around If you hang around somewhere
you spend a lot of time in that place, olt cn
wit hout ha ving anything in pa rti cul a r to do. The
kids were hangi ng around on the corner of the street.
hold on wa il. If you want someone to hold on
you want th em to wait for a short time. If you
hold on a moment, I'll see if Rosa '5 in her room.
Hang on means smn ething similar but is
more in formal.
hold up rob . If someone holds yo u up thcy
point a gu n or knife at you and forc e you to
give them money or ot her valuable t hi ng s.
They held up the bank and got away with a million
pounds .
hold u p delay. If someone or some thing h ol d s
up an activity th ey dela y it. We were held up on
the motorway by an accident .
knock down pu ll down a build ing, demol ish a
bui lding . If someone k nocks dow n a build ing
th ey intentiona lly de stroy it . They are going to
knock that old house down to build the new road.
lo ok u p check information in a di ct ionary or
reference book. If you look up an unknown
word in a dict ionary or a piece of information in
a reference book you look there to find out
more information about it . Why don't yOIl look the
word up in the dictionary to find out what it means?
pull down demoli sh a bu ildin g. If you pull
down a bu ilding you de liberately destroy it .
They are going to pull down that old building in
order to build the new road. The opposite is to
put up a building. Knock down ha s a similar
meaning to p u ll down.
put off postpone. If you put off doing
something you de lay doing it till another ti me .
You can 't put offgoing to the dentist forever - you 'll
have to go soon.
put up build. If someone p uts up a bu ildi ng
t hey build or rai se it . They're going to put up a
new office block where the park used to be. The
opposite is knock down or pull down.
run out of ha ve no more, If you run out of
something, cg coffee, sugar, mone y or petrol ,
you have no more of it. What are we going to do if
we run out of money?
set off sta rt a journey. If you set off on a
journey you start a journey. What time do we set
off in the morning? We set off on our j ourney at six
o'clock. Set out has a similar meaning.
take after resemble. If you take after
somebody yo u look like them or behave like
them. John takes after his father while Mary takes
aft er her mother.
take away remove. If you take somet hing
away (from someone or Irorn a place) you
remove it. I took away the knife so the baby would
not cut itself The opposite is take back or give
back.
take back return. If yo u take somet hing back
to th e place from which you took it you return
it. I have to take these books back to the library, The
op posite is take away.
take off remove (clothing). If you take off
your clot he s or something you arc weari ng you
re move it. I 'm going to take off my pullover because
it's hot in here. The opposite is put on .
take off leave the gro und. If all aeroplan e
takes off it lea ves the gro und. As soon as the
aeroplane took off I started to read my book. The
noun is takeoff.
take on sta rt being responsible [or. If yo u take
on a job you agree to do it and be responsible
[or it. I only took the job on because I needed the
money.
take on accept somebody for employment. If
yo u take some one on for a job yo u agree to
give them a job. They took on a new teacher because
they had a lot more pupils.
take over become responsible in place of
somebody else, If you take over someone el se's
job you take control of it or become responsible
[or it. John has taken over the position of captain of
the basketball team.
take up require time. If somet hing t akes up
time, it use s thi s amount of tim e in order to do
somet hing. Training for basketball takes up most
of his f ree time.
turn up appear su dden ly. If someone or
somet hing turns up they appear suddenly.
We weren't expecting John to come to the meeting
but in the end he filmed up j ust as it was fin ishing.
wash down finish a meal with a dr ink. If yo u
wash food down you drink something while
you arc ea ting or when you have finis hed
eat ing. We had a lovely meal and washed it down
with a coolglass of lemonade.
Phrasal verb dictionary
159
Macmillan Education.
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Text Lu ke Pmdromou 2000
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Tilt, author would like to tha nk :
Helcn Gyde and Katy wri glu. my edit ors. for t heir sound
advice a nd hard work. Tha nks 10 my teenage boys
Mirhacl and Antony for t rying t hings out and act ing as
u nofficia l consultants. The hook is de dicated 10 bot h of
t hem. Thanks also 10 Hcrbert Puc hta for t he expression
Success comt'S in 'cans' not ' (all ' IS ' ,
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