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Network concepts - MD03 Data and Signals
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, 2006

1.1

CNT 3004

Module 3

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Chapter 3

Data and Signals

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Chapter 3

Introduction

To

Physical

Layer

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To be transmitted, data must be

transformed to electromagnetic

signals.

Signals can be analog or digital.

Analog signals can have an infinite

number of values in a range; digital

signals can have only a limited

number of values.

Analog and Digital

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Comparison of analog and digital signals

The curve representing the analog signal is passing

through an infinite number of points.

The vertical lines of the digital signal demonstrates the

sudden jump the signal makes from value to value.

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3.6

Periodic and Nonperiodic Signals

A periodic signal completes a pattern within a

measurable time frame, called a period, and

repeats that pattern over subsequent identical

periods. The completion of one full pattern is

called a cycle.

Anonperiodic (or aperiodic) signal changes without

exhibiting a pattern or cycle that repeats over

time.

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3.7

Periodic Analog Signals

Periodic analog signals can be classified as

simple or composite. A simple periodic analog

signal, a sine wave, cannot be decomposed into

simpler signals. A composite periodic analog signal

is composed of multiple sine waves.

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A sine wave

A signal is periodic if it consists of a continuously

repeating pattern. A sine wave is an example of a periodic

and continuous signal.

A signal is called aperiodic (or nonperiodic) if it changes

without exhibiting a pattern or a cycle that repeats over

time.

Example:

Value= 5 Sin (6t t )

Value= A Sin (2 t f t + |) where t is time

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The peak amplitude of a signal represents

the absolute value of its highest intensity,

proportional to the energy it carries.

Amplitude

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Period and frequency

Each sine wave can be characterized by its amplitude A,

frequency f, and phase |.

Frequency and period are inverses of each other; as

frequency increases, the period decreases (and vice versa)

A periodic signal with a frequency of 6 Hz

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Periodandfrequency

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Frequency f and period T are inverses

of each other.

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Units of periods and frequencies

Period is formally expressed in seconds

Frequency is formally expressed in hertz (Hz)

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In data communication, we commonly

use periodic analog signals and

aperiodic digital signals.

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The power we use at home has a frequency of 60 Hz. The

period of this sine wave can be determined as follows:

This means that the period for our lights at home is 0.0166 second or

16.6 milliseconds. Our eyes are not sensitive enough to distinguish these

rapid changes in amplitude.

Example

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Example

Express a period of 100 ms in microseconds, and express

the corresponding frequency in kilohertz.

Solution

The equivalent of 1 ms is 10

-3

s. We make the following

substitutions:

100 ms = 100 10

-3

s = 100 10

-3

10

6

s = 10

5

s

Now we use the inverse relationship to find the

frequency, changing hertz to kilohertz

100 ms = 100 10

-3

s = 10

-1

s

f = 1/10

-1

Hz = 10 10

-3

KHz = 10

-2

KHz

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Frequency is the rate of change with

respect to time. Change in a short span of

time means high frequency. Change over a

long span of time means low frequency.

If a signal does not change at all, its frequency is

zero. So a constant value can be considered a sine

wave whose frequency is zero. For example, The

voltage of an AA battery is constant which is

considered a sine wave with a peak value of 1.5 V

and a frequency of zero.

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3.18

Phase

The term phase, or phase shift, describes the

position of the waveform relative to time 0. If we

think of the wave as something that can be shifted

backward or forward along the time axis, phase

describes the amount of that shift. It indicates the

status of the first cycle.

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Relationships between different phases

Phase is measured in degrees or radians. The unit of

radian is also known as rad. We have the following

relationship

2t rad = 360 degrees

1 rad = 360/(2t) = 57.27 degrees

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3.20

Three sine waves with different phases

= t/2 rad

= t rad

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Example

A sine wave is offset one-sixth of a cycle with respect to

time zero. What is its phase in degrees and radians?

Solution

We know that one complete cycle is 360 degrees.

