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Delta Module One Task One and Two of Paper One

acculturation Achievement test achievement test

the process by which a person integrates into a particular culture This test evaluates a learner's understanding of a specific course or study programme. designed to test what learners have learned over a week, month, term or entire course. Since they are directly related to course content, they provide feedback on the teaching-learning process and are therefore useful data for course evaluation.


The process of picking up a language without formal instruction and without a sustained conscious effort to learn the language.

Action research

A development tool for a teacher that involves observing or gathering other data about a class through interviews, case studies, and questionnaires.

action research

form of teacher-driven research. Twin goals: to improve classroom practice and to empower teachers by giving them more control over their working lives. E.g using the cycle planning--acting--observing--reflecting.

Adjacency pair

A sequence of two related utterances by two different speakers. The first utterance leads to a set of expectations about the response.

adjacency pair

two turns produced by different speakers, which are placed adjacently and where the second sentence is identified as related to the first. e.g. question/answer; complaint/denial ; offer/accept. Where there is a choice of responses, e.g. an invitation or request, one, i.e. the acceptance, requires less elaboration as it is less face-threatening - this is the preferred response. The refusal is the dispreferred sequence and requires more face-saving work.


one of five possible elements in a clause or sentence. Functions like an adverb contributes circumstantial information to the clause or sentence or comments on what is being expressed or links clause or sentence to some other component of the text. e.g. In winter (circumstantial) generally speaking (comment) it freezes. As a result (link), the pipes burst.

affix, affixation

an element that is added to a word and which changes its meaning. Can be a prefix (added to the beginning) e.g. unhappy or a suffix (added to the end) e.g. likeness.

affixation agglutinative language allophone

words formed by the combination of bound affixes and free morphemes language in which each affix carries one item of grammatical meaning

A phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language. The difference in pronunciation does not affect meaning. The different pronunciations of the same phoneme are determined by position in a word. eg /p/ in /pin/ and /spin/

Delta Module One Task One and Two of Paper One

alveolar plosive

a consonant sound made by a sudden release of air from between the tongue and the alveolar/tooth ridge. can be voiced (lenis/d/) or unvoiced (fortis/t/)

Anaphoric reference Apodosis article

A word or phrase that refers back to another word or phrase which was used earlier in a written or spoken text. The main clause in a conditional sentence. determiners that go before a noun. the two in English are the and a/am. the is a definite - . a is an indefinite -.


parts of mouth, nose or throat used to produce speech e.g. larynx, nasal cavity, alveolar ridge


the way the speaker's 'view' of an event is expressed by the verb phrase, regardless of the time of the event itself. It is concerned with the internal nature of the event -whether it has duration or not, whether it is completed or not, whether it is repetitive or not or whether it is connected to the time of speaking or not. There are two in English: perfect and progressive. E.g I have finished (present perfect) I was running (past progressive). Perfect = verb to have and past participle. Progressive = verb to be and present participle

audiolingual method

became widespread in 1950s and 60s. esp in U.S. emphasized habit formation. spoken language prioritised, accuracy a pre-condition for fluency. uses lots of pattern-practice drills.


when you can do a task without having to focus attention on it, thereby freeing up limited attentional resources for more demanding activities. Task repetition contributes to this as does the storing of language in chunks in the brain

auxiliary verb

verbs with a grammatical function, in contrast to lexical verbs. primary ones are do, be, have. Serve to express aspect and voice (i.e. active and passive)


The verbal signals given by the listener to indicate interest, attention, surprise etc. (eg really, uh-huh, yeah)


refers to ways in which listeners show they are following the conversation and ways that speakers check on the attention of their listeners. e.g. mmm; how awful!; really. Form and rate is culturally specific and if inappropriate or apparently absent can result in conversation break-down.


The positive or negative impact of a test on classroom teaching.

Delta Module One Task One and Two of Paper One

bilabial plosive catenation

A non-continuant consonant articulation where the lips are pressed together./p/ /b/ the linking of sounds together in speech, such as the grouping of phonemes into SYLLABLES, and the grouping of syllables and words through ASSIMILATION, ELISION, and JUNCTURE.


Charles Curran. Learner as member of a community. Teacher as counsellor. L tells T in L1 what s/he wants to say, T formulates it in the L2, L repeats. A conversation, which is recorded and used for focus on language, is built up in this way. Social process view of language learning.

Code mixing

Switching between two or more language within sentences and phrases - often used to show belonging and solidarity within bilingual or multilingual communities.


two words which have the same (or similar) form and meaning in two different languages. Can help teachers/learners, as their meaning is clear.

cognitive deficit cohesion

The limitations on processing information in a second language compared to in L1. The use of grammatical and lexical means to achieve connected text, either spoken or written.


