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|pe||ne Safety New Vo|ces ro[ect



8r|ef|ng aper #2 - Natura| Gas |pe||nes - 1he 8as|cs


1he background brleflng papers we wlll be sendlng you over Lhe nexL few monLhs wlll provlde new
lnformaLlon Lo many of you, and for Lhose of you who have been lnvolved ln depLh wlLh some parLlcular
aspecL of plpellnes, wlll provlde you a gllmpse lnLo new aspecLs of plpellne safeLy lssues. We hope Lhe
old hands among you can be pleasanLly surprlsed by learnlng someLhlng new, or dlscoverlng a new lssue
Lo explore wlLh us. lease feel free Lo pass on your commenLs and quesLlons Lo us Lhrough Lhe llsLserv
for Lhls group as you read each brleflng paper. We wlll Lry Lo lnclude responses Lo quesLlons on Lhe
llsLserv or ln subsequenL brleflng papers LhaL go more ln depLh lnLo varlous plpellne safeLy lssues. 1hese
early papers wlll necessarlly be falrly general and wlll gloss over some of Lhe excepLlons and speclal
cases and legal gray areas. We'll Lry Lo polnL Lhose ouL ln subsequenL papers where fewer Loplcs are
covered ln more deLall.



1here are over 2.3 mllllon mlles of fuel plpellnes ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes. Who regulaLes plpellnes and under
whaL seL of regulaLlons depends on whaL Lhe plpellne carrles, how much lL carrles, and where lL goes.
lpellnes are caLegorlzed lnLo several Lypes.

All fuel plpellnes are elLher:
1) nazardous L|qu|d plpellnes carrylng crude oll and reflned fuels such as gasollne, dlesel and [eL fuel.
1hey also carry hlghly volaLlle llqulds, such as buLane, eLhane, propane, whlch wlll form vapor clouds lf
released Lo Lhe aLmosphere, and anhydrous ammonla.
2) Natura| Gas plpellnes carrylng naLural gas, Lhe prlnclpal consLlLuenL of whlch ls meLhane.

uependlng on where Lhey are ln a LransporLaLlon sysLem all naLural gas plpellnes are elLher:
- 1ransm|ss|on p|pe||nes -- Lhe large llnes (Lyplcally 6-48 lnches ln dlameLer) LhaL move gas long
dlsLances around Lhe counLry, ofLen aL hlgh pressures (Lyplcally 200 - 1300 psl), or
- D|str|but|on p|pe||nes -- are a sysLem of malns and servlce llnes LhaL dellver naLural gas Lo our
lndlvldual homes and buslnesses. 1hey
operaLe aL a relaLlvely low pressure, or
- Gather|ng p|pe||nes -- LransporLlng gas
away from Lhe polnL of producLlon (well
pad) Lo anoLher faclllLy for furLher
reflnemenL or Lo Lransmlsslon plpellnes, or
- roduct|on L|nes -- Lhe plpes and
equlpmenL, normally near Lhe wellhead,
used Lo produce and prepare Lhe gas for
LransporL.

1nL CUkkLN1 U.S. ILLINL SS1LM
- 173,000 mlles of onshore and offshore
Pazardous Llquld plpellnes,
- 321,000 mlles of onshore and offshore
Cas 1ransmlsslon and CaLherlng plpellnes,
- 2,066,000 mlles of naLural Cas
ulsLrlbuLlon malns and servlce plpellnes
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llnally, (and you'd Lhlnk Lhls one would be slmpler) plpellnes are dlvlded for [urlsdlcLlonal purposes lnLo:
- Interstate p|pe||nes -- llnes LhaL cross sLaLe boundarles, or
- Intrastate p|pe||nes -- Lhose LhaL operaLe enLlrely wlLhln one sLaLe.
Powever, some large plpellnes LhaL cross sLaLe boundarles are classlfled as lnLrasLaLe lf Lhe plpellne
ownershlp changes aL Lhe sLaLe llne. lor example, Lhe same gas Lransmlsslon plpellne deslgnaLed as
!"#$%sLaLe ln Cregon, Lurns lnLo an !"#%&sLaLe llne when lL hlLs Callfornla.

unforLunaLely, even someLhlng seemlngly so slmple as deLermlnlng wheLher a parLlcular plpellne ls a
producLlon or gaLherlng llne, or a gaLherlng or Lransmlsslon llne, ls noL so slmple under exlsLlng
regulaLory deflnlLlons, and Lhey someLlmes allow for some degree of cholce by an operaLor ln how a llne
ls deslgnaLed, and Lherefore how much of lL ls regulaLed as a parLlcular Lype of llne.