Therefore, 1/6 cycle is

(1/6) 360 = 60 degrees = 60 x 2t /360 rad = 1.046 rad

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Sine wave example 1

S(t) = A Sin (2 t f t + |)

S(t) = 5 Sin (25.1428 t )

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Sine wave example 2

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Horizontal Shifting: | = 0

S(t) = A Sin (2 t f t + |)

Sine wave example 3

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We have been showing a sine wave by using

what is called a time domain plot. The time-

domain plot shows changes in signal

amplitude with respect to time (it is an

amplitude-versus-time plot).

An analog signal is best represented in the

frequency domain.

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Time and frequency domains

In a frequency-domain plot, the horizontal axis measures

the frequency.

In a time-domain plot, the horizontal axis is a measure of

time.

When f= 0 S(t) = A Sin (2 t f t+t/2 ) = A sin (t/2) = A

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Time and frequency domains (continued)

A time-domain graph plots amplitude as a function of

time.

A frequency-domain graph plots each sine waves peak

amplitude against its frequency.

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Time and frequency domains (continued)

Frequency can be easily determined from a frequency-

domain graph of a signal.

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The time-domain and frequency-domain plots of a sine wave

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Example

The frequency domain is more compact and

useful when we are dealing with more than one

sine wave.

For example, the figure on the next slide shows

three sine waves, each with different amplitude

and frequency. All can be represented by three

spikes in the frequency domain.

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The time domain and frequency domain of three sine waves

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A single-frequency sine wave is not useful in data

communications; we need to change one or more

of its characteristics to make it useful.

When we change one or more characteristics of a

single-frequency signal, it becomes a composite

signal made of many frequencies.

According to Fourier analysis, any composite

signal can be represented as a combination of

simple sine waves with different frequencies,

phases, and amplitudes. A composite signal is

composed of more than one simple sine wave.

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If the composite signal is periodic, the decomposition gives a

series of simple sine waves with discrete frequencies; if the

composite signal is nonperiodic, the decomposition gives a

combination of sine waves with continuous frequencies.

When a periodic signal is decomposed, the resulting sine

waves are called harmonics. The sine wave with the smallest

frequency is called the first harmonic and its frequency is

called the fundamental frequency f. The frequencies of the

other sine waves are integral multiples of the fundamental

frequency. For example, the third harmonic has frequency 3f

and the ninth harmonic has frequency 9f. When decomposing

a periodic signal, there are no frequencies with fractional

values such as 3.2f.

Decomposition of Composite Signals

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Example: Adding three harmonics

A Composite Periodic Signal

The above figure shows a periodic composite signal with fundamental frequency

f. It is the combination of three simple sine waves with frequencies f, 3f and 9f as

shown on the next slide. Thus this signal is decomposed into the first, third and

ninth harmonics.

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Decomposition of a composite periodic signal in

the time and frequency domains

Frequency

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Square wave

According to Fourier Analysis, this periodic square signal

can be decomposed into a series of discrete sine harmonics.

The three odd harmonics f, 3f, 9f

gave a signal that has the general

shape of a square wave. We shall

see later that to get a square

wave, we need to use all odd

harmonics: f, 3f, 5f, 7f, 9f,11f,

signal with f, 3f, 9f

harmonics

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The time and frequency domains of a nonperiodic signal

The above figure shows a nonperiodic composite signal. It can be

the signal created by a microphone or a telephone set when a word

or two is pronounced. Voice composite signals are usually

nonperiodic, because we do not usually keep repeating the same

word or words with exactly the same tone.

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Bandwidth

The bandwidth is a property of a medium. The bandwidth of

a medium is the difference between the highest and the

lowest frequencies that the medium can satisfactorily pass

(i.e., these frequencies are permitted to pass through this

medium).

The bandwidth is also a property of a signal. The bandwidth

of a signal is the difference between the highest and the

lowest frequencies of the simple sine waves that compose this

signal. Thus a simple sine wave has a bandwidth of zero.

For example, if a composite signal contains frequencies

between 1000 and 5000, its bandwidth is 5000 1000, or

4000 Hz.

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Bandwidth

The bandwidth of a signal is the range of frequencies the

signal occupies. Bandwidth is determined by finding the

difference between the highest and lowest frequency

components.