Two or more words that co-occur in a language more often that would be expected by chance.

Communicative Language Teaching

Exist in strong and weak forms. 1980s. Strong form= meaning more important than form, use the language to learn the language, intelligibility key. Weak form = form is also important, balance of accuracy and fluency important, opportunities to use language meaningfully important. Free production encouraged from the beginning (vs audiolingual where learners were only allowed to repeat). Errors are part of the learning process (vs audiolingual where they are verboten)

Competency based language teaching

based on a functional and interactive perspective on the nature of language.focus on successful functioning in society. shares some features with CLT. competencies are specific and practical. Prescriptivist: prepares learners to fit into the status quo and maintain class relationships.


The attitudinal meaning of a word, which may be culturally determined, such as whether it carries a positive or negative meaning.

consequential validity construct validity content validity

The way in which the implementation of a test can affect the interpretability of test scores; the practical consequences of the introduction of a test the degree to which a measure actually assesses what it claims to assess the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

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Content word

A word which carries meaning when used alone and refers to a thing, state, quality or action.


the process by which an item becomes a different word class. eg noun to verb (water/to water)

coordinating conjunction copula verb

a conjunction (like 'and' or 'or') that connects two identically constructed grammatical constituents a verb that connects the subject to the complement. They are sometimes called linking verbs.

cotext deixis

the linguistic environment in which a word is used within a text The way language points to spatial, temporal and personal features of the context. For example, I have been here three weeks now, the referents of I, here and now cannot be identified without knowing the context.


can be personal, temporal or spatial, used to refer to immediate context. e.g you, we; now, next week, here, there.

delexical verbs

those verbs where the main meaning is shifted from the verb to the noun. The verbs most commonly used in this way are: make, give, take, have. e.g. have a bath; make the bed.

delexicalised verbs

verbs that have little meaning alone but that can be joined together with many other words, so generating a wide variety of new meanings. These have also been called 'empty' verbs. Learners often have problems with these verbs because they try to find a general meaning. eg. the get in get older

denotation determiner

the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression a grammatical unit which precedes a noun phrase and modifies the noun phrase.There are different classes which limit the noun in different ways, such as quantifiers, articles and possessives (eg some, the, her)

Diagnostic test

A test that helps the teacher and learners identify problems that they have with the language.


A classroom dictation activity where learners are required to reconstruct a short text by listening and noting down key words, which are then used as a base for reconstruction.


A situation where a language that has two forms, one a 'higher' and more prestigious form used by educated speakers in formal situations, and the other a 'lower', vernacular form used more commonly.


A one-syllable sound that is made up of two vowels. In Received Pronunciation English

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there are eight of these. direct method A method in which grammar rules are not taught / only the target language is used in the classroom / translation is avoided at all costs. There is no tolerance of error (eg Berlitz) Direct Test a test employing tasks which replicate real-life activities, e.g. role-playing a job interview, writing a letter of complaint, or reading and completing an application form discourse language functioning in its context of use; language at text level rather than sentence level. Discourse management discrete item Any unit of the grammar system that is sufficiently narrowly defined to form the focus of a lesson or exercise. eg. the present continuous, the definite article but NOT "verbs". discrete item test used when we want to know if a learner can recognise or produce a specific language item display questions Eclecticism Asked by teachers in order to find out what a learner can say in the target language. selecting techniques, activities, procedures for classroom use from a range of different methodologies/approaches. This is very typical of current practice. eg. pattern practice drills in a TBL lesson. ellipsis The leaving out of elements of a sentence because they are either unnecessary or because their sense can be worked out from the immediate context. ellipsis a form of substitution where a previously mentioned element is replaced with nothing. E.g. He feels he should be able to provide for his family but he can't [provide for his family]. (Ellipted element in square brackets.) Contributes to the contingency of conversation i.e. effect that talk is jointly constructed. Often used to align successive speakers' utterances, to indicate agreement/sympathy etc, therefore serve an important interpersonal function. Ephenthesis The process of adding vowels to make possible syllables out of impossible consonant sequences, for example /helep/ for help. face validity Used to say that a test is acceptable to a learner, in that it meets the learner's expectations of what a test should be like. Formative assessment Assessment which checks students' progress during a course. Only tests what has been taught on the course. eg Progress test The ability to produce extended written and spoken texts, for example conversations.

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A process through which an error has become a permanent feature of a learner's language use and is believed to be resistant to correction.


