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e-Learning English, Grammar Review, Level 5, A-Z

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Its important to understand these grammatical concepts: A verb describes an action or state. It usually goes after the subject: th Jack works on the 5 floor We dont understand this An infinitive is the basic/root form of the verb. For example: (to) be, (to) do, (to) take, (to) win, etc.: To be or not to be? I cant do this A gerund is the -ing form of the verb: I hate flying Thank you for listening A subject is the thing or person that goes before a verb: The boy needs help We walk to work An object is a thing or person that goes after the verb: He loves them very much She wants more money A noun is a thing or person. It usually goes before a verb: These plates are dirty! That man lives in London A pronoun substitutes a noun: Give me the books -> Give me them Its her key -> Its hers An adjective describes something or somebody It goes before a noun: The blue pens are mine Hes a very stupid man

An adverb describes how? how much? when? where? etc. It goes after a verb, but before a noun: He sings beautifully Its an incredibly cheap watch A preposition describes position, direction, relation, etc. It usually goes before a noun, pronoun or gerund: Thanks for the biscuits Give it to him Im tired of studying

54423 Adjective Order

In English, we often use more than one adjective before a noun. Example: He's a clever old man. Shes wearing an old blue nylon blouse. Although there is an element of flexibility involved, we usually put adjectives in the following order:

We can put commas between adjectives, particularly if the adjectives are sending out a similar message.: Example: a boring, time-consuming, repetitive task. We can put 'and' between the final two adjectives in a list depending on whether the list comes after a verb or is followed by a noun:

Example He was tall, dark and handsome. (after a verb) A tall, tall , dark, handsome man. (after a noun) 51620 Alternative Forms of ALTHOUGH - 51624 Although she is intelligent, she is rather immature.

As and though can be used after an adjective or adverb . They both mean "although" and suggest an emphatic contrast. Be careful with the word order: Adjective/Adverb + as/though + clause Intelligent though she is, she is rather immature. Intelligent as she is, she is rather immature. Although they played well, I don't think they will classify. Well though they played, I don't think they will classify. Well as they played, I don't think they will classify.

50725 AS IF & AS THOUGH

AS IF and AS THOUGH are synonyms. Both AS IF and AS THOUGH are used to say what seems to be true or happening Look at the following examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. It looks as if its going to snow. She behaved as though she was in charge He looks as if hes going to faint. She looks as though she wants to speak to you.

50726 AS IF & AS THOUGH

Both EVEN IF and EVEN THOUGH introduce a contrast with the rest of the sentence . EVEN IF and EVEN THOUGH are NOT interchangeable. EVEN THOUGH is an emphatic alternative for ALTHOUGH. Look at the following examples: 1. Even if I win the lottery, Ill go on working 2. Even though Id been there before, I got lost a couple of times.

52601 AS IF & AS THOUGH

See 50725

50414 AS vs LIKE

As and like are used in a number of different ways and can be different parts of speech. 'as' and 'like' - prepositions We use as to refer to something or someone's appearance, role or function: Before I became a vet I worked as a butcher. Marujana can be used as a painkilling drug. I think Ill go to the fancy dress party as Rambo.

Like has the meaning similar to and we use it used when we are comparing things: I slept like a log last night.* She looks a bit like her brother. Just like you, Im always a bit wary of large dogs. *The expression sleep like a log is idiomatic and means that you sleep very well.

Note that we can use adverbs of degree, such as very, just, not much, not at all, a bit, quite, etc, to modify like: Shes extremely unreliable - not at all like sister, perhaps more like her cousin.

'as' and 'like' - conjunctions

As and like can also be used as conjunctions: As means in the same way that: I always spend Christmas Eve at home with the family, just as they do in Spain. Try to improve your English, as I do, by listening to the BBC news every day. Donaldihno has just been voted Footballer of the Year, as he was last year. Like is often used as a conjunction in informal English, instead of as. This is very common in American English: Nobody listens to me like you do, honey! She needs the money, like I do, so she works in a bar in the evenings. I hope youre not going to chat up the boss again, like you did at last years Christmas party.

50414 AS vs LIKE

AS with inverted word order In a more formal style of English, as can be followed by the auxiliary verb + then the subject. Look at these examples: He went to church every Sunday, as did most of his friends. She is extremely arrogant, as are her parents. As can sometimes be used instead of it as the subject of a clause, especially before verbs like happen and occur.: A hurricane earthquake can destroy one part of an island while leaving other parts untouched, as happened in Grenada in 2004.

AS YOU KNOW, etc. We can use AS at the beginning of some expressions to introduce facts which are known to both speaker/writer and listener/ reader. These expressions can be active or passive:

Your company will pay for the accommodation, as we agreed. As you know, Gloria Sweather will be in Barbados until next Friday. As is well known, money doesnt grow on trees. I am taking 3 days off next week, AS was agreed. Note: There is NO SUBJECT it after as in these expressions. I am taking 3 days off next week, AS it was agreed. 53710 Common Prepositions

There are thousands of expressions in the English language that contain prepositions. Consequently, it is often difficult for students to know which ones to use in certain situations. Here are just a few common prepositions, used in context, to help you:

53711 Common Prepositions

50540 Comparing: (Not) As/So As

We use as + + as to express equality or similarity: Im as tall as my father (tall = adjective)

Jane drives as well as her mother (well = adverb) Hes got as much time as he wants (time = uncountable noun) Shes seen as many places as I have (places = plural noun) We use not as/so + + as to express difference: Im not as tall as my father Im not so tall as my father Jane doesnt drive as well as her mother Jane doesnt drive so well as her mother He hasnt got as much time as he wants He hasnt got so much time as he wants She hasnt seen as many places as I have She hasnt seen so many places as I have Look at these typical mistakes: Im as taller as my father tall Im not as rich than my brother as Jane drives so well as her mother as 50540 Comparing: As + Adjective + As We use (not) as + adjective + as to compare two things, situations, etc.: We use as + adjective + as to express equality or similarity: Im as tall as my father Janes as intelligent as her sister We use not as + adjective + as to express difference: Im not as rich as my brother Apartments arent as expensive as hotels Look at these typical mistakes: Im as taller as my father tall Im not as rich than my brother as Remember a-a-a: as + adjective + as 50540 Comparing: less, least The opposite of more + adjective / adjective + -er is less + adjective: Bob is less tall than he appears on TV Hes also less unfriendly than he looks The opposite of most + adjective / adjective + -est is least + adjective:

Option C is probably the least cheap I think Option C will also be the least popular We can use less/least with any adjective the number of syllables is irrelevant (unlike more/-er and most/-est). However, comparisons with more and most are much more usual: Bob is shorter (less tall) than he appears on TV Hes also friendlier (less unfriendly) than he looks Option C is probably the most expensive (least cheap) I think Option C will also be the most unpopular (least popular) 50540 Comparing: more + adjective / adjective + -er When we compare two things or two people, we use more + adjective + than or adjective + -er + than (Comparative Structures) If the adjective has one syllable, use er: small -> Cardiff is smaller than Edinburgh short -> Im shorter than my father If the adjective ends in e, add r: safe -> Swimming is safer than skiing nice -> Mark is nicer than Jack If the adjective ends in Consonant + y, change the y to i, then add er: dry -> London is drier than Edinburgh If the adjective ends in Consonant+Vowel+Consonant, double the final consonant, then add er: hot -> Madrid is hotter than Helsinki slim -> My brother is slimmer than he was If the adjective has three syllables or more, use more: expensive (ex-pen-sive) -> Hotels are more expensive than apartments ridiculous (ri-di-cu-lous) -> Your story is more ridiculous than mine If the adjective has two syllables and ends in -y, we use er: friendly (friend-ly) -> Bob and Pam are friendlier than Tim and Ann healthy (health-y) -> My diet is healthier than yours If the adjective has two syllables and ends in ful, we use more:

useful (use-ful) -> Todays class was more useful than last weeks painful (pain-ful) -> My tooth is more painful than it was yesterday If the adjective has two syllables and does not end in y or ful, we use er or more depending on the adjective: modern (mo-dern) -> This building is more modern than that one clever (cle-ver) -> Samantha is cleverer than her sister With two-syllable adjectives, its often a question of personal preference: simple (sim-ple) -> English is simpler / more simple than we thought quiet (qui-et) -> This room is quieter / more quiet than that one There are three exceptions: good -> better My results were better than I expected gooder bad -> worse My results were worse than I expected badder far -> further New York is further than London farer 50540 Comparing: than We use than, not that, to compare two things, situations, etc: Cardiff is less expensive than Edinburgh that Edinburgh is more attractive than Cardiff Cardiff is smaller than Edinburgh Jenny has more friends than me Are you better today than you were yesterday? Better late than never! Better safe than sorry! Youre driving faster than you should He drank much more than he realised the + comparative expression + subject + verb (in both clauses) We use double comparatives with the to say that one thing leads to another: The more I think of you, the more I want to be with you. The more I am with you, the more we argue.