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The bandwidth of periodic and nonperiodic composite signals

A periodic signal is

decomposed into a finite

number of sine waves

with discrete frequencies.

A nonperiodic signal is

decomposed into an

infinite number of sine

waves with continuous

frequencies.

The periodic signal in part (a) has a bandwidth of 4000 Hz and is decomposed into

a finite number of harmonics. The nonperiodic signal in part (b) also has a

bandwidth of 4000 Hz but it is decomposed into an infinite number of sine waves.

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If a periodic signal is decomposed into five sine waves with frequencies

of 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 Hz, what is its bandwidth? Draw the

spectrum diagram (frequency domain plot), assuming all components

have a maximumamplitude of 10 V.

Solution

Let f

h

be the highest frequency, f

l

the lowest frequency, and B the

bandwidth. Then

Example

The spectrum has only five spikes, at 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 Hz.

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Example

A periodic signal has a bandwidth of 20 Hz. The highest frequency is

60 Hz. What is the lowest frequency? Draw the spectrum if the

fundamental frequency is 1 Hz and the signal contains all integral

frequencies of the same amplitude. What is the number of harmonics

of this composite signal?

Solution

B = f

h

f

l

20 = 60 f

l

f

l

= 60 20 = 40 Hz

# of harmonics = 60 - 40 + 1 = 21

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Example

A signal has a spectrum with frequencies between 1000

and 2000 Hz (bandwidth of 1000 Hz). A medium can pass

frequencies from 3000 to 4000 Hz (a bandwidth of 1000

Hz). Can this signal faithfully pass through this medium?

Solution

The answer is definitely no. Although the signal and the

medium have the same bandwidth (1000 Hz), the range

does not overlap. The medium can only pass frequencies

between 3000 and 4000 Hz; the signal is totally lost.

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Example

A nonperiodic composite signal has a bandwidth of 200 kHz, with a middle

frequency of 140 kHz and peak amplitude of 20 V. The amplitude changes

linearly and the two extreme frequencies have an amplitude of 0. Draw the

frequency domain of the signal.

Solution

The lowest frequency must be at 40 kHz and the highest at 240 kHz. The

figure below shows the frequency domain and the bandwidth.

20 V

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Example

An example of a nonperiodic composite signal is the signal

propagated by an AM radio station. In the United States, each

AM radio station has a bandwidth of 10 kHz bandwidth.

The AM spectrum assigned by FCC ranges from 530 KHz to

1700 kHz.

Example

Another example of a nonperiodic composite signal is the

signal propagated by an FM radio station. In the United States,

each FM radio station has a bandwidth of 200 kHz = 0.2 MHz.

The FM spectrum assigned by FCC ranges from 88 MHz to 108

MHz for a total FM bandwidth of 20 MHz covering 101 radio

channels.

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A digital signal with two levels; each level represents one bit

Digital Signals

In addition to being represented by an analog signal, information can also

be represented by a digital signal. For example, a 1 can be encoded as a

positive voltage and a 0 as zero voltage. A digital signal can have more than

two levels. In this case, we can send more than 1 bit for each level.

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Bit rate and bit interval

The bit rate is the number of bits transmitted per

second. The bit interval is the duration needed to

transmit one bit.

A digital signal is described by its bit rate (instead of

frequency) and its bit interval.

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Two digital signals: one with two signal levels and the other

with four signal levels

A digital signal with 2

levels; each level

represents one bit

bit rate = 1 x 8 = 8 bps

A digital signal with 4

levels; each level

represents two bits

bit rate = 2 x 8 = 16 bps

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Example

A digital signal has eight levels. How many bits can be

represented by one level?

Solution:

We calculate the number of bits from the formula

Each signal level represents 3 bits. This means that

when the receiver receives a signal with certain level, it

has received the value of three consecutive bits.