A questioning technique which involves asking a question, pausing and then calling on a student to answer. In this way, students maintain maximum attention.

fricative consonant

A consonant sound where the flow of air is partially constricted and released slowly. eg /f/ /s/

GrammarTranslation homograph

An approach to second language teaching characterized by the explicit teaching of grammar rules and the use of translation exercises. words written the same way, but pronounced differently, and have different meanings. eg windy day, windy road.


words which are written and pronounced the same way, but have different meanings. eg Would you _like_ a drink? Who do you look _like_?


words which are written differently, and have different meanings, but pronounced the same. eg sew, so


Describes the relationship between words represented by the formula X is a type of Y. eg banana to fruit.


A variety of a language unique to an individual. It is manifested by patterns of vocabulary or idiom selection (the individual's lexicon), grammar, or pronunciations that are unique to the individual.


an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up. eg. to make ends meet


The process of working out rules on the basis of examples. Also called discovery learning.

instrusive /j/

When a word begins with a vowel sound, it links with the word before. This sound is inserted between flatter vowels eg. a free evening.

interference Interlanguage

The negative influence of one language whilst learning another language. An emerging linguistic system that has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) who has not become fully proficient yet but is approximating the target language.

intransitive verb intrusive /w/

a verb (or verb construction) that does not take an object When a word begins with a vowel sound, it links with the word before. This sound is inserted between two rounded vowels, for example between : you are / you eat. It can also occur within a word, such as cooperate.

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Lexical approach

Michael Lewis a major proponent. Lexis is at the centre of language learning, not grammar. Focus on chunks of language as essential for fluency. Collocations must be taught. Necessary to encounter new language on several occasions, to notice chunks/collocations. But noticing insufficient. Uses corpora/concordances - learner as discourse analysts.

Lexicon meronym Metalanguage

The vocabulary of a language. a whole-part relationship where X is a part of Y. eg wheel to car. The language used to describe, analyse or explain another language including, for example, grammatical terms and rules of syntax.

minimal pair

Two words that are identical except for one sound, revealing which phonemes are semantically significant

modal auxiliary verb modal verbs/modality

Auxiliary verb which expresses the attitude / modifies the meaning of the main verb in a sentence. They do not conjugate / inflect like 'normal' verbs. eg might/can Used to indicate ones attitude or judgement towards the message at hand. Often used with an interpersonal function in conversation - to soften one's language and avoid any loss of face in either speaker or listener.


The lexical and grammatical ways used by speakers to express their attitude to what they're saying. For example: Maybe Sarah is a chef. (lexical _______: adverb)

Non-gradable adjectives notional syllabus

Adjectives that cannot be expressed in degrees and so cannot be graded.

A syllabus that is organised according to general areas of meaning that are used in most grammars, such as frequency, location, duration and possibility.

Nuclear stress

The place in an utterance where the major pitch movement begins, marking the focal point of the message.

Order of acquisition parallelism

The order in which grammar/language items are thought to be acquired.

phrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other, to aid grammatical cohesion


The placing of clauses or phrases one after another, without words to indicate coordination or subordination, as in Tell me, how are you


the process of analyzing a text to determine its grammatical structure with respect to a given formal grammar. Also known as syntactic analysis.

phatic language

Language whose purpose is to smooth the conduct of social relations. It has an

Delta Module One Task One and Two of Paper One

interpersonal function. Phatic speech Words or phrases that have a social function and are not meant literally. For example, "You're welcome" after hearing thank you doesn't literally mean the hearer is welcome. phone an unanalyzed sound of a language. It is the smallest identifiable unit found in a stream of speech that is able to be transcribed with an IPA symbol. phoneme One of the distinctive sounds of a particular language. It cannot be replaced with another sound without causing a change in meaning. phonology The study of a sound system of a particular language, which describes the abstract system that allows the speakers of a language to distinguish meaning from mere verbal noise. phrasal verb an English verb followed by one or more particles where the combination behaves as a syntactic and semantic unit Polyseme A word or phrase with different, but related senses. eg. a person's foot, and the foot of the stairs (both relate to the base of something). polysemy Pragmatic competence prescriptive discourse Any discourse that promotes what should be thought, spoken, or done. It is discourse about what ought to be the case rather than descriptive discourse about what is the case. eg You should eat more fresh fruit. priming The process by which a word gathers particular associations through repeated encounters. Principled eclecticism process writing The use of various teaching styles in a discriminating manner as required by learner needs and styles, favoured by contemporary course book writers. An approach to writing where learners are encouraged to brainstorm, plan, draft, redraft, review, and "publish" their written work. pro-drop A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are in some sense pragmatically inferable. The phenomenon of "pronoun-dropping" is also commonly referred to in linguistics as zero or null anaphora. English is considered a non-pro-drop language. Nonetheless, subject pronouns are almost always dropped in commands (e.g., Come here); and in informal speech, pronouns and other words, especially copulas and auxiliaries, may sometimes be dropped, especially from the beginnings of sentences: prosodic features The stress, rhythm, and intonation along with tempo, loudness and voice quality of speech. This refers to the case where one word has more than one related meaning. The ability to use language in a contextually appropriate fashion.

