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Gas Powered Air Conditioning

November 2010

Gas Powered Air Conditioning (GPAC)

Multi Split Systems. Compressor is driven by a gas engine rather than the usual electric motor. Reverse cycle - provide heating and cooling. Yanmar has both 2 pipe and 3 pipe models, so simultaneous heating and cooling (Heat Recovery) is possible if required. The gas engine changes revs in response to any variation in the air conditioning load. This is similar to the capability of an inverter style electric air conditioner. This means they are a Variable Refrigerant Flow system, or simply VRF. The Yanmar Outdoor units are typically quieter than similar electric air conditioners.
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Outdoor Unit Size Comparison

14kW Electric 14kW Gas

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Outdoor Unit Size Comparison

56kW Electric 56kW Gas

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Outdoor Unit Size Comparison

85kW Electric 85kW Gas

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Indoor Units
The Indoor units for GPACs are very similar to those of electric Multi Split Systems.

Cassette type

Duct type

Suspended type
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High Wall model

Product Development

In 1981, the Japanese Government sponsored the development of Gas Powered Air Conditioners to lessen their reliance on oil and flatten the demand profile for electricity. Yanmar commenced GPAC sales in Japan in 1987. In 2003, GPACs reached 50% of the mid-sized multi-split market with 40,000 units sold in that year. There is now around 750,000 GPACs in service. Yanmar has over 200,000 systems installed and holds 35% of todays market. Yanmar was established in 1912 and has a worldwide reputation for producing quality products.
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Installation examples: Hotels and Motels

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Installation examples: Hospitals

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Installation examples: Shopping Centres

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Installation examples: Office Buildings

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Installation examples: Schools & Universities

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What drives GPAC sales in Australia?

Power Available to the Site augmentation costs, no need for 3 phase Power Available Within the Site upgrade costs Environmental Outcomes Green Star, NABERS, CO2, water usage Energy Costs - gas versus electricity tariffs; peak demand charges Capital Costs - dependant upon the type of electric air con Power Reliability outage costs and back-up generator costs Plant Room Costs opportunity cost of lost lettable area

Cold Climate Performance avoids long de-icing cycles

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Fuel Cost: GPAC vs. Electric Multi Split

Mass Market Commercial Customers on Peak Tariffs: Location Victoria South Australia New South Wales Approx Cost Savings on Outdoor Unit 50% 30% 20%

Queensland South
Queensland North Western Australia

(6%) 9%

(based on 56 kW Yanmar versus 56 kW Electric market leading brands in a typical office building using typical SME tariffs as at July 2009) Actual savings need to be calculated on a case by case basis.
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Coefficient of Performance (COP)

The COP of a Gas Powered Air Conditioner cannot be directly compared to the COP of an electric air conditioner. Gas COP - Losses are Included With a GPAC, the energy conversion (from gas to engine power) occurs at the end users site. This means the losses are occurring at the end users site and are therefore included in the COP of a GPAC. Electric COP - Losses are Not Included With an electric air conditioner, the energy conversion (from gas/coal to electrical power) occurs at the power station. This means the losses are occurring at the power station and they are not included in the COP of the electric air conditioner.

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Equivalent COP and EER re Emissions

When total CO2 emissions are used in the calculation, the equivalent COP and EER of a Gas Powered Air Conditioner increases as follows: Traditional Calculation Revised calculation for VIC

Yanmar 18 kW Yanmar 85 kW 1.41 1.40

1.23 1.23

7.88 8.34

6.97 7.24

If an 85 kW electric condenser produced the same emissions as an 85 kW Yanmar in Victoria, the electric model would have a COP of 8.34

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Emissions: GPAC vs. Electric Multi Split

Based on the Australian Greenhouse Office National Greenhouse Accounts Factors November 2008 for a 56 kW Air Conditioner Outdoor Unit on Natural Gas

Melbourne Brisbane Darwin Canberra Perth

Co2 equivalent reduction for GPAC

53% 44% 38% 38% 40%



(based on 56 kW Yanmar versus 56 kW Electric market leading brands in a typical office building)
Actual savings need to be calculated on a case by case basis.
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Green Star Impact

GPAC has scored Green Star points in the following areas: Energy, due to the reduction in peak energy demand Water, due to savings from the non-use of a cooling tower Emissions, due to the reduction in Greenhouse Gas emissions

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Reliability and After Sales Service

Current engine series released in 2005. Of the 33,000 in service; o 3 engines were replaced in 2007 o 1 engine was replaced in 2008 Engines require one service every 10,000 engine hours or 5 years. Gas engine life expectancy around 30-40,000 hours. (Approx. 15-20 years for an office building) Origin stocks the complete range of spare parts recommended by Yanmar. Origin has technical back up in Australia. Yanmar engineers can be here from Japan in 24 hours.

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Gas Engine Service Network


Legend Cairns Townsville Mt Isa


Service Branches Service Dealers Service Agents

Alice Springs Emerald




Coffs Harbour

Port Lincoln Newcastle

Adelaide Perth

Mildura Canberra


Shepparton Melbourne

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Origin GPAC Sales in Australia

Around 150 GPAC systems have been installed throughout Australia over the last 2 years. Most systems have been installed to solve power problems, but some have been purchased solely on environmental grounds. Installations include offices, schools, universities, medical centres and apartment buildings. Feedback from Consultants has been extremely positive.

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Australian End User Feedback

Ray Filetti, University Engineer, University of NSW, Sydney. We have saved on electricity costs and have avoided upgrading our electricity supply, which would have been a necessary and expensive exercise if we had gone with electric units instead. Knowing that we are doing our bit for the environment by lowering our CO2 emissions is a nice bonus too.

Hamish McGlashan, Property Manager, Trinity Grammar, Melbourne. The gas powered systems have absolutely lived up to all our expectations and we could not be happier with the choice. We would certainly recommend the gas-powered system to other organisations.

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ARBS Exhibition

Sydney 2010

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Kent Town Offices Adelaide

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Kent Town Offices Condensers

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Castlereagh St Offices Sydney

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Castlereagh St Condensers

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GP Plus Medical Centre Adelaide

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Boronia Aged Care Melbourne

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North Haven Primary School Adelaide

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Wine Warehouse Barossa Valley

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Penrith Mazda Sydney

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Glanville Hall


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Ashton Apartment House Sydney

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Itex Medical Centre Adelaide

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Albert Hall Canberra

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Tea Tree Gully TAFE Adelaide

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St Pauls Terrace Offices Brisbane

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Telecom Station Vanuatu

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The Time is Right

Capital Cost Competitive with Electric Energy Savings for many Commercial Customers Greenhouse Savings for the Environment

Helps meet Sustainability Requirements for Buildings

Increasing Upward Pressure on Electricity Prices Carbon Tax/Credits likely in the future Generation and Distribution Networks under pressure High Quality Yanmar Product Backed by Origin

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