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The analog bandwidth of a medium is expressed in hertz

(recall that bandwidth is the difference between the highest and the

lowest frequencies that the medium can pass)

The digital bandwidth of a medium is its bit rate and is

expressed in bits per second. The bit rate depends on the

encoding scheme used to transmit data.

Example

Assume we need to download text documents at the rate of 100 pages per

second. A page is an average of 24 lines with 80 characters in each line and

each character requires 8 bits. What is the required bit rate of the channel?

Solution

The bit rate is

Nyquist Sampling Theorem

Consider a composite analog signal whose highest frequency is f

h

=W. In

the above figure, W= 4000 Hz. Rather than transmitting the signal in

analog form, we can send the signal in a digitized form by sampling the

amplitude of the signal at a series of points spaced at equal intervals.

To reconstruct the digitized signal successfully, the sampling rate must

be at least two times the highest frequency contained in the signal. For

the signal shown in the above figure, the sampling rate should t be equal

to 2W = 24000 = 8000 samples/second.

Example:

For an intuitive example of the Nyquist theorem, let

us sample a simple sine wave with frequency f at

three sampling rates:

f

s

= 2f = Nyquist sampling rate

f

s

= 4f = two times the Nyquist sampling rate

f

s

= f = one-half the Nyquist sampling rate

The figure on the next page shows the sampling and

the subsequent recovery of the signal.

Recoveryofasampledsinewaveforthreedifferentsamplingrates

f

s

= f = one-half the Nyquist sampling rate

f

s

= 2f = Nyquist sampling rate

f

s

= 4f = two times the Nyquist sampling rate

1. It can be seen that sampling at the Nyquist rate can create

a good approximation of the original sine wave (part a).

2. Oversampling at double the Nyquist rate (part b) can

create a better approximation or the same approximation,

but it requires more storage and is often redundant and

unnecessary.

3. Sampling below the Nyquist rate (part c) does not produce

a signal that looks like the original sine wave.

Conclusions: part a

part b

part c

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Example

A digitized voice channel is made by digitizing a 4-kHz bandwidth analog

voice signal. We need to sample the signal at twice the highest frequency

(two samples per hertz). We assume that each sample requires 8 bits. What is

the required bit rate?

Solution

The bit rate can be calculated as

Example

HDTV uses digital signals to broadcast high quality video signals. The

HDTV screen is normally a ratio of 16 : 9. This ratio is achieved by having

1920 by 1080 pixels per screen, and the screen is renewed 30 times per

second. Twenty-four bits represents one color pixel. What is the bit rate for

high-definition TV (HDTV)?

Solution

The bit rate is

The TV stations reduce this rate to 20 - 40 Mbps through compression.

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The time and frequency domains of periodic

and nonperiodic digital signals

A digital signal is a composite signal with

an infinite bandwidth.

A periodic signal is decomposed

into a finite number of sine

waves with discrete frequencies.

A nonperiodic signal is decomposed

into an infinite number of sine

waves with continuous frequencies.

This square signal is decomposed into odd harmonics.

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Baseband transmission

Baseband transmission means sending a digital signal directly

over a channel without changing it to an analog signal.

According to Fourier analysis, a digital signal is a composite analog signal

with an infinite bandwidth (frequencies between 0 to ).

Digital signals used in data communications are mostly nonperiodic. We can

transmit a digital signal in two ways: baseband transmission or broadband

transmission.

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Requirement of Baseband Transmission

To preserve the shape of the digital signal, baseband transmission

requires the following

low-pass channel, i.e., a channel that passes frequencies between 0

and f. The lowest frequency of a low-pass channel is zero.

the low-pass channel must be a wide bandwidth channel (i.e., f is

infinite or is very large).

A narrow-bandwidth low-pass channel is not suitable for

digital transmission

A wide-bandwidth low-pass channel is suitable for digital

transmission

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Baseband transmission using a dedicated medium

Consider a dedicated medium (e.g., coaxial cable or fiber optic) with a very

wide bandwidth (the minimum frequency f1 is close to zero and the maximum

frequency f2 is very high). Baseband transmission using this medium can be

used to deliver the digital signal with good accuracy. The digital data can be

correctly deduced from the received signal even though it is not an exact

replica of the original signal.