53436 Comparison and Similarity: Double Comparatives

The more we argue, the less I want to be with you. The more I eat, the fatter I become. The fatter I become, the less attractive I feel. More can also be followed by a noun: The more free time he has, the more books he reads. 53436 Comparison and Similarity: Double Comparatives ... er and ... er / more and more/less and less + adjective/adverb We can use double comparatives to say that something is changing. The structure is: Theyre getting richer and richer. The film is getting more and more interesting He was managing the company more and more effectively. We sometimes use a short form of this structure. Look at the following examples: Is it all right if I take my brother to the party? Go ahead! The more the merrier. How do you like your tea? The stronger the better. Comparison and Similarity: Same and Different We can use the same as and different from/to to say that two things are equal or different: He was brought up in the same conditions as his friends. My objectives are different from/to yours. Different can be modified by any and no, not much and little: Her new job isnt any different from her previous one. (= the same) Her new job is no different from her previous one. (= the same) Her new job is not much different from her previous one. (= very similar) Her new job is little different from her previous one. (= very similar)

The same as can be modified by much, more or less: Her new job is much the same as her previous one. (= very similar)

Her new job is more or less the same as her previous one. (= very similar) 53719 Compound Adjectives Compound adjectives are adjectives which comprise more than one word. Hyphens are normally used to link the words together to show that they form one adjective: Have you ever visited the red-light district in Amsterdam? I have to write a 200-page report by Friday.

There are different types of compound adjectives and many possible combinations. These include: noun + adjective: trouble-free, lead-free, world-famous noun + past participle: home-made, tongue-tied, sun-dried adjective/adverb/ noun + present participle: easy-going, best-selling, life-saving adjective/adverb + past participle: clean-shaven, deeply-rooted adjective + noun: high-speed, red-carpet, deep-sea, full-length, last-minute adjectives formed from proper nouns : the Rolling Stones concert number + noun: first-rate, 24-hour-a-day, twenty-page, forty-mile.

54318 Compound Adjectives

Compound adjectives are adjectives which comprise more than one word. Hyphens are normally used to link the words together to show that they form one adjective: Have you ever visited the red-light district in Amsterdam? I have to write a 200-page report by Friday.

There are different types of compound adjectives and many possible combinations. These include: noun + adjective: trouble-free, lead-free, world-famous noun + past participle: home-made, tongue-tied, sun-dried adjective/adverb/ noun + present participle: easy-going, best-selling, life-saving adjective/adverb + past participle: clean-shaven, deeply-rooted adjective + noun: high-speed, red-carpet, deep-sea, full-length, last-minute number + noun: first-rate, 24-hour-a-day, twenty-page, forty-mile.

Adjectives formed from proper nouns : the Rolling Stones concert

54318 Compound Adjectives

Here are some more examples of compound adjectives:

51118 Compound Nouns

We can demonstrate the link between two nouns by combining them to form compound nouns. These are very common structures so much so, in fact, that new combinations are invented almost daily. They normally have two parts. The second part identifies the object or person in question. The first part tells us what kind of object or person it is, or what its purpose. Lets look at the following examples:

This company manufactures computer games. (= games for the computer) My school has fantastic sports facilities. (= facilities for sports)

Compound nouns are particularly useful in newspaper headlines and reports as they enable a lot of information to be summarised quickly: Mayor arrested in connection with tax evasion allegations.

51118 Compound Nouns

The two parts which from which compound nouns are formed may be written in a number of ways: 1. as one word. Example: toothpaste 2. as two words joined with a hyphen. Example: living-room 3. as two separate words. Example: bank account As there are no clear rules about this, you are advised to write the compounds that you are unsure about as two words.

51118 Compound Nouns

51019 Conditional Sentences. ZERO CONDITIONAL We use the Zero Conditional to show that one action, result ... always follows another. We often use when for if: Conditional Clause (IF) If/When + subject + present simple Main Clause (RESULT) Subject + present simple

When/If I have a headache, I always take an aspirin.

FIRST CONDITIONAL We use First Conditionals to talk about events which are likely to happen. The Conditional clause can refer to the present or the future. Conditional Clause (IF) If + subject + present simple Main Clause (RESULT) Subject + will + infinitive (without TO)

If I have a headache, I will take an aspirin.

51020 Conditional Sentences. SECOND CONDITIONAL We use Second Conditionals for unlikely situations in the present or future. Conditional Clause (IF) Main Clause (RESULT) If + subject + past simple Subject + would / might / could + infinitive (without TO) If I had a headache, I would take an aspirin.

THIRD CONDITIONAL We use the Third Conditional to talk about an event or situation that did not happen in the past. Conditional Clause (IF) Main Clause (RESULT) If + subject + past perfect Subject + would / might / could

+ have + participle If I had had a headache, I would have taken an aspirin.

MIXED CONDITIONALS When a past event has an effect in the present we make sentences which mix both Second and Third Conditionals Conditional Clause (IF) Main Clause (RESULT) If + subject + Past Perfect Subject + would / might / could + infinitive (without TO) If I had had a headache this morning, I would not be here now.

51021 Conditional Sentences. OTHER FORMS Other structures are possible and different verb tenses are used depending on what you want to say. Conditional Clause (IF) Main Clause (RESULT) 1. If + subject + Present Simple Subject + modal verb + infinitive (without TO) 2. If + subject + Present Simple Subject + going to + infinitive 3. If + subject + Present Simple Imperative 4. If + subject + Present Subject + will + infinitive Continuous (without TO) 5. If + subject + Present Perfect Subject + will + infinitive (without TO) 6. If + subject + Present Perfect Subject + modal verb + infinitive (without TO) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. If you behave yourself, we can take you to the zoo. If you dont pay attention you are going to fail. If you dont understand something, ask. If its raining, Ill get you a taxi. If youve finished, youll be able to come to the pub with us. If she has finished, she can go out.

5.10.22 Conditional Sentences.

ALTERNATIVES TO "IF..." Depending on what we want to say, we can use different phrases to introduce the Conditional Clause: 1. Provided you help me with your homework, Ill give you a hand with the cooking. 2. Unless we leave now, we wont catch the train. 3. I dont care what time you go home as long as you finish it today. NOTE: We can also say Providing (that)... instead of Provided (that)...

54002 Defining Relative Clauses.

Defining relative clauses give essential information about a person, thing, place, time or reason. For example: People who speak five languages fluently are hard to find There are many people, but in this instance we are talking specifically about those people who speak five languages fluently. Similarly, in the sentence I know a bar where you can hear great live music, I am not referring to any bar, but specifically to a bar where you can hear great live music. Note that there are no commas in defining relative clauses: Men, who do the ironing, are a rare breed Men who do the ironing are a rare breed Books, which both entertain and educate, are hard to find Books which both entertain and educate are hard to find The relative pronoun is optional if it is the object of the relative clause: The boy who you spoke to is the mayors son The boy that you spoke to is the mayors son The boy you spoke to is the mayors son (the boy = object)

The film which we saw was incredibly dull The film that we saw was incredibly dull The film we saw was incredibly dull

(the film = object)

The relative pronoun is necessary if it is the subject of the relative clause: The girl who works with me is a pain The girl that works with me is a pain The girl works with me is a pain (the girl = subject) The CD which is released today costs $10 The CD that is released today costs $10 The CD is released today costs $10 53224 Doesnt Need TO / Neednt

(the CD = subject)

We can use the structures dont/doesnt need to + verb and neednt + verb to say there is no obligation: dont/doesnt + need to + Verb You dont need to give tips to waiters She doesnt need to go to school today neednt + Verb You neednt give tips to waiters She neednt go to school today Neednt has a similar structure to cant and mustnt. It does not take to: Look at these typical mistakes: They dont need go to the meeting -> They dont need to go to the meeting He neednt to worry about that -> He neednt worry about that

50831 Emphasis 50832

One way of emphasising a part of a sentence is by means of intonation and stress. Brian ate some unripe cherries!

There are other ways of emphasising nouns, actions or series of actions... In affirmative sentences the auxiliary Do is used before the main verb. Brian did eat some unripe cherries. To emphasise an action we can use a structure with: What+subject+do+be+infinitive with or without to

What Brian did was (to) eat unripe cherries. We can emphasise an action or a series of actions with a similar structure: What+happen +be+that-clause What happened was (that) Brian ate unripe cherries. We can use ALL instead of WHAT to mean "the only thing" All he did was eat unripe cherries. All that happened was that Brian ate unripe cherries. To emphasise nouns we can use this structure: It+be+that / who It was Brian who ate unripe cherries. We can also use this construction to focus on other parts of the sentence, not just nouns: 1. To emphasise an action by using a gerund. It was eating unripe cherries that made Brian ill. 2. To emphasise a prepositional phrase. It was on Saturday that Brian ate the unripe cherries. 3. With BECAUSE to give reasons: It was because Brian ate unripe cherries that he became ill. 4. With WHEN or UNTIL to emphasise time: It was when Brian ate the unripe cherries that he started to feel ill. It wasn't until he ate the unripe cherries that he felt ill.

53723 Expressing Likelihood

There are many ways of expressing likelihood. Here is a list of expressions that can be used to say saying that something will probably or possibly happen: 100% certain It's going to rain. I'm absolutely sure it will rain. Itll definitely rain. It's sure to rain. It's bound to rain. It's inevitable. It's bound to rain sooner or later. very probable (85%)

In all probability it's going to rain. There's a very good chance that it will rain. / There's a very good chance of it raining. In all probability, it will rain. Fairly/quite probable (70%) I wouldn't be surprised if it happened. It's likely to happen. I bet it will happen. It looks as if it will happen. 50% (It's possible) I guess it might rain. I suppose it might rain. fairly improbable (30%) It probably wont rain. I'm fairly sure it won't rain. I doubt if it will rain. I don't think it will rain. I doubt it somehow. very improbable (10%) I'd be surprised if it happened. There's not much chance that it will rain. Its highly unlikely that it will rain. There's little likelihood of that happening. I'll believe it when I see it. There's a slim chance that it will rain. 0% (certain that it will NOT happen) There's no likelihood that it will rain. Of course it won't rain. It definitely wont rain. There's no chance whatsoever (of it raining). It could never rain. There's no way it could rain.