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Real objects used as teaching aids to make learning more natural. Includes items such as tickets, pictures, clothes, etc.


Approximately 50% of all items in a spoken English utterance are not absolutely vital in order to achieve communication.

Register sentence silent period

The language appropriate to particular types of situations. The largest purely grammatical unit in a language. This refers to the fact that children learning their first language go through a lengthy period simply listening before they say their first words.

Silent Way

Caleb Gattegno; learner as problem solver; uses cuisenaire rods and charts; teacher silent as much as possible, uses rods and charts to elicit language from learners.

Situational Language Teaching

1950s Britain, based on work of applied linguists. Vocabulary: 2000 most frequent words prioritised. Grammar: sentence patterns, substitution tables used. Material taught orally before written form is met. Grammar graded and met from simple to complex. New language and points met and practiced situationally i.e. using concrete objects, images, actions, gestures, realia.

Structural syllabus

A syllabus which is based around a series of grammatical structures, which are sequenced according to assumed level of complexity.

subjective test Substitution

A test which requires the markers to evaluate and not just to follow a mark sheet. The replacing of a noun phrase or a clause by a single word in order to avoid repetition or to make a text more cohesive.


Georgi Losanov; derived from suggestology; music and rhythm central; teacherstudent relationship is like parent-child relationship; imitation question-answer and role play are common; dramatize/emotionalise language (in the text) to make it more memorable, during the concert/seance session. Baroque music.


a term for an 'umbrella' item of lexis which subsumes a range of more specific items, e.g. fruit in relation to apple, orange, pear


the sound of the whole utterance. Important for receptive fluency. What happens at word boundaries.

TALO Task-Based Teaching

Text as a Linguistic Object a teaching approach based on the use of communicative and interactive tasks as the central units for the planning and delivery of instruction. Such tasks are said to provide an effective basis for language learning since they: a involve meaningful communication and interaction, and b negotiation c enable the learners to acquire

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grammar as a result of engaging in authentic language use. TASP Tautology Text as a Stimulus for Production When two synonyms are placed consecutively or very close together for effect. eg. the reason why TAVI TBL Text as a Vehicle for Information High on cognitive processing/problem-solving; promotes interaction/negotiation of meaning; learners learn language through doing meaningful tasks using it; uses emergent language; focus on form is on emergent language; output leads to noticing gaps in knowledge. teachable moments sensitive periods when conditions are optimal for integration of previous knowledge and the accomplishment of new developmental task with assistance. tenses a grammatical category which is used to indicate the time at which an action happens by changing the form of the finite verb. English has two: past and present, e.g. he walked and he walks The Silent Way a METHOD of foreign-language teaching developed by Gattegno which makes use of gesture, mime, visual aids, wall charts, and in particular Cuisinire rods (wooden sticks of different lengths and colours) that the teacher uses to help the students to talk. The method takes its name from the relative silence of the teacher using these techniques.( Longmans dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics p486) TPR James Asher; claimed to reflect child first language acquisition; directed to right-brain learning: right hemisphere of brain must be activated sufficiently for left hand side (which can process language for production) to be triggered. L2 learner to internalise a cognitive map of the language through listening. Listening to be accompanied by actions. transitive verb Universal Grammar a verb (or verb construction) that requires an object in order to be grammatical The theory which claims that every speaker of a language knows a set of principles which apply to all languages and also a set of parameters that can vary from one language to another, but only within set limits. uptake What learners report to have learnt from a language lesson. Typically this does not match what the teacher intended to teach. Utterance Utterance meaning a complete unit of talk, bounded by the speaker's silence. The meaning of something that is said, including the words used, the speaker's tone and posture and other contextual considerations.

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whole language 1980s, group of U.S. educators. Humanistic school of thought. Knowledge is socially constructed rather than received. Use of literature and process writing. Portfolios. Such activities not incidental but part of overall philosophy of language learning = main difference between this and CLT. word family A group of words which share the same root but have different affixes, as in care, careful, careless, carefree, uncaring, carer. fossilisation Test-Teach-Test The premature stabilisation of a learner's interlanguage A lesson design in which learners first perform a task, which the teacher uses to assess learners' specific needs. They are then taught whatever they need in order to re-do the task more effectively.

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