In baseband transmission, the required bandwidth is proportional to the bit

rate; if we need to send bits faster, we need more bandwidth.

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Low-pass and band-pass Channels

A channel or link is either

low-pass: if the lowest frequency f1 is zero (or practically

very close to zero)

band-pass: if the lowest frequency is larger than zero

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Broadband Transmission (Using Modulation)

If the available channel is a band-pass channel, we cannot

send the digital signal directly to the channel; we need to

convert the digital signal to an analog signal before

transmission. This process is called modulation.

Band-pass channels cannot be used to transmit

digital signals with good quality. Digital

transmission needs a low-pass channel with wide

bandwidth.

Analog transmission, on the other hand, can

easily use a band-pass channel.

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Broadband Transmission (Using Modulation)

The figure on the next slide shows the modulation of a digital

signal. The digital signal is first converted to a composite

analog signal. In the shown scheme, a single-frequency analog

signal (called the carrier) is used. The amplitude of the

carrier has been changed to look like the digital signal. The

result is a composite analog signal that is capable to

propagate smoothly through the medium. At the receiver, the

received analog signal is converted to digital signal and the

result is a replica of what has been sent. This type of

modulation is called Amplitude Modulation.

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Modulation of a digital signal for transmission

on a band-pass channel

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Examples of Amplitude Modulation

Data

Modulated Signal

1 is high amplitude

0 is zero amplitude

1 1 1

0 0 0

Modulated Signal

1 is high amplitude

0 is low amplitude

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Transmission Impairment

Attenuation

Distortion

Noise

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Signal corruption

No transmission media is perfect; each medium passes

some frequencies, weakens other, and blocks still others.

Causes of impairment

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Attenuation

Attenuation is the loss of a signals energy (strength) due

to the resistance of the transmission medium.

To show that a signal has lost or gained strength, we use

the unit of decibel (dB) which measures the relative

strength of two signals or one signal at two different

points. If P1 and P2 are the powers of a signal at Points 1

and 2, then

attenuation in dB = 10 log

10

(P

2

/P

1

)

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Example

Imagine a signal travels through a transmission medium and its power is reduced

to half. This means that P2 = 0.5 P1. In this case, the attenuation (loss of

power) can be calculated as

10 log

10

(P2/P1) = 10 log

10

(0.5P1/P1) = 10 log

10

(0.5)

= 10(0.3) = 3 dB

Example

Imagine a signal travels through an amplifier and its power is increased ten

times. This means that P2 = 10 P1. In this case, the amplification (gain of

power) can be calculated as

10 log

10

(P2/P1) = 10 log

10

(10P1/P1)

= 10 log

10

(10) = 10 (1) = 10 dB

a loss of 3 dB implies losing one half the power

Remark: when the attuation is too large, the signal at the reciever is totally lost, i.e., P2~0.

10 log

10

(P2/P1) = 10 log

10

(0) = - dB

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Example

Decibel numbers can be added (or subtracted) when we are dealing with several

points instead of just two. In the figure below, a signal travels a long distance

from point 1 to point 4. The signal is attenuated by the time it reaches point 2.

Between points 2 and 3, the signal is amplified. Again, between points 3 and 4,

the signal is attenuated. We can find the resultant decibel for the total attenuation

of the signal just by adding the decibel measurements between each set of points.

dB = 3 + 9 3 = +3

9

Note: +3 dB implies doubling the

power of the signal while -3 dB

implies losing one half the power

3 dB

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Distortion means that the signal changes its form or

shape. Distortion can only occur in a composite signal

made of different frequencies. The different frequencies

have different propagation speeds and therefore

different delays in arriving to the destination.

If the differences in delay are not exact multiple of the

period, phase differences are created. This leads to a

change in the shape of the received composite signal.

Distortion (Propagation Distortion)

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Noise

Noise is the external energy that corrupts a signal.

Thermal noise is the extra signal created by the random motion of

electrons in the wire.

Induced noise is produced by external sources such as motors and

appliances.