Variations

You can add words to alter the strength of probability: highly likely / unlikely (= very likely / unlikely) quite likely / probable / possible (= more likely, probable or possible) could possibly / probably most definitely won't (= even more unlikely Note: Be careful!. Definitely and probably come after "will" (in positive sentences) and before "won't" in negative sentences. 50720 Expressing Preference: Id sooner, Id rather, There are different ways to express preference: Id prefer... PREFER (doing) sth TO (doing) sth. I prefer Goyas paintings TO Picassos. WOULD PREFER TO do sth (RATHER) THAN do sth I would prefer TO spend the night here than start looking for a hotel now. WOULD SOONER / RATHER do sth THAN do sth Id sooner DIE than have to see him again. WOULD PREFER TO do sth RATHER THAN do/doing sth.... Id far rather DO it now than put it off till later. WOULD SOONER / RATHER sb DID sth Id rather you CAME to the cinema with me. WOULD PREFER IT IF sb DID sth Id prefer IT if she DIDNT come.

52201 Future Tenses

When we want to refer to the future, there are several verb tenses we can choose from. Naturally, the verb form we choose will depend on what we wish to express.

We use the Future Simple (WILL and SHALL + INFINITIVE) to express predictions about the future, offers of help, promises, threats, spontaneous decisions, suggestions, invitations and polite requests. I dont think shell pass her driving test. (Prediction about the future) Ill have the cod. What about you? (Spontaneous decision) Dont worry! Ill lift it for you. (Offer to do something / Offer of help) Ill remember you every single day of my life. (Promise) Will you attend the meeting tomorrow morning? (Polite request) Will you come to my birthday party? (Invitation) Ill tell mum if you do it again. (Threat) Shall we phone her after lunch? (Suggestion) Shall I give you a hand with your English homework? (Offer of help /Offer to do something)

52201 Future Tenses

We use the Present Continuous (AM / IS / ARE + -ING) with a future meaning to express planned future arrangements. Im staying here for a couple of weeks.

The future with GOING TO +INFINITIVE is used to speak about things you intend to do or predictions based on some present evidence. Im going to put aside some money every month for my summer holidays. (Intention) Look out! Shes going to throw her handbag at you.. (Predictions based on evidence) 52201 Future Tenses We use the PRESENT SIMPLE with future meaning to talk about timetables, personal schedules or programmes of events and after time expressions such as as soon as, when, until, after... The plane takes off at 14.55. (Timetables) The match finishes at 18.00. (Programmes of events)

We leave Florida at 7.00 on Monday morning. (Personal schedules) Ill let you know as soon as I receive an answer. (A time expression in the future)

52201 Future Tenses -52207

We use the FUTURE CONTINUOUS (WILL BE + -ING) to talk about a continuous action that will be going on at a particular time in the future. This time next week Ill be lying on the beach.

We use the FUTURE PERFECT (WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE) to talk about an action that will be completed by a certain time in the future. Phone me after 22.00 because Ill have put the children in bed by then. 52922 Had better Had better means "I think I, he, she, they... should..." or "It would be sensible/right if I, he, she, they..." You had better / 'd better hurry up if you want to get home before dark. You 'd better hurry up if you want to get home before dark. (contraction)

Had better is always followed by the infinitive without TO. You had better hurry up. NOT You had better to hurry up. The negative form is always had better not and it can never be contracted in the negative. You had better not / 'd better not hurry up. NOT You hadn't better hurry up. The contracted form (more common than the full form) is 'd better, where 'd stands for had and not would. You'd better hurry up. 'd -> had not would

50722 Id sooner, Id rather, Id prefer... 51419 Inversion in Conditional Sentences

Preference Inversion in Conditional sentences

Look at the following conditional sentence and its variations. If you see her on your way home, please give me a ring. VARIATION 1 If you should happen to see her on your way home, please give me a ring. VARIATION 2 Should you see her on your way home, please give me a ring. The introduction of SHOULD in "Variation 1" suggests that it is very unlikely that you will meet her, although the possibility exists. The inversion (Auxiliary verb +subject + infinitive, the same order as in question formation) in "Variation 2" suggests that the possibility is even more remote.

51420 Inversion in Conditional Sentences

Look at the following conditional sentence and its variations. If we offered her the job, when would she be able to start? VARIATION 1 If we were to offer her the job, when would she be able to start? VARIATION 2 Were we to offer her the job, when would she be able to take start? The use of "were to" instead of "offered" in "Variation 1" suggests that the hypothetical offer of the job is still remote. The inversion (Auxiliary verb + subject + infinitive, the same order as in question formation) in "Variation 2" suggests that the offer is so remote that it is very unlikely that it will be made.

51421 Inversion in Conditional Sentences

Look at the following conditional sentence and its variations. If I had known you were coming to dinner, I'd have cooked something special. Had I known you were coming to dinner, I'd have cooked something special. In third conditional sentences this is simply a stylistic variation used in more formal speech and writing.

52016 Inversion: "Only" and "No sooner"

We have to change the usual order of subject and verb (often an auxiliary) when we begin a sentence with a negative expression which emphasises a time relationship, or with some time phrases that use only. Look at the following examples: As soon as he got into the room he realised somebody had been there. He had no sooner got into the house than he realised somebody had been there. No sooner had he got into the house than he realised somebody had been there. They had left the house only five minutes earlier. Only five minutes earlier had they left the house. If only goes with a noun the verb form is not inverted. Look at the following example: Sarah was the only one who understood the real meaning of the poem. Only Sarah understood the real meaning of the poem. Only Sarah did understand the real meaning of the poem. Northerners behave like that. Only Northeners behave like that. Only Northeners do behave like that.

53820 Inversion: Negative Adverbs

If a negative adverb is put at the beginning of a sentence, the verb form is inverted. This applies to such adverbs as: never, not only, no, neither, at no time, nowhere, by no means, and adverbs that have negative effect such as: seldom, rarely, little, hardly (ever), scarcely.... The use of negative adverbs at the beginning of sentences is used for general emphasis. Compare these two sentences: A. I've never seen anything like this. B. Never have I seen anything like this. Sentence B is more emphatic than A. If we begin a sentence with a Negative phrase, we invert the subject and verb as if we were forming a question. This applies to such adverbs as: never, not only, no, neither, at no time, nowhere, by no means, and adverbs that have negative effect such as: seldom, rarely, little, hardly (ever), scarcely: Not only is Bob arrogant, hes also very narrow-minded.

Not only did we lose the match, we were fined 3000 as well! Not only does Spain have great wine, they have great beaches too. Not once had she spoken to me until that day. Never have I heard of anything so stupid. Never again will I agree to do that. No sooner had Jack arrived than we started arguing. Seldom do we eat fish and chips on Sundays. Hardly had / left the house when I felt a sudden urge to go to the toilet. Hardly ever would he talk to us after that. Rarely does one find a character as popular as Harry Potter. She bought some orange juice and a loaf of bread at the supermarket. Only later did she realise that she'd left her purse in the shop. Only by chance had Victoria discovered that David was having an affair. Poor Michael and Nigel had to work at evenings and weekends. Only in this were they able to complete the grammar review by the deadline. At no time did they actually see the burglars enter the house. Under no circumstances are students allowed to speak Spanish in class. Not until August did the boss finally decide to book a holiday.. Little do they know how hard it is to bring up nine children. Only when he sets the house on fire will he stop smoking in bed. Not until they reached customs did they realize that they had left their baby on the plane. 53820 Inversion: Negative Adverbs: Typical Mistakes Look at these typical mistakes: Not only Bob is arrogant, is Bob Not only we lost the match, did we lose Not only Spain has great wine, does Spain have / has Spain got Not once she had spoken had she Never I have heard of have I Never again I will will I No sooner Jack had arrived than had Jack arrived Under no circumstances we can can we Rarely one finds a character does one find Seldom she complained did she complain Hardly ever he would talk would he talk 52608 Inversion: So... / Not only... but We use so, such and not only. but also at the beginning of a sentence to emphasize the point that we want to make. We do this by inverting the subject and verb:

So excited was he by the news of his promotion that he kissed all his colleagues on the lips. (He was so excited that he ) Such was his reputation as a hard man that even the most experienced policemen feared him. (He had such a reputation for being a hard man that .)

Not only did he kiss all his colleagues, (but) he also took them out for a drink after work. (He kissed all his colleagues, and he even took them out for a drink.)

Note: So and such tend to be used in formal contexts. 52822 It's (about/high) time... The expression Its time can be followed by an infinitive: Its time to buy a new car. He realised it was time to buy a car. When it is necessary to express the subject of the infinitive the following structure is used: Its time + for+ object+ infinitive Its time for us to buy a new car. He realised (that) it was time for him to buy a new car. Its time + subject + a past tense verb can be used with a present meaning. Its often used to criticise or to complain about something. Its time we bought a new car. The floor is filthy. Its time we cleaned it. We can make the criticism stronger by adding about or high to the word time. You are a great talker but its about time you did something instead of just talking. Shes the meanest person Ive ever met. Its high time she realised she cannot sponge off us any more. 54120 Linking Words We use special signalling words, often referred to as linkers, to make it clear to the reader or listener how various parts of a text or speech are connected.