A few oLher Lerms LhaL are used frequenLly when Lalklng abouL naLural gas plpellnes need Lo be deflned.
unforLunaLely Lhese Lerms are used ln many dlfferenL ways and sLandard deflnlLlons do noL exlsL ln
federal regulaLlons. 1hey lnclude:

Wet Gas and Dry Gas - naLural gas ls a gas comprlsed of mulLlple hydrocarbons, Lhe mosL prevalenL
belng meLhane. 1he hlgher Lhe meLhane concenLraLlon, Lhe drler" Lhe gas ls. CLher mlnor componenLs
lnclude evaporaLed llqulds llke eLhane, buLane and penLane, whlch are collecLlvely referred Lo as naLural
gas llqulds (nCLs), or condensaLes. 1he hlgher Lhe percenLage of nCL's, Lhe weLLer" Lhe gas ls. 1here
are no deflnlLlons ln Lhe federal regulaLlons LhaL deflne aL whaL polnL gas ls consldered weL or dry.

Sour Gas - normally Lhls refers Lo naLural gas LhaL conLalns an appreclable quanLlLy of hydrogen sulflde.
Pydrogen sulflde ls a concern because lL ls exLremely polsonous and can cause healLh problems aL hlgh
enough concenLraLlons. When mlxed wlLh waLer lL also becomes exLremely acldlc causlng corroslon
problems for plpellnes.


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naLural gas ls moved Lhrough plpellnes as a resulL of a serles of compressors creaLlng pressure dlfferen-
Llals - Lhe gas flows from an area of hlgh pressure Lo an area of relaLlvely lower pressure. Compressors
are powered by elecLrlc or naLural gas flred englnes LhaL compress or squeeze lncomlng gas and push lL
ouL aL a hlgher pressure. As one would expecL compressor sLaLlons for large Lransmlsslon llnes are much
blgger Lhan Lhe compressors used Lo move Lhe gas Lhrough Lhe small dlsLrlbuLlon llnes Lo our homes.
Some gaLherlng sysLems do noL need compressors because Lhe pressure of Lhe gas comlng ouL of Lhe
wells ls enough Lo move Lhe gas Lhrough Lhe gaLherlng llnes.

naLural gas ls compressed ln Lransmlsslon plpellnes Lo pressures Lyplcally ranglng from 300 Lo 1400
pounds of pressure per square lnch. Compressor sLaLlons on Lransmlsslon plpellnes are generally bullL
every 30 Lo 100 mlles along Lhe lengLh of a Lransmlsslon plpellne, allowlng pressure Lo be lncreased as
needed Lo keep Lhe gas movlng. Some gas Lransmlsslon plpellnes are bl-dlrecLlonal meanlng gas can be
comlng from boLh ends of Lhe plpellne, and dependlng on where gas ls removed and where Lhe
compressors creaLe Lhe pressure dlfferenLlal gas may flow elLher dlrecLlon. Cne example ls Wllllam's
norLhwesL lpellne LhaL comes pasL us here ln 8elllngham. lL accepLs gas from Canada Lo Lhe norLh and
from Lhe 8ocky MounLaln reglon Lo Lhe souLh. 1hese bl-dlrecLlonal plpellnes boasL of greaLer flexlblllLy ln
boLh supply and prlce Lo cusLomers.

Many gas Lransmlsslon plpellnes are looped," whlch [usL means Lhere are Lwo or more plpellne runnlng
ln parallel Lo each oLher normally ln Lhe same rlghL of way. Looplng provldes lncreased sLorage of gas ln
Lhe sysLem Lo meeL demands durlng peak use perlods.