Crosstalk noise is the effect of one wire on the other. One wire

acts as a sending antenna that corrupts the signal in the other wire.

Impulse noise is a spike that comes from power lines or lightning.

signal + noise signal

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Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)

The metric used to measure noise is called the signal-to-noise ratio

(SNR).

SNR is defined as

SNR = (average signal power)/(average noise power)

The larger the value of SNR the better the quality of the signal.

Note that SNR is the ratio between two power (energy) values. If

however the signal and noise are described in terms of voltage values

(rather than power values), then the correct value of SNR should be

computed as the ratio between the square of the voltage values.

Because SNR is the ratio between two powers, it is often described

in decibels.

SNR

dB

= 10 log

10

SNR

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3.73

Two cases of SNR: a high SNR and a low SNR

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The power of a signal is 10 mW and the power of the noise is 1 W;

what are the values of SNR and SNR

dB

?

Solution

The values of SNR and SNRdB can be calculated as follows:

Example

The values of SNR and SNRdB for a noiseless channel are

Example

We can never achieve this ratio in real life; it is an ideal value.

Data Rate Limit

Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate

Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity

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Nyquist Bit Rate for Noiseless Channels

The Nyquist formula determines the theoretical data

rate for a noiseless channel.

BitRate = 2 x BW x log

2

L

where BW is the bandwidth of the channel in Hz, L is the

number of signal levels used to represent the data, and

BitRate is the bit rate in bits per second (bps).

Increasing the number of signal levels L would help

increase the bit rate but would also increase the

complexity of the receiver and may reduce the reliability

of the system.

Note: a noiseless channel has SNR =

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Shannon Capacity for Noisy Channels

The Shannon formula determines the theoretical

maximum data rate for a noisy channel.

Capacity= C = BW x log

2

(1 + SNR)

where BW is the bandwidth of the channel in Hz, SNR is

the signal-to-noise ratio, and C is the capacity (maximum

transmission speed) of the channel in bps.

The number of signal levels L does not appear in the

Shannon formula and does not influence the theoretical

maximum data rate of the channel.

When the signal is equal to the noise (SNR=1), the

capacity of the noisy channel is equal to its bandwidth.

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Example

Consider a noiseless channel with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz

transmitting a signal with two signal levels. The maximum bit rate

can be calculated as

Nyquist formula:

Bit Rate = 2 BW log

2

L

= 2 3000 log

2

2 = 6000 bps

Example

Consider a noiseless channel with bandwidth of 3000 Hz,

transmitting a signal with four signal levels (for each level, we send

two bits). The maximum bit rate can be calculated as

Bit Rate = 2 3000 log

2

4 = 12,000 bps

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

Example

Consider an extremely noisy channel in which the value

of the signal-to-noise ratio is almost zero. In other words,

the noise is so strong that the signal is faint. For this

channel the capacity C is calculated as

Shannon Formula

C = BW log

2

(1+SNR)

= BW log

2

(1+0)

= BW log

2

(1)

= BW 0

= 0 This means that the capacity of this channel is zero

regardless of the bandwidth. In other words, we cannot

receive any data through this channel.

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

Example

We can calculate the theoretical highest bit rate of a

regular telephone line. A telephone line normally has a

bandwidth of 3000 Hz (300 Hz to 3300 Hz). The signal-

to-noise ratio is usually 3162. For this channel the

capacity is calculated as

Shannon Formula

C = BW log

2

(1 + SNR)

= 3000 log

2

(1 + 3162)

= 3000 log

2

(3163)

= 3000 11.62

= 34,860 bps

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

PERFORMANCE

One important issue in networking is the performance of

the networkhow good is it and how can we measure it?

Bandwidth

Throughput

Latency (Delay)

Bandwidth-Delay Product

Topics discussed in this section:

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

In networking, we use the term bandwidth in

two contexts.

The first, bandwidth in hertz, refers to

the range of frequencies in a

composite signal or the range of

frequencies that a channel can pass.

The second, bandwidth in bits per

second, refers to the speed of bit

transmission in a channel or link.