There are so many linkers that it is impossible to provide a full list, but here is a checklist of the most used ones: Function Adding Information Linker in addition, apart from this, moreover, besides, furthermore, as well as, nor, not only...but also, too, what is more however, nevertheless, nonetheless, depite, in spite of, although, even though, while, whilst, whereas, on the other hand. at first, first, firstly, in the end, in the first place, in the second place, lastly, later, next, second, secondly, to begin with, eventually, finally because of, thanks to, on account of, due to (the fact that), owing to(the fact that), as, since, because,.. consequently, accordingly, as a consequence, owing to this, as a result of, with the result that, thus, hence, so, therefore, thereby .. i.e., that is to say, in other words, to be more precise, namely, or rather, this means, to put it another way to, in order to , so as to, so that, to this end for instance, for example, as follows, such as, thus in comparison, similarly, in the same way, by the same token, likewise undoubtedly, admittedly, certainly, strangely enough, fortunately, luckily, oddly enough, unfortunately particularly, mainly, chiefly, especially, in detail, in particular, notably, clearly, naturally, after all, as one might expect, it goes without saying, obviously, of course, surely in conclusion, finally, in brief, to sum up, in

Expressing Contrast

Sequencing/ Showing Time structure

Showing Cause

Showing Result

Clarification

Expressing Purpose Exemplification Showing Similarity Showing Attitude

Emphasising Reinforcing/ Stating the obvious

Summing up/ Concluding

Generalising

Contradicting 54120 Linking Words (01): ADDITION, Checklist

short, overall, so, then, to conclude as a rule, for the most part, generally, in general, normally, on the whole, in most cases, usually In fact, as a matter of fact, actually

54120 Linking Words (01): ADDITION, Examples

Harrods is one of the most famous department stores in the world. It is visited by thousands of tourists every year.

Harrods is one of the most famous department stores in the world. MOREOVER, it is

visited by thousands of tourists every year. Harrods is one of the most famous department stores in the world. IN ADDITION, it is visited by thousands of tourists every year.

Harrods is one of the most famous department stores in the world. FURTHERMORE, it is visited by thousands of tourists every year.

Harrods is one of the most famous department stores in the world. It is ALSO visited by thousands of tourists every year. Harrods is one of the most famous department stores in the world. It is visited by thousands of tourists every year AS WELL. Harrods is one of the most famous department stores in the world. It is visited by thousands of tourists every year, TOO. Harrods is one of the most famous department stores in the world. ADDITIONALLY, it is visited by thousands of tourists every year. Harrods is NOT ONLY one of the most famous department stores in the world BUT (it)* is ALSO visited by thousands of tourists every year. *The subject after but also is usually omitted if but and also remain together, and the subject is the same for both clauses (parts) of the sentence. NOT ONLY* is Harrods one of the most famous department stores in the world BUT it is visited by thousands of tourists every year, TOO. NOT ONLY* is Harrods one of the most famous department stores in the world BUT it is visited by thousands of tourists every year, AS WELL. Harrods is one of the most famous department stores in the world BESIDES being visited by thousands of tourists every year. BESIDES* being one of the most famous department stores in the world, Harrods is

visited by thousands of tourists every year. *Besides is more common in speech than in writing. 54120 Linking Words (02): CONTRAST, Checklist

54120 Linking Words (02): CONTRAST, Examples

Weve thought hard. However, weve decided to reject your offer. Weve thought hard. Nevertheless, weve decided to reject your offer. Weve thought hard. Nonetheless, weve decided to reject your offer. Im going to accept the job despite the low salary. Im going to accept the job in spite of the low salary. They won the game despite having one player less. They won the game in spite of having one player less. They won the game despite the fact that they had one player less. They won the game in spite of the fact that they had one player less. They won the game although they had one player less. They won the game even though they had one player less. They won the game though they had one player less. Bill works 10 hours a day, while Pat works just 5.

Bill works 10 hours a day, whilst Pat works just 5. Bill works 10 hours a day, whereas Pat works just 5. Bill works 10 hours a day. On the other hand, Pat works just 5.

54120 Linking Words (03): TIME, Checklist

54120 Linking Words (03): TIME, Examples

Today Im going to talk about loans. Firstly, Ill look at interest rates Today Im going to talk about loans. First of all, Ill look at interest rates Secondly, Ill discuss repayment options. Then, Ill discuss repayment options. Next, Ill discuss repayment options. Jack slipped on the ice when he crossed the road. Jack slipped on the ice when crossing the road. We went home once wed paid the bill. She lost her balance while she was trying to get up. She lost her balance while trying to get up. She lost her balance as she tried to get up. Well send you the results as soon as we get them. I cant drive until Im18. Having read the conditions, she signed the contract. On hearing the news, Brian went straight home. I got the dinner ready. Meanwhile, my wife continued reading her book. We went back to the hotel. After that, we had a shower. We went back to the hotel. Afterwards, we had a shower. We went out again after wed had a rest. We went out again after a rest. We went out again after resting. We checked our figures before we went to the meeting. We checked our figures before the meeting. We checked our figures before going to the meeting. Ive got to pack my bags. Before that, I have to decide what to take. Please read our conditions prior to when you leave. Please read our conditions prior to your departure. Please read our conditions prior to leaving. We met Dave at the White Horse. Later, we went on to the Red Lion. Well, that concludes my talk. Finally, Id like to thank you all for coming. Well, that concludes my talk. Lastly, Id like to thank you all for coming. Well, that concludes my talk. Last of all, Id like to thank you all for coming.

54120 Linking Words (04): CAUSE, Checklist

54120 Linking Words (04): CAUSE, Examples

We had a lovely time because of the great weather. We had a lovely time thanks to the great weather. We had a lovely time on account of the great weather. We had a lovely time due to the great weather. We had a lovely time owing to the great weather. We had a lovely time due to the fact that we had great weather. We had a lovely time owing to the fact that we had great weather. We had a lovely time as we had great weather. We had a lovely time since we had great weather. We had a lovely time because we had great weather.

54120 Linking Words (05): RESULT, Checklist

54120 Linking Words (05): RESULT, Examples

They stole our idea. So, we had no choice but to sue. They stole our idea. Thus, we had no choice but to sue. They stole our idea. Therefore, we had no choice but to sue. They stole our idea. Consequently, we had no choice but to sue. They stole our idea. As a result, we had no choice but to sue. As a result of their stealing our idea, we had no choice but to sue. They stole our idea, with the result that we had no choice but to sue. They stole our idea, thereby leaving us with no choice but to sue.

54120 Linking Words (06): CLARIFICATION, Checklist

54120 Linking Words (06): CLARIFICATION, Examples

The complainant, namely George Riley, accused BA of overbooking. Its vital to understand basic concepts ie. verbs, nouns, etc. Its vital to understand basic concepts, that is to say, verbs, nouns, etc. Its vital to understand basic concepts, in other words, verbs, nouns, etc.

54120 Linking Words (07): PURPOSE, Checklist

54120 Linking Words (07): PURPOSE, Examples

I said I liked the scarf to please him. I said I liked the scarf in order to please him. I said I liked the scarf so as to please him. I said I liked the scarf so as not to hurt his feelings

54120 Linking Words (08): EXEMPLIFICATION, Checklist

54120 Linking Words (08): EXEMPLIFICATION, Examples

I enjoy adventure sports, for example, rafting, bungee-jumping I enjoy adventure sports, for instance, rafting, bungee-jumping I enjoy adventure sports e.g. rafting, bungee-jumping I enjoy adventure sports such as rafting, bungee-jumping

54120 Linking Words (9): SIMILARITY, Checklist

54120 Linking Words (9): SIMILARITY, Examples

If you disagree, tell us. Similarly, if were unhappy, well say so. If you disagree, tell us. Likewise, if were unhappy, well say so.

If you disagree, tell us. In the same way, if were unhappy, well say so. If you disagree, tell us. By the same token, if were unhappy, well say so. 54120 Linking Words: Formal / Informal Some linkers are more formal than others. For example: + Formal + Informal In addition Plus Nevertheless But Thus So In spite of the fact that Although Moreover Also On account of Because of

54432 MAKE or DO

Make Faces We use make to talk about creating or constructing something: My company makes plastic containers. I made some tea for all the guests. We also use make with certain nouns, particularly when we are talking about an action that someone performs: Are you going to make a speech at your brothers wedding? Im going to make you an offer you cant refuse. Other nouns commonly used with make include an announcement, an application, an arrangement, an attempt, a choice, a comment, a contribution, a decision, a difference, a discovery, an enquiry, an excuse, a face, a habit of doing something, a list, a journey, a mistake, money, a (phone) call, a plan, a point, a promise, a remark, a sound, a suggestion. We can use make to say how successful someone was or would be in a particular position or job, or how successful something was or would be for a particular purpose:

She would probably have made an excellent boss. That cupboard would make a good hiding place for all those magazines. 54433 MAKE or DO

Do the washing up We often use do with certain nouns to describe activities, or things that have an effect on people: I can't go out - I have to do the housework. The operation may have done more harm than good.

In informal English, we can use do instead of another verb to talk about certain tasks: Can you do the flowers before mum arrives? (= arrange the flowers) Aren't you going to do the garden? The grass needs cutting.(= tidy the garden) We can also use do instead of, for example: cook or make (a curry), cut (nails, hair), make (beds), tidy (a room, a desk, a garden, a cupboard). We also use do when we talk about general or indefinite rather than particular activities: I think James has done something to the washing machine. Its not working. Have you done anything about that letter of complaint we received yesterday? We use do with an -ing form as a noun when we talk about jobs and leisure activities. A word or phrase such as some, a bit of, the, a lot of, etc. is usually used before the noun: I never do the washing up after lunch. Im looking forward to doing some fishing when I go to Ireland next month. We also use do to talk about cleaning, cooking, gardening, shopping, filing, photocopying. 54420 Making Uncountable Nouns Countable When we want to make uncountable nouns singular/countable, we sometimes use the phrase a piece of + uncountable noun :

Examples: a piece of information NOT an information, a piece of data NOT a data, a piece of advice NOT an advice a piece of furniture NOT a furniture Similarly, there are other words that we can use to make uncountable words countable. Here are just a few of them:

Modal Auxiliary Verbs

The modal verbs are the auxiliaries verbs CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, OUGHT TO, SHALL, SHOULD, WILL, WOULD. They behave in a different manner to other verbs, as we will see below: Modal auxiliary verbs come before the bare infinitive (without TO) of a verb. Ought to is the exception to this rule. There is no '-s' in the third person singular: She can speak Chinese. He must be mad. With the exception of ought to, modal verbs are immediately followed by the verb in its infinitive form without the insertion of to: You should give up smoking. You ought to give up smoking. There is no 'do, does, or did' in the question form, and the subject and verb are inverted.: Shall we move on to the next question? Where should I go?