1he flow of gas Lhrough Lhe plpellne, and monlLorlng for any problems, ls handled ln mosL plpellnes by a
Supervlsory ConLrol and uaLa AcqulslLlon SysLem (SCAuA). A SCAuA ls a plpellne compuLer sysLem
deslgned Lo gaLher lnformaLlon such as flow raLe Lhrough Lhe plpellne, operaLlonal sLaLus, pressure, and
LemperaLure readlngs. 1hls lnformaLlon allows plpellne operaLors Lo know whaL ls happenlng along Lhe
plpellne, and allows qulcker reacLlons for normal operaLlons, and Lo equlpmenL malfuncLlons and
releases. Some SCAuA sysLems also lncorporaLe Lhe ablllLy Lo remoLely operaLe cerLaln equlpmenL,
lncludlng compressors and valves, allowlng operaLors ln a conLrol cenLer Lo ad[usL flow raLes ln Lhe
plpellne as well as Lo lsolaLe cerLaln secLlons of a plpellne.

1he clLy gaLe" ls where a Lransmlsslon sysLem feeds lnLo a lower pressure dlsLrlbuLlon sysLem LhaL
brlngs naLural gas dlrecLly Lo homes and buslnesses. AL Lhe clLy gaLe Lhe pressure of Lhe gas ls reduced,
and lL ls normally Lhe locaLlon where odoranL (Lyplcally mercapLan) ls added Lo Lhe gas, glvlng lL Lhe
characLerlsLlc smell of roLLen eggs so leaks can be deLecLed. Whlle Lransmlsslon plpellnes may operaLe aL
pressures over 1000 psl, dlsLrlbuLlon sysLems operaLe aL much lower pressures. Some large gas malns (2-
24 lnches ln dlameLer) ln a dlsLrlbuLlon sysLem may operaLe around 200 psl, buL Lhe small servlce llnes
LhaL dellver gas Lo lndlvldual homes are Lyplcally well under 10 psl.

Cnce Lhe gas ls dellvered Lo Lhe local gas uLlllLy aL Lhe clLy gaLe, Lhe gas uLlllLy's conLrol cenLer monlLors
flow raLes and pressures aL varlous polnLs ln lLs sysLem. 1he operaLors musL ensure LhaL Lhe gas reaches
each cusLomer wlLh sufflclenL flow raLe and pressure Lo fuel equlpmenL and appllances. 1hey also
ensure LhaL Lhe pressure sLays below Lhe maxlmum pressure for each segmenL of Lhe sysLem. As gas
flows Lhrough Lhe sysLem, regulaLors conLrol Lhe flow from hlgher Lo lower pressures. lf a regulaLor
senses LhaL Lhe pressure has dropped below a seL polnL lL wlll open accordlngly Lo allow more gas Lo
flow. Conversely, when pressure rlses above a seL polnL, Lhe regulaLor wlll close Lo ad[usL. As an added
safeLy feaLure, rellef valves are lnsLalled on plpellnes Lo venL gas, lf a llne becomes over pressured and
Lhe regulaLors malfuncLlon.
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1he consLrucLlon phase of plpellne lnsLallaLlon ls a crlLlcally lmporLanL Llme Lo ensure Lhe long-Lerm
lnLegrlLy of Lhe plpellne. 8elow are a few of Lhe lssues
dealL wlLh durlng Lhe consLrucLlon phase LhaL affecLs
plpellne safeLy. Some gaLherlng and mosL producLlon
llnes are noL requlred Lo follow Lhese sLandards.

