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1.

(a)

(i) (ii)

B/aorta; D/pulmonary vein;

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(b)

Filling because valve between artery and ventricle closed; Valve between atrium and ventricle/ cuspid valve open; [Note: All answers must be in context of filling. Answers specifically relating to left side are incorrect.] 2

(c) (d)

Pressure increases and volume stays constant; Pressure in ventricle (becomes) ig er t an pressure in aorta; [Or converse]

(e)

ventricle contracts; Produces increase in pressure; Blood leaves venticle/ goes into aorta (and volume !alls); " roug open valve; ma# $
[9]

2.

(a)

(i)

Blood pressure in ventricle ig er t an in atrium; (%auses) atrioventricular / mitral / (bi)cuspid / valve between atrium and ventricle to s ut; &ine labelled B !rom '(2 to '()s; (Ignore line from 1. to 1.!s.) &ine labelled C !rom '(2 to 1('s* (Accept any ot"er line between e#uivalent points in consecutive cycles.)

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(ii)

(b)

(i)

(ii)

,' '(+ - ). beats per minute / met od mar0 ,' lengt o! cycle given by candidate;
/ answer mar0 / calculation giving correct answer; 2 1

(c)

(i) (ii)

,,''; 1ncreased eart rate; 1ncreased stro0e volume / proportion o! blood pumped out o! ventricle; 2ore blood retained in veins; 2ore adrenaline; 1ncreased stimulation by sympat etic (nerve); 345 disc arges !aster;

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Bournemouth School

Bournemouth School

(d)

1 2 $ 9 . , ) + =

345 initiates / sends eart beat; 2yogenic / beats spontaneously / does not re6uire nerve impulse; 7ate o! beating in!luenced by nerves8 :ave o! electrical activity / impulses / e#citation passes over atrium; "riggers contraction o! atrium; ;lectrical activity can only pass to ventricles / along bundle o! <is by way o! 4V5 Fibrous tissue prevents passage elsew ere; Delay at 4V5; 4llows blood to empty into ventricles / atria to empty;

ma# ,
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3.

(a)

Pressure reac es ig est value / greatest range o! pressure in ventricle / description o! se6uence o! c anges; (i) (ii) Pressure in ventricle / B is ig er t an pressure in atrium / A; '(2s; "ime w en pressure in ventricle / B is ig er t an pressure in aorta / C; <ig er; " ic0er muscle in (wall o!) le!t ventricle;

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(b)

(c) (d) (e)

(i) (ii) 1 >m;

1 mar0 ? made o! di!!erent tissues 2 mar0s ? made o! speci!ied tissues illustrated wit at least two e#amples !rom t e table 1 2 $ 9 . , ) + = " ic0 elastic layer in artery; ;vening out !low / associated wit recoil; &in0 between pressure in artery and ventricle contraction / systole; 4rteriole wit muscular layer; 2uscle contraction results in smaller diameter / vasoconstriction; 4lters blood supply to di!!erent organs; ;ndot elium provides smoot sur!ace / limits !riction; %apillary wall t in / only endot elium; For e#c ange;

(!)

, ma#
[15]

4.

(a)

(i)

Filling time stays constant / increases very little / as eart rate increases; Decrease in contraction time as eart rate increases; Allow maximum of 1 mar$ if no reference to "eart rate.

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3

Bournemouth School

(ii)

:or0 out time !or one eart beat / one eart beat ta0es 1 second; 3ubtract !illing time / '($+s; %redit t"ese basic points "owever determined. If t"e calculation "as been done& credit any point in met"od clearly explained. O' Plot contraction time against eart rate; 7ead o!! value !or ,' beats per minute; 2 1 2 Valve located between Open ; ; Closed

(iii) (b) (i)

3tro0e volume / volume o! blood pumped out at eac beat;

&e!t atrium and le!t ventricle &e!t ventricle and aorta 7ig t atrium and rig t ventricle 7ig t ventricle and pulmonary artery (ii) (iii)

Pressure constant / smoot in vein / only ave pressure surges in artery; %ontraction o! ventricle / systole / entry o! blood into aorta;

1 1
[9]

5.

(a)

(i) (ii)

C and D; le!t ventricle wit t ic0er wall/more muscle / (muscle in) le!t ventricle contracts more !orce!ully/beats more strongly;

1 1

(b)

ig er in atria/lower in ventricles; atrioventricular valves/valves between atria and ventricles open; (position of valves must be identified. )o not accept an un#ualified reference to valves. Assume pronouns refer to atria.* (i) (ii) allows blood to pass into ventricles/!rom atria/so t at atria can empty; be!ore ventricles contract; ventricle contracts !rom base /upwards; blood pus ed t roug B and C/arteries/all blood e@ected;

(c)

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[8]

Bournemouth School