There is no don't, doesn't or didn't in the negative form: He can't swim.

The verb must has an alternative, have to, so, in the past, it becomes had to: I had to sell the car

The modal auxiliary can has two past forms: could or was able to. Notice the difference in meaning: I could drive when I was twelve. (= general ability) I wasnt able to drive my car due to the snow. (= ability on one particular occasion)

In the future, must is substituted with have to, hence it becomes will have to. Can becomes will be able to: If you want to pass your exams, youll have to study. I'm afraid I won't be able to help you with your English homework. Modals can be used with perfect infinitives (modal+have+past participle) to make deductions or assertions about the past. You should have bought a new coat in the sales. Youre lucky to b alive. You might have been killed!

Modal Auxiliary Verbs in use

Here are some examples of modal auxiliary verbs used in context: Modal Can Example Can you bite your toenails? Too much junk food can damage your health. We can't repair the machine. Can I go out with my friends, Dad? Ability Possibility Uses

Inability / Impossibility Asking for permission

Can't

Can you give me a hand? You can't smoke in this pub. You're ugly! You can't be going out with Miss World. Could I borrow your car? Could you repeat that, please? We could sell the car. What do you think? I think there could be an economic crisis.

Request Prohibition Logical deduction Asking for permission. Request Suggestion Future possibility

Could

May

He emigrated to Australia so that he could Ability in the past be with Kylie. May I have a gin and tonic? Asking for permission He may arrive late. They might give us a 10% discount. He might be at the doctors. We must say good-bye now. They mustnt disrupt the work more than necessary. Future possibility / Speculation Future possibility Speculation Necessity / Obligation Prohibition

Might

Must

He drives a Porsche. He must be rich. Ought to We ought to take on a new secretary. We ought to see a specialist about your back. Shall I carry your bags for you? Shall we spend the weekend together? Shall I do that or will you?

Logical deduction Saying whats right or correct Advice Offer Suggestion Asking what to do

Shall

Should

We should do more for the local community Moral obligation I think we should all go on strike. You should drive more carefully. Prices should fall by the end of the year.. I think we've missed the last bus.I 'll call a taxi. Will you help me? I'll carry your bags for you if you like. I'll look into it and I'll get back to you. Profits will increase next year. Would you mind if I sat in your armchair? Recommending action Advice Uncertain prediction / Estimation Instant decisions

Will

Request Offer Promise Certain prediction Asking for permission

Would

Would it be possible for me to leave early? Asking for permission Would you pass the ketchup please? "Would five o'clock suit you?" "That'd be fine." It would be a good idea to discuss this matter with the children. Would you like to come in for a cup of cocoa? "Would you prefer black or white?" - "Id like a black coffee, please." Request Making arrangements

Suggestion / Recommendation Invitation

Preferences

53110 Modal Verbs: Logical Deduction / Speculation If we think something is logically possible, we use may, might or could: Jane may be busy

Jane might be busy Jane could be busy It may rain It might rain It could rain If the sentence is negative, use may not or might not, but not could not: Jane may not be busy Jane might not be busy Jane could not be busy It may not rain It might not rain It could not rain We do NOT use can in these situations. Look at these typical mistakes: Alan can be right may / might / could It can snow may / might / could Alan can not be right may not / might not It can not snow may not / might not If we think something is logically certain, we use must: Jane must be busy It must rain If we think something is logically impossible, we use cant: Jane cant be busy It cant rain We do NOT use mustnt in these situations: Alan mustnt be right cant It mustnt snow cant 53110 Modal Verbs: Logical Deduction in the Past If we think something that happened in the past is logically possible, we use may have, might have or could have, plus the past participle: Ted may have taken an earlier plane Ted might have taken an earlier plane Ted could have taken an earlier plane He may have gone fishing He might have gone fishing He could have gone fishing

If the sentence is negative, use may not have or might not have, plus the past participle, but not could not: Ted may not have taken an earlier plane Ted might not have taken an earlier plane Ted could not have taken an earlier plane He may not have gone fishing He might not have gone fishing He could not have gone fishing We do NOT use can have in these situations. Look at these typical mistakes: Alan can have been right may / might / could It can have snowed may / might / could Alan can not have been right may not / might not It can not have snowed may not / might not If we think something that happened in the past is logically certain, we use must have, plus the past participle: Ted must have taken an earlier plane He must have gone fishing If we think something that happened in the past is logically impossible, we use cant have or couldnt have, plus the past participle: Ted cant have taken an earlier plane Ted couldnt have taken an earlier plane He cant have gone fishing He couldnt have gone fishing We do NOT use mustnt have in these situations: Alan mustnt have been right cant / couldnt It mustnt have snowed cant / couldnt 52635 Need and Causative Have / Get The construction have /get something done suggests that someone else is doing something for us. So we can say: The hairdresser is cutting her hair. OR She is having / getting her hair cut.

The gardener is mowing the lawn. OR He is having / getting the lawn mowed. We can use both need doing or need to be done to express that something has to be changed or done. So we can say: Her hair needs cutting. OR Her hair needs to be cut. The lawn needs mowing. OR The lawn needs to be mowed.

53224 Neednt / Didnt Need To

We use both needn't have and didn't need to to talk about past events, but they do not necessarily have the same meaning. We say that someone needn't have done something when they did it, but it was not necessary. You needn't have ironed my trousers. Mum said shed do it. He neednt have studied. The exam was cancelled. (= He didnt know that the time of studying)

We use didn't need to (and didnt have to) to say that something was not necessary, and so wasnt done: My mate knew the doorman so we didnt need to pay to get in. I didnt need to go, so I didnt go. Non-Defining relative clauses give extra information about a person, thing, place, time or reason. For example: Englishmen, who usually get a bad press , are the worlds best lovers The main point here is that Englishmen are the worlds best lovers (according to the writer!). The fact that they usually get a bad press is extra (non-essential) information. Similarly, in the sentence The XT200, which is rather pricey at 4000, is clearly the best

54003 Non-Defining Relative Clauses.

printer, the important thing is that the XT200 is clearly the best printer. The fact that it is rather pricey at 4000 is secondary, non-essential, information. Note that non-defining relative clauses always take commas: My mothers best friend who is 87 years old has decided to remarry My mothers best friend, who is 87 years old, has decided to remarry The gallery whose exhibits are mainly Egyptian reopened last night The gallery, whose exhibits are mainly Egyptian, reopened last night Never use that in non-defining clauses. Use who or which: My teacher, thats just joined our school, is wonderful The kiwis, that were on special offer, were disgusting who which

The relative pronoun is always necessary, even if its the object: The lady, who I recognised, asked me to give her a lift The lady, I recognised, asked me to give her a lift Dans portrait, which was hanging on the wall, meant a lot to me Dans portrait, was hanging on the wall, meant a lot to me 52004 Noun Plurals 1 Nouns plurals can have the following endings: If the singular noun ends in consonant +y (-by, -dy, -ny, -ry,-ty), the plural is normally made by changing y to i and adding es.. Example: baby-babies, (company-companies, story-stories) If the singular noun ends in vowel +y the plural is made by adding s. Example: guy-guys, (delay-delays) Proper names ending in consonant +y usually have plurals in ys. Example: May-Mays, JF Kennedy-the Kennedys, (Monday-Mondays) If the singular ends in sh,-ch, -x,-s or z, the plural is made by adding es. Example: bus-buses, (buzz-buzzes, crash-crashes) Some nouns ending in o have plurals in es. Example: echo-echoes, (hero-heroes) Nouns ending in vowel +o have plurals in s.

Example: radio-radios (studio-studios) The following words ending in o make the plural by adding s: Example: kilo-kilos, Eskimo-Eskimos, piano-pianos, (photo-photos, logo-logos) These words ending in o can have plurals in s or es: Example: tornado-tornado(e)s,(volcano-volcano(e)s, mosquito-mosquito(e)s) Some nouns ending in f(e) have plurals in ves. Example: loaf-loaves (yourself-yourselves, thief-thieves, knife-knives, life-lives) Other words ending in f(e) are regular. Example: belief-beliefs, (roof-roofs, handkerchief-handkerchiefs, safe-safes) Some nouns do not change in the plural. Example: headquarters-headquarters (fish-fish, sheep-sheep, aircraft-aircraft, speciesspecies, series-series) Some nouns have completely irregular plurals. Example: louse-lice, (penny-pence, child-children, mouse-mice, foot-feet, goose-geese, die-dice)

50508 Numbers

Fractions : We say simple fractions and decimals like this: 1/7 one seventh 2/9 two ninths hour three quarters of an hour More complex fractions can be expressed by using the word OVER 311/223 three hundred and eleven OVER two hundred and twenty three. Decimals: We write and say decimals like this: 3.2 three point two (notice we dont use a comma) 1.783 six point seven eight three With fractions and decimals below 1, we normally use OF A + Singular Noun kilo Three quarters of a kilo 0.217 cm nought point two one seven of a centimetre. However a plural noun is also possible with decimals below 1

0.217 cm 50509 Numbers

nought point two one seven centimetres.