Mater|a|s
MosL Lransmlsslon and gaLherlng plpellnes are now
made ouL of hlgh carbon sLeel. lpe secLlons are
fabrlcaLed ln sLeel rolllng mllls and lnspecLed Lo
assure Lhey meeL governmenL and lndusLry safeLy
sLandards. Cenerally beLween 40 and 80 feeL ln
lengLh, Lhey are deslgned speclflcally for Lhelr
lnLended locaLlon ln Lhe plpellne. A varleLy of soll condlLlons and geographlc or populaLlon characLer-
lsLlcs of Lhe rouLe wlll dlcLaLe dlfferenL requlremenLs for plpe slze, sLrengLh, wall Lhlckness.

ulsLrlbuLlon plpellnes may also be made of sLeel, buL lncreaslngly hlgh sLrengLh plasLlc or composlLes are
belng used. Clder dlsLrlbuLlon plpellnes were frequenLly made of casL lron. CasL lron geLs brlLLle wlLh
age, and can be suscepLlble Lo fracLures when sub[ecLed Lo ground movemenL from freeze/Lhaw cycles
or oLher causes. Some sLaLes requlre regular frosL surveys" durlng wlnLer monLhs ln hopes LhaL leaks
formed from plpes cracklng as a resulL of frosL heaves are found and repalred qulckly. Some plasLlcs are
also known Lo become brlLLle wlLh age. 1he naLlonal 1ransporLaLlon SafeLy 8oard has recommended
replacemenL of Aldyl-A Lype plasLlc plpes ln dlsLrlbuLlon sysLems for years, yeL fallures ln Lhese plpes are
sLlll occurrlng.

|pe 8ur|a|
PlsLorlcally plpellnes were lnsLalled uslng an open Lrench meLhod, and Lhls ls sLlll used for Lhe ma[orlLy
of Lransmlsslon and gaLherlng llnes. new underground Lechnlques such as borlng and horlzonLal
dlrecLlonal drllllng (Puu) allow plpe Lo be lnsLalled wlLhouL dlgglng a Lrench. Puu ls now used a good
deal where plpellnes need Lo make rlver crosslng as a way Lo greaLly reduce Lhe envlronmenLal
dlsLurbance of Lhe rlver and Lo bury Lhe plpellne
much deeper. 8orlng ls used exLenslvely wlLh
dlsLrlbuLlon plpellnes, especlally ln urban areas,
for road crosslngs and Lo avold oLher uLlllLles.
8oLh Puu and borlng come wlLh Lhelr own
unlque rlsks, for lnsLance oLher uLlllLles LhaL are
hard Lo locaLe, such as plasLlc or clay sewer llnes,
can be drllled rlghL Lhrough (see plcLure). 1hese
cross bores" ofLen go unnoLlced unLll Lhe sewer
llnes clogs and an unsuspecLlng plumber or
homeowner Lrles Lo clear Lhe clog wlLh a power
snake auger. 1he auger may break Lhe gas llne
Lhrough Lhe plpe causlng gas Lo leak lnLo Lhe
sewer llne and lnLo Lhe home where lL could
explode.

lederal regulaLlons requlre LhaL Lransmlsslon plpellnes and regulaLed Lype A gaLherlng llnes be burled aL
leasL 30 lnches below Lhe surface ln rural areas and deeper (36 lnches) ln more populaLed areas. ln
addlLlon, Lhe plpellne musL be burled deeper ln some locaLlons, such as aL road and rallroad crosslngs
|pe||ne Construct|on V|deo
1hls llnk ls Lo a SpecLra Lnergy vldeo
LhaL shows whaL Lhey descrlbe as Lyplcal
gas Lransmlsslon plpellne consLrucLlon:
hLLp://www.youLube.com/waLch?v=Av
Wdawmla38
1he language ls cerLalnly pro-lndusLry,
buL lL does show Lhe consLrucLlon of a
large plpellne.

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(36 lnches) and crosslngs of navlgable bodles of waLer (48 lnches), and may be less ln oLher locaLlons
such as when lL ls lnsLalled ln consolldaLed rock (18 Lo 24 lnches). ulsLrlbuLlon malns musL be aL leasL 24
lnches deep wlLh some excepLlons. Servlce llnes on dlsLrlbuLlon sysLems musL be 12 lnches deep on
prlvaLe properLy, and 18 lnches deep along roads and sLreeLs. 1he depLh of burlal ls [usL for lnsLallaLlon,
and Lhere ls noLhlng ln Lhe federal regulaLlons LhaL requlres Lhls depLh be malnLalned over Llme. 1hese
depLh requlremenLs wenL lnLo effecL ln 1970, and plpellnes LhaL were lnsLalled before LhaL Llme do noL
have Lo meeL Lhese requlremenLs so could be aL any depLh.