Bandwidth

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

Throughput

Throughput is a measure of how fast we can send data

through a network.

Throughput has units of bits per second (bps).

Example: we may have a link of digital bandwidth BW=1

Mbps but the device connected on the other side of the

link can only handle 200 kbps. Then the maximum

throughput of this link is 0.2 Mbps which is one-fifth of

the bandwidth.

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

A network with bandwidth of 10 Mbps can pass only an

average of 12,000 frames per minute with each frame

carrying an average of 10,000 bits. What is the

throughput of this network?

Solution

We can calculate the throughput as

Example

The throughput is almost one-fifth of the bandwidth in

this case.

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

Propagation time

Propagation time is directly proportional to distance and

inversely proportional to propagation speed.

The propagation time has units of seconds.

When propagation speed is multiplied by propagation time,

we get the distance a signal or a bit has traveled.

The propagation speed has units of meters/second or

kilometers/second.

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

The bandwidth-delay product of a link defines the

number of bits that can fill the link.

The Bandwidth-Delay Product

We can think about the link between two points as

a pipe. The cross section of the pipe represents

the bandwidth, and the length of the pipe

represents the one-way delay. We can say the

volume of the pipe defines the bandwidth-delay

product.

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

Bandwidth-Delay Product: Filling the link with bits

Case 1: the link has a bandwidth of 1 bps, the one-way delay of the link

is 5 seconds. Note that the duration of the bit is 1 second.

The product 15 is the maximum number of bits that can fill the link,

i.e., there can be no more than 5 bits at any time on the link.

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

Bandwidth-Delay Product: Filling the link with bits

Case 2: the link has a bandwidth of 5 bps, the one-way delay of the link

is 5 seconds. Note that the duration of the bit is 0.2 second.

The product 55 = 25 is the maximum number of bits that can fill the

link, i.e., there can be no more than 25 bits at any time on the link.

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

For a single link, the delay is mostly the one-way propagation

delay, i.e., the time it takes for a bit of data to travel from the

source to the destination. For multiple links, there are other

types of delays such as queuing time and processing delays.

Latency = propagation time + transmission time

+ queuing time + processing delay

The queuing time is the time needed for each intermediate or

end device to hold the message before it can be processed and

transmitted. The value of the queuing time depends on the load

on the network; when there is heavy traffic, the queuing time

increases.

The end-to-end delay in a network, or latency, is the sum of the

different types of delays.

Packet Latency

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

Propagation time of a packet in one link =

(physical length of the link)/(speed of signal propagation)

The propagation time of a packet in a link does not depend on the

size of the packet. The speed of signal propagation is the same as

the speed of travel of the signal in the link.

Transmission time of a packet =

(size of packet)/(transmission speed of sender)

The transmission speed is the same as the transmission bandwidth

(in bps).

Propagation Time and Transmission Time

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

What is the total delay (latency) for a packet of size 50,000 bits

that is being sent on a multiple-link path with 10 routers each

having a queuing time of 2 ms and a processing time of 1 ms.

The total length of all links is 2000 Km. The speed of light inside

the links is 2 x 10

8

m/s. All links have a transmission bandwidth

of 0.5 Mbps.

Example

Solution

We have

Latency = processing time + queuing time + transmission time +

propagation time

Processing time = 10 1 ms = 10 ms = 0.010 s

Queuing time = 10 2 ms = 20 ms = 0.020 s

Transmission time = 50,000 / (500,000 bps) = 0.1 s

Propagation time = (2000 Km) / (2 10

8

) = 0.01 s

Latency = 0.010 + 0.020 + 0.1 + 0.01 = 0.140 second

McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006

3.92

Jitter

Another performance issue that is related to delay

is jitter. We can roughly say that jitter is a problem

if different packets of data encounter different

delays and the application using the data at the

receiver site is time-sensitive (audio and video

data, for example). If the delay for the first packet

is 20 ms, for the second is 45 ms, and for the third

is 40 ms, then the real-time application that uses

the packets endures jitter.

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