The figure 0 This figure is usually called nought in British English and zero in American English. We use nought when 0 is the first figure in decimal numbers. When we say numbers one figure at a time, 0 is often called oh (like the letter O) 0.217 cm nought point two one seven centimetres. 0.209 nought point two oh nine Zero is used both in British and in American English when we talk about temperature Its zero degrees outside In team games Zero scores are called nil and in tennis and similar games, the word love is used. And the final score is Spain three, England nil. Thirty-love, Stevens to serve 50510 Numbers AND; punctuation In British English we always use and before the tens in a number. In American English and can be left out. We never put and between thousand and hundred. 4,570 four thousand, five hundred and seventy. In measurements containing two different units and is possible before the smaller but it is usually dropped. two hours (and) five minutes Note also the structures one and a half hours an hour and a half. In writing we usually use commas (,) to divide large numbers into groups of three figures. Full stops are not used in this way. Commas are not used in dates. 4,563 not 4.563 the year 1543 not 1,543 We dont always write commas in four-figure numbers. 1,467 or 1467 50511 Numbers A vs ONE Sometimes both forms are possible. One is more formal. Id like to live for a / one hundred years. Pay him a / one thousand Euros

A can only be used at the beginning of a number 100 a/one hundred 2100 two thousand one hundred A thousand can be used alone and before and but we must use one thousand if the number contains hundreds 1000 a/one thousand 1042 a/one thousand and forty-two 1508 one thousand, five hundred and eight. Note that in an informal style we often use seventeen hundred, eighteen hundred... instead of one thousand seven hundred, one thousand eight hundred. This form is particularly common in historical dates Weve only got sixteen hundred pounds for the van. (1600) She was born in seventeen hundred. (1700) 50512 Numbers Numbers are used as subjects or objects but not usually as complements after be. Ive got two brothers. NOT My brothers are two There are eight of us in our English class NOT We are eight... There will be about two hundred of them. NOT.They will be .. Here are some alternative forms of expressing the future: Its likely to be windy in the afternoon. It will probably be windy in the afternoon. Shes unlikely to get the job. She probably wont get the job or She will probably not get the job. Local cinemas are bound to disappear. Local cinemas will certainly disappear. The bus is due to arrive at 10.00. The bus is scheduled to arrive at 10.00. Maddonald is about to start singing. Maddonald is just going to start singing. or Maddonald is on the point of starting singing.

52208 Other Future forms

50224 PARTICIPLES: Time Expressions + Present and Past Participles

We can use participle clauses after various conjunctions and prepositions, such as: when, while, before, after, on, without, instead of, until, whenever, as, once. Note the following examples: After taking everything into consideration, we decided to offer him the job. Dont forget to phone me when leaving the airport. I broke my wrist while playing rugby. She struck me as being extremely ambitious. All workers must clock out before going home. Whenever going on holiday, you should always take out travel insurance. Ive changed a lot since coming back from China. After having invited 200 people to their wedding, Kate and Cliff finally decided not go through with it. On discovering that I had won the lottery, I immediately handed in my resignation. Leave the meat in the oven until cooked. Without wanting to seem rude, I must tell you that you are the most incompetent person Ive ever met. Once released from prison, many prisoners are likely to offend again. Instead of studying law, she decided to pursue a career in teaching.

Note: We can see from the above examples that the participle clause normally, but not invariably, comes in front of the main clause.

Negative participle clauses We can also use negative participle clauses, in which case not normally comes before the -ing form or past participle: Not having had lunch, I was dying for something to eat when I got home from work. Whilst not wishing to appear impolite, I must ask you to kindly refrain from smoking.

Having been + past participle We can use this passive structure in participle clauses as an alternative to a since-clause:

Having been invited to the party by the boss himself, we felt obliged to go. ( = Since we had been invited)

50222 PARTICIPLES: Verbs + Present and Past Participles

The past participle is used after verbs of the senses like see, hear, feel, smell, notice and watch and their objects for a single or completed action, whereas for an incomplete or continuing action we use the present participle. Compare these sentences: I heard a nightingale singing in the forest. (the singing continued) I heard them talking outside the door. (they continued talking. I heard only part of it) Did you see the girl sitting on the park bench? (the girl was still there when I left) I saw her crossing the street. (the action is incomplete) I heard him say Good-bye! (Its only one word) I saw the gardened plant the tree. (I saw the whole action) The policeman watch him open the back door. (He saw evrything from beginning to end) The old lady could see him walk up and down the street. ( This is a completed action)

51717 Passive Forms 1

In passive sentences we use the correct form of the verb to be + past participle. Here is a list of the different verb forms: TENSE Present Simple Past Simple Future Simple Future with going to Modal verbs Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present perfect Continuous* Past Perfect Continuous* Future Continuous* PASSIVE FORM am/are/is + Past participle was/were + Past participle will be + Past participle am/are/is going to be + Past participle can/may/might/could/must... be+ Past participle am/are/is being + Past participle was/were being + Past participle has/have been + Past participle had been + Past participle will have been + Past participle ____________ ____________ ____________

Future Perfect Continuous*

____________

*Because of the need to combine be / been with being, we avoid using the passive in the Present Perfect Continuous, the Past Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous and Future Perfect Continuous: It has been being investigated. It had been being investigated. It will be being investigated. It will have been being investigated.

51727 Passive Forms 1 : Verbs that have 2 objects - 51732

Verbs that have two objects (usually a person and a thing) in the active usually have two passive forms. Look at the following sentences: ACTIVE sentence: They sent her an e-mail. PASSIVE sentences: She was sent an e-mail./ An e-mail was sent to her. Note 1: Active Sentence: John sent Mary an Email Passive sentence: Mary was sent an email by John (This sentence is possible in English although it does sound a bit strange!)

Note 2: Some verb phrases cant be passive at all even if they have two objects. Look at the following sentences: Let me wish you the best in your new job. We must admit that this has earned her a reputation for honesty.

51733 Passive Forms 1: with common verbs (e.g. explain, suggest)

Some common verbs like suggest and explain cant change the indirect object to subject: They explained the reasons to us. The reasons were explained to us. We were explained the reasons.

You suggested a new way of action to us. A new way of action was suggested to us. We were suggested a new way of action.

52309 Passive: It is said It is thought it is believed

We can use verbs such as think, believe, say, claim and know to form the passive in two different ways: 1. Introduced by the impersonal It 2. By making the person the subject of the passive verb. Look at the following examples: Active: People say that he is one of the richest people in the world. (PRESENT) Passive: It is said that he is one of the richest people in the world. He is said to be one of the richest people in the world. Active: People said that he was one of the richest people in the world. (PAST) Passive: It was said that he was one of the richest people in the world He was said to have been one of the richest people in the world.

50422 PHRASAL VERBS AS NOUNS

It is often possible to form nouns from phrasal verbs. Look at the following examples: James Stevens broke down on the motorway.: James Stevens had a breakdown on the motorway. Four armed men held up the main branch of Lloyds Bank in Canterbury yesterday morning. There was a hold-up at the main branch of Lloyds Bank in Canterbury yesterday morning. A lot of people turned out to celebrate their victory in the Champions League. There was a massive turn-out /turnout of people to celebrate their victory in the Champions League. They looked as if they were giving away company secrets.

Their expression was a (dead) give-away / giveaway. The companys performance has let down the shareholders. The companys performance has been a terrible let-down / letdown for the shareholders. NOTE: Some of these Phrasal Verbs used as nouns can be written as single words or joined by a hyphen . In some other cases both forms are accepted. You willl need to check them in a good dictionary. 50811 PHRASAL VERBS STRUCTURE There are Four Main Types of Phrasal Verbs. Type 1 Phrasal Verbs are intransitive: they have no object. Types 2-4 are transitive: they always take an object. Look at these examples:

Type 1: Basic Verb + Particle When does your school break up? Go away ! Can't you see I'm busy?

Type 2: Basic Verb + Particle + Object While I was cleaning the car, I came across my old wallet Can you help me ? I'm looking for the Meat Section.

Type 3: Basic Verb + Object + Particle Laura never answers her parents back My daughter is always bossing me about

Type 4: Basic Verb + Particle + Particle + Object

I'm looking forward to my holiday How do you put up with Ian? 50811 PHRASAL VERBS STRUCTURE Type 1: Basic Verb + Particle I grew up in a small village They dont get on at all House prices have shot up in the last 10 years Type 2: Basic Verb + Particle + Object Could you look after Nicholas? She takes after her grandmother Dont worry,well look into it. Type 3: Basic Verb + Object + Particle My aunt brought me up Her mother never tells her off Did you put the cat out for the night?