|pe Coat|ngs
Several dlfferenL Lypes of coaLlngs
may be used Lo proLecL Lhe exLerlor
of sLeel plpe from corroslon. 1he
mosL common coaLlngs belng used
currenLly ls fuslon bonded epoxy or
polyeLhylene heaL-shrlnk sleeves.
rlor Lo appllcaLlon, Lhe bare plpe ls
Lhoroughly cleaned Lo remove any
dlrL, mlll scale or debrls. 1he coaLlng
ls Lhen applled and allowed Lo dry.
AfLer fleld coaLlng and before Lhe
plpe ls lowered lnLo Lhe Lrench, Lhe
enLlre coaLlng of Lhe plpe ls lnspecLed
Lo ensure LhaL lL ls free from defecLs. Clder plpellnes may be uncoaLed or have coal Lar or enamel wrap
coaLlng. 1he plcLure here shows Lhe older enamel wrap coaLlng on Lhe Lnbrldge plpellne LhaL falled ln
Mlchlgan ln 2010.

We|d|ng of Stee| |pe||nes
1o carry ouL Lhe weldlng process, Lhe plpe secLlons are Lemporarlly supporLed along Lhe edge of Lhe
Lrench and allgned. 1he varlous plpe secLlons are Lhen welded LogeLher lnLo one conLlnuous lengLh,
uslng manual, semlauLomaLlc or auLomaLlc weldlng procedures. As parL of Lhe quallLy-assurance
process, each welder musL pass quallflcaLlon LesLs Lo work on a parLlcular plpellne [ob, and each weld
procedure musL be approved for use on LhaL [ob ln accordance wlLh federally adopLed weldlng
sLandards. Welder quallflcaLlon Lakes place before Lhe pro[ecL beglns. Lach welder musL compleLe
several welds uslng Lhe same Lype of plpe as LhaL Lo be used ln Lhe pro[ecL. 1he welds are Lhen
evaluaLed by placlng Lhe welded maLerlal ln a machlne and measurlng Lhe force requlred Lo pull Lhe
weld aparL. lL ls lnLeresLlng Lo noLe LhaL a proper weld ls acLually sLronger Lhan Lhe plpe lLself.

lor hlgher sLress plpellnes over 6 lnches ln dlameLer, a second level of quallLy-assurance ensures Lhe
quallLy of Lhe ongolng weldlng operaLlon. 1o do Lhls, quallfled Lechnlclans sample a cerLaln number of
Lhe welds (Lhe sample number varles based on Lhe populaLlon near Lhe plpellne) uslng radlologlcal
Lechnlques (l.e., x-ray or ulLrasonlc lnspecLlon) Lo ensure Lhe compleLed welds meeL federally prescrlbed
quallLy sLandards. 1he x-ray Lechnlclan processes Lhe fllm ln a small, porLable darkroom aL Lhe slLe. lf Lhe
Lechnlclan deLecLs cerLaln flaws, Lhe weld ls repalred or cuL ouL, and a new weld ls made. AnoLher
meLhod of weld quallLy lnspecLlon employs ulLrasonlc Lechnology.

Cperat|ng ressure
Maxlmum allowable operaLlng pressure (MAC) ls Lhe maxlmum lnLernal pressure aL whlch a plpellne or
plpellne segmenL may be conLlnuously operaLed. 1hese pressures are seL aL levels meanL Lo ensure
safeLy by requlrlng LhaL Lhe pressure does noL cause undue sLress on Lhe plpellne. Pow Lhls pressure ls
deLermlned ls deflned ln federal regulaLlons and ls based on a number of dlfferenL facLors such as Lhe
locaLlon of Lhe plpellne, plpe wall Lhlckness, prevlous pressure LesLs, and Lhe pressure raLlngs of varlous
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componenLs. 1he comblnaLlon of MAC
and Lhe dlameLer of Lhe plpellne deLermlne
Lhe poLenLlal lmpacL radlus (l8) lf a
plpellne should fall.