Type 4: Basic Verb + Particle + Particle + Object They always looked up to their mother Our bank manager looks down on everybody Oh dear! Weve run out of coffee again! 50811 PHRASAL VERBS STRUCTURE Some Phrasal Verbs have a flexible structure. They can be either Type 2 (Basic Verb + Particle + Object) or Type 3 (Basic Verb + Object + Particle). For example, you can pick up somebody / something (= Type 2) or you can pick

somebody / something up (= Type 3): I dropped a glass, so I had to pick up the pieces (= Type 2) I dropped a glass, so I had to pick the pieces up (= Type 3) It's your turn to pick up the children today, darling! (= Type 2) It's your turn to pick the children up today, darling! (= Type 3) 50811 PHRASAL VERBS STRUCTURE Some Phrasal Verbs have a flexible structure: Can you pick up the children? OR Can you pick the children up? Shall we turn off the television? OR Shall we turn the television off? However, if the object is a pronoun (me, her, it, them, etc.), it must go before the particle: Can you pick them up? Can you pick up them? Shall we turn it off? Shall we turn off it? 50811 PHRASAL VERBS STRUCTURE Type 1: Basic Verb + Particle Examples When does your school break up? Go away ! Can't you see I'm busy? Examples with Pronoun Object None: Type 1 never takes an object

Type 2: Basic Verb + Particle + Object Examples I came across my old glasses I'm looking for the Meat Section Examples with Pronoun Object I came across them I'm looking for it

Type 2 or 3: Basic Verb + Particle + Object / Basic Verb + Object + Particle Examples

You'll soon pick up English / You'll soon pick English up It's your turn to pick up the children / It's your turn to pick the children up Examples with Pronoun Object You'll soon pick it up You'll soon pick up it It's your turn to pick them up It's your turn to pick up them

Type 3: Basic Verb + Object + Particle Examples You mustn't answer your parents back She bosses Graham about Examples with Pronoun Object You mustn't answer them back She bosses him about

Type 4: Basic Verb + Particle + Particle + Object Examples I'm looking forward to my holiday How do you put up with Ian? Examples with Pronoun Object I'm looking forward to it How do you put up with him? 50810 PHRASAL VERBS: GET Here are some examples of phrasal verbs with GET:

Lets look at the structure of some of these verbs:

Type 1 :BASIC VERB +PARTICLE(S)

Ill get by . with a little help from my friends! Apparently, hes just got back from Kenya. He gets around a lot, doesnt he?

Type 2: BASIC VERB+PARTICLE(S)+OBJECT You can't expect to get away with being late by just because you are the boss. Ill look into it and get back to you.

Type 3: BASIC VERB+OBJECT+PARTICLE(S) She always manages to get her message across. My job really gets me down. Do you think I succeeded in getting my message across?

Type 2 OR Type 3 (FLEXIBLE POSITION) I got my car back from the garage. / I got back my car from the garage.

50120 PHRASAL VERBS: Structure Type 1 :BASIC VERB +PARTICLE(S) Eg. Go away! Stay up, get by, fall through, turn out, come up, turn up, catch on, make out, break down Type 2: BASIC VERB+PARTICLE(S)+OBJECT Eg. Im looking for John Catch up with, make up for , go through, come across, get out of, get away with, get round to, cut down on, run out of, Type 3: BASIC VERB+OBJECT+PARTICLE(S) Eg. She always answers her parents back catch out, Type 2 OR Type 3 (FLEXIBLE POSITION) Eg. Pick the ball up / Pick up the ball

Round off, give up, turn down, clear up, run down

51122 Position of Adverbials

Here are some general rules about the position of Adverbials: 1) We do not put adverbs between a verb and its object: I like English very much NOT I like very much English She speaks French incredibly well NOT She speaks incredibly well French 2) There are three normal positions for adverbs: a) INITIAL position: Yesterday I had a meeting in Barcelona. Tomorrow I'm going by bus b) MID-position: I completely forgot your birthday. Ive almost finished my homework. c) END- position: I phoned his secretary this morning. I can hear a strange noise upstairs. 3) The position of adverbs is sometimes flexible: OR I like English very much. I very much like English. I sometimes think Id like to work somewhere else. Sometimes I think Id like to work somewhere else. Im really sorry. I really AM sorry (for emphasis)

OR OR

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (1): Introduction

We can use modifiers like a bit, a lot, etc. to explain how big the difference really is. Study the table below, then look at the examples. Note that dear is a synonym for expensive.

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (10): Various

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (2): Introduction (Cont.)

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (3): Big Difference

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (4): Big Difference

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (5): Big Difference

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (6): Some Difference

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (7): Small Difference

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (8): Small Difference

50540 Qualifying Comparisons (9): No Difference

54002 Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are words that relate to a previously mentioned noun: This is the man who told me off Wheres the girl that was sitting over there? Is this the CD which you were telling me about? Thats the lady whose garden won a prize Christmas is the time when families get together Is that the cave where they found those bodies? Those are the reasons why Im leaving Whoever, whatever, whenever, however and wherever are used in different contexts and have different meanings. W h o e v e r refers to people: Give it to whoever wants it.(= anyone who) Whoever wins the match, will qualify for Europe. (= the team that wins.) I refuse to call him sir, whoever he is. (= it doesnt matter who)

51311 Relative Pronouns + -EVER

W h a t e v e r refers to nouns: Whatever you do, you always make me happy. (= it doesnt matter what you do) Whatever is in that plastic bag smells of cheese.(= the thing that) W h e n e v e r refers to time:

Whenever I call, she never answers the phone. (= every time) You can visit me whenever you like. (= any time) W h e r e v e r refers to places: Wherever you go, Ill find you. (= it doesnt matter where) There were rats wherever we went. (= everywhere) However refers to the way that you do something: However you travel, you always arrive late. (= it doesnt matter how) 51312 Relative Pronouns + -EVER We can use whoever, whatever, whenever, however and wherever in emphatic questions to show surprise or disbelief: What ever are you doing? (= what the hell are you doing?) When ever will she get the message?(= when will she finally .?.) Who ever is Julito Iglesias? (who on earth is ?) Why ever did you steal the money? (why the hell did you..?) Note: These expressions can also be written as single words: whatever, whoever etc. 52513 Reported Speech: Say and Tell Say and tell are the two most commonly used reporting verbs in English. When we use say, we dont normally indicate who is spoken to, or, if we do, we must put to before the object. Compare the following: He told his wife that he was going to Italy on an important business trip. He said that he expected to be away for at least two weeks. Did you say anything to them? I told them nothing about it! Note that when we are quoting direct speech, say is the more commonly used verb as it refers to any kind of speech. Tell has the meaning of instruct or inform. Compare the following: You dont look too well, I said. Ive been working really hard lately, she said. Make sure that you exercise regularly, eat properly and get at least eight hours sleep

each night, I I told her.

Notes: (1) If the reporting verb is in the present tense, the verb form in the reported statement remains the same. Have a look at the following: I have no idea where Jim Smith is. He says he has no idea where Jim Smith is. I havent seen John since last Christmas. He tells me he hasnt seen John since last Christmas.'

(2) If we are reporting a fact or something that is still true, the direct speech form can often be retained: He told me he was a lawyer. He told me he is a teacher. (Both sentences would be correct if the person being talked about is still teaching.)

52514 Reported Speech: Time and Place changes

As a general rule, when the reporting verb is in the past (e.g., said or told), we usually convert the verb form in the direct speech sentence into one which is further back in time. Similarly, words which refer to time and place (e.g., here or now) must also be converted. Hence: Changes in verb forms Direct present simple present continuous Reported past simple past continuous

past simple present perfect present perfect continuous can/may/shall/will

past perfect past perfect past perfect continuous could/might/should/would

Changes in time and place words Direct here now this today tomorrow yesterday next month next year last month last year in two days weeks) Reported there then, at that time that that day the following day, the next day, a day later the previous day, the day before the following month, the next month, a month later the following year, the next, year, a year later the month before, the previous month, the preceding month the year before, the previous year, the preceding year two days from then, two weeks from then

five days ago five weeks ago

five days before, five days earlier five weeks before, five weeks earlier

Here are some further examples: Im thinking of going to India next year, he told us. He told us (that) he was thinking of going to India the following year. If I find the time, Ill write to her tomorrow. She said she would write to her the following day if she found the time. I havent spoken to him since yesterday, she told them. She told them she hadnt spoken to him since the previous day / the day before. I met them a long time ago in Portugal. He said that he had met them a long time before in Portugal. I cant really drive, Dad. My son admitted me that he couldnt really drive.

52515 Reported Speech: Various Indirect questions Remember that indirect questions keep the same order as statements, that is, affirmative sentences, and there is no question mark at the end of the sentence: 1. What has he been doing recently? I wonder. I wonder what he[s/has] been doing recently. 2. Who did she come with? Ask her who she came with.

Reported commands and requests Reported orders are introduced by tell + object + to + infinitive and reported requests by ask + object + to + infinitive Dont look at me like that! he told me.

I told him not to look at me in that way.

Could you give me a hand with this? he said to her. She asked me to help him. 52516 Reporting Verbs - 52530 Reporting verbs Reported speech most commonly involves using the verbs say, tell and ask, as well as changes of verb tenses, times, places and pronouns. However, there are a number of other reporting verbs which can more accurately describe what someone has said. The following list gives you reporting verbs in various categories based on sentence structure. You will notice that a number of verbs can take more than one form.

Verb + Object infinitive

Verb + Infinitive

Verb + (that)

Verb + Gerund

Verb + Object + Preposition + Gerund

Verb +
Preposition

+ Gerund

advise beg encourage invite order remind warn

agree decide offer prefer promise refuse threaten

admit agree decide deny explain insist prefer promise recommend regret suggest

deny
recommend

regret suggest

accuse blame congratulate

apologize insist

Examples: He ordered me to run as

Examples: He refused to do his

Examples: I rudely suggested

Examples: He denied knowing

Examples: He accused me of stealing

Examples: He apologised

soon as I saw the elephant coming over the hill. He invited her to spend the weekend at his place.

English homework. She threatened to leave him if he didnt change.

that he should go and play with the traffic. I recommend that you should take up yoga.

anything about it. He regretted having shouted at his motherin-law. / He regretted shouting at his motherin-law.

his egg sandwiches. They congratulated me on winning the award.

for having laughed at my hat. / He apologised for laughing at my hat.