Va|ves and Va|ve |acement
A valve ls a mechanlcal devlce lnsLalled ln a
plpellne and used Lo conLrol Lhe flow of
gas. Some valves have Lo be operaLed
manually by plpellne personnel, some
valves can be operaLed remoLely from a
conLrol room, and some valves are
deslgned Lo operaLe auLomaLlcally lf a
cerLaln condlLlon occurs on Lhe plpellne. lf
a plpellne should fall, how qulckly Lhe
valves can be closed and Lhe dlsLance
beLween Lhe valves are some of Lhe maln
deLermlnaLlons for how much fuel ls
released.

1est|ng of |pe||nes 8efore 1hey Go In
Serv|ce
Cenerally, buL wlLh cerLaln excepLlons, all regulaLed plpellnes consLrucLed slnce 1970 had Lo be pressure
LesLed before Lhey can be placed lnLo servlce. 1he purpose of a pressure LesL ls Lo ellmlnaLe any defecL
LhaL mlghL LhreaLen Lhe plpellne's ablllLy Lo susLaln lLs maxlmum allowable operaLlng pressure plus an
addlLlonal safeLy margln, aL Lhe Llme of Lhe pressure LesL. A plpellne ls deslgned Lo a speclfled sLrengLh
based on lLs lnLended operaLlng pressure. CrlLlcal defecLs LhaL cannoL wlLhsLand Lhe pressure wlll fall.
upon deLecLlon of such fallures, Lhe defecLs are repalred or Lhe affecLed secLlon of Lhe plpellne ls
replaced and Lhe LesL resumed unLll Lhe plpellne passes".

PydrosLaLlc pressure LesLlng conslsLs of fllllng Lhe plpellne wlLh waLer and ralslng Lhe lnLernal pressure
Lo a speclfled level above Lhe lnLended operaLlng pressure, and ls Lhe norm for LesLlng Lransmlsslon
plpellnes. ulsLrlbuLlon llnes are normally pressure LesLed wlLh alr.


Corros|on rotect|on
unproLecLed sLeel plpellnes are suscepLlble Lo corroslon, and wlLhouL proper corroslon proLecLlon every
sLeel plpellne wlll evenLually deLerloraLe. Corroslon can weaken Lhe plpellne and make lL unsafe. Lucklly,
Lechnology has been developed Lo allow corroslon Lo be conLrolled ln many cases Lo exLend plpellne llfe
lf applled correcLly and malnLalned conslsLenLly. Pere are Lhe Lhree common meLhods used Lo conLrol
corroslon on plpellnes:

- Cathod|c protect|on (C) ls a sysLem LhaL uses dlrecL elecLrlcal currenL Lo counLeracL Lhe normal
exLernal corroslon of a meLal plpellne. C ls used where all or parL of a plpellne ls burled
underground or submerged ln waLer. Cn new plpellnes, C can help prevenL corroslon from sLarLlng,
on exlsLlng plpellnes, C can help sLop exlsLlng corroslon from geLLlng worse.

- |pe||ne coat|ngs are a prlnclpal Lool for defendlng agalnsL corroslon by proLecLlng Lhe bare sLeel.

- Corros|on |nh|b|tors are subsLances LhaL can be added Lo a plpellne Lo decrease Lhe raLe of aLLack
of lnLernal corroslon on Lhe sLeel slnce C cannoL proLecL agalnsL lnLernal corroslon. Such lnhlblLors
are of parLlcular use ln weL" gas plpellnes.
Va|ves
1here has been a loL of dlscusslon abouL valves ln
Lhe pasL couple years. When lL Look Lhe plpellne
company ln San 8runo 90 mlnuLes Lo drlve Lo Lhe
valve and manually Lurn lL off LhaL led Lo new
regulaLlons naLlonally for auLomaLed valves on
new Lransmlsslon llnes and a sLudy of Lhe ldea of
reLroflLLlng cerLaln exlsLlng llnes.