53110 Should / Ought to

Should and ought to have very similar meanings. We use should to express mild/moral obligation or duty, to give advice or make recommendations: -Ive got a headache -You should take an aspirin... -Im bored -We should go for a walk... -Shes full up -She shouldnt eat so much... The negative form is shouldnt We do not use to after should Look at these typical mistakes: You shouldnt to laugh at Cathy. You should to be nice to her. You shouldnt laugh at Cathy. You should be nice to her.

We use ought to to express mild/moral obligation or duty, to give advice or make

recommendations: -Ive got a headache -You ought to take an aspirin... -Im bored -We ought to go for a walk... -Shes full up -She ought not to eat so much... The negative form is ought not to (no contraction) Remember to use to after ought Look at these typical mistakes: You oughtnt laugh at Cathy. You ought be nice to her. You ought not to laugh at Cathy. You ought to be nice to her. We use either should(nt) or ought (not) to to give advice or to express mild obligation. We say You should go to bed but we say You ought to go to bed We say You shouldnt eat so much but we say You ought not to eat so much We say You shouldnt swear in public but we say You ought not to swear in public. 51319 SHOULD HAVE / OUGHT TO HAVE 51320 We use should(nt) have or ought not to have, plus the past participle to criticise past actions: You should have gone to bed (but you didnt!) You ought to have gone to bed (but you didnt!) You shouldnt have eaten so much (but you did!) You ought not to have eaten so much (but you did!) Advice, orders, requests, suggestions... about things that need to be done can sometimes be reported using a that-clause with should+bare infinitive. This includes verbs like propose, suggest, agree, advise, beg, command, instruct, intend, insist, order, recommend, request, require, stipulate, urge, warn.

53520 SHOULD in That- Clauses

Example: The customer insisted that he should see the manager.

In written English and in formal contexts in general, we can often leave out should but keep the infinitive. Example: The customer insisted that he see the manager. The infinitive used in this way is sometimes called the subjunctive.

In less formal contexts, we can use ordinary tenses instead of the subjunctive. Example: The customer insisted that he sees the manager. We can also use should in a that-clause when we talk about our reactions to something, particularly after be + adjective ( anxious, concerned, disappointed, amazed, upset, surprised) Example: I am concerned that he should think I betrayed him

In structures like it + be +adjective (crucial, essential, important, necessary, vital, appropriate) we can also use should in a that-clause. Example: It's essential that this should be kept in the strictest confidence. If we leave out should in sentences like this, we use an ordinary verb and not an infinitive. Example: It's essential that this is kept in the strictest confidence. NOT It's essential that this be kept in the strictest confidence. 50540 Superlatives: the We always use the before most or -est: London is one of the most famous cities in the world Rome is one of the nicest cities Ive ever visited The most expensive hotels arent always the best ones

The quickest way to a mans heart is through his stomach 50540 the most + adjective / the + adjective + - est When we compare more than two things or two people (everything or everybody), we use the most + adjective or the + adjective + -est (Superlative Structures) If the adjective has one syllable, use est: small -> England is smaller than France, but Luxembourgs the smallest short -> Im shorter than my father, but my mother is the shortest If the adjective ends in e, add st: safe -> Walking is probably the safest sport nice -> Mark is nicer than Jack, but Andys the nicest If the adjective ends in Consonant + y, change the y to i, then add est: dry -> London is drier than Edinburgh, but Valencias the driest If the adjective ends in Consonant+Vowel+Consonant, double the final consonant, then add est: hot -> Madrid is hotter than Helsinki, but Cairos the hottest slim -> My brother is the slimmest in our family If the adjective has three syllables or more, use most: expensive (ex-pen-sive) -> A Mercedes is one of the most expensive cars you can buy. ridiculous (ri-di-cu-lous) -> Your story is the most ridiculous Ive ever heard! If the adjective has two syllables and ends in -y, we use est: friendly (friend-ly) -> Steve and Carol are the friendliest people I know healthy (health-y) -> My diet is healthier than yours, but Sandras is the healthiest If the adjective has two syllables and ends in ful, we use most: useful (use-ful) -> Todays class was the most useful in weeks! painful (pain-ful) -> This is the most painful headache Ive ever had If the adjective has two syllables and does not end in y or ful, we use est or most depending on the adjective: modern (mo-dern) -> This church is the most modern one Ive ever seen clever (cle-ver) -> Samantha is the cleverest person I know With two-syllable adjectives, its often a question of personal preference or regional dialect:

simple (sim-ple) -> English is the simplest / most simple language quiet (qui-et) -> This room is the quietest / most quiet There are three exceptions: good -> best My results were the best in the class! goodest bad -> worst My results were the worst in the class! baddest far -> furthest New York is further than London, but San Franciscos the furthest farest 51716 The Passive We use Passive Sentences when the action is more important than the person doing the action. The following sentences are correct English: They released Nelson Mandela in 1990. (Active) They dissolved the Soviet Union in 1991. (Active) But it is more usual to say: Nelson Mandela was released in 1990. (Passive) -> The release of Nelson Mandela was the most important thing The Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991. (Passive) -> The dissolution of The Soviet Union was the most important thing If we want to say what or who did the action, we use by: Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. President Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in 1962. Millions of computers were affected by the virus. Passives are formed using the verb to be plus the past participle: The code was finally cracked in 2000. The problem will be discussed at tomorrow's meeting. Passives are formed using the verb to be plus the past participle 53414 They as Singular Compounds of SOME, ANY and NO (somebody, anybody, nobody, someone) are used with singular verbs, but we often use plural pronouns and possessive adjectives to refer to them:

Nobody came, did they? If anybody calls while Im out, tell them Ill be back by 5 oclock, but take their name and phone number. Someone left their jacket on the bus yesterday. Would they collect it from the station as soon as possible? Whoever tells you anything about me, tell them to mind their own business. Nobody phoned while I was out, did they? Somebody borrowed my shirt yesterday, didnt they? In these sentences they, their and them do not have plural meanings. They are used instead of he or she, him or her, his or her as a way of not specifying the sex of the person referred to. 50540 Twice As As We use twice as as to express a double quality/quantity: Kiwis are twice as expensive as oranges She sings twice as well as I do My car consumes twice as much petrol as yours Edinburgh has twice as many tourists as Glasgow Similarly, we use three times as as to express a triple quality/quantity: Jack goes swimming three times as often as I do Todays class seemed three times as long as yesterdays! And so on: Oranges are four times as expensive as apples I spend ten times as much as I used to on cigarettes Look at these typical mistakes: My car consumes three times more petrol than yours My car consumes three times as much petrol as yours Edinburgh has twenty times more tourists than Forfar Edinburgh has twenty times as many tourists as Forfar

54002 Who / Which / That

She speaks English two times as well as I do She speaks English twice as well as I do We use who to refer to people: The story is about a woman who falls in love at the age of 90 The police have caught the thief who took my car radio We use which to refer to things: Bob works for a company which makes fridges and freezers Where are the photos which were on my desk? We use that to refer to people and things: The story is about a woman that falls in love at the age of 90 The police have caught the thief that took my car radio Bob works for a company that makes fridges and freezers Where are the photos that were on my desk? Look at these typical mistakes: The story is about a woman which falls in love who / that Where are the photos who were on my desk? which / that

54003 Whom

Whom is a formal alternative for who or that when the relative pronoun is an object: The boy whom you spoke to is the mayors son The boy to whom* you spoke is the mayors son.
*very formal: whom preceded by preposition

However, it is rarely heard in spoken English and hardly used in written English these days, either. In the sentence above, most people would prefer to use who, that or nothing: The boy who you spoke to is the mayors son The boy that you spoke to is the mayors son The boy you spoke to is the mayors son 54002 Whose The relative pronoun whose is used for both people and things: Thats the lady whose garden won a prize Thats the chair whose screws need replacing Are they the boys whose football broke your window? Are they the suitcases whose handles are broken? When Whose? is used as a question word, it always refers to people: Whose pen is this? Is it yours, Noreen?

Whose books are those? Are they Daves? 51107 Wishes 51108 There are several ways to express wishes in English but the most common phrases are I wish and if only.

We use I WISH and IF ONLY with the PAST SIMPLE to express a wish for something to be different than it actually is. The desired change may be either likely or impossible: I wish I earned more money (but I earn comparatively little!) Then Id be able to buy a flat. If only I earned more money. If only I had more free time. I'm sure I'd be a lot happier and less stressed. I wish I had more free time.

We use I WISH and IF ONLY with COULD to express wishes related to ability: I wish I could Speak Japanese (but I cant!). Then Id be able to work in Tokyo. If only I could speak Japanese.

We use the construction WISH with WOULD when something is annoying us and we want it to stop: I wish you would stop playing your music so loud. (My kids cant get to sleep!) Note: We dont say I wish I would to express annoyance because we would be complaining about our own actions.

We use I WISH and IF ONLY with the PAST PERFECT to express a regret about the past, a wish that something might have been different: I wish you'd told me you loved me (but you didnt!). I would have aked you to marry me (but I didnt!). If only youd told me you loved me. I wish Id studied. I wouldnt have failed the exam.

If only Id studied. Note: The shortened forms of youd told and Id studied in the above examples are abbreviations of the past perfect: I wish you had told me I wish I had studied ..

50540 Worse v. Worst

We use worse with Comparative structures (comparing two things): My French is worse than yours worst Her bark is worse than her bite worst We use worst with Superlative structures (comparing everything): This is the worst soup Ive ever tasted! worse Whats the worst experience you can remember? worse