Cn Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon slde ln 2006 Congress passed
a sLaLuLe requlrlng excess flows valves (small
valves LhaL cosL less Lhan $20 LhaL go on each
servlce llne Lo a house) Lo be lnsLalled on every
new home bullL and when servlce llnes are
replaces. 1hese Llvs" shuL off Lhe gas Lo a home
auLomaLlcally lf Lhe llne ls broken by Lhlngs such
as excavaLlon or a cross bore as explalned above.
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k|ght-of-way atro|s
8egulaLlons requlre regular paLrols of plpellne rlghL-of-ways Lo check for lndlcaLlons of leaks and ensure
LhaL no excavaLlon acLlvlLles are Laklng place on or near Lhe rlghL-of-way LhaL may compromlse plpellne
safeLy. lor Lransmlsslon plpellnes, Lhese paLrols are ofLen accompllshed by aerlal paLrols, buL federal
regulaLlons do noL requlre Lhem Lo be done by aerlal lnspecLlon.

Leakage Surveys
8egulaLlons also requlre regular leakage surveys for all Lypes of naLural gas plpellnes along Lhe plpellne
rouLes. ersonnel walk or drlve Lhe rouLe uslng speclallzed equlpmenL Lo deLermlne lf any gas ls leaklng
and Lo Lhen quanLlfy Lhe slze of Lhe leak. very small leaks are a normal parL of mosL gas plpellne
sysLems.

Cdor|zat|on
rocessed naLural gas ls odorless, so all dlsLrlbuLlon plpellnes, and some naLural gas Lransmlsslon and
gaLherlng llnes (Lhose malnly ln hlghly populaLed areas), are requlred Lo be odorlzed so leaklng gas ls
readlly deLecLable by a person wlLh a normal sense of smell.

Integr|ty Management
We wlll have a much more deLalled descrlpLlon of Lhe lnLegrlLy managemenL programs for boLh llquld
and gas plpellnes ln a laLer edlLlon. lor now, Lhe baslcs - lnLegrlLy ManagemenL refers Lo a relaLlvely
new seL of federal rules LhaL speclfy how plpellne operaLors musL ldenLlfy, prlorlLlze, assess, evaluaLe,
repalr and valldaLe - Lhrough comprehenslve analyses - Lhe lnLegrlLy of Lhelr plpellnes. Some form of
lnLegrlLy managemenL now applles Lo boLh Lransmlsslon and dlsLrlbuLlon plpellnes, alLhough gaLherlng
llnes are exempL from Lhese requlremenLs. lor gas Lransmlsslon plpellnes, lnLegrlLy managemenL
requlres LhaL llnes LhaL could affecL Plgh Consequence Areas (malnly more populaLed areas) have Lo be
relnspecLed by Lhelr operaLors every seven years. 1hls re-lnspecLlon ls done malnly wlLh lnLernal
lnspecLlon devlces called smarL plgs, buL may also be done Lhrough pressure LesLs or dlrecL assessmenL.
Cnce lnspecLed, Lhe rules requlre LhaL operaLors respond Lo cerLaln anomalles found on Lhelr plpellne ln
cerLaln ways wlLhln cerLaln Llmeframes. ln Lhe flrsL 9 years of Lhls program, Lhese rules requlred over
39,000 repalrs be made Lo gas and llquld Lransmlsslon plpellnes LhaL fall wlLhln Plgh Consequence Areas.
unforLunaLely, only abouL 6 of Lhe gas Lransmlsslon plpellnes naLlonwlde are requlred Lo do Lhese
lmporLanL lnspecLlons, alLhough plpellne operaLors have lnspecLed far more mlles of plpellnes Lhan whaL
ls requlred.


lpellne SafeLy 1rusL : hLLp://www.psLrusL.org/plpelnfo/beglnners.hLm

PMSA CommunlLy 1oolbox webslLe: hLLp://prlmls.phmsa.doL.gov/comm/lndex.hLm?nocache=2349

PMSA plpellne baslcs: hLLp://prlmls.phmsa.doL.gov/comm/lpellne8aslcs.hLm?nocache=9334

naLural Cas from Wellhead Lo 8urner 1lp: hLLp://www.naLuralgas.org/naLuralgas/naLuralgas.asp